WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly concentrated industries

  1. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  2. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D M; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  3. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  4. Advertising and Concentration in the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the wo......The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market...

  5. Studying the causes of high chromium concentration in the leather production process at Tehran Charmshahr industrial complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahdiabadi

    2016-04-01

      Results: The results indicated the existence of toxic pollutants such as Cr+3 and Cr+6 in leather wastewater, the relatively high level of organic loads with low biodegradability, high levels of COD, BOD, TDS and finally the complexity of the treatment of wastewater.

  6. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  7. High concentration agglomerate dynamics at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, M C; Pratsinis, S E

    2006-11-21

    The dynamics of agglomerate aerosols are investigated at high solids concentrations that are typical in industrial scale manufacture of fine particles (precursor mole fraction larger than 10 mol %). In particular, formation and growth of fumed silica at such concentrations by chemical reaction, coagulation, and sintering is simulated at nonisothermal conditions and compared to limited experimental data and commercial product specifications. Using recent chemical kinetics for silica formation by SiCl4 hydrolysis and neglecting aerosol polydispersity, the evolution of the diameter of primary particles (specific surface area, SSA), hard- and soft-agglomerates, along with agglomerate effective volume fraction (volume occupied by agglomerate) is investigated. Classic Smoluchowski theory is fundamentally limited for description of soft-agglomerate Brownian coagulation at high solids concentrations. In fact, these high concentrations affect little the primary particle diameter (or SSA) but dominate the soft-agglomerate diameter, structure, and volume fraction, leading to gelation consistent with experimental data. This indicates that restructuring and fragmentation should affect product particle characteristics during high-temperature synthesis of nanostructured particles at high concentrations in aerosol flow reactors.

  8. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  9. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    The opening of the markets in East Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1990s changed the structure of the beer markets and in the following years a large wave of mergers and acquisitions took place. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main...... drivers behind this development and points to economies of scale in advertising as a main pay-off from mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data both from the American market and the world market, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based...

  10. Market Concentration Rate and Market Performance of China’s Swine Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia ZHANG; Yucheng HE

    2016-01-01

    Empirical study on market concentration rate and market performance of China’s Swine Industry indicates that higher market concentration rate brings higher overall performance of swine industry. There exists no obvious causal relation between market concentration rate and market performance,but market performance is highly correlated with market concentration rate. The improvement in performance of swine industry is dependent on further optimization of market concentration rate and other factors.

  11. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other monosa...

  12. The Impact of Trade Policy on Industry Concentration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of trade policy on industry concentration. Based on the Swiss Business Census, concentration levels for all four-digit manufacturing industries in Switzerland are calculated. Then the effect of a bilateral reduction in technical barriers to trade with the European Union is estimated. Adopting a difference-in-differences approach, it turns out that concentration in affected industries with low R&D intensity increased significantly following the policy change. This...

  13. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  14. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  15. Dynamic technical inefficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Maman; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between industrial concentration and technical inefficiency in the Indonesian food and beverages industry using a dynamic performance measure (dynamic technical inefficiency) that accounts for the presence of adjustment costs.

  16. Bioprocessing of concentrated mixed hazardous industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Silver, G.; Attalla, A.; Prisc, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or the detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. This work describes the unique capabilities of an isolated strain of Pseudomonas for metabolizing methylated aromatic compounds. This strain of Pseudomonas putida Idaho is unique in that it can tolerate and grow under a layer of neat p-xylene. A bioprocess has been developed to degrade LLW and mixed wastes containing methylated aromatic compounds, i.e., pseudocumene, toluene and p-xylene. The process is now in the demonstration phase at a DOE facility and has been running for one year. Feed concentrations of 21200 ppm of the toxic organic substrate have been fed to the bioreactor. This report describes the results obtained thus far

  17. REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION IN THAILAND, 1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisek Pansuwan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the changes in the industrial and spatial concentration that occurred in Thailand from 1996 to 2005. Based on the data from the Department of Industrial Work of the Ministry of Industry and using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index of concentration, the geographical concentration of industries in the study regions was measured. The Hirschman-Herfindahl index has the useful property of being decomposable into sources of changes in the concentration. Moreover, location quotient was also used to measure the regional specialization of the manufacturing industries in Thailand. Results of the analysis indicated that from 1996 to 2005, the decrease in the spatial concentration of manufacturing as well as in the regional specialization in manufacturing in Thailand remained stable to a lesser extent. The results have also indicated that most factories continue to be concentrated in Bangkok and its neighboring areas. It can therefore be best argued that in the case of Thailand, the effect of its trade liberalization policy has been more powerful than its industrial decentralization policy.

  18. Market integration and market concentration in horizontally differentiated industries

    OpenAIRE

    Eckel, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives the impact of market integration on equilibrium firm size and market concentration in horizontally differentiated industries. We show that market concentration (measured by the number of firms) can rise as a consequence of market integration if firms engage in R&D competition. We also demonstrate that whether concentration occurs or not depends on the R&D production function and on consumer preferences. This result implies that the welfare effects of market integration are ...

  19. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)

    1990-01-01

    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  20. Price Rigidity and Industrial Concentration: Evidence from the Indonesian Food and Beverages Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.; Emvalomatis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between industrial concentration and price rigidity in the Indonesian food and beverages industry. A Cournot model of firm behavior is used in which prices adjust according to a partial adjustment mechanism. The model is applied to panel data of the

  1. The Computer Industry. High Technology Industries: Profiles and Outlooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Trade Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    A series of meetings was held to assess future problems in United States high technology, particularly in the fields of robotics, computers, semiconductors, and telecommunications. This report, which focuses on the computer industry, includes a profile of this industry and the papers presented by industry speakers during the meetings. The profile…

  2. Consequences of concentration in the power industry for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Schuermann, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the consequences of concentration in the power industry of West Germany for competition has been studied by the authors and others in the investigation'Konzentration und Wettbewerb...', which has been published by the power economics institute of Cologne University. The article is based on this investigation and discusses its conclusions. Three concepts for the deliminitation of markets are presented and discussed with a view to their realizability under the existing conditions on different energy supply markets i.e. the mineral oil, electric power, gas hard coral, brown coal, and nuclear industries. (orig.) [de

  3. Development of a vacuum crystallizer for the concentration of industrial waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.C.; Verschuur, R.-J.; Schreurs, B.; Scholz, R.; Jansens, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Freeze concentration has proven to be a viable technology for the concentration of hazardous industrial waste waters before incineration. Owing to the relatively high investment cost of the technology, its applicability has been limited until now. This paper investigates the feasibility of a vacuum

  4. Potential of a newly developed high-speed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovision) in polymer industrial analyses: monitoring crystallinity and crystal evolution of polylactic acid (PLA) and concentration of PLA in PLA/Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Nishii, Takashi; Mizuno, Fumiaki; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate a new high-speed hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) camera named Compovision. Quantitative analyses of the crystallinity and crystal evolution of biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA), and its concentration in PLA/poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends were investigated using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. This NIR camera can measure two-dimensional NIR spectral data in the 1000-2350 nm region obtaining images with wide field of view of 150 × 250 mm(2) (approximately 100  000 pixels) at high speeds (in less than 5 s). PLA with differing crystallinities between 0 and 50% blended samples with PHB in ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, and pure films of 100% PLA and PHB were prepared. Compovision was used to collect respective NIR spectra in the 1000-2350 nm region and investigate the crystallinity of PLA and its concentration in the blends. The partial least squares (PLS) regression models for the crystallinity of PLA were developed using absorbance, second derivative, and standard normal variate (SNV) spectra from the most informative region of the spectra, between 1600 and 2000 nm. The predicted results of PLS models achieved using the absorbance and second derivative spectra were fairly good with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 6.1% and a determination of coefficient (R(2)) of more than 0.88 for PLS factor 1. The results obtained using the SNV spectra yielded the best prediction with the smallest RMSE of 2.93% and the highest R(2) of 0.976. Moreover, PLS models developed for estimating the concentration of PLA in the blend polymers using SNV spectra gave good predicted results where the RMSE was 4.94% and R(2) was 0.98. The SNV-based models provided the best-predicted results, since it can reduce the effects of the spectral changes induced by the inhomogeneity and the thickness of the samples. Wide area crystal evolution of PLA on a plate where a temperature slope of 70-105 °C had occurred was also

  5. Italian competitiveness in high technology industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, S.; Palma, D.; Amendola, G.

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of 1978-1991 trends in the invention, manufacturing and marketing, in Italy, of high technology goods suggests the need for greater R ampersand D investment by government and private industry and a broadening of the number and type of industries now contributing to the strengthening of this nation's overall high technology industrial base. This is especially the case with regard to the electronics sector in view of the strategic importance of this vital industry and the strong competition being given by the newly industrialized countries located on the Pacific Rim. With reference to the European Communities common market strategies, intended as a buffer against future unified efforts by North American and Pacific Rim countries to consolidate global market share in high technology goods, recent investment trends reveal that Italy's response thus far has been slow and asymmetric

  6. Emerging industrial processes for low grade rare earth mineral concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, Karin; Ho, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Historically rare earth recovery has mainly been derived from the processing of monazite, bastnasite and xenotime containing ores amenable to beneficiation, yielding high grade mineral concentrates. A notable exception is the recovery of heavy rare earths from ionic clays in Southern China. Recently, projects are being proposed to treat a range of mineral concentrates which tend to be lower grade with wide ranging modal mineralogy for rare earths and associated gangue minerals. This has a significant impact on processing routes. This paper discusses processes proposed for emerging rare earth producers and how different projects have responded to particular challenges including: Control of phosphorous due to the presence of xenotime or monazite type minerals; Control of phosphorous due to the presence of rare earth containing apatite; Rare earth recovery from polymetallic ores; Control of radionuclides in rare earth processing, etc.

  7. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  8. Temporal Variation of Ambient PM10 Concentration within an Urban-Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yoon-Keaw; Noor, Norazian Mohamed; Izzah Mohamad Hashim, Nur

    2018-03-01

    PM10 concentration in the ambient air has been reported to be the main pollutant affecting human health, particularly in the urban areas. This research is conducted to study the variation of PM10 concentration at the three urban-industrial areas in Malaysia, namely Shah Alam, Kuala Terengganu and Melaka. In addition, the association and correlation between PM10 concentration and other air pollutants will be distinguished. Five years interval dataset (2008-2012) consisting of PM10, SOX, NOX and O3 concentrations and other weather parameters such as wind speed, humidity and temperature were obtained from Department of Environment, Malaysia. Shah Alam shows the highest average of PM10 concentration with the value of 62.76 μg/m3 in June, whereas for Kuala Terengganu was 59.29 μg/m3 in February and 46.61 μg/m3 in August for Melaka. Two peaks were observed from the time series plot using the averaged monthly PM10 concentration. First peak occurs when PM10 concentration rises from January to February and the second peak is reached in June and remain high for the next two consecutive months for Shah Alam and Kuala Terengganu. Meanwhile the second peak for Melaka is only achieved in August as a result of the transboundary of smoke from forest fires in the Sumatra region during dry season from May to September. Both of the pollutants can be sourced from rapid industrial activities at Shah Alam. PM10 concentration is strongly correlated with carbon monoxide concentration in Kuala Terengganu and Melaka with value of r2 = 0.1725 and 0.2744 respectively. High carbon monoxide and PM10 concentration are associated with burning of fossil fuel from increased number of vehicles at these areas.

  9. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  10. Industry concentration and strategic trade policy in successive oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-01-01

    We study a policy game between exporting and importing countries in vertically linked industries. In a successive international Cournot oligopoly, we analyze incentives for using tax instruments strategically to shift rents vertically, between exporting and importing countries, and horizontally, between exporting countries. We show that the equilibrium outcome depends crucially on the relative degree of competitiveness in the upstream and downstream parts of the industry. With respect to national welfare, a more competitive upstream industry may benefit an exporting (upstream) country and harm an importing (downstream) country. On the other hand, a more competitive downstream industry may harm exporting countries. (Author)

  11. Industry concentration and strategic trade policy in successive oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2004-11-01

    We study a policy game between exporting and importing countries in vertically linked industries. In a successive international Cournot oligopoly, we let the governments in the importing and exporting countries use tax instruments strategically to shift rents up or down the vertical value-chain. We show that the equilibrium outcome depends crucially on the relative degree of competitiveness in the upstream and downstream parts of the industry. With respect to national welfare, a more competitive upstream industry may benefit an exporting (upstream) country while harming an importing (downstream) country. On the other hand, a more competitive downstream industry may harm exporting countries. (Author)

  12. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs based on electronic nose (EN at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective local linear embedding (SLLE to reduce the dimensionality and extract the features of high-dimensional data. Combining the Euclidean distance (ED formula with the proposed algorithm, we can achieve better classification and identification of four kinds of gases. We compared the classification and recognition results of classical principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminate analysis (LDA, and PCA + LDA algorithms with the proposed SLLE algorithm after selecting the original data and performing feature extraction. The experimental results show that the recognition accuracy rate of the SLLE reaches 91.36%, which is better than the other three algorithms. In addition, the SLLE algorithm provides more efficient and accurate responses to high-dimensional industrial gas data. It can be used in real-time industrial gas detection and monitoring combined with gas sensor networks.

  13. Characterization of high concentration dust generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Toichiro; Yokochi, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development of fluidized bed type high concentration dust generator that keeps for long period dust concentration range of about 10 mg/m 3 for the study of working place monitoring system and evaluation of respirator. The generator is keeping constant powder in fluidized bed for keeping the dust concentration. It is necessary to keep constant feeding rate of powder in order to keep the quantity of dust in the fluidized bed. Our generator enables to obtain constant feeding rate by a screw feeder and by using mixed powder with fluidising particles (glass beads) before feeding. The generator produces high concentration dust of 11.3 mg/m 3 ± 1.0 mg/m 3 for about 5 hours and keeps the dust size 4.2-4.6 μm in mass median aerodynamic diameter with reasonable reproducibility. (author)

  14. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  15. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in surface soils of the Bassa Industrial Zone 1, Douala, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaah, Victor A.; Abimbola, Akinlolu F.; Suh, Cheo E.

    2006-01-01

    Partial extraction was carried out on 33 soil samples collected from the Bassa Industrial Zone 1, Douala, Cameroon. From the samples analyzed the following metal concentrations (range) were obtained (in ppm): Ag (0-1.3), As (0-64), Cd(0-7.3), Co(0-31), Cr(34-423), Cu(12-909), Mn(55-3282), Mo(0-81.6), Ni(9-284), Pb (0-3320), Sb (0-30), Sc (0.6-7.5), V (26-110), Zn (30-3782) and Fe (in wt%) (1.50-47.31). Results obtained reveal background and anomalous populations for most of the metals except Sc and V, which have only background populations. Multi-element geochemical anomalies occur within the vicinity of industries, waste dump sites, metal workshops and mechanical workshops. R-mode factor analysis reveals three element associations and two singular elements (As, Cd) accounting for 94% of the total data variance. The three associations are: Ag-Cu-Cr-Fe-Mn-Mo-Ni-Sb; Co-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn and Sc-V. The geoaccumulation indices show that soils in the Bassa Industrial Zone are moderately to very highly pollute. These metal-laden soils constitute a major health risk to the local population and a cause for concern. This study successfully relates the concentration and distribution of toxic metals in the soils of Bassa Industrial Zone to urban effluents generated mainly from industrial activities. (author)

  16. Environmental and Body Concentrations of Heavy Metals at Sites Near and Distant from Industrial Complexes in Ulsan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Oh, Inbo; Kim, Ahra; Lee, Jiho; Sim, Chang Sun; Yoo, Cheolin; Park, Sang Jin; Kim, Geun Bae; Kim, Yangho

    2018-01-29

    Industrial pollution may affect the heavy metal body burden of people living near industrial complexes. We determined the average concentrations of atmospheric heavy metals in areas close to and distant from industrial complexes in Korea, and the body concentrations of these heavy metals in residents living near and distant from these facilities. The atmospheric data of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) were from the Regional Air Monitoring Network in Ulsan. We recruited 1,148 participants, 872 who lived near an industrial complex ("exposed" group) and 276 who lived distant from industrial complexes ("non-exposed" group), and measured their concentrations of blood lead, urinary cadmium, and urinary total mercury. The results showed that atmospheric and human concentrations of heavy metals were higher in areas near industrial complexes. In addition, residents living near industrial complexes had higher individual and combined concentrations (cadmium + lead + mercury) of heavy metals. We conclude that residents living near industrial complexes are exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals, and should be carefully monitored. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, J.; Samek, L.; Verleysen, P.; Verbeken, K.; Houbert, Y.

    2012-11-01

    The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the car body has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties. (Author) 48 refs.

  18. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  19. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  20. Towards high performance in industrial refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  1. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  2. Industrial application of high power disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Rüdiger; Havrilla, David

    2008-02-01

    Laser welding has become one of the fastest growing areas for industrial laser applications. The increasing cost effectiveness of the laser process is enabled by the development of new highly efficient laser sources, such as the Disk laser, coupled with decreasing cost per Watt. TRUMPF introduced the Disk laser several years ago, and today it has become the most reliable laser tool on the market. The excellent beam quality and output powers of up to 10 kW enable its application in the automotive industry as well as in the range of thick plate welding, such as heavy construction and ship building. This serves as an overview of the most recent developments on the TRUMPF Disk laser and its industrial applications like cutting, welding, remote welding and hybrid welding, too. The future prospects regarding increased power and even further improved productivity and economics are presented.

  3. Concentration and Competition in Turkish Banking Industry: The Evidence from 2000 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Kuzucu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry worldwide has been transformed due to globalization, financial liberalization, technological developments, government policies, deregulation of financial services, financial crises and increase in mergers and acquisitions since 1980. With these changes, there is a trend towards decrease in the number of banks and increase in banking concentration. Increase in banking concentration might affect competition conditions in banking industry. The decrease in the number of banks and the increase in banking concentration dominate the Turkish banking industry after the banking crises in 2000 and 2001. This paper examines the relationship between concentration and competition in Turkish banking industry. I measure the size of banking concentration by concentration ratios and Herfindahl-Hirschman index with the data of commercial deposit banks in Turkey from 2000 to 2012. Competition degree is measured by using Panzar Rosse model. The results of the study suggest that there is no permanent relation between banking concentration and competition in Turkish banks.

  4. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  5. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yunlong; Luo, Dehan; Li, Hui; Zhu, Chuchu; Xu, Ou; Gholam Hosseini, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on electronic nose (EN) at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective ...

  6. Concentration fluctuations in gas releases by industrial accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Chatwin, P.C.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The COFIN project studied existing remote-sensing Lidar data on concentration fluctuations in atmospheric dispersion from continuous sources at ground level. Fluctuations are described by stochastic models developed by a combination of statisticalanalyses and surface-layer scaling. The statistical...... and the probability distribution for the plume centreline. The distance-neighbour function generalizedfor higher-order statistics has a universal exponential shape. Simulation tools for concentration fluctuations have been developed for either multiple correlated time series or multi-dimensional fields. These tools...... moments and probability density distribution of the fluctuations are most accurately determined in a frame of reference following the instantaneous plume centreline. The spatial distribution of thesemoments is universal with a gaussian core and exponential tails. The instantaneous plume width...

  7. Concentration fluctuations in gas releases by industrial accidents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Chatwin, P.C.; Joergensen, H.E.; Mole, N.; Munro, R.J.; Ott, S.

    2002-05-01

    The COFIN project studied existing remote-sensing Lidar data on concentration fluctuations in atmospheric dispersion from continuous sources at ground level. Fluctuations are described by stochastic models developed by a combination of statistical analyses and surface-layer scaling. The statistical moments and probability density distribution of the fluctuations are most accurately determined in a frame of reference following the instantaneous plume centreline. The spatial distribution of these moments is universal with a gaussian core and exponential tails. The instantaneous plume width is fluctuating with a log-normal distribution. The position of the instantaneous plume centre-line is modelled by a normal distribution and a Langevin equation, by which the meander effect on the time-averaged plume width is predicted. Fixed-frame statistics are modelled by convolution of moving-frame statistics and the probability distribution for the plume centreline. The distance-neighbour function generalized for higher-order statistics has a universal exponential shape. Simulation tools for concentration fluctuations have been developed for either multiple correlated time series or multi-dimensional fields. These tools are based on Karhunen-Loeve expansion and Fourier transformations using iterative or correlation-distortion techniques. The input to the simulation is the probability distribution of the individual processes, assumed stationary, and the cross-correlations of all signal combinations. The use in practical risk assessment is illustrated by implementation of a typical heavy-gas dispersion model, enhanced for prediction and simulation of concentration fluctuations. (au)

  8. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  9. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  10. High-picture quality industrial CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)

  11. High nitrogen stainless steels for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen alloying in stainless steels (SS) has myriad beneficial effects, including solid solution strengthening, precipitation effects, phase control and corrosion resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid development of these alloys with improved properties owing to advances in processing technologies. Furthermore, unlimited demands for high-performance advanced steels for special use in advanced applications renewed the interest in high nitrogen steels (HNS). The combination of numbers of attractive properties such as strength, fracture toughness, wear resistance, workability, magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of HNS has given a unique advantage and offers a number of prospective applications in different industries. Based on extensive studies carried out at IGCAR, nitrogen alloyed type 304LN SS and 316LN SS have been chosen as materials of construction for many engineering components of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and associated reprocessing plants. HNS austenitic SS alloys are used as structural/reactor components, i.e., main vessel, inner vessel, control plug, intermediate heat exchanger and main sodium piping for fast breeder reactor. HNS type 304LN SS is a candidate material for continuous dissolver, nuclear waste storage tanks, pipings, etc. for nitric acid service under highly corrosive conditions. Recent developments towards the manufacturing and properties of HNS alloys for application in nuclear industry are highlighted in the presentation. (author)

  12. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the carbody has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties.

    La industria del automóvil se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de vehículos de pasajeros más eficientes. Con el fin de disminuir el consumo de energía y la contaminación ambiental, el peso del vehículo tiene que ser reducido, al mismo tiempo que se garantizan altos niveles de seguridad. Ante esta situación, la elección de material se convierte en una decisión crucial en el diseño del vehículo. Como respuesta a las necesidades del sector automovilístico, nuevos aceros avanzados y de alta resistencia, han sido desarrollados por la industria siderúrgica. Dichos tipos de acero ofrecen un excelente equilibrio de precio, peso y propiedades mecánicas.

  13. Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Economic integration has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature on the topic proposes various explanations for these empirical findings. This paper provides an additional theoretical argument. It shows that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration alone (modelled...

  14. Competition, concentration and fares in the U.S. airline industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paul W. Bauer

    1987-01-01

    An examination of the true state of competition and concentration in the airline industry by taking into account the function and effects of the hub-and-spoke networks that have developed in the market.

  15. Contribution of Fugitive Emissions for PM10 Concentrations in an Industrial Area of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta Almeida, Susana; Viana Silva, Alexandra; Garcia, Silvia; Miranda, Ana Isabel

    2013-04-01

    Significant atmospheric dust arises from the mechanical disturbance of granular material exposed to the air. Dust generated from these open sources is termed "fugitive" because it is not discharged to the atmosphere in a confined flow stream. Common sources of fugitive dust include unpaved roads, agricultural tilling operations, aggregate storage piles, heavy construction and harbor operations. The objective of this work was to identify the likeliness and extend of the PM10 limit value exceedences due to fugitive emissions in a particularly zone where PM fugitive emissions are a core of environmental concerns - Mitrena, Portugal. Mitrena, is an industrial area that coexists with a high-density urban region (Setúbal) and areas with an important environmental concern (Sado Estuary and Arrábida which belongs to the protected area Natura 2000 Network). Due to the typology of industry sited in Mitrena (e.g. power plant, paper mill, cement, pesticides and fertilized productions), there are a large uncontrolled PM fugitive emissions, providing from heavy traffic and handling and storage of raw material on uncover stockyards in the harbor and industries. Dispersion modeling was performed with the software TAPM (The Air Pollution Model) and results were mapped over the study area, using GIS (Geographic Information Systems). Results showed that managing local particles concentrations can be a frustrating affair because the weight of fugitive sources is very high comparing with the local anthropogenic stationary sources. In order to ensure that the industry can continue to meet its commitments in protecting air quality, it is essential to warrant that the characteristics of releases from all fugitive sources are fully understood in order to target future investments in those areas where maximum benefit will be achieved.

  16. Precipitation of ammonium from concentrated industrial wastes as struvite: a search for the optimal reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borojovich, Eitan J C; Münster, Meshulam; Rafailov, Gennady; Porat, Ze'ev

    2010-07-01

    Precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4) is a known process for purification of wastewater from high concentrations of ammonium. The optimal conditions for precipitation are basic pH (around 9) and sufficient concentrations of magnesium and phosphate ions. In this work, we accomplished efficient precipitation of ammonium from concentrated industrial waste stream by using magnesium oxide (MgO) both as a source of magnesium ions and as a base. Best results were obtained with technical-grade MgO, which provided 99% removal of ammonium. Moreover, ammonium removal occurred already at pH 7, and the residual ammonium concentration (50 mg/L) remained constant upon addition of more MgO without rising again, as occurs with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). This process may have two other advantages; it also can be relevant for the problem of uncontrolled precipitation of struvite in the supernatant of anaerobic sludge treatment plants, and the precipitate can be used as a fertilizer.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  18. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  19. High mobility and high concentration Type-III heterojunction FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, R.; Fiddy, M. A.; Her, T.

    2018-02-01

    The PN junction was introduced in transistors by doping, resulting in high losses due to Coulomb scattering from the dopants. The MOSFET introduced carriers in the form of electrons and holes with an applied bias to the oxide barrier, resulting in carrier transfer without doping. This avoids high scattering losses and dominates the IC industries. With heterojunctions having valence-band maxima near and even above the conduction-band minimum in the formation of Type-III superlattices, very useful devices, introduced by Tsu, Sai-Halacz, and Esaki, soon followed. If the layer thicknesses are more than the carrier mean-free-path, incoherent scattering results in the formation of carrier transfer via diffusion instead of opening up new energy gaps. The exploitation of carriers without scattering represents a new and significant opportunity in what we call a Broken Gap Heterojunction FET.

  20. High-flux solar concentration with imaging designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuermann, D. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Gordon, J.M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ries, H. [Ries and Partners, Munich (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Most large solar concentrators designed for high flux concentration at high collection efficiency are based on imaging primary mirrors and nonimaging secondary concentrators. In this paper, we offer an alternative purely imaging two-stage solar concentrator that can attain high flux concentration at high collection efficiency. Possible practical virtues include: (1) an inherent large gap between absorber and secondary mirror; (2) a restricted angular range on the absorber; and (3) an upward-facing receiver where collected energy can be extracted via the (shaded) apex of the parabola. We use efficiency-concentration plots to characterize the solar concentrators considered, and to evaluate the potential improvements with secondary concentrators. (author)

  1. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the

  2. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  3. The Compare of Concentration and Efficiency in Banking Industry: Evidence from the OPEC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi BEHNAME

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is studying that whether the profitability from banking industry comes from the market power or it is a result of their high efficiency level. For this act, we have exerted structuralism and Chicago models versus X-and scale efficiency. Our sample covers the banks in the OPEC countries in the period 1995- 2009. The results for all countries in our sample show that X-and scale efficiency have the positive and significant effect on profitability but, concentration variable decreases profitability. Overall the results above support that the market power hypotheses are rejected for the OPEC countries, while efficiency gains appear to have a positive and significant impact on banking profitability.

  4. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  5. [Condition optimization for bio-oxidation of high-S and high-As gold concentrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caiyun; Dong, Bowen; Wang, Meijun; Ye, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianling; Huang, Huaiguo

    2015-12-04

    To study the effects of temperature and lixivium return on the concentrate bio-oxidation and rate of gold cyanide leaching. The bioleaching of a high-sulphur (S) and high-arsenic (As) refractory gold concentrate was conducted, and we studied the effects of different temperature (40 ° and 45 °C) and lixivium return (0 and 600 mL) on the bio-oxidation efficiency. The bacterial community structure also was investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results showed that both the temperature and lixivium return significantly influenced the oxidation system. The temperature rising elevated the oxidation level, while the addition of lixivium depressed the oxidation. Dissimilarity and DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) indicated the effect of temperature on oxidation system was much greater than lixivium. The bacterial community was comprised by Acidithiocacillus caldu (71%) Leptospirillum ferriphilum (23%) and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (6%) indicated by the clone library, and the OTU coverage based on 97% sequence similarity was as high as 93.67%. Temperature rising to 45 T would improve the oxidation efficiency while lixivium return would decrease it. This study is helpful to provide an important guiding value for the industry cost optimization of mesophile bacterial oxidation and reduction process.

  6. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copºa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 -1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery.Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reductionof industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health andagriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlatedwith noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentrationlevel in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure

  7. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  8. Review of concentrating solar thermal power industry in China: Status quo, problems, trend and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiajun

    2018-01-01

    Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) industry is a strategic emerging industry in China. Its further development is of great significance for promoting the energy revolution, achieving energy saving and emission reduction. In this paper, China’s CSP industry is systematically analysed. First of all, the status quo is elaborated from the perspectives of relevant policies and regulations, market and generation technology development. Secondly, the problems and the underlying reasons of China’s CSP industry are deeply studied. On this basis, the future trends of CSP are expounded on the three levels of policy, market and power generation technology. Finally, a series of feasible countermeasures are put forward, designed to promote the development of CSP industry and the transformation of energy structure.

  9. Diurnal, weekly and seasonal air concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfenati, E.; Mariani, G.; Schiavon, G.; Lodi, M.; Fanelli, R.

    1994-01-01

    Air samples were collected in an industrial area close to Milan in July and in November, day and night for five days and have been analyzed for PCDD and PCDF. Average summer levels were generally lower than winter levels, and average concentrations were higher by night than by day in both months. (orig.)

  10. The relationship between technical efficiency and industial concentration: Evidnce from the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.; Emvalomatis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between technical efficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages sector. Firm-level data obtained from the Indonesian Bureau of Central Statistics (BPS) are used to estimate technical efficiency scores and calculate measures of

  11. Assessment of Bioaerosol concentrations in a live stocks industrial slaughterhouse in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kasaei nasab

    2013-05-01

    .Conclusion: Bioaerosols concentration in live stocks industrial slaughterhouse is higher than the threshold limit and suggested range. Therefore, it is essential to take measures, such as improving the process and technical-engineering interventions including the use of suitable ventilation systems and also management personal monitoring measures.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  13. Job Relocation is High in Chemical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The chances of an employee being relocated are higher in the chemical and plastics industries than in U.S. business as a whole. But the benefits provided by chemical and plastics companies to employees shifted to other locations are generally better than average. (Author/BB)

  14. The Regional Concentration of Industries and the Performance of Firms: A Multilevel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Coelho Martins Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study whose objective was to understand how location within industrial concentrations, like clusters or industrial districts, affects the financial performance of firms. In its theoretical framework, this paper attempts to introduce the reasons behind the alleged superior performance of firms located in these concentrations, the base of the hypothesis formulated in this study. Analysis from a three-level hierarchical linear model applied to a sample of 509 companies located in the state of São Paulo found no evidence that industrial concentrations provide firms with superior performance, contradicting expectations generated by the theory. The decomposition of the variance of performance indicated that the location of the firms and the form with which a city interacts with an industry exerts significant influence on how they will perform. In short, location matters to the future of firms. This finding underlines the need to understand how characteristics of cities or regions can promote or retard the performance of firms.

  15. High safety in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    Presents an interview in question and answer format with the deputy chairman of Gosgortekhnadzor (Committee for Supervision of Industrial Work Safety and Mining Supervision) in which he discusses two recent fatal accidents in the Yasinovskaya-Glubokaya and Chaikino coal mines and identifies areas where safety needs to be improved (more automation, protective devices, ventilation etc.). Discusses the particular problems involved with deep mining (20% of mines are now deeper than 700 m and 27 mines are deeper than 1000 m), such as fires, dust, methane, rock falls, insufficient maintenance and strata control and poor ventilation. Confirms that a large number of accidents is due to poor organization and stresses the fact the coal industry must be subjected to perestroika (restructuring) as much as other areas of society.

  16. Branding in High Fashion Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Ye

    2007-01-01

    Due to the booming economy of the country, the rising disposable income and strong desire of status expression, China is viewed as a promising land for the luxury industry, providing fertile ground for the growth of luxury goods suppliers. More and more famous foreign fashion businesses pour into China and brand them to attract Chinese customers for their higher priced. This paper examines the mindset of the Chinese luxury fashion goods consumers, the drives and their attitude towards luxury ...

  17. Laboratory Study on Possibility of Using Eichhornia To Decrease The Concentrations of Some Heavy Metals in Industrial Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia, T.; Juniedi, H.; Salama, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study Eichhornia crassipes was used under varying conditions of heavy metals concentrations, due to typical study for wastewater concentrations from the batteries factories, to decrease them. Moreover, the concentrations in different media of the plants have been distributed depending on the Response Surface design for three factors 100- 300 mg Pb/l, 15-50 mg Cd/l, 5-10 mg Mn/l which are the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater of batteries factories. The experiment has continued for fourteen days in which a study has been made for the current changes over the plants endurance for the different concentrations by continuing the morphologic changes which have appeared through this period. The heavy metals concentrations of the media were measured during two days. At the end of the experiment, analyses for metals were also carried out on the plant samples to determine the effect of different media on metal accumulation by roots and aerial parts of the plants. The results showed that the plant can absorb heavy metals from the industrial wastewater which is polluted by them, but at certain concentrations. It is unable to survive in a mixture of high heavy metals concentrations of these three factors together (Pb, Cd, Mn). (author)

  18. Predicting the concentration of residual methanol in industrial formalin using machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Heidkamp, William

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, a machine learning approach was used to develop a predictive model for residual methanol concentration in industrial formalin produced at the Akzo Nobel factory in Kristinehamn, Sweden. The MATLABTM computational environment supplemented with the Statistics and Machine LearningTM toolbox from the MathWorks were used to test various machine learning algorithms on the formalin production data from Akzo Nobel. As a result, the Gaussian Process Regression algorithm was found to pr...

  19. Comparison of DDT and its metabolites concentrations in cow milk from agricultural and industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba, Jarosław; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tarasewicz, Natalia; Pilarczyk, Renata; Ligocki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The risk of pesticidal intoxication in humans is severe, especially because of the strongly negative impact on human health. The consequences of the exposure to these substances may include cancerogenesis or endocrine abnormalities resulting for example in decreased fertility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the content of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in cow milk from two regions of Poland, varying by level of industrialization. Samples were collected from agricultural (n = 25) and industrial (n = 25) areas, and the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were evaluated by gas chromatography. Residues of DDT were detected in all the milk samples tested, mostly in the samples from the agricultural area, where a total DDT median concentration reached 0.336 μg L(-1). In the milk samples from the industrial area, the median concentration was lower, at 0.131 μg L(-1). 4,4'-DDT was the main metabolite, constituting 83% of total DDT metabolites. Although none of the samples exceeded the level above which they should be considered dangerous, the results showed that the problem of DDT had not diminished and so should be constantly monitored.

  20. Intertidal Concentrations of Microplastics and Their Influence on Ammonium Cycling as Related to the Shellfish Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzard, Melanie; Kazmiruk, Tamara N; Kazmiruk, Vasily D; Bendell, L I

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous within the marine environment. The last 10 years have seen research directed at understanding the fate and effect of microplastics within the marine environment; however, no studies have yet addressed how concentrations of these particles could affect sedimentary processes such as nutrient cycling. Herein we first determine the concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics within Baynes Sound, a key shellfish-growing area within coastal British Columbia (BC). We also determined sediment grain size and % organic matter (OM) such that we could relate spatial patterns in sediment microplastic concentrations to sedimentary processes that determine zones of accretion and erosion. Using field-determined concentrations of microplastics, we applied laboratory microcosms studies, which manipulated sediment concentrations of microplastics, OM, and bivalves to determine the influence of sediment microplastics on ammonium cycling within intertidal sediments. Concentrations of microplastics determined within the intertidal sediment varied spatially and were similar to those found in other coastal regions of high urban use. Concentrations were independent of grain size and OM suggesting that physical processes other than those that govern natural sediment components determine the fate of microplastics within sediments. Under laboratory conditions, concentrations of ammonium were significantly greater in the overlying water of treatments with microplastics, clams, and OM compared with treatments without microplastics. These preliminary studies suggest that high concentrations of microplastics have the potential to alter key sedimentary processes such as ammonium flux. This could have serious implications, for example, contributing to eutrophication events in regions of the coast that are highly urbanized.

  1. Concentrations and size distribution of inhalable and respirable dust among sugar industry workers: a pilot study in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunkoo, Pornpun; Chaiear, Naesinee; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Sadhra, Steven

    2011-11-01

    There has been very limited information regarding bagasse exposure among workers in sugar industries as well as on health outcomes. The authors determined the occupational exposure of sugar industry workers in Khon Kaen to airborne bagasse dust. The size of the bagasse dust ranged from 0.08 to 9 µm with the highest size concentration of 2.1 to 4.7 µm. The most common size had a geometric mean diameter of 5.2 µm, with a mass concentration of 6.89 mg/m(3)/log µm. The highest mean values of inhalable and respirable dust were found to be 9.29 mg/m(3) from February to April in bagasse storage, 5.12 mg/m(3) from May to September, and 4.12 mg/m(3) from October to January. Inhalable dust concentrations were 0.33, 0.47, and 0.41 mg/m(3), respectively. Workers are likely to be exposed to high concentrations of bagasse dust and are at risk of respiratory diseases. Preventive measures, both in the form of engineering designs and personal protective devices, should be implemented.

  2. Role of high technology in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of high technology identifies the characteristics which distinguish it from conventional technologies, and the impact high technology will have in the nuclear power industry in the near future. The basic theme is that high technology is an ensemble of competing technological developments that shifts with time and technological innovation. The attributes which current distinguish high technology are compactness, plasticity, convergence, and intelligence. These high technology attributes are presented as a prelude to some examples of high technology developments which are just beginning to penetrate the nuclear industry. Concluding remarks address some of the challenges which must be faced in order to assure that high technology is successfully adapted and used

  3. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  4. The concentration of the global alcohol industry and its penetration in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Babor, Thomas F

    2015-04-01

    To describe the penetration and expansion of the global alcohol industry into the African region, as a context for exploring the implications for public health. Source materials for this study came primarily from market research and the business press. This was supplemented by industry sources (from websites, company annual reports), World Health Organization reports and the scientific literature. Drinking in Africa is characterized by high rates of abstention and a high prevalence of heavy episodic consumption among those who drink. Much of the region is currently experiencing a rapid rise in consumption. Rising populations and income and the rapid pace of urbanization make Africa very attractive to the global alcohol industry, and industry leaders have identified Africa as a key area for growth. The shift from collaboration to competition in Africa among the global alcohol companies has prompted increasing alcohol production, promotion, new product development, pricing schemes and stakeholder lobbying. Beer consumption has increased across most of the continent, and global brewers view themselves as legitimate players at the alcohol policy table. Weak alcohol policy environments may be compromised further in terms of public health protections by alcohol industry opposition to effective measures such as marketing regulations, availability controls and taxation. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Size distribution and concentrations of heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols originating from industrial emissions as predicted by the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F.; Maldonado, Pabla Guerrero; Sanchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Castell, Nuria; de la Rosa, Jesus D.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a description of the emission, transport, dispersion, and deposition of heavy metals contained in atmospheric aerosols emitted from a large industrial complex in southern Spain using the HYSPLIT model coupled with high- (MM5) and low-resolution (GDAS) meteorological simulations. The dispersion model was configured to simulate eight size fractions (17 μm) of metals based on direct measurements taken at the industrial emission stacks. Twelve stacks in four plants were studied and the stacks showed considerable differences for both emission fluxes and size ranges of metals. We model the dispersion of six major metals; Cr, Co, Ni, La, Zn, and Mo, which represent 77% of the total mass of the 43 measured elements. The prediction shows that the modeled industrial emissions produce an enrichment of heavy metals by a factor of 2-5 for local receptor sites when compared to urban and rural background areas in Spain. The HYSPLIT predictions based on the meteorological fields from MM5 show reasonable consistence with the temporal evolution of concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni observed at three sites downwind of the industrial area. The magnitude of concentrations of metals at two receptors was underestimated for both MM5 (by a factor of 2-3) and GDAS (by a factor of 4-5) meteorological runs. The model prediction shows that heavy metal pollution from industrial emissions in this area is dominated by the ultra-fine (<0.66 μm) and fine (<2.5 μm) size fractions.

  6. Core business concentration vs. corporate diversification in the US electric utility industry: Synergy and deregulation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Shang, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many economists such as Wilson (2002) [Wilson, R., 2002. Architecture of power market, Econometrica, 70, 1299-1340] have considered that there are similarities between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. Hence, they expect a synergy effect between them. However, the two businesses do not have technology similarities at the level that the gas service produces a synergy effect with electricity. To examine whether there is a synergy effect of corporate diversification in the industry, we compare electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in terms of their financial performance and corporate value. The comparison indicates that core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification under the current US deregulation policy.

  7. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  8. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  9. Treatment of concentrates from wastewater evaporation in the pulp and paper industry; Metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesien haihduttamokonsentraattien jatkokaesittely - KLT 03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Different organic and inorganic compounds are dissolved in process waters in paper production processes. When closing water cycles this dissolved material is enriched in circulation waters. One alternative for removing this harmful material is evaporation. The aim of the project was to characterise concentrates and condensates formed in the evaporation of different waste waters and circulation waters in the pulp and paper industry, and to survey alternatives for their further treatment and utilisation. Furthermore, one aim was to study precipitation of material and contamination of heat transfer surfaces during evaporation. In the work, TMP and CTMP filtrates, debarking waters as well as concentrates from pilot and demonstration evaporation plants were used as samples. The water samples were evaporated, and the concentrates were evaporated further to higher dry solids contents. Waste water parameters and the compositions of feed, condensate and concentrate samples were measured. An analysis scheme was developed for the organic matter in CTMP filtrates and their concentrates. Primarily low-molecular acids and alcohols are evaporated with the water from TMP and CTMP filtrates and from debarking waters. The other substances were concentrated in the residues. The proportion of organic matter in the concentrates of TMP filtrates was about a half, while the concentrates of debarking water consisted nearly totally of organic matter. Fuel properties were determined and preliminary heat treatment experiments were carried out for the concentrates. The ash and sodium contents of the TMP and CTMP filtrates were high. The project was terminated in spring 1998. The research work will be continued in a new project within the CACTUS Programme under the title `Overall solution for water circulation based on evaporation` (KLT 01). The research plan of this project is presented elsewhere in this yearbook. (orig.)

  10. Treatment of concentrates from wastewater evaporation in the pulp and paper industry; Metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesien haihduttamokonsentraattien jatkokaesittely - KLT 03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Different organic and inorganic compounds are dissolved in process waters in paper production processes. When closing water cycles this dissolved material is enriched in circulation waters. One alternative for removing this harmful material is evaporation. The aim of the project was to characterise concentrates and condensates formed in the evaporation of different waste waters and circulation waters in the pulp and paper industry, and to survey alternatives for their further treatment and utilisation. Furthermore, one aim was to study precipitation of material and contamination of heat transfer surfaces during evaporation. In the work, TMP and CTMP filtrates, debarking waters as well as concentrates from pilot and demonstration evaporation plants were used as samples. The water samples were evaporated, and the concentrates were evaporated further to higher dry solids contents. Waste water parameters and the compositions of feed, condensate and concentrate samples were measured. An analysis scheme was developed for the organic matter in CTMP filtrates and their concentrates. Primarily low-molecular acids and alcohols are evaporated with the water from TMP and CTMP filtrates and from debarking waters. The other substances were concentrated in the residues. The proportion of organic matter in the concentrates of TMP filtrates was about a half, while the concentrates of debarking water consisted nearly totally of organic matter. Fuel properties were determined and preliminary heat treatment experiments were carried out for the concentrates. The ash and sodium contents of the TMP and CTMP filtrates were high. The project was terminated in spring 1998. The research work will be continued in a new project within the CACTUS Programme under the title `Overall solution for water circulation based on evaporation` (KLT 01). The research plan of this project is presented elsewhere in this yearbook. (orig.)

  11. Industrial Applications of High Power Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patist, Alex; Bates, Darren

    Since the change of the millennium, high-power ultrasound has become an alternative food processing technology applicable to large-scale commercial applications such as emulsification, homogenization, extraction, crystallization, dewatering, low-temperature pasteurization, degassing, defoaming, activation and inactivation of enzymes, particle size reduction, extrusion, and viscosity alteration. This new focus can be attributed to significant improvements in equipment design and efficiency during the late 1990 s. Like most innovative food processing technologies, high-power ultrasonics is not an off-the-shelf technology, and thus requires careful development and scale-up for each and every application. The objective of this chapter is to present examples of ultrasonic applications that have been successful at the commercialization stage, advantages, and limitations, as well as key learnings from scaling up an innovative food technology in general.

  12. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Filho, Pedro F; Nair, Ramkumar B; Andersson, Dan; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-01-01

    Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield. A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications. The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

  13. Leaders in high temperature superconductivity commercialization win superconductor industry award

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider curretn leads project head Amalia Ballarino named superconductor industry person of the year 2006. Former high temperature superconductivity program manager at the US Department of energy James Daley wins lifetime achievement award. (1,5 page)

  14. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF THE EFFECTS OF BREWING INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AMONG LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES OPERATING ON THE POLISH MARKET IN 2004-2011 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Łobos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish beer market is characterised by a high degree of concentration. The market share of Kompania Piwowarska, Grupa Żywiec and Carlsberg Polska is 90%. Many authors stress concentration as an important factor when explaining why various industries are more or less effective or more or less profitable. Firms from concentrated industries report, on average, higher profitability than those in non-concentrated industries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences of economic efficiency of large (group I and small (group II entities involved in the production of beer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the test group of companies was based on selected financial ratios (return on assets, return on sales, inventory turnover, total debt ratio.

  16. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  17. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    on an intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting....... This raises the question: are we witnessing an incursion of spillover mechanisms into the ‘High Politics' domain of the defence industry? What are the drivers eroding the ‘High Politics' character of defence industry integration? Are market forces at play? Does it reflect pressures for institutional...

  18. Learning Organizations in High Reliability Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, D.; Wächter, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Humans make mistakes. Sometimes we learn from them. In a high reliability organization we have to learn before an error leads to an incident (or even accident). Therefore the “human factor” is most important as most of the time the human is the last line of defense. The “human factor” is more than communication or leadership skills. At the end, it is the personal attitude. This attitude has to be safety minded. And this attitude has to be self-reflected continuously. Moreover, feedback from others is urgently needed to improve one’s personal skills daily and learn from our own experience as well as from others. (author

  19. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-01-01

    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy

  20. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  1. Management of logistics chains of industrial enterprises in high-tech industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the trends of high-tech industries development in the market globalization conditions. The economic growth of high-tech industries largely depends on technological innovations, products and equipment based on usage of the results of applied and fundamental scientific researches. It is shown that characteristics of high-tech productions influence the logistics chain structure. It justifies the importance to include partnering enterprises taking part in creation of intellectual and tangible assets in the logistic chain of the industrial enterprise. It is noted that development of production technologies contributes to formation of innovative logistic chains, which participants are enterprises cooperating for achievement of competitive power. The article offers a model of an industry logistic chain comprising the conventional logistic chain and innovative logistic chains corresponding to the industry market segments. It is proposed to use the customer value of the manufactured products as a criterion of the industrial enterprise’s logistic chains management efficiency. Implementation of the offered model of cooperation between the logistic chain participants is aimed at creation of a continuous innovations flow, reduction of technological development costs and uniting of the participants’ experience.

  2. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  3. Investment in high-tech industries : An example from the LCD industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.; Plasmans, J.E.J.; Bensoussan, A.; Peng, S.; Sung, J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers a representative firm taking investment decisions in a high-tech environment where different generations of production facilities are invented over time. First, we develop a general real options investment model for high-tech industries in which, according to standard

  4. ETV REPORT: EVALUATION OF HYDROMETRICS, INC., HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSE OSMOSIS (HERO™) INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrometrics, founded in 1979 and located in Helena, MT, manufactures a commercial-ready High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) industrial wastewater treatment system. The system uses a three-stage reverse osmosis process to remove and concentrate metals for recovery while prod...

  5. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  6. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  7. The Minimization of Organic and Metallic Industrial Waste Via LEMNA MINOR Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-30

    from municipal and industrial waste waters. Duckweed is a floating, widespread and fast-growing plant. It is smal, 3asy to cultivate and highly sensitive...and Cairns, J. Jr., "Accumulation and Depuration of Metals by Duckweed (Lemna perpusilla)," Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 5, 87-96, 1981...to separate substances of different densities. calla: a plant of the arum family, native to South Africa, but cultivated in the United States, and

  8. A compact spectrum splitting concentrator for high concentration photovoltaics based on the dispersion of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Flowers, C. A.; Yao, Y.; Atwater, H. A.; Rockett, A. A.; Nuzzo, R. G.

    2018-06-01

    Photovoltaic devices used in conjunction with functional optical elements for light concentration and spectrum splitting are known to be a viable approach for highly efficient photovoltaics. Conventional designs employ discrete optical elements, each with the task of either performing optical concentration or separating the solar spectrum. In the present work, we examine the performance of a compact photovoltaic architecture in which a single lens plays a dual role as both a concentrator and a spectrum splitter, the latter made possible by exploiting its intrinsic dispersion. A four-terminal two-junction InGaP/GaAs device is prepared to validate the concept and illustrates pathways for improvements. A spectral separation in the visible range is demonstrated at the focal point of a plano-convex lens with a geometric concentration ratio of 1104X with respect to the InGaP subcell.

  9. High technology supporting nuclear power industry in CRIEPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    As a central research institute of electric power industry, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has carried out R and D on broad range of topics such as power generation, power transmission, power distribution, power application and energy economics and society, aiming to develop prospective and advanced technologies, fundamental reinforce technologies and next-generation core technologies. To realize low-carbon society to cope with enhancement of global environmental issues, nuclear power is highly recommended as large-scale power with low-carbon emission. At the new start of serial explanation on advanced technologies, R and D on electric power industry was outlined. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Development of Industrial High-Speed Transfer Parallel Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung In; Kyung, Jin Ho; Do, Hyun Min; Jo, Sang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Parallel robots used in industry require high stiffness or high speed because of their structural characteristics. Nowadays, the importance of rapid transportation has increased in the distribution industry. In this light, an industrial parallel robot has been developed for high-speed transfer. The developed parallel robot can handle a maximum payload of 3 kg. For a payload of 0.1 kg, the trajectory cycle time is 0.3 s (come and go), and the maximum velocity is 4.5 m/s (pick amp, place work, adept cycle). In this motion, its maximum acceleration is very high and reaches approximately 13g. In this paper, the design, analysis, and performance test results of the developed parallel robot system are introduced

  11. Multiphysics modelling and experimental validation of high concentration photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theristis, Marios; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Sumner, Mike; O'Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiphysics modelling approach for concentrating photovoltaics was developed. • An experimental campaign was conducted to validate the models. • The experimental results were in good agreement with the models. • The multiphysics modelling allows the concentrator’s optimisation. - Abstract: High concentration photovoltaics, equipped with high efficiency multijunction solar cells, have great potential in achieving cost-effective and clean electricity generation at utility scale. Such systems are more complex compared to conventional photovoltaics because of the multiphysics effect that is present. Modelling the power output of such systems is therefore crucial for their further market penetration. Following this line, a multiphysics modelling procedure for high concentration photovoltaics is presented in this work. It combines an open source spectral model, a single diode electrical model and a three-dimensional finite element thermal model. In order to validate the models and the multiphysics modelling procedure against actual data, an outdoor experimental campaign was conducted in Albuquerque, New Mexico using a high concentration photovoltaic monomodule that is thoroughly described in terms of its geometry and materials. The experimental results were in good agreement (within 2.7%) with the predicted maximum power point. This multiphysics approach is relatively more complex when compared to empirical models, but besides the overall performance prediction it can also provide better understanding of the physics involved in the conversion of solar irradiance into electricity. It can therefore be used for the design and optimisation of high concentration photovoltaic modules.

  12. Development of automatic high-concentration boron measurement technique; Konodo hoso jido sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T.; Honda, S.; Ito, A. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The technology that can automatically measure the boron concentration in boric acid water was developed. A high-concentration boric acid solution must be held at a high temperature to prevent the deposition. Skill and precision ({plus_minus}0.2 to 0.3% for 10 to 2500 ppm as boron concentration, and {plus_minus}2 to 3% for 2500 to 25,000 ppm) are required to analyze the boric acid solution manually. In theory, the boron concentration in a wide range can be measured, and boron has a constant-temperature function. A density hydrometer method that facilitates the treatment and calibration in high precision and at low cost was chosen. The vibration period generated when vibration is given to the solution specimen put in a U-tube is higher as the density is lower. On the basis of this theory, the density of a specimen can be obtained according to the relation with the same data of the known-concentration boric acid water. The high-concentration boric acid water that cannot be measured by the existing boron densitometer can be measured directly. It can also be measured in a low-concentration area. The technique can be used in a laboratory as the simplified method that is replaced by the current manual analysis. The reduction effect of analytical chemical`s waste liquid can also be expected. In the electric power industry, automated equipment is required for high efficiency and labor saving. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  14. High indoor radon concentrations in some Swedish waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Heiberg, A.

    2002-01-01

    High indoor radon concentrations in buildings used for water treatment are not uncommon. When raw water is processed in an open system radon escapes from the water to the indoor air of the premises. It is not unusual that the staff of the waterworks have their offices in the building where the water is processed. If large volumes of water are processed and the evaporated radon can reach the workplaces the indoor radon concentration can be very high even if the radon concentration of the raw water is moderate. Groundwaters from aquifers in bedrock and soil and surface water that has been infiltrated through deposits of sand or gravel have the potential to cause high indoor radon levels. In surface water emanating directly from a lake or a river the radon concentrations are normally too low to cause problems. Three waterworks in central Sweden have been studied, Ludvika, Fredriksberg and Kolbaeck. The radon concentrations in the raw water of these waterworks are from 85 Bq/l to 300 Bq/l. Average indoor radon concentrations exceeding 17,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured in Ludvika with peaks of almost 37,000 Bq/m 3 . In Kolbaeck radon concentrations up to 56,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured. It is quite possible that employees of waterworks can receive doses exceeding 20 mSv per year (calculated according to ICRP:s dose conversion convention). Measurements of radon and gamma radiation from the waterworks are reported and methods to lower the indoor radon concentrations are discussed. (author)

  15. Influence of solids concentration on the sedimentation rate of the mud in the aggregate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Leyva-de la Cruz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to determine, for the mud resulting from the wash process in the Jobo community arid industry in Sagua de Tánamo, the impact of solids percent on the theoretical sedimentation velocity that is predicted by the Stokes velocity Law. Samples of the discharge pipeline and the mud sedimentation area were analyzed from granulometric, density and solids concentration points of view. The solids percentage variable (S was analyzed in four scenarios (4, 12, 20 and 28 % and time (t was evaluated at intervals of 20 minutes for 5 hours. The behavior of mud sedimentation was characterized through the sedimentation velocity. The results indicate that the Stokes velocity law does not apply for estimating the mud sedimentation velocity with a 95% confidence. Therefore, a correction function is obtained for the Stokes velocity law expressed through the polynomial mathematical model of second degree.

  16. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  17. Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, P

    2003-12-01

    High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks.

  18. Soil metal concentrations and toxicity: Associations with distances to industrial facilities and implications for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aelion, C. Marjorie; Davis, Harley T.; McDermott, Suzanne; Lawson, Andrew B.

    2009-01-01

    Urban and rural areas may have different levels of environmental contamination and different potential sources of exposure. Many metals, i.e., arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), have well-documented negative neurological effects, and the developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. Using a database of mother and child pairs, three areas were identified: a rural area with no increased prevalence of mental retardation and developmental delay (MR/DD) (Area A), and a rural area (Area B) and an urban area (Area C) with significantly higher prevalence of MR/DD in children as compared to the state-wide average. Areas were mapped and surface soil samples were collected from nodes of a uniform grid. Samples were analyzed for As, barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), Pb, manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and Hg concentrations and for soil toxicity, and correlated to identify potential common sources. ArcGIS was used to determine distances between sample locations and industrial facilities, which were correlated with both metal concentrations and soil toxicity. Results indicated that all metal concentrations (except Be and Hg) in Area C were significantly greater than those in Areas A and B (p ≤ 0.0001) and that Area C had fewer correlations between metals suggesting more varied sources of metals than in rural areas. Area C also had a large number of facilities whose distances were significantly correlated with metals, particularly Cr (maximum r = 0.33; p = 0.0002), and with soil toxicity (maximum r = 0.25; p = 0.007) over a large spatial scale. Arsenic was not associated with distance to any facility and may have a different anthropogenic, or natural source. In contrast to Area C, both rural areas had lower concentrations of metals, lower soil toxicity, and a small number of facilities with significant associations between distance and soil metals

  19. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  20. Implementation of high-dose chemical dosimetry for industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo Cezar Sant'Anna da

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of methodology for high dose measurements using chemical dosimeters in liquid phase, traceable to the international metrology system, and make available in the country, the standard of high-dose to industrial irradiation facilities and research irradiators, trough the quality program with comparative measurements and direct use of the standard dosimeters in routine. The use of these low cost dosimetry systems in industrial irradiation facilities, assists to the certification requirements and it can reduce the costs with dosimetry for approximately 20% of the total dosimetry costs, using these systems in routine measurements and validation process, largely substituting the imported PMMA dosimeters, among others. (author)

  1. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  2. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  3. Toluene diisocyanate concentration investigation among TDI-related factories in Taiwan and their relations to the type of industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Jung; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chang, Ho-Yuan

    2002-03-01

    To determine nationwide 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanates (TDI) concentrations among polyurethane (PU) resin, PU foam, and other TDI-related industries in Taiwan. The ratios of 2,4-/2,6-TDI and the noncarcinogenic risk among these three industries were also investigated. Personal and fixed-area monitoring of TDI concentrations as well as questionnaires were performed for 26 factories in Taiwan. The modified OHSA 42 method was applied in sampling and analysis. Noncarcinogenic hazard index was estimated for these three industries based on the average concentration measurements. Significant differences of TDI concentrations were found among the three industry categories. For personal monitoring, PU foam was found to have the highest TDI levels [18.6 (+/-33.6) and 22.1 (+/-42.3) ppb for 2,4- and 2,6-TDI], Others average [8.3 (+/-18.9) and 10.2 (+/-17.2) ppb], and PU resin lowest [2.0 (+/-3.5) and 0.7 (+/-1.2) ppb]. The estimated average hazard indices were found to be 310-3310. A substantial percentage of airborne TDI concentrations among in Taiwan industries exceeded current TDI occupational exposure limit, and significant difference of TDI levels were found among the three industry categories. The control remedy for the tasks of charging and foaming should be enforced with the highest priority. A separate 2,6-TDI exposure standard is warranted.

  4. Identification of sources of elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrial area in Tianjin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, T.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector in 105 topsoil samples from an industrial area around Bohai Bay, Tianjin in the North of China. Results demonstrated that concentrations of PAHs in 104

  5. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  6. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  7. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  8. The impact of total suspended particulate concentration on workers’ health at ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintorini, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Ceramic production process pollutes the air with particulate matter at high concentration and has negative impact on the workers. The objective of this research was to determine the particulate concentration in the air and to analyse its impact on the workers. This research used cross sectional method to correlate the particulate concentration, temperature, humidity, smoke level and level of workers’ compliance with safety regulations. Sampling was conducted from April to May 2012 in three locations, i.e. exposure area (Mass Preparation I, II) and non-exposure area (Forming area). In the exposure area (Mass Preparation I and II) where the particulate concentrations were 22.3673 mg/m3 and 14.8277 mg/m3, and 58.33%, the workers had bad health status. In the non-exposure area, where the particulate concentration was 3.2185 mg/m3 and 25% the workers had bad health status. The Odds Ratio among the workers in exposure area was 4.2 times higher than the workers in the non-exposure area.

  9. Rheological behavior of high-concentration sodium caseinate dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Rao, M Anandha; Creamer, Lawrence K; Singh, Harjinder

    2010-03-01

    Apparent viscosity and frequency sweep (G', G'') data for sodium caseinate dispersions with concentrations of approximately 18% to 40% w/w were obtained at 20 degrees C; colloidal glass behavior was exhibited by dispersions with concentration >or=23% w/w. The high concentrations were obtained by mixing frozen powdered buffer with sodium caseinate in boiling liquid nitrogen, and allowing the mixtures to thaw and hydrate at 4 degrees C. The low-temperature G'-G'' crossover seen in temperature scans between 60 and 5 degrees C was thought to indicate gelation. Temperature scans from 5 to 90 degrees C revealed gradual decrease in G' followed by plateau values. In contrast, G'' decreased gradually and did not reach plateau values. Increase in hydrophobicity of the sodium caseinate or a decrease in the effective volume fraction of its aggregates may have contributed to these phenomena. The gelation and end of softening temperatures of the dispersions increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate. From an Eldridge-Ferry plot, the enthalpy of softening was estimated to be 29.6 kJ mol(-1). The results of this study should be useful for creating new products with high concentrations of sodium caseinate.

  10. Investigation of the areas of high radon concentration in Gyeongju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Min; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the radon concentrations at 21 elementary schools in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to identify those schools with high radon concentrations. Considering their geological characteristics and the preliminary survey results, three schools were finally placed under close scrutiny. For these three schools, continuous measurements over 48 h were taken at the principal's and administration office. The radon concentrations at one school, Naenam, exceeded the action level (148 Bq/m 3 ) established by the U.S. EPA, while those at the other two schools were below that level. - Highlights: • Preliminary measurements of the indoor radon concentrations were performed at the auditoriums in 23 elementary schools in Gyeongju. • Considering the geological characteristics and preliminary survey results, three elementary schools were screened for closer scrutiny. • For the three schools, continuous measurements were made at their principal's and administration offices over 48-h period. • The scrutiny revealed one elementary school of high radon concentration much higher than the U.S. EPA action level

  11. Cleanroom energy benchmarking in high-tech and biotech industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschudi, William; Benschine, Kathleen; Fok, Stephen; Rumsey, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Cleanrooms, critical to a wide range of industries, universities, and government facilities, are extremely energy intensive. Consequently, energy represents a significant operating cost for these facilities. Improving energy efficiency in cleanrooms will yield dramatic productivity improvement. But more importantly to the industries which rely on cleanrooms, base load reduction will also improve reliability. The number of cleanrooms in the US is growing and the cleanroom environmental systems' energy use is increasing due to increases in total square footage and trends toward more energy intensive, higher cleanliness applications. In California, many industries important to the State's economy utilize cleanrooms. In California these industries utilize over 150 cleanrooms with a total of 4.2 million sq. ft. (McIlvaine). Energy intensive high tech buildings offer an attractive incentive for large base load energy reduction. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvement exist in virtually all operating cleanrooms as well as in new designs. To understand the opportunities and their potential impact, Pacific Gas and Electric Company sponsored a project to benchmark energy use in cleanrooms in the electronics (high-tech) and biotechnology industries. Both of these industries are heavily dependent intensive cleanroom environments for research and manufacturing. In California these two industries account for approximately 3.6 million sq. ft. of cleanroom (McIlvaine, 1996) and 4349 GWh/yr. (Sartor et al. 1999). Little comparative energy information on cleanroom environmental systems was previously available. Benchmarking energy use allows direct comparisons leading to identification of best practices, efficiency innovations, and highlighting previously masked design or operational problems

  12. Fundamentals and industrial applications of high power laser beam cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruck, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser beam cladding has been refined such that clad characteristics are precisely determined through routine process control. This paper reviews the state of the art of laser cladding optical equipment, as well as the fundamental process/clad relationships that have been developed for high power processing. Major categories of industrial laser cladding are described with examples chose to highlight particular process attributes

  13. Studies on the structure of industrial high methoxyl pectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravtchenko, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical structure of three industrial high methoxyl pectins (one extracted from apple pomace and two from lemon peels) has been extensively investigated. The apple pectin differs from the lemon ones by having a higher apparent molecular size, a higher neutral-sugar content, present

  14. Unphysiologically high magnesium concentrations support chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Witte, Frank; Kammal, Michael; Willumeit, Regine

    2006-12-01

    The effect of unphysiologically high extracellular magnesium concentrations on chondrocytes, induced by the supplementation of magnesium sulfate, was studied using a 3-phase tissue engineering model. The experiments showed that chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation, on the gene and protein expression level, are enhanced. A negative influence was found during chondrogenesis where an inhibition of extracellular matrix formation was observed. In addition, a direct impact on chondrocyte metabolism, elevated magnesium concentrations also affected growth factor effectiveness by consecutive influences during chondrogenesis. All observations were dosage dependent. The results of this study indicate that magnesium may be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. Pressurized Recuperator For Heat Recovery In Industrial High Temperature Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators and regenerators are important devices for heat recovery systems in technological lines of industrial processes and should have high air preheating temperature, low flow resistance and a long service life. The use of heat recovery systems is particularly important in high-temperature industrial processes (especially in metallurgy where large amounts of thermal energy are lost to the environment. The article presents the process design for a high efficiency recuperator intended to work at high operating parameters: air pressure up to 1.2 MPa and temperature of heating up to 900°C. The results of thermal and gas-dynamic calculations were based on an algorithm developed for determination of the recuperation process parameters. The proposed technical solution of the recuperator and determined recuperation parameters ensure its operation under maximum temperature conditions.

  16. Industrial applications of high energy micro-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhru, H.; Nickles, E.; Haberl, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The University at Albany ion scanning microprobe has been used for industrial applications. Several examples of such applications will be presented. Focused proton and helium ion beams of 1-2 μm dimensions have been used for the analysis. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis have been performed on very large scale integrated circuits, thin film superconductors, small structures of high voltage cables and for several other industrial applications. Several examples of chemical and microstructural analysis will be presented. (orig.)

  17. Nitrification of an industrial wastewater in a moving-bed biofilm reactor: effect of salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramel, Simone; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification of wastewaters from chemical industries can pose some challenges due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. Some wastewaters, besides their organic complexity present variable levels of salt concentration. In order to investigate the effect of salt (NaCl) content on the nitrification of a conventional biologically treated industrial wastewater, a bench scale moving-bed biofilm reactor was operated on a sequencing batch mode. The wastewater presenting a chloride content of 0.05 g l(-1) was supplemented with NaCl up to 12 g Cl(-) l(-1). The reactor operation cycle was: filling (5 min), aeration (12 or 24h), settling (5 min) and drawing (5 min). Each experimental run was conducted for 3 to 6 months to address problems related to the inherent wastewater variability and process stabilization. A PLC system assured automatic operation and control of the pertinent process variables. Data obtained from selected batch experiments were adjusted by a kinetic model, which considered ammonia, nitrite and nitrate variations. The average performance results indicated that nitrification efficiency was not influenced by chloride content in the range of 0.05 to 6 g Cl(-) l(-1) and remained around 90%. When the chloride content was 12 g Cl(-) l(-1), a significant drop in the nitrification efficiency was observed, even operating with a reaction period of 24 h. Also, a negative effect of the wastewater organic matter content on nitrification efficiency was observed, which was probably caused by growth of heterotrophs in detriment of autotrophs and nitrification inhibition by residual chemicals.

  18. Does Service Innovation Matter in High-Tech Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chao-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Service innovation has been found to be a major driver of innovation performance in service contexts. But this issue raises questions concerning the extent to which the relationship between market orientation and innovation performance holds in the high-tech industry. Relatively little research has examined how market orientation contributes to innovation performance through service innovation. We here report an empirical study of 235 Taiwanese high-tech firms to examine the influence of mark...

  19. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  20. Highly concentrated zinc oxide nanocrystals sol with strong blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaee, M.; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Radiman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly concentrated ZnO sol was synthesized by an improved sol-gel method. Water was used as a modifier to control the sol-gel reaction and provide a way to increase the sol concentration. Concentration of ZnO in the prepared sol is higher than from other methods. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate optical properties of the prepared sol. FTIR test was performed to study the influence of water on the compounds of as-prepared sol. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by HRTEM. The prepared colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have narrow size distribution (5-8 nm) and showed strong blue emission. The prepared sol has enough potential for optoelectronic applications. - Research highlights: → Novel sol-gel route has been employed to prepare highly concentrated ZnO colloidal nanocrystals. → Water has been used to control the sources of emission in synthesized material. → A strong blue luminescent material has been obtained.

  1. The Effect of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Industrialization on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao

    2016-11-01

    Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM 2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM 2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM 2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM 2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM 2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM 2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM 2.5 -polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.

  2. Productive Liquid Fertilizer from Liquid Waste Tempe Industry as Revealed by Various EM4 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, S.; Letsoin, F.; Kristijanto, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, using of productive liquid fertilizer assumed as a proper and practical fertilizer for plant productivity purposes. Various ways of enrichment of liquid fertilizer were done to achieve certain quality. The purpose of this research was to determine the proper additional formulation in the process of making productive liquid fertilizer based on the various concentration of EM4 as well as comparated the result with SNI. Liquid tempe waste were collected from some tempe industries at Sidorejo Kidul village, Tingkir district, Salatiga. The concentration of EM4 which were added to the tempe wastewater are 0%; 0.20%; 0.40%; 0.60%; 0.80%; 1.00% respectively. The pH, temperature, C total, N total, C/N ratio, and PO4 3- were measured. Data was analyzed by using Randomize Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Comparison between the average, the Honestly Significance Deference (HSD) 5% was used. The results showed that the addition of EM4 indicated there were a significant progress. Moreover, the most effective formula to increase the quality of productive liquid fertilizer from liquid waste tempe was found in addition of 1.00% EM4 with the gained analysis value for the C total, N total, C/N ratio, and degree of PO4 3- as follows : 4.395 ± 1.034%; 1.470 ± 0.081%; 3.01 ± 0.756; 685.28 ± 70.44 ppm . Associated with the need fulfillment of SNI hence can be concluded that result of Productive Liquid Fertilizer (PLF) from liquid waste tempe successfully fulfill SNI of liquid fertilizer for pH parameter and total N, only.

  3. Nonfaradaic nanoporous electrochemistry for conductometry at high electrolyte concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Je Hyun; Kang, Chung Mu; Choi, Hyoungseon; Kim, Beom Jin; Jang, Woohyuk; Lim, Sung Yul; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2015-02-17

    Nanoporous electrified surfaces create a unique nonfaradaic electrochemical behavior that is sensitively influenced by pore size, morphology, ionic strength, and electric field modulation. Here, we report the contributions of ion concentration and applied ac frequency to the electrode impedance through an electrical double layer overlap and ion transport along the nanopores. Nanoporous Pt with uniform pore size and geometry (L2-ePt) responded more sensitively to conductivity changes in aqueous solutions than Pt black with poor uniformity despite similar real surface areas and enabled the previously difficult quantitative conductometry measurements at high electrolyte concentrations. The nanopores of L2-ePt were more effective in reducing the electrode impedance and exhibited superior linear responses to not only flat Pt but also Pt black, leading to successful conductometric detection in ion chromatography without ion suppressors and at high ionic strengths.

  4. Does Service Innovation Matter in High-Tech Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hung Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Service innovation has been found to be a major driver of innovation performance in service contexts. But this issue raises questions concerning the extent to which the relationship between market orientation and innovation performance holds in the high-tech industry. Relatively little research has examined how market orientation contributes to innovation performance through service innovation. We here report an empirical study of 235 Taiwanese high-tech firms to examine the influence of market orientation on service innovation and innovation performance. A noteworthy finding is that the impacts of customer orientation and competitor orientation on innovation performance are fully mediated by service innovation. However, service innovation does only partially mediate the relationship between inter-functional orientation and innovation performance. The findings of this study should help managers consider appropriate service innovation in high-tech industry.

  5. Modelling of PM10 concentration for industrialized area in Malaysia: A case study in Shah Alam

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Norazian Mohamed; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Tan, Cheng-yau; Ramli, N. A.; Yahaya, A. S.; Fitri, N. F. M. Y.

    In Malaysia, the predominant air pollutants are suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This research is on PM10 as they may trigger harm to human health as well as environment. Six distributions, namely Weibull, log-normal, gamma, Rayleigh, Gumbel and Frechet were chosen to model the PM10 observations at the chosen industrial area i.e. Shah Alam. One-year period hourly average data for 2006 and 2007 were used for this research. For parameters estimation, method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was selected. Four performance indicators that are mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction accuracy (PA), were applied to determine the goodness-of-fit criteria of the distributions. The best distribution that fits with the PM10 observations in Shah Alamwas found to be log-normal distribution. The probabilities of the exceedences concentration were calculated and the return period for the coming year was predicted from the cumulative density function (cdf) obtained from the best-fit distributions. For the 2006 data, Shah Alam was predicted to exceed 150 μg/m3 for 5.9 days in 2007 with a return period of one occurrence per 62 days. For 2007, the studied area does not exceed the MAAQG of 150 μg/m3

  6. Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Catherine; Allshire, Ashley; Pelt, Frank N.A.M. van; Heffron, James J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca 2+ , changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

  7. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houde, Damian; Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; Bou-Assaf, George M

    2016-01-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause fo...... in industry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  8. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  9. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  11. Practical design constraints for using secondary concentrators at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J.J.; Winston, R.

    1999-07-01

    The optical advantages of using nonimaging secondary concentrators in two-stage solar thermal dish systems are well understood. However, practical questions having to do with the thermal behavior of any secondary and its possible effects on the performance of cavity type receivers have only recently begun to be investigated. A few years ago an experimental demonstration of a trumpet type nonimaging secondary concentrator was carried out with a cavity receiver operating 660 C in combination with the Cummins Power Generation CPG-460 7.5 kWe concentrator system. Lessons learned from this and previous experiments are reviewed. The tests alleviated any operational concerns about the effectiveness of active water cooling and have shown that secondaries can be operated successfully at high temperatures without significant problems. There was no evidence of direct heat loss from the hot receiver to the cooled trumpet. The optical quality of any primary can be expected to fall well below design goals and to deteriorate further with time. This expectation should be taken into account in planning future experiments and developing new concentrating systems.

  12. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 by using the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 for the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  13. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Growth Rates on Different Concentration of Microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiffi Nur Atikah Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate and access the growth rates and biomass productivity in different concentrations of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. using Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater as a media. The focus of this study is to determine the best concentrations of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in raw wastewater in terms of kinetics of cells growth rates. The study verified that concentration of 1×106 cells/ml of microalgae gives the highest specific growth rates of biomass at 0.4488 day-1 and 1720 cells/ml/day compare to the other concentrations, while the lowest occurred at concentration of 1×103 cells/ml at 0.4108 day-1 and 14.9 cells/ml/day. The result shows the different concentration of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. culturing in Industrial Food Processing Wastewater influence the cells growth of biomass and the optimum were obtained at concentration of 1×106 cells/ml which suggested use for Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater Treatment purposed. With this finding, it should be seemly to adopt and applied efficiently in treating the wastewater especially for Scenedesmus sp. type of microalgae.

  15. Use of drum driers for processing various industrial wastes into high-grade animal feeding stuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritze, H

    1976-01-01

    Strict anti-pollution legislation governing admissible effluent concentrations and high charges are forcing certain industries (potato starch and dried potato flake factories, sugar factories and dairies) to install facilities for recovering valuable substances, which are used mainly as fodder. In this way the effluent charges can be reduced and a return is obtained on the investment and operating costs. Processes are described whereby such substances can be extracted efficiently when using Escher Wyss drum driers.

  16. Liver imaging with MDCT and high concentration contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, Audrey L.

    2003-01-01

    Liver imaging has advanced greatly over the last 10 years with helical CT capability and more recently the addition of multidetector-row CT (MDCT). Multidetector CT technology facilitates imaging at faster speeds with improved image quality and less breathing artifact [Abdom. Imaging 25 (2000) 643]. Exquisite three-dimensional data sets can be obtained with thin collimation providing improved lesion detection, multiplanar imaging, and the ability to perform CT angiography of the liver and mesenteric vessels. New challenges arise with this advance in technology including safety considerations. The radiation dose to the patient has increased with MDCT and this is compounded by the ability to perform multi-phase liver imaging. Furthermore, issues of contrast media administration require reconsideration including optimal timing and rate of administration, the total volume of contrast needed and the ideal iodine concentration of the contrast media. Recently, the use of high concentration contrast media (HCCM) has been explored and study results to date will be reviewed

  17. High concentrations of heavy metals in PM from ceramic factories of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Pio, Casimiro

    2010-06-01

    In this study, physicochemical characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) was performed in an urban-industrial site background (Bailén, Southern Spain), highly influenced by the impact of emission plumes from ceramic factories. This area is considered one of the towns with the highest PM 10 levels and average SO 2 concentration in Spain. A three stages methodology was used: 1) real-time measurements of levels of PM 10 and gaseous pollutants, and sampling of PM; 2) chemical characterization using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, CI and TOT, and source apportionment analysis (receptor modelling) of PM; and 3) chemical characterization of emission plumes derived from representative factories. High ambient air concentrations were found for most major components and trace elements compared with other industrialized towns in Spain. V and Ni are considered fingerprints of PM derived from the emissions of brick factories in this area, and were shown to be of particular interest. This highlights the high V and Ni concentrations in PM 10 (122 ngV/m 3 and 23.4 ngNi/m 3), with Ni exceeding the 2013 annual target value for the European Directive 2004/107/EC (20 ng/m 3). The methodology of this work can be used by Government departments responsible for Environment and Epidemiology in planning control strategies for improving air quality.

  18. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  19. Mitigation of houses with extremely high indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.; Neznal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on the experience of the Czech Technical University in dealing with mitigation of houses in which unusually high indoor radon concentrations were found. The whole process of remediation is illustrated by example of an old single-family house that was built in the area formed by highly permeable soils with high radon content in the soil air. T he house has a small cellar located under 1/5 of the ground floor area. Two types of floors, i.e. timber floors and cracked concrete slabs were found in the house. As a result of extremely high radon concentration in the sub-floor region (up to 600 kBq/m 3 ) and leaky structures in contact with soil, radon concentrations around 100 kBq/m 3 in the cellar and up to 60 kBq/m 3 in the living rooms on the ground floor were measured prior to mitigation. Mitigation measures that were carried out in the house consist of reconstruction of timber floors and installation of active soil depressurization. Timber floors were replaced with concrete slab fitted with damp proof membrane, thermal insulation and floor covering. The soil depressurization system was made up of two sections. The first section is composed of the network of perforated pipes inserted in the drainage layer placed under the new floors and four perforated tubes drilled under the existing floors. The soil air from this section is extracted by means of a roof fan installed at the top of the vertical exhaust pipe running inside the living space and terminating above the roof. The second section was designed to withdraw by means of a small fan radon-laden air from the filling in the floor above the cellar and from perforated tubes drilled into the sub-floor region under the rooms adjacent to the cellar. It serves also for the active ventilation of the cellar. Pressure, temperature and radon concentration sensors were installed into the drainage layer during the reconstruction of floors to record variations in these

  20. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  1. The Pattern of Spatially Concentrated Industries in East Germany - A Contribution to the Discussion on Economic "Clusters"

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Martin T.W.; Franz, Peter; Heimpold, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the literature in regional economics, most authors agree that spatially concentrated industrial activities are important for regional economic growth. Agglomeration economies, which may occur in the context of spatial concentration and "clusters", may lead to lower costs of production and may reduce transaction costs of all kind, e. g. information costs, including the costs for R&D activities. There is much less agreement on (and: knowledge about) the empirical identification of ex...

  2. Thermal performance assessment of a large aperture concentrating collector in an industrial application in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare; Pino, Alan; Cardemil, José Miguel; Escobar, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The application of solar thermal energy to meet the heat demands of the food and beverage processing industry in Chile has huge potential. This paper presents an assessment of the first large aperture trough collector installed in Latin America. The collector preheats water for a boiler in a juice-concentrating factory, 100 km north of Santiago. An analysis of the system for a day in November indicates the system was not able to utilize the heat generated, resulting in rapid de- and refocusing of the collector and problems with sensor calibration. An analysis of a day in March indicates the tracking algorithm has not correctly aligned the collector with the sun's position. An investigation into the design document reveals that the meteorological data underestimates the actual irradiation values by 40%, resulting in an oversized system given the actual conditions. To increase the energy gain in the system it is proposed to increase the working pressure from the current value of 1.5bar to up to 5bar, which could increase the system utilization from 41% to 65% and reduce the dumped energy to near zero. The simulation results with actual weather data and a fixed inlet temperature indicate the annual solar fraction could increase from the design value of 8.1% to 31.8% with a working pressure of 5 bar. The plant presents multiple opportunities for improvement not only to the performance of the plant but also in the design and installation of solar thermal systems in Chile in the future.

  3. The geographical concentration of hotels in Switzerland and the industry life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Sund, Kristian J.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies of numerous products and industries have shown that the evolution of variables such as the market price of a product, output and the number of competitors in an industry are non-monotonic and follow a typical pattern over the life span of that industry. The Swiss hotel industry has been experiencing stagnation, even decline, for a period of over 20 years. This can be measured in terms of arrivals, overnight stays and, perhaps most importantly, the number of firms. Thus the n...

  4. Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, H

    1985-06-01

    Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

  5. Introduction of high oxygen concentrations into silicon wafers by high-temperature diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Ruzin, A.; Wegrzecki, M.

    1999-01-01

    The tolerance of silicon detectors to hadron irradiation can be improved by the introduction of a high concentration of oxygen into the starting material. High-resistivity Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon is required for detectors used in particle physics applications. A significantly high oxygen concentration (>10 17 atoms cm -3 ) cannot readily be achieved during the FZ silicon refinement. The diffusion of oxygen at elevated temperatures from a SiO 2 layer grown on both sides of a silicon wafer is a simple and effective technique to achieve high and uniform concentrations of oxygen throughout the bulk of a 300 μm thick silicon wafer

  6. Industrial plants for production of highly enriched nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krell, E.; Jonas, C.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the present stage of development of large-scale enrichment of 15 N. The most important processes utilized to separate nitrogen isotopes, namely chemical exchange in the NO/NO 2 /HNO 3 system and low-temperature distillation of NO at -151 0 C, are compared, especially with respect to their economics and use of energy. As examples, chemical exchange plants in the GDR are discussed, and the research activities necessary to optimize the process, especially to solve aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, interface and processing problems, are reviewed. Good results were obtained by the choice of an optimum location and the design of a plant for pre-enrichment to 10 at.% 15 N and an automatically operating two-section cascade for the high enrichment of 15 N to more than 99 at.%. The chemical industry has taken over operation of the plant with the consequence that the raw materials are all available without additional transport. All by-products (nitrous gases and sulphuric acid) are returned for use elsewhere within the industry. The technology of the plant has been chosen so that the quantity of highly enriched product can be varied within a wide range. The final product is used to synthesize more than 250 different 15 N-labelled compounds which are also produced on an industrial scale. (author)

  7. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  8. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  9. Knowledge acquisition and creation in the high-tech industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Pavanelli Stefanovitz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the new challenges that come with the emergence of knowledge-based approaches on organizational studies. It is widely recognized, in this context, the increasing importance of understanding the processes through which companys acquire, storage, disseminate and create knowledge. This research analysis the knowledge creation and external acquisition processes in the high-tech industry, environment in which intensive use of knowledge is made. For that, it presents a case study of an R&D Division of a company present in the industrial automation market. In recognition of its innovative competence, this company won the FINEP Prize – Technological Innovation. In this study, besides the identification of the main external knowledge sources, an analysis of the knowledge types conversion observed in its product development activities is made.

  10. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  11. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  12. High power industrial picosecond laser from IR to UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Julien; Sangla, Damien; Pierrot, Simonette; Deslandes, Pierre; Salin, François

    2013-02-01

    Many industrial applications such as glass cutting, ceramic micro-machining or photovoltaic processes require high average and high peak power Picosecond pulses. The main limitation for the expansion of the picosecond market is the cost of high power picosecond laser sources, which is due to the complexity of the architecture used for picosecond pulse amplification, and the difficulty to keep an excellent beam quality at high average power. Amplification with fibers is a good technology to achieve high power in picosecond regime but, because of its tight confinement over long distances, light undergoes dramatic non linearities while propagating in fibers. One way to avoid strong non linearities is to increase fiber's mode area. Nineteen missing holes fibers offering core diameter larger than 80μm have been used over the past few years [1-3] but it has been shown that mode instabilities occur at approximately 100W average output power in these fibers [4]. Recently a new fiber design has been introduced, in which HOMs are delocalized from the core to the clad, preventing from HOMs amplification [5]. In these so-called Large Pitch Fibers, threshold for mode instabilities is increased to 294W offering robust single-mode operation below this power level [6]. We have demonstrated a high power-high efficiency industrial picosecond source using single-mode Large Pitch rod-type fibers doped with Ytterbium. Large Pitch Rod type fibers can offer a unique combination of single-mode output with a very large mode area from 40 μm up to 100μm and very high gain. This enables to directly amplify a low power-low energy Mode Locked Fiber laser with a simple amplification architecture, achieving very high power together with singlemode output independent of power level or repetition rate.

  13. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  14. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10 15 cm -3 has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium β-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H 2 with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10 7 cm -3 and are estimated to contain 10 8 H atoms each

  15. Risk factors associated with high linezolid trough plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, L; De la Calle, C; Gómez-Cerquera, J M; Manzanedo, L; Casals, G; Brunet, M; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Martínez, J A; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2016-06-01

    The major concern of linezolid is the adverse events. High linezolid trough serum concentration (Cmin) has been associated with toxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with high Cmin. Main clinical characteristics of 104 patients treated with 600 mg/12 hours of linezolid were retrospectively reviewed. Samples were obtained just before the next dose after at least three doses and within the first 8 days of treatment. High Cmin was considered when it was >8 mg/L. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. 34.6% patients had a Cmin >8 mg/L, and they were older and had more frequently an estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD 8 was the renal function. Patients with an eGF 80 mL/min (OR: 4.273) and there was a trend towards a high Cmin in patients with eGF between 40-80 mL/min (OR: 2.109). High Cmin were frequent, especially in patients with MDRD <40 mL/min. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful to avoid toxicity in patients with renal dysfunction.

  16. NEDO project reports. High performance industrial furnace development project - High temperature air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-21

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, a NEDO project 'Developmental research on high efficiency industrial furnaces' was carried out from FY 1993 to FY 1999 by The Japan Industrial Furnaces Manufacturers Association, and the paper outlined the details of the project. Industrial furnaces handled in this R and D can bring 30% reduction of the energy consumption and approximately 50% NOx reduction, and were given the 9th Nikkei global environmental technology prize. In the study of combustion phenomena of high temperature air combustion, the paper arranged characteristics of flame, the base of gaseous fuel flame, the base of liquid fuel flame, the base of solid fuel flame, etc. Concerning high temperature air combustion models for simulation, fluid dynamics and heat transfer models, and reaction and NOx models, etc. As to impacts of high temperature air combustion on performance of industrial furnaces, energy conservation, lowering of pollution, etc. In relation to a guide for the design of high efficiency industrial furnaces, flow charts, conceptual design, evaluation method for heat balance and efficiency using charts, combustion control system, applicability of high efficiency industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  17. NEDO project reports. High performance industrial furnace development project - High temperature air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-21

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, a NEDO project 'Developmental research on high efficiency industrial furnaces' was carried out from FY 1993 to FY 1999 by The Japan Industrial Furnaces Manufacturers Association, and the paper outlined the details of the project. Industrial furnaces handled in this R and D can bring 30% reduction of the energy consumption and approximately 50% NOx reduction, and were given the 9th Nikkei global environmental technology prize. In the study of combustion phenomena of high temperature air combustion, the paper arranged characteristics of flame, the base of gaseous fuel flame, the base of liquid fuel flame, the base of solid fuel flame, etc. Concerning high temperature air combustion models for simulation, fluid dynamics and heat transfer models, and reaction and NOx models, etc. As to impacts of high temperature air combustion on performance of industrial furnaces, energy conservation, lowering of pollution, etc. In relation to a guide for the design of high efficiency industrial furnaces, flow charts, conceptual design, evaluation method for heat balance and efficiency using charts, combustion control system, applicability of high efficiency industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Computer-aided safety systems of industrial high energy objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolsky, N.G.; Gordeev, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Modern objects of fuel and energy, chemical industries are characterized by high power consumption; by presence of large quantities of combustible and explosive substances used in technological processes; by advanced communications of submission systems of initial liquid and gasiform reagents, lubricants and coolants, the products of processing, and wastes of production; by advanced ventilation and pneumatic transport; and by complex control systems of energy, material and information flows. Such objects have advanced infrastructures, including a significant quantity of engineering buildings intended for storage, transportation, and processing of combustible liquids, gasiform fuels and materials, and firm materials. Examples of similar objects are nuclear and thermal power stations, chemical plants, machine-building factories, iron and steel industry enterprises, etc. Many tasks and functions characterizing the problem of fire safety of these objects can be accomplished only upon the development of special Computer-Aided Fire Safety Systems (CAFSS). The CAFSS for these objects are intended to reduce the hazard of disastrous accidents both causing fires and caused by them. The tasks of fire prevention and rescue work of large-scale industrial objects are analyzed within the bounds of the recommended conception. A functional structure of CAFSS with a list of the main subsystems forming a part of its composition has been proposed

  19. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Owen Evans

    2011-10-13

    Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature capability gap not currently met with Aspen Aerogels{trademark} flagship product, Pyrogel XT. Pyrogel XT, which was originally developed on a separate DOE contract (DE-FG36-06GO16056), was primarily optimized for use in industrial steam processing systems, where application temperatures typically do not exceed 400 C. At the time, further improvements in thermal performance above 400 C could not be reasonably achieved for Pyrogel XT without significantly affecting other key material properties using the current technology. Cumulative sales of Pyrogel HT into domestic power plants should reach $125MM through 2030, eventually reaching about 10% of the total insulation market share in that space. Global energy savings would be expected to scale similarly. Over the same period, these sales would reduce domestic energy consumption by more than 65 TBtu. Upon branching out into all industrial processes in the 400 C-650 C regime, Pyrogel HT would reach annual sales levels of $150MM, with two-thirds of that being exported.

  20. Survey of industry methods for producing highly reliable software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Regulation Office of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is charged with assessing the safety of new instrument and control designs for nuclear power plants which may use computer-based reactor protection systems. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has evaluated the latest techniques in software reliability for measurement, estimation, error detection, and prediction that can be used during the software life cycle as a means of risk assessment for reactor protection systems. One aspect of this task has been a survey of the software industry to collect information to help identify the design factors used to improve the reliability and safety of software. The intent was to discover what practices really work in industry and what design factors are used by industry to achieve highly reliable software. The results of the survey are documented in this report. Three companies participated in the survey: Computer Sciences Corporation, International Business Machines (Federal Systems Company), and TRW. Discussions were also held with NASA Software Engineering Lab/University of Maryland/CSC, and the AIAA Software Reliability Project

  1. Subsequent application for the German-Russian-BMBF-Cooperation-Project 'Development of a new anaerobic-aerobic-process for highly concentrated industrial wastewater on the basis of the Russian system BIOSORBER'. Final report; Anschlussantrag zum Deutsch-Russischen-BMBF-Kooperationsvorhaben 'Entwicklung eines Anaerobverfahrens zuf Basis des russischen Biosorbers'. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenwinkel, K.H.; Wendler, D.

    2004-04-01

    The project is a sequel of the project with the reference number 02-WA9738/7. Key aspects of the project were (a) development and examination of measures for the improvement of biomass-retention-systems of high-performance anaerobic systems (b) the improvement of early detection for overloading of anaerobic reactors. The lab-scale plant of the preliminary research project was taken for the implementation of the lab-scale trials. In Russia, the operation of the full-scale BIOSORBER-plant was continued and its suitability was confirmed again. Mutual cooperation visits (exchange of project status, teaching of Russian personnel with regard to industrial waste water treatment and appropriate chemical analysis) completed the project. Furthermore, another application was prepared by the two project directors. The research concerning the retention of biomass by filtration was performed with the aid of three lab-scale reactors, one equipped with a downstream filter, one with additional equipment of activated carbon and a third as a reference reactor. Regarding the particulate COD the plant with the filtration provided the lowest effluent concentrations, however COD-peaks where measured under back-flushing. Concerning the diluted COD the plant with activated carbon achieved the best results whereas an occupation of the activated carbon could be observed with increasing trial duration. Due to the positive results of the lab-scale trials and the poor sedimentation characteristics of the pumice stone used in the full-scale plant, the alternative application of filter sand ought to be taken into consideration. Regarding the examinations of the biomass-retention by means of a sieve the best results where obtained for a biomass-proportion of 33% (referring to the reaction volume; alternative: 55%) a sieve-hole-diameter of 1 mm and an upstream velocity of 5 m/h. The sludge loading rate was kept constant at 0,5 g COD/(gVSS x d) in all trials. The overloading trials were performed

  2. Biodegradation of high concentrations of phenol by baker’s yeast in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol, as a pure substance, is used in many fields because of its disinfectant, germicidal, local anesthetic, and peptizing properties. Aqueous solutions of phenol are produced as waste in industries and discharged into the environment. Therefore, elevated concentrations of phenol may be found in air or water because of industrial discharge or the use of phenolic products. Method: The strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in this project were natural strains previously purchased from Razavy company. They were grown at 30°C on Petri plates containing yeast extract glucose (YGC and then purified by being spread onto new plates, and isolated colonies were obtained. These colonies provided the basis of selection. Prepared strains were applied in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs as first seed. The experiment conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. After the determined runs were performed using Design-Expert software, data were analyzed using mentioned software as well. Results: This study evaluated the capability of baker’s yeast to remove phenol in high concentrations. The tested strains showed excellent tolerance to phenol toxicity at concentrations up to 6100 mg/L. Study of the batch degradation process showed that the phenol removal rate could exceed 99.9% in 24 hours at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The results showed catechol is the first intermediate product of phenol degradation. In survey results of the Design–Expert software, R2 and Adeq precision were 0.97 and 25.65, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ASBR performs robustly under variable influent concentrations of inhibitory compounds. The high removal performance despite the high phenol concentration may be a result of reactor operating strategies. Based on the progressive increase of inlet phenol concentration, allowing for an enhanced biomass acclimation in a short time, results at the microbiological levels

  3. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast’s exceptional ethanol...... and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance....

  4. Alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of urinary hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; de la Torre, Rafael; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Flores, Gemma; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Fiol, Miguel; Vila, Joan; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquín; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, Jose; Sáez, Guillermo; Covas, María-Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported the presence of hydroxytyrosol in red wine and higher human urinary recovery of total hydroxytyrosol than that expected after a single red wine intake. We hypothesized that the alcohol present in wine could promote endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. The objective was to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and urinary hydroxytyrosol concentrations. This was a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, an intervention study directed at testing the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Participants included 1045 subjects, aged 55-80 y, who were at high cardiovascular risk. Alcohol consumption was estimated through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Urinary hydroxytyrosol and ethyl glucuronide, a biomarker of alcohol consumption, were measured. Urinary ethyl glucuronide concentrations were directly related to alcohol and wine consumption (P logistic regression analyses showed a significant linear trend (P 20 g (2 drinks)/d and >10 g (1 drink)/d alcohol in men and women, respectively, were associated (P wine as a source of hydroxytyrosol and alcohol as an indirect promoter of endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com/isrctn/ as ISRCTN 35739639.

  5. Concentrations of and health risks posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans around industrial sites in Hebei Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Sintering and steel production as the main emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may affect environment and human health. The concentrations, profiles, and distributions of PCDD/Fs in soil samples from around four typical sintering and steel production...... plants in Hebei Province, China, were determined. Forty-six soil samples were collected at distances from 500 to 9000 m from industrial plant chimneys. The concentrations of total 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the soil samples from sites A, B, C, and D were in the range 11-130, 13-284, 2...... will be exposed to low amounts of PCDD/Fs in soil from around the industrial sites, and this exposure will pose potential health risks for the local population living at distances of less than 1000 m from nearest stack but will have no high health risks for people living further away. These results...

  6. Temporal characteristics of black carbon concentrations and its potential emission sources in a southern Taiwan industrial urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the temporal characteristics of black carbon and its potential emission sources, as well as the fractions of BC in PM2.5 levels in Kaohsiung urban area, which is an industrial city in southern Taiwan. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 are monitored continuously from March 2006 to February 2010, using an aethalometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. Additionally, the presence of organic compounds (or UV enhanced species) in particles at the sampling site is determined using the Delta-C (UVBC-BC) value. According to long-term measurement results, BC and PM2.5 concentrations are 3.33 and 34.0 μg m(-3), respectively, in the Kaohsiung urban area. The ratio of BC/PM2.5 is approximately 11 %. Low concentration of BC and PM2.5 in the summer of this study period is mostly likely owing to meteorological conditions that favored dispersion of local air pollutants. Nevertheless, BC concentrations peaked markedly during morning hours (7:00-11:00), likely owing to local traffic congestion. Measurement results suggest that BC is released from local traffic activities and emitted from industrial activities at this sampling site. Additionally, Delta-C values are significantly higher than zero during January-March and November-December periods in this industrial urban area, implying that UV enhanced species can be observed. At this sampling site, these UV enhanced species do not only originate from household activity and solid waste burning but also release from industrial activities. The elevated Delta-C values during nighttime (18:00-6:00) in the autumn and winter seasons are likely related to those UV enhanced species in the atmosphere, which can be condensed on particle surface under low temperature conditions. According to long-term measurement results, significantly positive Delta-C values can be observed under temperatures industrial parks and a coal-fired power plant.

  7. Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Latge, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na 2 O into stable Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 . The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

  8. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.

    2016-05-13

    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  9. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.; Rowe, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  10. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  11. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  12. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  13. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 o C. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH ≤ 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: → Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. → Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH ≤ 11. → Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  14. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.leutz@leopil.com [Leutz Optics and Illumination UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  15. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  16. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV

  17. Activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Gazineu, Maria H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U and 226 Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for 238 U and 226 Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between 226 Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations were 1001 keV for 238 U, and 352 ke

  18. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de, E-mail: claudiapoggi04@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Franca, Elvis J.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Gazineu, Maria H.P., E-mail: helena@unicap.br [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between {sup 226}Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations

  19. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Seung Soo

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high-risk groups for industrial accidents by setting up 2003 as the base year and conducting an in-depth analysis of the trends of major industrial accident indexes the index of industrial accident rate, the index of occupational injury rate, the index of occupational illness and disease rate per 10,000 people, and the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people for the past 10 years. This study selected industrial accident victims, who died or received more than 4 days of medical care benefits, due to occupational accidents and diseases occurring at workplaces, subject to the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, as the study population. According to the trends of four major indexes by workplace characteristics, the whole industry has shown a decreasing tendency in all four major indexes since the base year (2003); as of 2012, the index of industrial accident rate was 67, while the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people was 59. The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  20. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  1. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  2. Metamaterial Receivers for High Efficiency Concentrated Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kwon, Hoyeong [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Alu, Andrea [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jarecki, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of concentrated solar power receivers at higher temperatures (>700°C) would enable supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles for improved power cycle efficiencies (>50%) and cost-effective solar thermal power. Unfortunately, radiative losses at higher temperatures in conventional receivers can negatively impact the system efficiency gains. One approach to improve receiver thermal efficiency is to utilize selective coatings that enhance absorption across the visible solar spectrum while minimizing emission in the infrared to reduce radiative losses. Existing coatings, however, tend to degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. In this report, we report on the initial designs and fabrication of spectrally selective metamaterial-based absorbers for high-temperature, high-thermal flux environments important for solarized sCO2 power cycles. Metamaterials are structured media whose optical properties are determined by sub-wavelength structural features instead of bulk material properties, providing unique solutions by decoupling the optical absorption spectrum from thermal stability requirements. The key enabling innovative concept proposed is the use of structured surfaces with spectral responses that can be tailored to optimize the absorption and retention of solar energy for a given temperature range. In this initial study through the Academic Alliance partnership with University of Texas at Austin, we use Tungsten for its stability in expected harsh environments, compatibility with microfabrication techniques, and required optical performance. Our goal is to tailor the optical properties for high (near unity) absorptivity across the majority of the solar spectrum and over a broad range of incidence angles, and at the same time achieve negligible absorptivity in the near infrared to optimize the energy absorbed and retained. To this goal, we apply the recently developed concept of plasmonic Brewster angle to suitably designed

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Development of a Mature Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Industry (Revision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the current status of the CPV industry and is updated from previous versions to include information from the last year. New information presented at the CPV-8 conference is included along with the addition of new companies that have announced their interest in CPV, and estimates of production volumes for 2011 and 2012.

  4. Agglomeration and Clustering Over the Industry Life Cycle: Toward a Dynamic Model of Geographic Concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Madhok, A.; Li, S.X.

    2014-01-01

    Research on agglomeration finds that either a higher survival rate of incumbent firms or a higher founding rate of new entrants, or both, can sustain an industry cluster. The conditioning effects of time on the two distinct mechanisms of survival and founding are, however, rarely examined. We argue

  5. Advanced High Strength Steel in Auto Industry: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baluch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most common alloy, steel, is the material of choice when it comes to making products as diverse as oil rigs to cars and planes to skyscrapers, simply because of its functionality, adaptability, machine-ability and strength. Newly developed grades of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS significantly outperform competing materials for current and future automotive applications. This is a direct result of steel’s performance flexibility, as well as of its many benefits including low cost, weight reduction capability, safety attributes, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and superior recyclability. To improve crash worthiness and fuel economy, the automotive industry is, increasingly, using AHSS. Today, and in the future, automotive manufacturers must reduce the overall weight of their cars. The most cost-efficient way to do this is with AHSS. However, there are several parameters that decide which of the AHSS types to be used; the most important parameters are derived from the geometrical form of the component and the selection of forming and blanking methods. This paper describes the different types of AHSS, highlights their advantages for use in auto metal stampings, and discusses about the new challenges faced by stampers, particularly those serving the automotive industry.

  6. Applications of Nuclear Analytical Methods for High Tech Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon based semiconductor chip manufacturing is a worldwide high technology industry with numerous measurement issues. One of the major concerns in the semiconductor manufacturing is contamination such as the trace metal impurities. This concern is vividly illustrated by the fact that the manufacturing in this industry is done in ultra clean environment where the entire manufacturing facility or “Fab” is a clean room facility or each and every manufacturing tool is enclosed in a mini-environment Although semiconductor devices are fabricated on the surface of the Si wafers contamination in the bulk material is a major concern. Nuclear methods of analysis are uniquely suited for the contamination analysis in such a matrix. Many opportunities in the semiconductor manufacturing field exist for the nuclear methods to provide support services. Contamination analysis by NAA, depth profiles by NDP and prompt gamma analysis of H in thin films are a few examples. These needs are on-going and require commitment from the lab so that a manufacturing operation can rely on the delivery of these services when required

  7. Nuclear reactor application for high temperature power industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollezhal', N.A.; Zaicho, N.D.; Alexeev, A.M.; Baturov, B.B.; Karyakin, Yu.I.; Nazarov, E.K.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protzenko, A.M.; Chernyaev, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report gives the results of considerations on industrial heat and technology processes (in chemistry, steelmaking, etc.) from the point of view of possible ways, technical conditions and nuclear safety requirements for the use of high temperature reactors in these processes. Possible variants of energy-technological diagrams of nuclear-steelmaking, methane steam-reforming reaction and other processes, taking into account the specific character of nuclear fuel are also given. Technical possibilities and economic conditions of the usage of different types of high temperature reactors (gas cooled reactors and reactors which have other means of transport of nuclear heat) in heat processes are examined. The report has an analysis of the problem, that arises with the application of nuclear reactors in energy-technological plants and an evaluation of solutions of this problem. There is a reason to suppose that we will benefit from the use of high temperature reactors in comparison with the production based on high quality fossil fuel [ru

  8. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  9. Alcoholic fermentation by immobilized yeast at high sugar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcberg, I.B.; Margalith, P.

    1981-01-01

    Glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized by entrapment in agar, carrageenan, alginate and polyacrylamide gels, was compared to that of freely suspended cells at concentration of 10-50% (w.w.) sugar. The rate of ethanol production by the entrapped cells was 20-25% higher than that of the free cells. Concentrations of up to 14.5% w/w ethanol (30% glucose initial concentration) could be obtained. A number of hypotheses for the improved alcoholic fermentation are discussed.

  10. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  11. Cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens for high concentration photovoltaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Su, Guo-Dung

    2009-08-01

    High concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) utilizes point-focus cost-effective plastic Fresnel lens. And a millimeter-sized Ill-V compound multi-junction solar cell is placed underneath focusing optics which can achieve cell efficiency potential of up to 40.7 %. The advantage of HCPV makes less solar cell area and higher efficiency; however, the acceptance angle of HCPV is about +/-1°, which is very small and the mechanical tracking of the sun is necessary. In order to reduce the power consumption and the angle tracking error of tracking systems, a light collector model with larger acceptance angle is designed with ZEMAX®. In this model, the original radially symmetric Fresnel lens of HCPV is replaced by cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens and a parabolic reflective surface. Light is collected in two dimensions separately. And a couple of lenses and a light pipe are added before the solar cell chip in order to collect more light when sun light deviates from incident angle of 00. An acceptance angle of +/-10° is achieved with GCR 400.

  12. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  13. An Automatic High Efficient Method for Dish Concentrator Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    for the alignment of faceted solar dish concentrator. The isosceles triangle configuration of facet’s footholds determines a fixed relation between light spot displacements and foothold movements, which allows an automatic determination of the amount of adjustments. Tests on a 25 kW Stirling Energy System dish concentrator verify the feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of our method.

  14. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  15. Soil concentrations and source apportionment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and trace elements around a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants are transported by dry deposition, wet deposition, and gas exchange accumulated in soil. Therefore, soil is an important environmental medium reflecting the level and the spatial distribution of air pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. Soil concentrations of seven PBDE congeners and 21 trace elements were determined in a heavily industrialized region (Dilovasi) in Kocaeli, Turkey. At all sites, Σ7PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.70 to 203 with a mean value of 26.3 μg kg(-1) (dry weight). The congener profiles and mass inventories of PBDEs and their interactions with soil organic matter (SOM) were also investigated. BDE-209 was the dominant congener at all sites, followed by BDE-99 and/or -47. The estimated inventory of PBDEs for the Dilovasi district was 310 kg. However, there are several additional industrial regions in Kocaeli city. Considering the total land area, the potential inventory would be much larger for this city. The relationship between the PBDE concentrations in soil and SOM content indicated that factors other than soil properties have a greater influence on soil concentrations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs) were determined; correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were also applied to generated data set to identify and apportion the sources polluting the soil. Sn, Mn, Ca, As, Zn, Pb, and Cd had significantly high average EF values, indicating that their soil concentrations were mainly influenced by anthropogenic activities. In FA, six factors were extracted with a cumulative variance of 84.4 % and industrial activities and traffic were found to be the main factors affecting the soil profile.

  16. PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRY SALT WITH SEDIMENTATION – MICROFILTRATION PROCESS: OPTIMAZATION OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION BY USING SURFACE RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat Widayat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The salt of sodium chloride commonly used consumption in house , so as a raw material in industry. Thequality of salt depends on sodium chloride concentration. The objective of this research is obtained ofoptimum condition in production of salt industry by using sedimentation and microfiltration process. Theoptimization used surface response methodology and analysis by Statistica 6 software. The responseperceived is NaCl concentration in product. The experiments do by mixing stearic acid with NaOH solutionto product stearic sodium. Then, the solution mixed with sea water, so the white solid will be emerge, thereare stearic calcium and stearic magnesium. And so filtrate evaporated until to obtain salt. TheMathematical model for reduction of Ca2+ and Mg2+ are1 222 221 1 Y = 93,3185 + 1,0967 X + 0,1909 X +1,0682 X - 0,2333 X - 0,3376 X X , with maximum conversion is94,46% at temperature 82,42oC and stearic sodium concentration 14,16%(v/v. The maximum of NaClconcentration is 96,19% at temperature 81,54oC and stearic sodium concetration 13,11 %(v/v. Themathematical model for NaCl production is1 222 221 1 Y = 92,7596 − 0,3443 X − 3,3706 X + 2,9553 X - 0,9562 X - 1,9272 X X . The results of NaCl not yetfulfilled with SNI industry salt. The NaCl concetration in SNI is 98,5%. So, this process is nt aplicable forproductiob salt industry in Indonesia.

  17. Degradation study of trichloroethylene and perchloric ethylene using high energy electron beam generated in industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.L.R.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Avolio, R.M.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Vieira, J.M.; Rela, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The pollution of potable water with chlorinated hydrocarbons, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloric ethylene (PCE), is seriously increasing the problem of contamination of water, specially in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies show that depuration by ionizing radiation has been considered a possible alternative to the control of water pollution, wherein the process by ionizing radiation converts TCE and PCE into approximately 100% carbon dioxide ions. Water samples containing TCE e PCE were submitted to radiation in the pilot plant installed in the industrial electron accelerator at IPEN from Radiation Dynamics, Dynamitron II, of 1,5 MeV - 25 m A, with doses varying from 2 kGy to 8 kGy, being its parameters analyzed before and after irradiation TCE and PCE concentrations were determined by the gas chromatography method by liquid-liquid extraction using a gas chromatograph, model CG 90, with an electron capture detector. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  18. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  19. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  20. A high-gain, compact, nonimaging concentrator: RXI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, J C; Gonźlez, J C; Benítez, P

    1995-12-01

    The design procedure of a new nonimaging concentrator (called an RXI) is explained. Rays that impinge on the concentrator aperture, within the acceptance angle, are directed to the receiver by means of one refraction, one reflection, and one total internal reflection. The concentrator can be made as a single dielectric piece (in which the receiver is immersed) whose aspect ratio (thickness/aperture diameter) is close to 1/3. Ray-tracing analysis of a rotational symmetric RXI shows total transmissions of greater than 94.5% (no absorption or reflection losses are considered) when the acceptance angle of the incoming rays is small (<3°) and when the receiver area is the smallest possible (maximal concentration.).

  1. Separation process for very concentrated emulsions and suspensions in the food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van A.M.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of concentrated food suspensions and emulsions by e.g. microfiltration is currently not possible and therefore preceded by dilution, wasting energy and water. A new approach is shown, with sieves having pores much larger than the micron-sized droplets, low cross-flow velocities and a

  2. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  3. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  4. S100B Protein concentration in milk-formulas for preterm and term infants. Correlation with industrial preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Galvano, Fabio; Pietri, Amedeo; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; La Fauci, Luca; Iacopino, Leonardo; Bognanno, Matteo; Li Volti, Giovanni; Scacco, Antonio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego

    2008-05-01

    Human milk S100B protein possesses important neurotrophic properties. However, in some conditions human milk is substituted by milk formulas. The aims of the present study were: to assess S100B concentrations in milk formulas, to verify any differences in S100B levels between preterm and term infant formulas and to evaluate the impact of industrial preparation at predetermined phases on S100B content. Two different set of samples were tested: (i) commercial preterm (n = 36) and term (n = 36) infant milk formulas; ii) milk preterm (n = 10) and term infant (n = 10) formulas sampled at the following predetermined industrial preparation time points: skimmed cow milk (Time 0); after protein sources supplementation (Time 1); after pasteurization (Time 2); after spray-drying (Time 3). Our results showed that S100B concentration in preterm formulas were higher than in term ones (p 0.05) at Time 2, whereas a significant (p pasteurization but not spry-drying. New feeding strategies in preterm and term infants are therefore warranted in order to preserve S100B protein during industrial preparation.

  5. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide...... with sensor noise between 1.3 and 1.8%. This is in accord with variability estimated from analysis of SSM/I time series. Algorithms, which primarily use 85 GHz information, consistently give the best agreement with both SAR ice concentrations and ship observations. Although the 85 GHz information is more...... sensitive to atmospheric influences, it was found that the atmospheric contribution is secondary to the influence of the surface emissivity variability. Analysis of the entire SSM/I time series shows that there are significant differences in trend between sea ice extent and area, using different algorithms...

  6. Efficacy of high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. Comparison of high doses-standard contrast medium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Munetaka; Kondo, Tamaki; Nishikawa, Takahiro; Kuginuki, Yasuaki; Yokota, Hajime; Higashi, Kotaro; Tonami, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the enhancement of liver parenchyama with high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing to that with high doses standard iodine concentration in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. There was no statistically significant difference regarding to the enhancement of liver parenchyama between the 370 mgI/ml of contrast medium with saline pushing and high doses standard iodine concentration contrast medium. (author)

  7. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  8. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  9. Carbon dioxide concentrations are very high in developing oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D; Ruckle, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2004-09-01

    A new method has been developed to rapidly determine the total inorganic carbon concentration (gaseous [CO2] + aqueous [CO(2)] + [HCO3-] + [CO3(2)-]) in developing seeds. Seeds are rapidly dissected and homogenized in 1 N HCl in gas-tight vials. The headspace gas is then analyzed by infrared gas analysis. Developing rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds were analyzed and found to have up to 40 and 12 mM total inorganic carbon, respectively. These concentrations are ca. 600-2000-fold higher than in ambient air or values reported for leaves. Carbon dioxide concentrations in rapeseed peaked during the stage of maximum oil synthesis and declined as seeds matured. The consequences for seed metabolism, physiology and carbon economy are discussed.

  10. What nuclear industry can learn from the digital transformation of high-tech industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Confais, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aircraft industry, the oil industry and the shipbuilding industry share with nuclear industry common issues like the importance of security and safety, long investment cycles and a fierce worldwide competition. All these industries can inspire one another to face these challenges with their own use of digital technologies. A common use of digital technologies is to favor innovation and accelerate its implementation in the industrial cycle through the shortening of both the certification step and the upgrading-time of the production line. Innovation requires creativity and creativity needs freedom, digital technologies can favor initiatives by shadowing the traditional hierarchy at opening the company to a new world of ideas. It also appears that digital technologies allows the quick processing of massive volumes of data that could be used for preventive maintenance and the optimization of the equipment. The broad digitalization of the economy has a dark side: the rising of cyber risks and enterprises have to face them which generally implies to rethink security inside the enterprise. Some companies have overhauled their IT department and have segregated and monitored the access to data. (A.C.)

  11. The obtaining a high-grade gadolinium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltysiak, I.; Ozga, W.

    1982-01-01

    Gadolinium concentrates obtained by the fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium double chromates were separated by ion exchange with 0,4 M lactic acid solution in the presence of 0,1 M ammonium nitrate at pH of the medium 2,95-3,4. It was found out, that using the fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium double chromates (as the fast and cheap method that does not need special equipment) together with ion exchange separation with lactic acid solution as the eluent gave a highgrade gadolinium concentrate in a quick and economical way. (author)

  12. Characteristics and treatment mechanism of mine water with high concentration of iron and manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.; Yang, J.; He, X.; Yang, J.; Tian, T. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2006-12-15

    The characteristics and treatment of mine water with high concentration or iron and manganese were studied with mine water produced in Jiukuang and Siwan belonging to Hebi Coal Industry Group Co., Ltd. Analysis shows that the mine water is abundant in dissolved oxygen and has high TDS and high turbidity so the mine water does not need aeration. The effect of removal of iron and manganese by coagulation-sedimentation and the influence of filter material and influent water flow rate on effluent quality were investigated. It is shown that the removal rate of iron can reach 90% while removal of manganese can only reach about 20%. The concentration of iron and manganese in the effluent is lower than 0.1 mg/L with filter material of manganese sand which was immersed in KMnO{sub 4} solution at a filtration rate of 7 - 9 m/h. The results show that the layer of activated compound substance membrane formed on the surface of the manganese sand plays an important role in the removal of manganese. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Process design of high-concentration benzimidazole wastewater treatment based on the molecular structure of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenru; Qian, Kun; Liu, Qinyao; Zhang, Qianyi; Yao, Chen; Song, Wei; Wang, Yihong

    2018-04-01

    Benzimidazole is an important intermediate in industry and it is usually difficult to be degraded by many treatment technologies. Looking for a highly effective, environment-friendly degradation process for benzimidazole wastewater is of great significance to reduce pollution. Based on the structure of contaminants, the micro-electrolysis (ME) coupled with the Fenton technique was chosen to degrade the industrial benzimidazole wastewater. Special feeding was applied to maintain the suitable hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentration to produce the hydroxyl radicals (•OH) as much as possible and protect •OH from being quenched by excess H 2 O 2 according to the reaction mechanism. The results showed that this combined technique was highly efficient to decompose benzimidazole compounds. More chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced when flow control was used, compared to the flow not being controlled. The COD removal rate could reach 85.2% at optimal parameters. Then the effluent of this process was combined with the existing biochemical system for further degradation. The studies of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry showed that both 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl) benzimidazole and 2-Acetylbenzimidazole were decomposed to the isopropanolamine and aniline after the ME treatment; then the intermediates were oxidized into oxalic acid after the Fenton reaction.

  14. Long-term surveillance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Eitan; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

    2009-02-18

    Abundance and seasonal dynamics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), in general, and of extreme halophilic SRB (belonging to Desulfocella halophila) in particular, were examined in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds over a forty one month period. Industrial wastewater was sampled and the presence of SRB was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with a set of primers designed to amplify the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) gene. SRB displayed higher abundance during the summer (10(6)-10(8) targets ml(-1)) and lower abundance from the autumn-spring (10(3)-10(5) targets ml(-1)). However, addition of concentrated dissolved organic matter into the evaporation ponds during winter immediately resulted in a proliferation of SRB, despite the lower wastewater temperature (12-14 degrees C). These results indicate that the qPCR approach can be used for rapid measurement of SRB to provide valuable information about the abundance of SRB in harsh environments, such as highly saline industrial wastewaters. Low level of H2S has been maintained over five years, which indicates a possible inhibition of SRB activity, following artificial salination (approximately 16% w/v of NaCl) of wastewater evaporation ponds, despite SRB reproduction being detected by qPCR.

  15. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  16. Stability of Human Telomere Quadruplexes at High DNA Concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejnovská, Iva; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Brázdová, Marie; Sagi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 4 (2014), s. 428-438 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/0466 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : quadruplex * DNA concentration * folding topology Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.385, year: 2014

  17. High concentrations of natural rubber latex allergens in gloves used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL) are commonly used by healthcare workers because of their good qualities. However, allergic reactions to latex allergens are still commonly reported. Objective. To measure the concentrations of Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 allergens in gloves used by a ...

  18. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business raising type regional consortium - small business creating base type (Research and development of wastewater treatment technology for high concentration substances at pickles industry); 1998 nendo konodo tsukemono kojo haisui shori gijutsu no kaihatsu kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A technology is developed which treats pickle maker's wastewater containing highly concentrated saline contaminants by resorting to a combination of bacilli and membrane treatment. A 9m{sup 3}/day capable experimental plant is built and experiments are conducted. In the basic research, it is found that the temperature best for bacilli is 30-45 degrees C. They multiply without difficulty until the target salinity of 3% is achieved and, in a culture test, they can multiply until salinity is as high as 8%. Among submerged membrane filtration methods, hollow fiber membrane microfiltration is the most suitable, with its pressure loss increase rate low and stable at a filtration flux of 0.33m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/day. Tests are conducted at salinity levels up to 1.5% at the experimental plant, when no adverse effect is detected. A BOD (biological oxygen demand) removal rate of not lower than 99.9% is attained under the condition where BOD=15,000-20,000mg/L. In a study of cost performance in which two methods are applied to a real size plant, it is found that the newly developed method is superior to the conventional activated sludge method because its installation area is approximately 1/3, construction cost approximately 65%, and running cost approximately 60% of what the conventional method demands. (NEDO)

  19. Large Industrial Point Sources in Italy: a focus on mercury concentrations resulting from three seasonal ship-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencardino M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy there are 25 Large Industrial Point Sources whose mercury emissions in air exceed the established threshold of 10 kg year−1. Many of these mercury point sources, mostly distributed along the Italian coastal area, are located at sites qualified as National Interest Rehabilitation Sites because of documented contamination in qualitative and/or quantitative terms and of potential health impact. Atmospheric mercury emissions related to Italian Large Industrial Point Sources, with a value of 1.04 Mg·yr−1 for 2007, have a not negligible contribution, accounting, on their own, for more than 10% of the total mercury emissions resulting from all activity sectors at a national level. Among others, thermal power stations, pig iron and steel as well as basic inorganic chemical production, result to be the main contributing industrial activities. In order to assess how mercury species concentrations and distribution in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL change with vicinity to large industrial sites, measurements of atmospheric mercury were performed during three oceanographic campaigns aboard the Research Vessel (R.V. Urania of the Italian CNR. Collection of GEM, GOM and PBM was conducted across the Adriatic sea, during autumn 2004 (27th of October to 12th of November and summer 2005 (17th to 29th of June, and across the Tyrrhenian sea during autumn 2007 (12th of September to 1st October. Analysis were carried out with reference to the period in which the R.V. Urania has stopped close to the main Italian industrial contaminated sites. Explorative statistical parameters of atmospheric mercury species were computed over each single stop-period and then compared with the overall cruise campaign measurements. Results are herein presented and discussed.

  20. Process evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis with filtrate recycle for the production of high concentration sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Rusli, Jannov; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Jameel, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Process simulation and lab trials were carried out to demonstrate and confirm the efficiency of the concept that recycling hydrolysate at low total solid enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the options to increase the sugar concentration without mixing problems. Higher sugar concentration can reduce the capital cost for fermentation and distillation because of smaller retention volume. Meanwhile, operation cost will also decrease for less operating volume and less energy required for distillation. With the computer simulation, time and efforts can be saved to achieve the steady state of recycling process, which is the scenario for industrial production. This paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first paper discussing steady-state saccharification with recycling of the filtrate form enzymatic hydrolysis to increase sugar concentration. Recycled enzymes in the filtrate (15-30% of the original enzyme loading) resulted in 5-10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to the case in which recycled enzymes were denatured. The recycled hydrolysate yielded 10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to pure sugar simulated hydrolysate at the same enzyme loading, which indicated hydrolysis by-products could boost enzymatic hydrolysis. The high sugar concentration (pure sugar simulated) showed inhibition effect, since about 15% decrease in carbohydrate conversion was observed compared with the case with no sugar added. The overall effect of hydrolysate recycling at WinGEMS simulated steady-state conditions with 5% total solids was increasing the sugar concentration from 35 to 141 g/l, while the carbohydrate conversion was 2% higher for recycling at steady state (87%) compared with no recycling strategy (85%). Ten percent and 15% total solid processes were also evaluated in this study.

  1. Ozone concentration characteristics in and over a high-altitude forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, G.L.; Zeller, K.F.; Musselman, R.C. [USDA Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four years of atmospheric ozone data from a subalpine forest site at an elevation of 3180 m above mean sea level (msl) about 55 km west of Laramie, Wyoming, U.S.A., and at a 2680 msl forest-steppe ecotone site 15 km to the southeast, have been analyzed. These sites appear to be free of any urban or industrial pollutants. Data for January through June show that the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of hourly mean values is small in winter, then increases through June. The highest monthly mean concentrations occur in April or May, and decrease in June. Episodal high O{sub 3} values were measured during spring months in connection with cutoff low pressure centers aloft and probable stratospheric intrusions. Spectral analyses yield a peak at the diurnal period and broad peaks at longer periodicities, particularly during the spring season. (orig.)

  2. An advanced analysis and modelling the air pollutant concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial cities: Odessa city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyadzhi, V. V.; Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Ternovsky, V. B.; Serga, I. N.; Bykowszczenko, N.

    2017-10-01

    Results of analysis and modelling the air pollutant (dioxide of nitrogen) concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial city Odessa are presented for the first time and based on computing by nonlinear methods of the chaos and dynamical systems theories. A chaotic behaviour is discovered and investigated. To reconstruct the corresponding strange chaotic attractor, the time delay and embedding dimension are computed. The former is determined by the methods of autocorrelation function and average mutual information, and the latter is calculated by means of correlation dimension method and algorithm of false nearest neighbours. It is shown that low-dimensional chaos exists in the nitrogen dioxide concentration time series under investigation. Further, the Lyapunov’s exponents spectrum, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov entropy are computed.

  3. Air quality of the industrial area of Padova. SO2 and micropollutants concentration measurements around the incenerator of domestic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracco, L [Amministrazione Provinciale di Padova; Boschi, G

    1986-04-01

    Some data related to one year measurements of SO2 concentrations and of suspended solid particles taken by Environmental Monitoring Station of the Provincial Network of Padua, located near the Industrial Area, are reported. In addition is reported a series of analytical determinations of heavy metals and organic micropollutants carried out in the same area by the Municipal Refuse Collection and public Health Services. The obtained results indicate that the concentration of SO2 in the area is well within the law limits while, as far as the suspended solid particles are concerned, it points out that the respect of the imposed limits, must be carefully evaluated in regards to new urbans developments and air cleaning plants which are going to be arranged by the Veneto.

  4. Concentration in the European electricity industry: The internal market as solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanico, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector and the results achieved with the liberalisation process. Considering the reactions of incumbents to the liberalisation, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration in the sector. The new trends toward the creation of 'national champions' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raise serious concerns about abuses of market power and risk of future collusion. In particular, the strategic linkage of existing markets and the expansion into new ones are analyzed in the light of the multimarket contact theory. Considering investment in interconnection among Member States, the internal market issue is investigated as a solution to the 'risks' coming from liberalisation

  5. Concentration in the European electricity industry: The internal market as solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, Fabio [Department of Economics, Luiss Guido Carli University, 1, Via O. Tommasini, 00162 Roma (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector and the results achieved with the liberalisation process. Considering the reactions of incumbents to the liberalisation, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration in the sector. The new trends toward the creation of 'national champions' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raise serious concerns about abuses of market power and risk of future collusion. In particular, the strategic linkage of existing markets and the expansion into new ones are analyzed in the light of the multimarket contact theory. Considering investment in interconnection among Member States, the internal market issue is investigated as a solution to the 'risks' coming from liberalisation. (author)

  6. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  7. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term changes of heavy metal and sulphur concentrations in ecosystems of the Taymyr Peninsula (Russian Federation) North of the Norilsk Industrial Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhulidov, Alexander V; Robarts, Richard D; Pavlov, Dmitry F; Kämäri, J; Gurtovaya, Tatiana Yu; Meriläinen, J J; Pospelov, Igor N

    2011-10-01

    The Norilsk industrial ore smelting complex (Taymyr Peninsula, Russian Federation) has significantly impacted many components of local terrestrial and aquatic environments. Whether it has had a major impact on the wider Russian Arctic remains controversial as studies are scarce. From 1986 to 2004, data on heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg, Cd and Hg) concentrations in fish (burbot), moss, lichens, periphyton, hydric soils and snow in and around Norilsk and the most northern parts of the Taymyr Peninsula were analysed. Very high concentrations of Cu (203 μg L⁻¹ ± 51 μg L⁻¹) and Ni (113 μg L⁻¹ ± 15 μg L⁻¹) were found in the water of the Schuchya River close to Norilsk. Heavy metal concentrations in burbot liver were highest in Lake Pyasino near Norilsk compared to other study regions that were >100 km distant. From 1989-1996, Cu (121 μg L⁻¹ ± 39 μg L⁻¹ SD), Zn (150 μg L⁻¹) ± 70 μg L⁻¹) and Ni (149 μg L⁻¹ ± 72 μg L⁻¹) snow concentrations were greatest in Norilsk, but were low elsewhere. By 2004, these concentrations had dropped significantly, especially for Cu-74 μg L⁻¹ (±18.7 μg L⁻¹ SD), Zn-81.7 μg L⁻¹ (± 31.3 μg L⁻¹ SD) and Ni-80 μg L⁻¹(±18.0 μg L⁻¹ SD). Norilsk and its surroundings are subject to heavy pollution from the Norilsk metallurgical industry but these are absent from the greater Arctic region due to the prevailing winds and the Byrranga Mountains. Pollution abatement measures have been made so further investigations are necessary in order to assess their efficiency.

  9. High pressure inertial focusing for separating and concentrating bacteria at high throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Hooshmand Zadeh, S.; Graells, T.; Andersson, M.; Malmström, J.; Wu, Z. G.; Hjort, K.

    2017-08-01

    Inertial focusing is a promising microfluidic technology for concentration and separation of particles by size. However, there is a strong correlation of increased pressure with decreased particle size. Theory and experimental results for larger particles were used to scale down the phenomenon and find the conditions that focus 1 µm particles. High pressure experiments in robust glass chips were used to demonstrate the alignment. We show how the technique works for 1 µm spherical polystyrene particles and for Escherichia coli, not being harmful for the bacteria at 50 µl min-1. The potential to focus bacteria, simplicity of use and high throughput make this technology interesting for healthcare applications, where concentration and purification of a sample may be required as an initial step.

  10. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J. Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-07-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m-2) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity.

  11. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-05-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  12. Eagle Ford Shale BTEX and NOx concentrations are dominated by oil and gas industry emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, G. W.; Roest, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    US shale oil and gas exploration has been identified as a major source of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions to the atmosphere. Here, we present a detailed analysis of 2015 air quality data acquired by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) at an air quality monitoring station in Karnes County, TX, central to Texas' Eagle Ford shale area. Data include time series of hourly measured NMHCs, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) alongside meteorological measurements. The monitor was located in Karnes City, and thus affected by various anthropogenic emissions, including traffic and oil and gas exploration sources. Highest mixing ratios measured in 2015 included nearly 1 ppm ethane, 0.8 ppm propane, alongside 4 ppb benzene. A least-squares minimization non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) analysis, tested with prior data analyzed using standard PMF-2 software, showed six major emission sources: an evaporative and fugitive source, a flaring source, a traffic source, an oil field source, a diesel source, and an industrial manufacturing source, together accounting for more than 95% of data set variability, and interpreted using NMHC composition and meteorological data. Factor scores strongly suggest that NOx emissions are dominated by flaring and associated sources, such as diesel compressor engines, likely at midstream facilities, while traffic in this rural area is a minor NOx source. The results support, but exceed existing 2012 emission inventories estimating that local traffic emitted seven times fewer NOx than oil and gas exploration sources in the county. Sources of air toxics such as the BTEX compounds are also dominated by oil and gas exploration sources, but are more equally distributed between the associated factors. Benzene abundance is only 20-40% associated with traffic sources, and may thus be 2.5-5 times higher now than prior to the shale boom in this area. Although the monitor was located relatively

  13. Gold Leaching Characteristics and Intensification of a High S and As-Bearing Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Liu, Xiao-liang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    Some high sulfur and arsenic-bearing gold concentrate has a gold leaching rate less than 80% by oxidation roasting-pickling-cyanidation process. The characteristics and intensification of gold leaching were studied systemically. By combining chemical composition and phase analysis, the low gold leaching rate was found to lie in the capsulation of gold by iron-containing phases including iron oxides, arsenopyrite and pyrite. 96.66% of gold in the industrial leaching residue was capsulated and 95.88% of the capsulated turned out to be in the iron-containing phases. The results of laboratory pickling-cyanidation experiments on the calcine and industrial leaching residue presented further demonstration for the fact that gold capsulated in the iron-containing phases was hard to be leached. However, the gold cyanide leaching rate of calcine could be raised over 95% by a reduction roasting-pickling pretreatment which played such a significant role in exposing the capsulated gold that gold leaching was intensified remarkably.

  14. Investigation of freeze concentration as a process for industrial energy conservation in black liquor, acetic acid, and citrus juice applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    One of the largest consumers of energy in industrial processing is the equipment that concentrates weak aqueous solutions to stronger more sellable or reusable concentrations. The technical and economic feasibility of applying freeze concentration (that is, crystallization and removal from solution of pure solvent - water) as an alternative to heat evaporation (or distillation) to three industrial applications is established. For each of the applications - pulp mill black liquor concentration, acetic acid recovery and orange juice concentration - the economic analyses indicate that the energy savings achievable by freezing justify the respective capital investments with pay out periods of generally one to three years. Past freeze concentration operations have been in the 10,000 to 100,000 gallons per day range for sea water desalination. Research and development work will be required to adapt this work to the three industrial applications.

  15. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  16. High Level Manpower and Technological Change in the Steel Industry: Implications for Corporate Manpower Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Dale L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that high level manpower plays in the establishment of new technologies at the plant and industry level. The steel industry was selected as an appropriate industry to approach these questions due to: its considerable technological changes; its straightforward, easier-to-understand technology; its…

  17. Spontaneous deswelling of pNIPAM microgels at high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Urs; Scotti, Andrea; Herman, Emily S.; Pelaez-Fernandez, Miguel; Han, Jun; Menzel, Andreas; Lyon, L. Andrew; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Polydisperse suspensions of pNIPAM microgel particles show a unique, spontaneous particle deswelling behavior. Beyond a critical concentration, the largest microgels deswell and thereby reduce the polydispersity of the suspension. We have recently unraveled the mechanism of this spontaneous, selective deswelling. pNIPAM microgels carry charged sulfate groups originating from the ammonium persulfate starter used in particle synthesis. Most of the ammonium counterions are trapped close to the microgel surface, but a fraction of them escapes the electrostatic attraction and contributes to the osmotic pressure of the suspension. The counterion clouds of neighboring particles progressively overlap with increasing volume fraction, leading to an increase of free counterions and the osmotic pressure outside but not inside the microgel particles. We find particles to deswell when the resulting osmotic pressure difference between the inside and the outside becomes larger their bulk modulus. For pNIPAM microgels synthesized with the same protocol, the largest particles are the softest and deswell first.

  18. Determination of hexavalent chromium concentration in industrial waste incinerator stack gas by using a modified ion chromatography with post-column derivatization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yuichi; Tokumura, Masahiro; Iwazaki, Yuta; Wang, Qi; Amagai, Takashi; Horii, Yuichi; Otsuka, Hideyuki; Tanikawa, Noboru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Oguchi, Masahiro

    2017-06-16

    An ion chromatography with post-column derivatization with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (IC-DPC) analytical method was modified to enable measurement of trace-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in air. One of the difficulties in determining trace levels of Cr(VI) in air with conventional IC-DPC methods is co-elution of the solvent and ion peaks due to high concentrations of ionic compounds in the extract. However, by using gradient elution rather than isocratic elution we were able to fully resolve the Cr(VI) ion peak from the solvent peak without the need for diluting the extract, which would have reduced the minimum quantifiable level of the method. With this method, we were able to detect Cr(VI) in air at concentrations of 5.3ng/m 3 (assuming a sampling volume of 1m 3 and a final solution volume of 10mL). Recovery tests at three different concentrations of Cr(VI) (50, 250, 1000ng) were performed with or without fly ash; recovery rates at all the concentrations of Cr(VI), with or without fly ash, ranged from 68% to 110% (mean±relative standard deviation, 96%±11%), and there were no differences in recovery rates with respect to the presence or absence of fly ash. Finally, we used the developed method to determine the concentration of Cr(VI) in stack gases collected from eight industrial waste incinerators located in Japan. The concentration of Cr(VI) in the stack gases ranged from below the method quantification limit to 3100ng/m 3 . The highest concentrations of Cr(VI) detected in the stack gases were two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in ambient air in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Applications of inorganic mass spectrometry in metal analysis of high-tech industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Yongjian; Wang Shimin; Li Peiling; Chen Lizhen

    2007-01-01

    The metals in the nature are closely related to the progress of human culture and economic activities. Various kinds of metals are continuously being applied to new processes and products. During the effect by biogeochemical cycle, metals were released to environmental compartments, such as air, water, soil, and living organisms. The deficiency in knowledge, poor management, greedy, and bad intention usually leads to serious environmental pollution, eco-environment damage, and human poisoning. Effective analysis of metal concentrations and species during economic activities and eco-environment is an important research and survey subject. Internationally, the establishment of high-tech industrial park has become the major means to simultaneously improve living quality and broaden economic activity. High-tech industry uses metals. It is mandatory to control the distribution of metals in feed, process, product, waste, environment, and the life-cycle. This report is based on our experience with inorganic mass spectrometry focusing on the use of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively-coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in metal analysis of high-tech industrial parts. The report includes (1) The use of SIMS for analyzing impurity in depth and on surface demonstrates the importance of integrating trace metal, depth profile, micro-area, and surface analyses. (2) Survey ambient heavy metals (As, Be, Cd, Dr, Hg, Mn, Ni and Pb) around industrial parks and compare the findings to stack heavy metals. The results demonstrate that ICP-MS is indispensable to help reveal heavy metal distribution in industrial park ambient air and clarify suspected polluting sources. (3) Research and develop analytical method to determine metal impurities (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Li and Al) in photoresist. The method uses a novel nitric acid digestion technique to convert photoresist into carbon dioxide and water, followed by ICP-MS analysis of high-purity nitric acid recovery

  20. KONSENTRASI DAN INTEGRASI KEPEMILIKAN PADA INDUSTRI MEDIA INTERNASIONAL DALAM PERANG FORMAT HIGH DEFINITION OPTICAL DISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajriannoor Fanani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High definition technology development in the entertainment industry, especially film industry, has produce classic problem about format consensus in the media industry. This situation eventually creates the so called “war of format” between the two most popular high definition formats, the Blu-ray from Sony/Hitachi and the HD DVD from Toshiba. Unlike the war of format before, for example is VHS versus Betamax war, that determinated mostly by the consumer, the format war between Blu-ray and HD DVD is strongly affect by the abilities of the companies behind the two format to consentrate and integrate their business moghul and also to make alliance between competitiors. Concentration of ownership is appears in the trend of holywood studios to merge with the bigger studios, which is creates a few conglomeration in the movie business. Integrations of business could be seen from the owners of the big studios that not only have the studios, but also many other business that relate or not with the entertainment business. And least, the alliance could be seen from this big studios alliance to support one of the format. Initially the HD DVD was on the fruitfull position because has been back up by the studios like Warner Bros, Paramount, and Universal that have more market share in US that the studios that support Blu-ray format, which is Sony, Walt Disneym and 20th Century Fox. Fortunately for Blu-ray, Sony already sells millions of PS 3 console that ingeniously could read Blu-ray disk; this means there’s already millions of Blu-ray reader device in the hand of consument, something that Toshiba could not generate. In the end, the victory of Blu-ray format is accelerate by the switching side of Warner Brothers studio to the Blu-ray follow by the others big studios. Conclusively, the success of a new technology, especially the media industry, is sometimes not depends on the quality of the technology itself. Often, the success is determined by the

  1. Industrial refrigeration with high efficiency absorption; Refrigeracion industrial por absorcion de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Delgado, R.; Heard, C. L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, (Mexico); Pardubicki, J. [LAJ International, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The absorption refrigeration ammonia-lithium nitrate offers great advantages compared with the mechanical compression refrigeration with ammonia as well as with the absorption ammonia-water refrigeration. With heat temperatures of 1000 to 1400 Celsius degrees, for instance low pressure steam the generation of cold at low temperatures (-100 to -200 Celsius degrees) is possible. The system has less components and is much less expensive than the ammonia-water equipment with a price very similar to the ammonia mechanical compression equipment. The equipment consists of five main heat exchangers and a solution pump, resulting in a high reliability of its operation, requiring a minimum maintenance. The operation cost depends directly of the cost of the energy source. In case of using residual heat the operation cost is only the maintenance cost. Nowadays the cost of the electric energy is below the production cost, which can be a short term situation. In time terms of the comparable useful life time of an absorption refrigeration system (in excess of 20 years), it is reasonable to think that the operation costs will be less than the operation costs of an equipment with mechanical compression. To this day it is available a demonstration unit to exhibit the system in industrial plants with different energy sources. [Espanol] La refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/nitrato de litio ofrece grandes ventajas comparada tanto con la refrigeracion por compresion mecanica con amoniaco como con la refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/agua. Este sistema es mas eficiente y sencillo que el sistema de amoniaco/agua. Con calor de temperatura (100 a 140 grados centigrados por ejemplo vapor de baja presion, se permite la generacion de frio a temperaturas bajas (-10 a -20 grados centigrados). El sistema tiene menos componentes y es mucho mas barato que equipo de amoniaco/agua con un precio muy similar a sistemas por compresion mecanica de amoniaco. El sistema consiste en cinco

  2. Industrial refrigeration with high efficiency absorption; Refrigeracion industrial por absorcion de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Delgado, R; Heard, C L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, (Mexico); Pardubicki, J [LAJ International, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The absorption refrigeration ammonia-lithium nitrate offers great advantages compared with the mechanical compression refrigeration with ammonia as well as with the absorption ammonia-water refrigeration. With heat temperatures of 1000 to 1400 Celsius degrees, for instance low pressure steam the generation of cold at low temperatures (-100 to -200 Celsius degrees) is possible. The system has less components and is much less expensive than the ammonia-water equipment with a price very similar to the ammonia mechanical compression equipment. The equipment consists of five main heat exchangers and a solution pump, resulting in a high reliability of its operation, requiring a minimum maintenance. The operation cost depends directly of the cost of the energy source. In case of using residual heat the operation cost is only the maintenance cost. Nowadays the cost of the electric energy is below the production cost, which can be a short term situation. In time terms of the comparable useful life time of an absorption refrigeration system (in excess of 20 years), it is reasonable to think that the operation costs will be less than the operation costs of an equipment with mechanical compression. To this day it is available a demonstration unit to exhibit the system in industrial plants with different energy sources. [Espanol] La refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/nitrato de litio ofrece grandes ventajas comparada tanto con la refrigeracion por compresion mecanica con amoniaco como con la refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/agua. Este sistema es mas eficiente y sencillo que el sistema de amoniaco/agua. Con calor de temperatura (100 a 140 grados centigrados por ejemplo vapor de baja presion, se permite la generacion de frio a temperaturas bajas (-10 a -20 grados centigrados). El sistema tiene menos componentes y es mucho mas barato que equipo de amoniaco/agua con un precio muy similar a sistemas por compresion mecanica de amoniaco. El sistema consiste en cinco

  3. Optimised performance of industrial high resolution computerised tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maangaard, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is to acquire knowledge of the investigated sample. Digital x-ray imaging techniques such as radiography or computerised tomography (CT) produce images of the interior of a sample. The obtained image quality determines the possibility of detecting sample related features, e.g. details and flaws. This thesis presents a method of optimising the performance of industrial X-ray equipment for the imaging task at issue in order to obtain images with high quality. CT produces maps of the X-ray linear attenuation of the sample's interior. CT can produce two dimensional cross-section images or three-dimensional images with volumetric information on the investigated sample. The image contrast and noise depend on both the investigated sample and the equipment and settings used (X-ray tube potential, X-ray filtration, exposure time, etc.). Hence, it is vital to find the optimal equipment settings in order to obtain images of high quality. To be able to mathematically optimise the image quality, it is necessary to have a model of the X-ray imaging system together with an appropriate measure of image quality. The optimisation is performed with a developed model for an X-ray image-intensifier-based radiography system. The model predicts the mean value and variance of the measured signal level in the collected radiographic images. The traditionally used measure of physical image quality is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To calculate the signal-to-noise ratio, a well-defined detail (flaw) is required. It was found that maximising the SNR leads to ambiguities, the optimised settings found by maximising the SNR were dependent on the material in the detail. When CT is performed on irregular shaped samples containing density and compositional variations, it is difficult to define which SNR to use for optimisation. This difficulty is solved by the measures of physical image quality proposed here, the ratios geometry

  4. Growth and fermentation patterns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different ammonium concentrations and its implications in winemaking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Ferreira, A; Mendes-Faia, A; Leão, C

    2004-01-01

    To study the effects of assimilable nitrogen concentration on growth profile and on fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown in batch in a defined medium with glucose (200 g l(-1)) as the only carbon and energy source, and nitrogen supplied as ammonium sulphate or phosphate forms under different concentrations. The initial nitrogen concentration in the media had no effect on specific growth rates of the yeast strain PYCC 4072. However, fermentation rate and the time required for completion of the alcoholic fermentation were strongly dependent on nitrogen availability. At the stationary phase, the addition of ammonium was effective in increasing cell population, fermentation rate and ethanol. The yeast strain required a minimum of 267 mg N l(-1) to attain complete dryness of media, within the time considered for the experiments. Lower levels were enough to support growth, although leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation. The findings reported here contribute to elucidate the role of nitrogen on growth and fermentation performance of wine yeast. This information might be useful to the wine industry where excessive addition of nitrogen to prevent sluggish or stuck fermentation might have a negative impact on wine stability and quality. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  5. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  6. High energy X ray tomography. Development of an industrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, J.; Thomas, G.

    1985-01-01

    From its own experience in nondestructive testing and needs of industry, a versatile 420 kV X-ray tomodensitometer was designed by the CEA to study materials an structures. This project and results obtained with a laboratory prototype are presented [fr

  7. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  8. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop degradation-resistant nano-coatings of AlMgB14 and AlMgB14– (titanium diboride) TiB2 that result in improved surface hardness and reduced friction for industrial hydraulic and tooling systems.

  9. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.

  10. High Concentration Protein Ultrafiltration: a Comparative Fouling Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y. P.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the predominant fouling mechanism via pH manipulation in gelatin ultrafiltration (UF) at constant operating pressure was studied. Two 30 kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO) UF membranes with different hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties were tested at solution pH near gelatin isoelectric point (IEP), pH below and above gelatin’s IEP. The resistance-in-series model was used to determine quantitatively the contribution of each filtration resistance occurred during gelatin UF. The governing fouling mechanisms were investigated using classical blocking laws. The results demonstrated that concentration polarization remain as dominant fouling resistance in gelatin UF, but exceptional case was observed at pH away from gelatin’s IEP, showing that combined reversible and irreversible fouling resistances contributed around 57% and 37%, respectively to the overall fouling resistances. Under all experimental condition tested, permeate flux decline was accurately predicted by all the models studied. Fouling profile was fitted well with “Standard Blocking”, “Intermediate Blocking” and “Cake Filtration” model for regenerated cellulose acetate (RCA) membrane and “Cake Filtration” model for polyethersulphone (PES) membrane.

  11. Adaptive sensor-based ultra-high accuracy solar concentrator tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jordyn; Hassanzadeh, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Conventional solar trackers use information of the sun's position, either by direct sensing or by GPS. Our method uses the shading of the receiver. This, coupled with nonimaging optics design allows us to achieve ultra-high concentration. Incorporating a sensor based shadow tracking method with a two stage concentration solar hybrid parabolic trough allows the system to maintain high concentration with acute accuracy.

  12. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  13. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  14. High urinary phthalate concentration associated with delayed pubarche in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K; Mouritsen, A

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals present in numerous consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties in experimental studies and are suspected to be involved in human male reproductive health problems. A few studies have shown associations between phthalate exposure and changes...... and controls. We demonstrated that delayed pubarche, but not thelarche, was associated with high phthalate excretion in urine samples from 725 healthy school girls, which may suggest anti-androgenic actions of phthalates in our study group of girls....

  15. Variability analysis of industrial process puree by means of concentrated vegetable pulps, based on the engineering quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addys Castellanos Gómez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The instability in quality characteristics: physical-chemical of puree by means of the concentrate plant pulps, can provoke customer dissatisfaction and deterioration of the image of products. With the statistical analysis of the industrial process, was determined as the main cause of erratic behaviour, variability in plant pulps of different suppliers: the different varieties of raw materials and the technologies they used. The solution was established by the quality engineering for improving control and in this case was optimized the product design, consisted on the mixtures of pulps reformulation to ensure initial insensitivity of initial variability that provokes raw material, in this way was achieved the robustness of the process, with positive impact on the production results, both economic and company image to customers.

  16. High-throughput and automated SAXS/USAXS experiment for industrial use at BL19B2 in SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, Keiichi, E-mail: k-osaka@spring8.or.jp; Inoue, Daisuke; Sato, Masugu; Sano, Norimichi [Industrial Application Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takuya; Taniguchi, Yosuke [SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd., 1-20-5, Kouto, Shingu, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A highly automated system combining a sample transfer robot with focused SR beam has been established for small-angle and ultra small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/USAXS) measurement at BL19B2 for industrial use of SPring-8. High-throughput data collection system can be realized by means of X-ray beam of high photon flux density concentrated by a cylindrical mirror, and a two-dimensional pixel detector PILATUS-2M. For SAXS measurement, we can obtain high-quality data within 1 minute for one exposure using this system. The sample transfer robot has a capacity of 90 samples with a large variety of shapes. The fusion of high-throughput and robotic system has enhanced the usability of SAXS/USAXS capability for industrial application.

  17. Co-digestion of ruminal content and blood from slaughterhouse industries: influence of solid concentration and ammonium generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Passeggi, M; Borzacconi, L

    2006-01-01

    At the present time, organic solid wastes from industries and agricultural activities are considered to be promising substrates for biogas production via anaerobic digestion. Moreover solids stabilisation is required before reutilization or disposal. Slaughterhouses are among the most important industries in Uruguay and produce 150,000 tons of ruminal content (RC) and 30,000 tons of blood per year. In order to determine the influence of the solids and blood contents, the ammonia inhibition and the inoculum adaptation co-digestion batch tests were performed. A set of experiences with TS concentration of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% and different ratios of RC/blood were carried out using an inoculum from an UASB reactor. In all experiences fast blood hydrolisation was observed. A higher methane production was detected in the experiences with higher TS content. However, the fraction of solids degradation was lower in these experiences. A plateau in the biogas production was found. The free ammonia level, which was above the reported inhibitory levels, could explain this behaviour. After the inhibition period the biogas production restarted probably due to the biomass acclimatisation to the ammonia. In order to determine the inoculum adaptation a new experiment was performed. The inoculum used was the sludge coming from the first set of experiences. Based upon batch tests a 3.5 m3 pilot reactor was designed and started up. Ammonia inhibition was avoided by the start-up strategy and in two weeks the biogas production was 3.5 m3/d. The VS stabilisation with a solid retention time of 20 days was of 43%. The pilot reactor working at steady state had a TS concentration of 3-4% with a ratio of RC/blood of 10:1 at the entrance.

  18. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlović, S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly through the whole product independently of its quantity and shape. These processing characteristics combined with improved food microbiological safety, less energy expenditure, low concentration of waste products and longer shelf life make high-pressure processing a very promising novel food technology. Combined with lower cost of treatment (but unfortunately higher initial cost of equipment compared to traditional processing technologies, it is also economically profitable. The main purpose of such treated food products are in preservation of sensory, nutritive and textural properties. As the temperature increase is very low, there are no significant changes in sensory properties, in contrast to conventional thermal processing (sterilization, pasteurization. However, with the combination of heating or cooling and high pressure, modification of existing and creation of new food products is possible. Today, high pressure is used for the treatment of meat products (inactivation of microorganisms, freezing and defrosting of foodstuffs, production of fruit juices (pasteurization, processing of oysters, modificationof milk characteristics (foaming etc. The main purpose of this work is to present the working principle and application of high pressure in the food industry.

  19. Investigation of the process of vacuum freeze drying of bacterial concentrates for the meat industry with cryogenic freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Poymanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research results of the nutritional value of the products manufactured are presented in the article. The main directions of bacterial concentrates application in the meat industry were determined. The analysis of starter cultures was given. The range of products manu-factured with bacterial concentrates was analyzed. It was shown that the introduction of innovative technologies will enable dynamic development of both large and small enterprises, which will create prerequisites for the growth of the Russian market of meat products. Economic efficiency of the studied substances treatment methods was proved. The relevance of the development of technology of pro-duction of dry bacterial concentrates with cryogenic freezing was proved. An integrated approach to the development of competitive domestic technologies and equipment for cryofreezing and sublimation dehydration by the use of granulation for the intensification of the internal heat and mass transfer, reducing specific energy consumption through the use of a combined cold supply system was pro-posed. Results of the study of the kinetics of the freezing process with the traditional method and cryofreezing are given in the paper. Rational parameters of the cryofreezing process were proposed. The optimum composition of cryoprotective medium was recommended. The research of the process of bacterial concentrate vacuum sublimation dehydration in the layer and granular form were conducted. The research confirmed that the use of the cryofreezing and granulation can increase the number of viable microorganisms in the bacterial concentrate and reduce the drying time. Rational vacuum sublimation dehydration modes were proposed. Methods of reduc-ing the defects of the processed products and improvement of the efficiency of production facilities were specified. Quality indicators of dried bacterial concentrates were given. The results obtained allow to carry out engineering calculations

  20. Collecting performance of an evacuated tubular solar high-temperature air heater with concentric tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Li, Shuang-Fei; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel evacuated tube solar high temperature air heater is designed. • The solar air heater system consists of 30 linked collecting units. • Every unit consisted of a evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and concentric tube. • The flow air is heated over temperature of 200 °C. - Abstract: A set of evacuated tube solar high temperature air heaters with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and concentric tube heat exchanger is designed to provide flow air with a temperature of 150–230 °C for industrial production. The solar air heater system consists of 30 linked collecting units. Each unit includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube absorber with a concentric copper tube heat exchanger installed inside. A stainless steel mesh layer with high thermal conductivity is filled between the evacuated tube and the concentric copper tube. Air passes through each collecting unit, and its temperature increases progressively. An experimental investigation of the thermal performance of the air heater is performed, and the experimental results demonstrate the presented high-temperature solar air heater has excellent collecting performance and large output power, even in the winter. The measured thermal efficiency corresponding to the air temperature of 70 °C reaches 0.52. With the increase of air temperature, thermal efficiency reaches 0.35 at an air temperature of 150 °C, and 0.21 at an air temperature of 220 °C.

  1. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process. (paper)

  2. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIULIA C.Q. RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Diulia C Q; Soares, Atílio P; Costa, Esly F; Costa, Andréa O S

    2017-01-01

    Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES) and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  4. Industrial applications of high-performance computing best global practices

    CERN Document Server

    Osseyran, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    ""This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the rapidly expanding field of the industrial use of supercomputers. It is just a pleasure reading through informative country reports and in-depth case studies contributed by leading researchers in the field.""-Jysoo Lee, Principal Researcher, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information""From telescopes to microscopes, from vacuums to hyperbaric chambers, from sonar waves to laser beams, scientists have perpetually strived to apply technology and invention to new frontiers of scientific advancement. Along the way, they hav

  5. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Program of Studies--Level II. Research Series No. 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck. Research Coordinating Unit.

    This industrial arts program of a studies guide is the product of a research project designed to (1) ascertain programs and curricula trends of senior high school industrial arts in the fifty states, (2) develop a philosophical rationale for senior high schools in North Dakota secondary schools, and (3) develop a master plan and program of study…

  6. The conceptual design of waste repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Naro

    2002-02-01

    Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy reported the basic approach to the RI and Institute etc. wastes on March 2002. According to it, radioactive waste form medical, industrial and research facilities should be classified by their radioactivity properties and physical and chemical properties, and should be disposed in the appropriate types of repository with that classification. For the radioactive waste containing comparatively high radioactivity generated from reactors, NSC has established the Concentration limit for disposal. NSC is now discussing about the limit for the radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) preliminary studied about the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities and discussed about the problems for design on H12. This study was started to consider those problems, and to develop the conceptual design of the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety assessment for that repository is also performed. The result of this study showed that radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities of high activity should be disposed in the repository that has higher performance of barrier system comparing with the vault type near surface facility. If the conditions of the natural barrier and the engineering barrier are clearer, optimization of the design will be possible. (author)

  7. Collaborative Innovation Research on High-tech Industry in the Center Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jingdong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a strong point in the Middle Rises Strategy, the Center Delta is of great significance to high-tech industry development. While the collaborative innovation is an effective way to promote the coordinated development of regional economy. This article selected electronic and communication equipment manufacturing industry of 3 provinces in the Center Delta as samples, built evaluation index system of collaborative innovation of high-tech industry, and put the relevant data into the system coordination degree model, in order to get the synergy of industrial innovation system and innovation environment system of 3 provinces. The empirical results shown that the industrial innovation system and innovation environment system coordination degree of Hubei province was the highest, while Jiangxi province was the lowest. Based on the empirical result analysis of the above-mentioned systems, this article put forward suggestions to promote the development of the high-tech industry collaborative innovation in the Center Delta.

  8. Inhibition of Coenzyme Qs Accumulation in Engineered Escherichia coli by High Concentration of Farnesyl Diphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Mojtaba; Omid Yeganeh, Negar; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an isoprenoid component used widely in nutraceutical industries. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a responsible enzyme for biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a key precursor for CoQs production. This research involved investigating the effect of FPPS over-expression on CoQs production in engineered CoQ 10 -producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods: Two CoQ 10 -producing strains, as referred to E. coli Ba and E. coli Br, were transformed by the encoding gene for FPPS (ispA) under the control of either the trc or P BAD promoters. Results: Over-expression of ispA under the control of P BAD promoter led to a relative increase in CoQ 10 production only in recombinant E. coli Br although induction by arabinose resulted in partial reduction of CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains. Over-expression of ispA under the control of stronger trc promoter, however, led to a severe decrease in CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains, as reflected by reductions from 629±40 to 30±13 and 564±28 to 80±14 μg/g Dried Cell Weight (DCW), respectively. The results showed high level of FPP reduces endogenous CoQ 8 production as well and that CoQs are produced in a complimentary manner, as the increase in production of one decreases the production of the other. Conclusion: The reduction in CoQ 10 production can be a result of Dds inhibition by high FPP concentration. Therefore, more effort is needed to verify the role of intermediate metabolite concentration and to optimize production of CoQ 10 . PMID:26306151

  9. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying high dose activities in industrial site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, B.

    2000-01-01

    Although the radiation doses received by industrial radiographers in the UK have progressively fallen over the last few years, with most now receiving less than 1 mSv/y, a few still receive, relative to the rest, much higher doses. As a percentage of all radiographers the number stays surprisingly constant from year to year. This paper describes a survey to identify the work causing these doses and suggest possible solutions. The UK Central Index of Dose Information was interrogated to identify the industrial radiography companies having staff (not necessarily the same person) with doses of greater than 5mSv/y in the last three years for which information was available. This was 15 in total. The people on the staff receiving these doses were identified and a questionnaire sent to the companies concerned requesting information about their work. A general questionnaire about the operation of the company was also included. With the agreement of the company these questionnaires were followed up by a visit to the company to interviews a number of the management and the radiographers if available. Both groups were generally very open about their problems and every discussion had a positive outcome. Several areas of work/reasons for the doses have been identified. These are: pipeline radiography, ultra sound radiographers working on nuclear reactors, complex plant work often with several teams in the area, inability to retreat from the wind out equipment due to height or access problems, site pressure to not follow the best practices and a lack of appreciation when a dose was being received or, alternatively, carelessness. Some o these problem areas are very difficult to resolve. However ways in which the Health and Safety can help influence the doses have been identified together with practical suggestions radiographers could adopt. These will be reported. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers Applied to High Temperature Plates for Potential Use in the Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kogia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Plants (CSPs are used in solar thermal industry for collecting and converting sunlight into electricity. Parabolic trough CSPs are the most widely used type of CSP and an absorber tube is an essential part of them. The hostile operating environment of the absorber tubes, such as high temperatures (400–550 °C, contraction/expansion, and vibrations, may lead them to suffer from creep, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and hot corrosion. Hence, their condition monitoring is of crucial importance and a very challenging task as well. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs are a promising, non-contact technology of transducers that has the potential to be used for the inspection of large structures at high temperatures by exciting Guided Waves. In this paper, a study regarding the potential use of EMATs in this application and their performance at high temperature is presented. A Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM EMAT with a racetrack coil, designed to excite Shear Horizontal waves (SH0, has been theoretically and experimentally evaluated at both room and high temperatures.

  12. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya TÜLEK; Gökçe FİLİZAY

    2006-01-01

    Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Investigated inactivation technologies are ionisation radiation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electrical fields, high pressure homogenisation, UV decont...

  13. Apportionment of the sources of high fine particulate matter concentration events in a developing aerotropolis in Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Te; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chang, Shih-Yu; Su, Zhen-Sen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics and contributions of the sources of fine particulate matter with a size of up to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) during the period when pollution events could easily occur in Taoyuan aerotropolis, Taiwan, this study conducted sampling at three-day intervals from September 2014 to January 2015. Based on the mass concentration of PM2.5, the sampling days were classified into high PM2.5 concentration event days (PM2.5>35 μg m(-3)) and non-event days (PM2.5<35 μg m(-3)). In addition, the chemical species, including water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous components, and metal elements, were analyzed. The sources of pollution and their contributions were estimated using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Furthermore, the effect of the weather type on the measurement results was also explored based on wind field conditions. The mass fractions of Cl(-) and NO3(-) increased when a high PM2.5 concentration event occurred, and they were also higher under local emitted conditions than under long range transported conditions, indicating that secondary nitrate aerosols were the major increasing local species that caused high PM2.5 concentration events. Seven sources of pollution could be distinguished using the PMF model on the basis of the characteristics of the species. Industrial emissions, coal combustion/urban waste incineration, and local emissions from diesel/gasoline vehicles were the main sources that contributed to pollution on high PM2.5 concentration event days. In order to reduction of high PM2.5 concentration events, the control of diesel and gasoline vehicle emission is important and should be given priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  15. Microbial degradation of high nitrogen contents (primarily nitrate) in industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Kutzner, H.J.

    1984-04-01

    This study deals with the denitrification of industrial waste water of high nitrate content, including waste water from the recovery process for nuclear material. At first the autotrophic process employing Thiob. denitrificans was investigated: kinetics, stoichiometry, application of a packed bed reactor; effect of nitrate concentration, retention time, loading and height of the reactor on denitrification. The system proved to be useful for waste water with nitrate up to 4.5 g/L; the highest rate of denitrification achieved was 1.5 g/L.h when the retention time was 2.5 h and the nitrate concentration (in-flow) 4.3 g/L (i.e. reactor loadung 41 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d). Equally good results were obtained by the heterotrophic process: ethanol allowed a reactor loading of 60 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d; however, in this case bacterial growth tended to clog the column. - Enrichments made with ethanol yielded Ps. aeruginosa as main component of the population; in contrast, those with methanol resulted in a mixture of Hyphomicrobium spec. and Paracoccus denitrificans; this bacterial culture was used to determine the stoichiometry of denitrification in continuous culture; it was also employed to denitrify a diluted solution of nitric acid (0.1 ml HNO 3 /L) which could be achieved in continuous culture using a retention time of 25 h. (orig.) [de

  16. Biological denitrification of high-nitrates wastes generated in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    Biological denitrification appears to be one of the most effective methods to remove nitrates from wastewater streams (Christenson and Harremoes, 1975). However, most of the research and development work has been centered on removal of nitrates from sewage or agricultural drainage waters, nitrate nitrogen concentration usually less than 50 g/m 3 . Work was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1974 to test the use of biological nitrification in the removal of high concentrations of nitrate (in excess of 1.0 kg NO 3 -N/m 3 ) from uranium purification waste streams. Since then, a full-scale treatment facility, a stirred reactor, has been installed at the Y-12 plant; and a pilot-plant, using a fluidized bed, has been proposed at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The objective of this manuscript is to present some applied microbiological research relating to possible constraints in biologically denitrifying certain waste streams in the nuclear industry and comparing the effectiveness of denitrification of these waste streams in three bench scale reactors, (1) a continuous flow-stirred reactor, (2) stirred bed rector, and (3) a fluidized bed reactor

  17. Chemistry in high temperature aqueous solutions application to the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.

    1990-01-01

    The power industry utilizes water (aqueous solutions) for two main functions: as a medium for heat transfer and transport and as a thermodynamic working fluid. These functions are performed in systems fabricated from a wide variety of materials, over a wide range of thermal and hydraulic conditions, and at medium temperatures and densities which determine the significant chemical properties. The major chemical interest is in the concentrated solutions derived from the dilute working fluid at selected sites defined by the physical arrangement and temperature and in their consequential effects on heat transfer and corrosion. Examples of these sites for typical fossil fired and nuclear steam generating equipment are described, as well as the extent and limit of the concentration process. The history of steam power plant water chemistry is discussed from the point of view of the chemical processes involved. The period covered is from the 1920s to the present state of the art, which is a major application of the subject of this symposium--chemistry in high temperature aqueous solution

  18. IAEA Activities in Nuclear High Temperature Heat for Industrial Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    IAEA activities to support Member States: Information Exchange; Modelling and Simulations; Development of Methodologies; Safety; Technology Support; Education and Training; Knowledge Preservation. Assist MSs with national nuclear programmes; Support innovations in nuclear power deployment; Facilitate and assist international R&D collaborations. Interest in HTGR technology • The IAEA activities in the area of HTGR are guided by the recommendations of the TWG-GCRs – Currently 14 members: China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Netherlands, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America – 3 International Organizations: OECD/NEA, European Commission, Gen-IV Forum. – 2 new members in 2017: Poland and Singapore. Meetings • Meet every 24 months • Next meeting: 30 October – 1 November 2017 • Other Member states with some activities on HTGRs – Kazakhstan – history of close cooperation with Japan – Saudi Arabia – feasibility study for HTGRs to provide heat for the petro-chemical industry – Canada – three HTR designs under consideration in the nuclear regulator pre-licensing vendor design reviews

  19. Data sources on landscape structure in a highly industrialized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Kinga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape may be described as a part of space characterized by a certain physiognomy, which is a dynamic system subject to evolution. An important factor influencing the type and condition of the landscape is human activity which shapes or rebuilds its structure. Interesting results may be obtained on comparison of archival cartographic materials with contemporary studies and zoning plans. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is a region with a clearly transformed landscape. The determinant of the geographical environment transformation here is the anthropogenic factor. The study area includes the upper part of the Kłodnica catchment (229.6 sq km. The study is a review, and its aim is to systematize data sources used in the research on the transformation of landscape structure of a heavily industrialized area. In the first half of the nineteenth century created the "Urmesstischblätter" in the scale of 1:25 000. Afterwards preparations began to take new topographic images of the country (the "Messtischblätter". In the 1990s initiated the development of a new topographic map (in the scale of 1:10 000. Recent data source is for example the project CORINE Land Cover 2006. There are many of various sources of data on land cover. An important aspect is the proper selection of documents and maps, and their proper interpretation.

  20. Treatment of marine sewage pumpout and RV park pumpout wastewater containing high strength concentrations of formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonich, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' A consortium of companies has developed an integrated 'on-site' wastewater treatment technology that is capable of handling and degrading RV Park and Marine Sewage Pumpout Wastes which contain formaldehyde [35 - 80 mg/L]. Boat and RV owners add formaldehyde to their toilets to eliminate odors. When these materials are pumped out they are high in solids content and have high concentrations of HCHO, which makes them difficult to degrade at POTWs. At the heart of this process is 1. An aeration tank with a Venturi Aerator totally external to the tank and 2. The addition of a blend of cultured bacteria that have selected for their ability to degrade formaldehyde. For a complete 'on-site' treatment system Bioclere Trickling Filters can follow this aeration/bacterial treatment system. This is an ideal system configuration for remote locations (RV Parks) or for fresh water lake Marinas looking to reduce their disposal costs and for groundwater discharge with no adverse effect on water quality. Until the development of the formaldehyde degrading bacteria for an industrial wastewater process there were no cultures commercially available specifically for degrading formaldehyde. The most commonly used bacteria were pseudomonas strains for carbohydrate or hydrocarbon wastewater extracted from activated sludge plants. And since formaldehyde is infinitely soluble in a liquid it is difficult to degrade or mineralize. The process in an activated sludge WWTP plant took over 72 hours. With the newly selected consortia of cultures, HCHO can be degraded in 12-14 hours on a batch basis. This is accomplished in a uniquely configured aeration tank where the 'environment' of the tank is constantly conditioned by a Venturi Aerator which strips carbon dioxide generated by the aerobes to maintain a neutral pH, and provide high levels of DO (>5.0 mg/L) to keep the process aerobic. (author)

  1. The development of industrial production of high alloy steel intended for the electronuclear industries and its effect on fine steelmaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillard-Baron, B.

    1977-01-01

    The aim is to show how the high alloy steel manufacturers in France attempted to meet increasing demand by the electronuclear industries by the design and development at moderate cost and within a rather short period, of high level products intended to meet specific requirements. In this prospect, the qualitative and quantitative requirements are determined, the evolutions of the working methods connected to the design and manufacture of steel products are analysed. The economic implications which resulted and a few examples of the manufacture of particularly well suited products are evoked [fr

  2. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya TÜLEK

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Investigated inactivation technologies are ionisation radiation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, pulsed electrical fields, high pressure homogenisation, UV decontamination, etc. Most research has focussed on HHP and is therefore discussed in detail here.

  3. Fertility and semen quality of workers exposed to high temperatures in the ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figà-Talamanca, I; Dell'Orco, V; Pupi, A; Dondero, F; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Lombardo, F; Scavalli, P; Mancini, G

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic occupational exposure to high temperatures may be detrimental to male reproduction. The study was based on 92 healthy ceramics oven operators with a long exposure to high temperatures, and 87 controls, recruited from the shipment department of the same industry. Interviews with all subjects provided data on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and fertility problems. Semen analysis was carried out on 46 of the workers exposed to high temperatures, and 14 of the controls, and included evaluation of the sperm concentration, morphology, and motility, including computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (velocity, linearity, ALH, BCF). The results of the questionnaire showed that exposed individuals had a higher incidence of childlessness and of self-reported difficulty in conceiving than controls. The semen analysis showed no significant differences except in sperm velocity. Although differences in semen parameters, taken singly, were not statistically significant, the overall evaluation of the sperm parameters indicated a higher prevalence of pathologic sperm profiles among the exposed compared to the controls.

  4. High temperature superconductors as a technological discontinuity in the power cable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beales, T.P.; McCormack, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The advent of superconductivity above 77 K represents to the power cable industry a technological discontinuity analogous to that seen in the copper telecommunications industry by the arrival of optical fibres. This phenomenon is discussed along with technical criteria and performance targets needed for high temperature superconducting wire to have an economic impact in transmission cables

  5. High temperature superconductors as a technological discontinuity in the power cable industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beales, T.P.; McCormack, J.S. [BICC Cables Ltd., Hebburn (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The advent of superconductivity above 77 K represents to the power cable industry a technological discontinuity analogous to that seen in the copper telecommunications industry by the arrival of optical fibres. This phenomenon is discussed along with technical criteria and performance targets needed for high temperature superconducting wire to have an economic impact in transmission cables.

  6. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial and Tooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P; Qu, J.; Higdon, C. (Eaton Corporation)

    2011-02-01

    This industry-driven project was the result of a successful response by Eaton Corporation to a DOE/ITP Program industry call. It consisted of three phases in which ORNL participated. In addition to Eaton Corporation and ORNL (CRADA), the project team included Ames Laboratory, who developed the underlying concept for aluminum-magnesium-boron based nanocomposite coatings [1], and Greenleaf, a small tooling manufacturer in western Pennsylvania. This report focuses on the portion of this work that was conducted by ORNL in a CRADA with Eaton Corporation. A comprehensive final report for the entire effort, which ended in September 2010, has been prepared by Eaton Corporation. Phase I, “Proof of Concept” ran for one year (September 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) during which the applicability of AlMgB14 single-phase and nanocomposite coatings on hydraulic material coupons and components as well as on tool inserts was demonstrated.. The coating processes used either plasma laser deposition (PLD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD). During Phase I, ORNL conducted laboratory-scale pin-on-disk and reciprocating pin-on-flat tests of coatings produced by PLD and PVD. Non-coated M2 tool steel was used as a baseline for comparison, and the material for the sliding counterface was Type 52100 bearing steel since it simulated the pump materials. Initial tests were run mainly in a commercial hydraulic fluid named Mobil DTE-24, but some tests were later run in a water-glycol mixture as well. A tribosystem analysis was conducted to define the operating conditions of pump components and to help develop simulative tests in Phase II. Phase II, “Coating Process Scale-up” was intended to use scaled-up process to generate prototype parts. This involved both PLD practices at Ames Lab, and a PVD scale-up study at Eaton using its production capable equipment. There was also a limited scale-up study at Greenleaf for the tooling application. ORNL continued to conduct friction and wear

  7. Annual electricity consumption forecasting by neural network in high energy consuming industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in high energy consumption industrial sectors. Chemicals, basic metals and non-metal minerals industries are defined as high energy consuming industries. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in high energy consumption industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. Although ANNs have been typically used to forecast short term consumptions, this paper shows that it is a more precise approach to forecast annual consumption in such industries. Furthermore, the ANN approach based on a supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used to show it can estimate the annual consumption with less error. Actual data from high energy consuming (intensive) industries in Iran from 1979 to 2003 is used to illustrate the applicability of the ANN approach. This study shows the advantage of the ANN approach through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the ANN forecast is compared with actual data and the conventional regression model through ANOVA to show its superiority. This is the first study to present an algorithm based on the ANN and ANOVA for forecasting long term electricity consumption in high energy consuming industries

  8. Preparing skilled labor in industry through production-based curriculum approach in vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto

    2017-09-01

    Vocational high school (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan / SMK) aims to prepare mid-level skilled labors to work in the industry and are able to create self-employment opportunities. For those reasons, the curriculum in SMK should be based on meeting the needs of the industries and is able to prepare learners to master the competence in accordance with the skills program of their choice. Production based curriculum is the curriculum which the learning process is designed together with the production process or using production process as a learning medium. This approach with the primary intention to introduce students with the real working environment and not merely simulations. In the production-based curriculum implementation model, students are directly involved in the industry through the implementation of industrial working practices, do work on production units in school, and do practical work in school by doing the job as done in the industry by using industry standards machines.

  9. Optical measurement for the concentrations of the pickling acid with near infrared spectroscopy in steel making industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gumin; Lee, Kwangchil; Park, Haesung; Lee, Jinho; Jung, Youngjean; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2010-08-01

    In the manufacturing process of stainless steel, it is essential to pickle the oxide layer of steel surface for high corrosion resistance and fine surface quality. Pickling liquor of stainless steel is commonly composed of mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acid. Real time monitoring of concentrations of each acid is crucial to optimize pickling process. It also reduces cost of production and decreases the generation of waste acid. We used non-contact near infrared spectroscopy technique and rapid analysis method, for the quantification of each acid in an on-line manner. Multivariate calibration such as partial least square regression method is employed for the better prediction results.

  10. Risk cognition as a new communication tool for high-tech industries. Comparative analysis between nuclear industry and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Wieland, P.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns of political decision makers, the media, and members of the public with regard to high-tech industries focus upon two main issues: safety and socio-economic impact. In this regard the nuclear industry and biotechnology, commonly associated as 'high risk and low trust situation', face the problems of the assessment of potentially dangerous or negative socio-economic consequences of very improbable risks and the communication with the various audiences. It is common for the national authorities in this case to conduct the process of quantified risk analysis (QRA). Unfortunately, hitherto the communication of the results obtained by QRA to the different non-scientific/non-technical target groups listed above is generally dissatisfactory, resulting in the frequent rejection of nuclear- and biotechnology. The main reason is that it has generally not been recognized that QRA is but the final step in the cognition of risk from both real as well as perceived hazards, preceded by risk estimation (RES) and risk evaluation (REV). RES is largely the scientific identification of hazards leading formally to the assessment of mechanisms of harmful consequences, and latterly to the assessment of the probability of its occurrence. Contrary to that, REV deals with the subjective judgment of the significance of assessed individual and societal risks. As such, REV involves individual cognitions of hazards and risks, such as perceptions, knowledge and understanding. In this paper the role of risk cognition in communicating issues associated with high-tech industrial activities, such as nuclear industry and biotechnology, is discussed. Common factors influencing risk perception are dealt with in a comparative manner in order to draw practically applicable lessons from it. This comparative analysis revealed the following results: (1)QRA-derived risk estimation measures used to quantify the risk from potential hazard associated with high-tech industries per se are not suitable

  11. Microbial transformation of highly persistent chlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Organic pollutants can be transformed, both in unsaturated and saturated areas of the soil, by means of biologically mediated reactions. The potential of soil microorganisms to clean up polluted soils is enormous. However, soil systems are highly heterogeneous with respect to the spatial

  12. Efficient purification and concentration of viruses from a large body of high turbidity seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Wang, Hongming; Gong, Chaowen; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    Marine viruses are the most abundant entities in the ocean and play crucial roles in the marine ecological system. However, understanding of viral diversity on large scale depends on efficient and reliable viral purification and concentration techniques. Here, we report on developing an efficient method to purify and concentrate viruses from large body of high turbidity seawater. The developed method characterizes with high viral recovery efficiency, high concentration factor, high viral particle densities and high-throughput, and is reliable for viral concentration from high turbidity seawater. Recovered viral particles were used directly for subsequent analysis by epifluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing. Three points are essential for this method:•The sampled seawater (>150 L) was initially divided into two parts, water fraction and settled matter fraction, after natural sedimentation.•Both viruses in the water fraction concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF) and viruses isolated from the settled matter fraction were considered as the whole viral community in high turbidity seawater.•The viral concentrates were re-concentrated by using centrifugal filter device in order to obtain high density of viral particles.

  13. The factors that explain the major agglomeration of the industry of high technology in the north border of Mexico: the case of Matamoros and Reynosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Pérez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades the geographical distribution of manufacturing change substantially, prompting new concentrations, particularly in the high tech industry. In this sense, the aim of this study is to know and analyze from the perspective of pecuniary and technological externalities factors that explain the change in the agglomeration of high-tech manufacturing. To do so,a questionnaire was applied to 55 manufacturing facilities located in Matamoros andReynosa in Tamaulipas. The results indicate that the highest concentration of high-tech industry has been motivated mainly by the geographic location of the municipalities, access to unskilled labor and cheap availability of urban infrastructure, among others. This means that there is no evidence for the pecuniary and technological externalities determine the agglomeration of high-tech industry in these cities.

  14. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  15. Designing reliability into high-effectiveness industrial gas turbine regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper addresses the measures necessary to achieve a reliable regenerator design that can withstand higher temperatures (1000-1200 F) and many start and stop cycles - conditions encountered in high-efficiency operation in pipeline applications. The discussion is limited to three major areas: (1) structural analysis of the heat exchanger core - the part of the regenerator that must withstand the higher temperatures and cyclic duty (2) materials data and material selection and (3) a comprehensive test program to demonstrate the reliability of the regenerator. This program includes life-cycle tests, pressure containment in fin panels, core-to-core joint structural test, bellows pressure containment test, sliding pad test, core gas-side passage flow distribution test, and production test. Today's regenerators must have high cyclic life capability, stainless steel construction, and long fault-free service life of 120,000 hr

  16. Inactivation of microorganisms for high pressures in the wine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana B, Jaime Nelson; Ortegon T, Sandra Patricia

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate experimentally the capacity of N 2 and CO 2 under pressure to inactivate wild yeasts, which remain in the Puntalarga vineyard grape, musts were exposed to hyperbaric treatment with these gases. At the end of the pascalization (after 2 hours), CO 2 at 15 degrades Celsius under pressures from 1 to 5 MPa, reached high inactivation percentages of yeast cells (> 90%). Contrary to CO 2 treatment the use of N 2 at 15 degrades Celsius at 4 and 10 MPa failed to exert microbicide effect in a same treatment time. While CO 2 gas with high solubility in water has the potential to reduce microbial loads in musts, N 2 gas with low solubility in water have not effect on the survival of the pathogenic microorganisms in these juices

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission s...

  18. High resisting alloy without Co used in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleret, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a high resistance alloy characterised in that it includes by weight 5 to 14% molybdenum, 19 to 32% chromium, 2 to 8% tungsten, 6 to 50% nickel, 0.2 to 2.8% carbon, 0 to 5% vanadium, 0 to 5% zirconium, 0 to 5% niobium-tantalum, 0 to 3% manganese, 0 to 3% silicon, 0 to 1.5% boron and iron in an amount to ensure the global balance of this alloy [fr

  19. Corporate Turnarounds in the High-tech Industry in UK

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Haixia

    2009-01-01

    Prior research on corporate turnaround relates to those organizations that have managed to move from poor performance to high performance within a relatively short time period by a case-study approach. The study also explores the role of leadership as a key factor in making turnaround successful as characterized by the change in CEO and in the board of directors. Finally, it explores the incentive systems of those firms during the turnaround. This study analyzed six public companies whic...

  20. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiber, Laura, E-mail: scheiber.ls@gmail.com [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cendón, Dioni I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences (BEES), University of New South Wales (UNSW), NSW 2052 (Australia); Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí Franquès, sn., Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Juan Carlos [Cobre Las Cruces S.A., Carretera SE-3410 km 4, 41860 Gerena, Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH{sub 4}), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH{sub 4}, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH{sub 4}, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ{sup 15}N{sub NH4} values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water

  1. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    High ammonium (NH_4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH_4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH_4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ"1"5N_N_H_4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality

  2. The contribution of high-performance computing and modelling for industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Happy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance Computing and Modelling for Industrial Development Dr Happy Sithole and Dr Onno Ubbink 2 Strategic context • High-performance computing (HPC) combined with machine Learning and artificial intelligence present opportunities to non...

  3. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  4. The Pattern of Spatially Concentrated Industries in East Germany - A Contribution to the Discussion on Economic “Clusters“

    OpenAIRE

    Martin T.W. Rosenfeld; Peter Franz; Gerhard Heimpold

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the literature in regional economics, most authors agree that spatially concentrated industrial activities are important for regional economic growth. Agglomeration economies, which may occur in the context of spatial concentration and “clusters“, may lead to lower costs of production and may reduce transaction costs of all kind, e. g. information costs, including the costs for R&D activities. There is much less agreement on (and: knowledge about) the empirical identification of ...

  5. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, M R; Monz, T O; Root, T W; Connelly, R K; Scott, C T; Klingenberg, D J

    2010-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20-35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction temperature, acid concentration, and rheometer temperature. Plastic viscosities increase with increasing solids concentration and tend to decrease with increasing reaction temperature and acid concentration. The solids concentration dependence of the yield stress is consistent with that reported for other fibrous systems. The changes in yield stress with reaction conditions are consistent with observed changes in particle size. This study illustrates that torque rheometry can be used effectively to measure rheological properties of concentrated biomass.

  6. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  7. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  8. Spectroscopy for Industrial Applications: High-Temperature Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Grosch, Helge; Clausen, Sønnik

    -dependent spectral absorption features gases of interest fora specic instrument can in principle be calculated by knowing only the gas temperature and pressure in the process under investigation/monitoring. The latest HITRAN-2012 database contains IR/UV spectral data for 47 molecules and it is still growing. However...... use of HITRAN is limited to low-temperature processes (available. Only a few molecules CO2, H2O, CO and NO are those of interest for e.......g. various combustion and astronomical applications are included. In the recent few years, several efforts towards a developmentof hot line lists have been made; those have been implemented in the latest HITRAN-2012 database. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 (IR, 0.1 cm-1) and phenol (UV,0...

  9. Industrial Internship and Entrepreneurship Competencies on Vocational High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendi, H. F.; Kusumah, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the research is to explore the influence of internship and vocational skill to student’s entrepreneurship competencies. The research used ex post facto approach. Population in this research is all students of Vocational High School in Bandung, Indonesia. The sample of 40 respondents was determined by proportional random sampling technique. The data were collected by instrument questionnaire and test. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The results show that almost half students have a low the competencies of an entrepreneur. The hypothesis testing shows many the influence of factory teaching has a positive and significant effect on the competencies of an entrepreneur. Similarly, vocational skills have positive influence and significant on the competencies of an entrepreneur. Respectively, the influence of factory teaching and vocational skills expertise collectively have the effect on the competencies of an entrepreneur. Therefore, the influence of factory teaching and vocational skills are effective to student’s entrepreneurship cap competencies.

  10. Investigating high-concentration monoclonal antibody powder suspension in nonaqueous suspension vehicles for subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2012-12-01

    Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Investigations into the penetration and pressure drop of HEPA filter media during loading with submicron particle aerosols at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are typically employed in particle removal and retention within the air cleaning systems of clean rooms in the pharmaceutical, nuclear and semiconductor industries for dust concentrations of some μg/m 3 . Their extremely high removal efficiencies for submicron particles make them attractive candidates in complying with increasingly lower emission limits for industrial processes that involve dust concentrations of up to several g/m 3 . Cost-effective operation under such conditions requires the filter units to be recleanable. The recleanability of HEPA filter media depends not only on the operating conditions during the cleaning process but also on the filtration conditions during particle loading. The structure and location of the particles captured by the glass fiber matrix greatly affect the degree to which they can be subsequently dislodged and removed from the filter medium. Changes in filtration efficiency with service time for various particle diameters in the critical submicron size range, as well as the effects of filtration velocity on the increase in pressure drop, are important criteria with regard to recleaning HEPA filter units. Of special significance for the recleanability of HEPA filter media is knowledge of how operating conditions affect dust cake formation. (author)

  12. Development and applications of high energy industrial computed tomography in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, YongShun; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, China's rapid development of high-end equipment manufacturing industry in the high-speed railway, aircraft, carrier rocket, etc. brings the growing requirements of the high quality assurance of the product. The accelerator based high-energy X-ray Industrial CT has the advantages of strong penetrating power, high sensitivity defect detection and quantitative measurement with image visualization, can meet the needs of the large complicated structure inspection demands. This paper introduces the current research and development status of high energy industrial CT system in China. Research achievements by the Tsinghua University and the Granpect company are discussed, including the ICT system design, high-power LINAC accelerator X-ray source and high detection efficiency detector development, fast and accurate reconstruction algorithms research, etc. This paper also introduces the particularized NDT applications from dozens of industrial CT systems made by Granpect in China, including welding structure nondestructive testing, assembly quality inspection, reverse engineering, scientific research and other applications. Then the future development and application of high energy industrial CT is prospected.

  13. To study the concentration of natural radionuclides (uranium, thorium) and certain toxic trace elements (arsenic, mercury, antimony, lead) in hair of persons living in industrial and agricultural areas of Byelorussia. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear methods in health-treated monitoring of trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.

    1983-03-01

    Hair samples were collected from male and female donors living in selected industrial or agricultural areas of Byelorussia. Samples were analysed by INAA for As, Hg, Pb and Sb, while Th and U were determined by the solid track detector (STD) method. Overall, concentrations of the elements monitored were low with the exception of Pb for which relatively high concentrations were observed in industrial areas. No significant differences in the concentrations of the elements surveyed were observed between industrial and agricultural areas nor between male and female donors

  14. High-concentration mirror-based Kohler integrating system for tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Benitez, P.; Cvetkovic, A.

    2006-06-01

    A novel two-mirror high concentration nonimaging optic has been designed that shares the advantages of present two mirror aplanatic imaging concentrators but also overcomes their main limitation of trade-off between acceptance angle and irradiance uniformity. A system concept has been defined, and a first prototype in under development.

  15. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l⁻¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l⁻¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l⁻¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up.

  16. Analysis of administrative barriers in the industry of the high-rise construction in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychenko, Irina; Borremans, Alexandra; Gutman, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    The article describes the concept and types of administrative barriers encountered in various areas of the enterprise. The particularities of the Russian high-rise construction industry are described and a comparative analysis of administrative barriers in this sector is performed. The main stages and administrative procedures when the developers implement investment and construction projects in the field of high-rise construction are determined. The regulatory and legal framework for the implementation of investment and project activities in the high-rise construction industry has been studied and conclusions have been drawn on its low level of precision in the issue of the formation of competitive and efficient high-rise construction markets. The average number of administrative procedures for the implementation of the investment and construction project in the field of high-rise construction is determined. The factors preventing the reduction of administrative barriers in the high-rise construction industry are revealed.

  17. Using fractional extraction method to separate Mo from U in high concentration solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Pinzhi; Cheng Guangrong; Ma Xiuhua

    1996-01-01

    The author presents investigation on separating Mo from U in acid high concentration lixivium with fractional extraction of secondary amine (7203) and D2EHPA and preparing qualified products of ammonium molybdate and sodium diuranate

  18. High Speed μ-Focus Computed Tomography on its way to industrial maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, J.P.; Lechner, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Today μ-focus computed tomography (μCT) plays only a minor roll as a method for high volume production testing in an industrial environment. Its main area of application is in research, proto-typing and failure analysis. μCT has not yet reached high volume manufacturing/production test for several reasons. Two of key reasons are the timely effort of CT inspections and the costly automation of testing procedures. The requirements for μCT are manifold. Inspection of samples from current production scenarios typically has to be achieved in less than 2 minutes. Quality of results must allow measurements with adequate accuracy. Furthermore results have to be repeatable and automatic testing procedures should be accomplished with small effort. For several years Comet's Business Unit FEINFOCUS has concentrated its R and D resources on optimization of high resolution CT-systems concerning quality and inspection time. Comprehensive studies for different materials and products have been conducted and analyzed regarding dependency of results on different factors, such as the number of projections used. Detailed results will be presented for representative examples from automotive-and electronics-industry. One of the key results of our research is that the dependency between image quality and duration of CT-scans is not proportional. Longer intervals for image integration - used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of a single projection- as well as high numbers of projections do not necessarily lead to significantly better CT-results. For a wide portfolio of production test scenarios, sufficiently accurate CT results can be obtained at significantly lower test times. We will introduce a standard μCT system which enables μCT-scans in a minute cycle. This can be achieved through optimized synchronization between sampling frequency of the X-ray detector and the image acquisition software. Furthermore we speed up reconstruction of volume

  19. Design of high power feedthrough for High Power Industrial Accelerator (HPIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Abhay; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Kumar, Pankaj; Goswami, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design, assembly and dismantling and maintenance of a feedthrough for High Power Industrial Accelerator (HPIA). It has been designed to serve three purposes. It provides electrical insulation between primary windings (at ∼ 2.5 kV) and cover flange (at ground potential) with the help of Nylon bushes. It also ensures leak tightness for SF 6 gas filled inside the vessel at 10 bar. It also provides sealing for water connectors between the primary winding and secondary winding. The key function of this feedthrough is to supply ∼ 800 A of current to the primary circuit. Technical requirement/constraint is leak tightness and electrical isolation of feedthrough. This feedthrough will be connected to the primary windings inside the vessel. Current will flow through a copper tube conductor which is at a potential of ∼ 800 V. Inside the tube water is flowing. Inlet water temperature is ∼ 30℃. Flow rate of water is 35 litres/minute at 6 kg/cm 2 pressure to remove the heat losses. (author)

  20. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Orikawa; H. Kamahara; Y. Atsuta; H. Daimon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS) dewatered sludge). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic...

  1. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Tao; Yang Zhijian; Zhang Guoyi

    2001-01-01

    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 17 cm -3 ) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  2. Compact high-flux two-stage solar collectors based on tailored edge-ray concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert P.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Ries, Harald

    1995-08-01

    Using the recently-invented tailored edge-ray concentrator (TERC) approach for the design of compact two-stage high-flux solar collectors--a focusing primary reflector and a nonimaging TERC secondary reflector--we present: 1) a new primary reflector shape based on the TERC approach and a secondary TERC tailored to its particular flux map, such that more compact concentrators emerge at flux concentration levels in excess of 90% of the thermodynamic limit; and 2) calculations and raytrace simulations result which demonstrate the V-cone approximations to a wide variety of TERCs attain the concentration of the TERC to within a few percent, and hence represent practical secondary concentrators that may be superior to corresponding compound parabolic concentrator or trumpet secondaries.

  3. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  4. FY 1998 survey report on the project on field tests for high-efficient industrial furnace introduction. Manual; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo mannual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The high-efficient industrial furnace is a technology with the use of ultra-high temperature air over 1,000 degrees C, which has been impossible. It has been developed since FY 1993. The technology can reduce the energy consumption amount by 30%, and there is a possibility of reducing not only CO2, but NOx by approximately 50% over the conventional method. The main technique of the technology is to preheat the air blown into the incinerator at much higher temperatures of 1,000 degrees C or more than those in the existing combustion and to blow fuel into that high-speed air flow using the short-time-change/heat-storage type heat exchanger. It was predicted that the target value set first can almost be reached, and there can be seen a possibility of its industrial application. Industrial furnaces are used in many industrial fields such as metal production industry, petrochemical industry and electric machinery industry. The energy conservation in these fields brings extremely marked effects, and therefore it is an urgent task to introduce the industrial furnace into the fields quickly. The concentrated R and D were finished in FY 1998, and the field test project for the introduction was actually started. (NEDO)

  5. Gravitational settling of a highly concentrated system of solid spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Usanina, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of the process of gravity sedimentation of a cloud of monodispersed solid spherical particles with initial volume concentration C > 0.03, which was performed in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. An analytical estimate of the settling regimes of spherical particle clouds is presented. A new method for creating a spherical particle cloud with a high concentration of particles is proposed. A qualitative picture of the settling process of a highly concentrated particle cloud under gravity is revealed. A criterial dependence for the drag coefficient of a sedimenting spherical particle cloud as an entity is obtained.

  6. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  7. Coagulation-Fenton coupled treatment for ecotoxicity reduction in highly polluted industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigón-Melón, J A; Carbajo, J B; Petre, A L; Rosal, R; García-Calvo, E

    2010-09-15

    A coupled coagulation-Fenton process was applied for the treatment of cosmetic industry effluents. In a first step, FeSO(4) was used as coagulant and the non-precipitated Fe(2+) remaining in dissolution was used as catalyst in the further Fenton process. In the coagulation process a huge decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) was achieved, but the high concentration of phenol derivatives was not diminished. The decrease in TOC in the coagulation step significantly reduces the amount of H(2)O(2) required in the Fenton process for phenol depletion. The coupled process, using a H(2)O(2) dose of only 2 g l(-1), reduced TOC and total phenol to values lower than 40 and 0.10 mg l(-1), respectively. The short reaction period (less than 15 min) in TOC and phenol degradation bodes well for improving treatment in a continuous regime. The combination of both processes significantly reduced the ecotoxicity of raw effluent and markedly increased its biodegradability, thus allowing easier treatment by the conventional biological units in conventional sewage treatment plants (STPs). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Utility industry evaluation of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Bitel, J.S.; Tramm, T.R.; High, M.D.; Neils, G.H.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor plant design, a current design created by an industrial team led by General Atomics under Department of Energy sponsorship and with support provided by utilities through Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates. The utility industry team concluded that the plant design should be considered a viable application of an advanced nuclear concept and deserves continuing development. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution toward improving a very promising plant design. 2 refs

  9. Supply Networks and Value Creation in High Innovation and Strong Network Externalities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Claro Tomaselli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developing product and service markets and developments in information technologies have accelerated growth in outsourcing of peripheral activities and critical business as well, enhancing the importance of network supply chain management. This paper analyzes the dynamics of supply chain management and the creation of value in an industry with strong network effects and constantly introduction of disruptive technologies, the videogame industry. This industry evolves at a high velocity, with a lifecycle of five to six years for consoles, which features a new generation of consoles, where new companies and technologies appear and disappear at each generation.

  10. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthi, D; Bereiter, B; Blunier, T; Siegenthaler, U; Kawamura, K; Stocker, T F [Climate and Environm. Physics, Physics Inst., Univ. Bern, CH-3012 Bern, (Switzerland); Luthi, D; Bereiter, B; Blunier, T; Siegenthaler, U; Kawamura, K; Stocker, T F [Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, Univ. Bern, CH-3012 Bern, (Switzerland); Le Floch, M; Barnola, J M; Raynaud, D [LGGE, CNRS-Univ. Grenoble 1, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, (France); Jouzel, J [Inst. Pierre Simon Laplace, LSCE, CEA-CNRS-Universite Versailles-Saint Quentin, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fischer, H [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Maine Research, D-27568 Bremerhaven, (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition of air trapped in ice cores from Antarctica. So far, the Antarctic Vostok and EPICA Dome C ice cores have provided a composite record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years. Here we present results of the lowest 200 m of the Dome C ice core, extending the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by two complete glacial cycles to 800,000 yr before present. From previously published data and the present work, we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide is strongly correlated with Antarctic temperature throughout eight glacial cycles but with significantly lower concentrations between 650,000 and 750,000 yr before present. Carbon dioxide levels are below 180 parts per million by volume (p.p.m.v.) for a period of 3,000 yr during Marine Isotope Stage 16, possibly reflecting more pronounced oceanic carbon storage. We report the lowest carbon dioxide concentration measured in an ice core, which extends the pre-industrial range of carbon dioxide concentrations during the late Quaternary by about 10 p.p.m.v. to 172-300 p.p.m.v. (authors)

  11. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  12. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-temperature industrial process heat: technology assessment and introduction rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-03

    Three specific topics of interest to DOE are addressed: to establish the significance and identify the role of high-temperature process heat in the nation's energy economy; to identify the role of solar thermal power in these high-temperature industrial applications in terms of possible markets and economic potential; and to recommend programmatic approaches for these solar thermal high-temperature process heat activities, including proposed content for initial Request for Proposals (RFPs) to accomplish such activities. The scope of the work required to accomplish these three purposes included the following: review of US industrial energy requirements, survey of current DOE low-temperature Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program, examination of high-temperature solar thermal electric systems already developed or under development by DOE and industry, and coordination with the high-energy user segments of industry (i.e., cement, chemical and petroleum) to find additional markets for some or all of the systems or components being developed in the DOE solar thermal electric program. Statistical data are presented identifying energy allocations to process heat and defining DOE's involvement. Three current fossil fuel process heat system examples are provided and the corresponding solar potential is identified.

  14. Study on high concentration solar concentrator using a Fresnel lens with a secondary concentrator; Fresnel lens to niji shukokei wo mochiita solar chemistry yo kobairitsu shukokei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, T; Suzuki, A; Fujibayashi, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A high concentration light collection system for solar chemistry was devised by using an inexpensive Fresnel lens in a primary concentration system and a conical type concentrator in a secondary concentration system. A Fresnel lens alone would not achieve sufficiently high light collecting magnification to attain high temperatures because of restrictions in the opening angle as seen from a focus. Therefore, a secondary concentration system was installed on a focus for an attempt of stopping. Reflection plane of a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is a rotary parabolic plane, whose process is expensive because of its surface processing accuracy. Therefore, a conical type concentrator was employed as a secondary concentration system. This system may not be capable of achieving as high concentration as in the CPC, but its shape is simple and it is inexpensive. In its optimization, a complete black body surface placed in vacuum atmosphere was hypothesized as a light concentrating part for the secondary concentration system to calculate heat collecting efficiencies at respective temperature settings. Using simultaneously the secondary concentration system, rather than collecting heat by using a Fresnel lens alone, has attained as high value as from 5.99% (500 degC) to 43.47% (1400 degC). Economical high-temperature heat collection of solar chemistry level may be possible by using a Fresnel lens and a conical secondary concentration system. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Predictors of turnover intentions of highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.

    2008-01-01

    As management-level turnover is increasing rapidly, one of the major challenges for the hospitality industry is to retain highly educated and highly skilled employees. As the psychological contract approach to the employment relationship had not been investigated with regard to the hospitality

  16. The ingenuous sovereign: On the relation of state and industry with high technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1984-01-01

    Using the example of the fast breeder reactor, the paper discusses the interaction of state and industry in high technology. The fact that the state spent billions of Deutschmark for this project, only to realize that this technology is uneconomic and will remain uneconomic in the foreseeable future, is explained by an information impactedness between state and industry. While the initiative for the project came from within the government sector, industry was skeptical as early as the 1960 about the economic prospects of the technology. But in the policy making process there were no incentives for the industry to show its skepticism. In the area of direct government support to industrial technology a financial contribution by industry from its own funds is required to create an incentive for industry to let government know its views about the economic prospects of a technology. In other areas of technology policy, where this mechanism is not applicable, government must come to grips with the fact that it cannot expect experts to inform government objectively if doing so entails a disadvantage to the expert itself or to the organisation by which he is employed. (orig.) [de

  17. INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS LEARNING MODELS FOR SURVEYING AND MAPPING OF VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunar Rochmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify a learning involving the world of work, to formulate the learning model, and to evaluate the learning model. This study used a qualitative approach for design and development research, consisting of the development and validation steps. The study concludes as follows. (1 the learning through partnerships having been conducted in all vocational high schools were industrial practice and vocational practice examination. (2 the constraints of learning through partnerships were mainly the far distance and the industry schedules that did not always match with the school’s. (3 the model development could be done by improving the learning quality by industrial practices in the private companies and with adding the learning model by industry visits, guest teaching, and up-to-date technology training. (4 the implementation of the developed model showed the feasibility and the effectiveness to prepare the students with the competencies required by the world of work. (5 the learning models through partnerships that could be practiced were guest teaching, orientation for industrial practice, industrial practices, students’ industry visits, up-to-date technology training, and vocational practice examination.

  18. Methods to assess high-resolution subsurface gas concentrations and gas fluxes in wetland ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Kühl, Michael; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2013-01-01

    The need for measurements of soil gas concentrations and surface fluxes of greenhouse gases at high temporal and spatial resolution in wetland ecosystem has lead to the introduction of several new analytical techniques and methods. In addition to the automated flux chamber methodology for high-re...

  19. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringel, Steven [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlin, John A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Grassman, Tyler [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first

  20. Prodigious Effects of Concentration Intensification on Nanoparticle Synthesis: A High-Quality, Scalable Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, Curtis B.

    2015-12-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (<7% relative standard deviation for Cu2-xS and CdS), and demonstrate a 10-1000-fold increase in Cu2-xS NP production (>200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening.

  1. The acclimation of Chlorella to high-level nitrite for potential application in biological NOx removal from industrial flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianpei; Xu, Gang; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Giordano, Mario; Wang, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the components of fossil flue gas that give rise to the greatest environmental concerns. This study evaluated the ability of the green algae Chlorella to acclimate to high level of NOx and the potential utilization of Chlorella strains in biological NOx removal (DeNOx) from industrial flue gases. Fifteen Chlorella strains were subject to high-level of nitrite (HN, 176.5 mmolL(-1) nitrite) to simulate exposure to high NOx. These strains were subsequently divided into four groups with respect to their ability to tolerate nitrite (excellent, good, fair, and poor). One strain from each group was selected to evaluate their photosynthetic response to HN condition, and the nitrite adaptability of the four Chlorella strains were further identified by using chlorophyll fluorescence. The outcome of our experiments shows that, although high concentrations of nitrite overall negatively affect growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains, the degree of nitrite tolerance is a strain-specific feature. Some Chlorella strains have an appreciably higher ability to acclimate to high-level of nitrite. Acclimation is achieved through a three-step process of restrict, acclimate, and thriving. Notably, Chlorella sp. C2 was found to have a high tolerance and to rapidly acclimate to high concentrations of nitrite; it is therefore a promising candidate for microalgae-based biological NOx removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. High nitrate concentrations in some Midwest United States streams in 2013 after the 2012 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wieczorek, Michael; Button, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen sources in the Mississippi River basin have been linked to degradation of stream ecology and to Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. In 2013, the USGS and the USEPA characterized water quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 wadeable streams across the midwestern United States. Wet conditions in 2013 followed a severe drought in 2012, a weather pattern associated with elevated nitrogen concentrations and loads in streams. Nitrate concentrations during the May to August 2013 sampling period ranged from nitrate concentrations at the 100 sites were compared with May to June concentrations predicted from a regression model developed using historical nitrate data. Observed concentrations for 17 sites, centered on Iowa and southern Minnesota, were outside the 95% confidence interval of the regression-predicted mean, indicating that they were anomalously high. The sites with a nitrate anomaly had significantly higher May to June nitrate concentrations than sites without an anomaly (means, 19.8 and 3.6 mg L−1, respectively) and had higher antecedent precipitation indices, a measure of the departure from normal precipitation, in 2012 and 2013. Correlations between nitrate concentrations and watershed characteristics and nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate indicated that fertilizer and manure used in crop production, principally corn, were the dominant sources of nitrate. The anomalously high nitrate levels in parts of the Midwest in 2013 coincide with reported higher-than-normal nitrate loads in the Mississippi River.

  3. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  4. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  5. High frequency measurement of nitrate concentration in the Lower Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shuiwang; Powell, Rodney T.; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2014-11-01

    Nutrient concentrations in the Mississippi River have increased dramatically since the 1950s, and high frequency measurements on nitrate concentration are required for accurate load estimations and examinations on nitrate transport and transformation processes. This three year record of high temporal resolution (every 2-3 h) data clearly illustrates the importance of high frequency sampling in improving load estimates and resolving variations in nitrate concentration with river flow and tributary inputs. Our results showed large short-term (days to weeks) variations in nitrate concentration but with no diurnal patterns. A repeatable and pronounced seasonal pattern of nitrate concentration was observed, and showed gradual increases from the lowest values in September (during base-flow), to the highest in June - which was followed by a rapid decrease. This seasonal pattern was only moderately linked with water discharge, and more controlled by nitrogen transformation/export from watershed as well as mixing patterns of the two primary tributaries (the upper Mississippi and the Ohio Rivers), which have distinctly different nitrate concentrations and flow patterns. Based on continuous in situ flow measurements, we estimated 554-886 × 106 kg of nitrate-N was exported from the Mississippi River system during years 2004-2006, which was <9% and <16% lower than U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) estimates using their LOADEST or composite methods, respectively. USGS methods generally overestimated nitrate loads during rising stages and underestimated the loads during falling stages. While changes in nitrate concentrations in large rivers are generally not as responsive to alterations in diurnal inputs and/or watershed hydrology as small rivers, high-frequency water quality sampling would help in monitoring short-term (days to weeks) variations in nutrient concentration patterns and thus improve the accuracy of nutrient flux estimates.

  6. Apportionment of the sources of high fine particulate matter concentration events in a developing aerotropolis in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Te; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chang, Shih-Yu; Su, Zhen-Sen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and contributions of the sources of fine particulate matter with a size of up to 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) during the period when pollution events could easily occur in Taoyuan aerotropolis, Taiwan, this study conducted sampling at three-day intervals from September 2014 to January 2015. Based on the mass concentration of PM 2.5 , the sampling days were classified into high PM 2.5 concentration event days (PM 2.5 >35 μg m −3 ) and non-event days (PM 2.5 <35 μg m −3 ). In addition, the chemical species, including water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous components, and metal elements, were analyzed. The sources of pollution and their contributions were estimated using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Furthermore, the effect of the weather type on the measurement results was also explored based on wind field conditions. The mass fractions of Cl − and NO 3 − increased when a high PM 2.5 concentration event occurred, and they were also higher under local emitted conditions than under long range transported conditions, indicating that secondary nitrate aerosols were the major increasing local species that caused high PM 2.5 concentration events. Seven sources of pollution could be distinguished using the PMF model on the basis of the characteristics of the species. Industrial emissions, coal combustion/urban waste incineration, and local emissions from diesel/gasoline vehicles were the main sources that contributed to pollution on high PM 2.5 concentration event days. In order to reduction of high PM 2.5 concentration events, the control of diesel and gasoline vehicle emission is important and should be given priority. - Highlights: • The mass fractions of NH 4 + , K + , Cl − and NO 3 − increased during PM 2.5 event days. • Reduction of coal combustion/urban waste incineration emissions should be prioritized. • The control of vehicle emission is important in the locally emitted periods. • Secondary

  7. Clearly Transparent Nanopaper from Highly Concentrated Cellulose Nanofiber Dispersion Using Dilution and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kasuga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanopaper prepared from holocellulose pulp is one of the best substrates for flexible electronics because of its high thermal resistance and high clear transparency. However, the clearness of nanopaper decreases with increasing concentration of the starting cellulose nanofiber dispersion—with the use of a 2.2 wt % dispersion, for example—resulting in translucent nanopaper with a high haze of 44%. To overcome this problem, we show that the dilution of this high-concentration dispersion with water followed by sonication for 10 s reduces the haze to less than 10% while maintaining the high thermal resistance of the nanopaper. Furthermore, the combination of water dilution and a short sonication treatment improves the clearness of the nanopaper, which would translate into cost savings for the transportation and storage of this highly concentrated cellulose nanofiber dispersion. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the electrical conductivity of clear transparent nanopaper prepared from an initially high-concentration dispersion by dropping and heating silver nanowire ink on the nanopaper. These achievements will pave the way toward the realization of the mass production of nanofiber-based flexible devices.

  8. High Voltage Solar Concentrator Experiment with Implications for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Ishaque S.; George, Patrick J.; O'Neill, Mark; Matson, Robert; Brockschmidt, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, fabrication, and test of a high performance, high voltage solar concentrator array. This assembly is believed to be the first ever terrestrial triple-junction-cell solar array rated at over 1 kW. The concentrator provides over 200 W/square meter power output at a nominal 600 Vdc while operating under terrestrial sunlight. Space-quality materials and fabrication techniques were used for the array, and the 3005 meter elevation installation below the Tropic of Cancer allowed testing as close as possible to space deployment without an actual launch. The array includes two concentrator modules, each with a 3 square meter aperture area. Each concentrator module uses a linear Fresnel lens to focus sunlight onto a photovoltaic receiver that uses 240 series-connected triple-junction solar cells. Operation of the two receivers in series can provide 1200 Vdc which would be adequate for the 'direct drive' of some ion engines or microwave transmitters in space. Lens aperture width is 84 cm and the cell active width is 3.2 cm, corresponding to a geometric concentration ratio of 26X. The evaluation includes the concentrator modules, the solar cells, and the materials and techniques used to attach the solar cells to the receiver heat sink. For terrestrial applications, a finned aluminum extrusion was used for the heat sink for the solar cells, maintaining a low cell temperature so that solar cell efficiency remains high.

  9. Structural changes induced by high-pressure processing in micellar casein and milk protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadesky, Lee; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Kriner, Kyle T; Karwe, Mukund V; Moraru, Carmen I

    2017-09-01

    Reconstituted micellar casein concentrates and milk protein concentrates of 2.5 and 10% (wt/vol) protein concentration were subjected to high-pressure processing at pressures from 150 to 450 MPa, for 15 min, at ambient temperature. The structural changes induced in milk proteins by high-pressure processing were investigated using a range of physical, physicochemical, and chemical methods, including dynamic light scattering, rheology, mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, proteomics, and soluble mineral analyses. The experimental data clearly indicate pressure-induced changes of casein micelles, as well as denaturation of serum proteins. Calcium-binding α S1 - and α S2 -casein levels increased in the soluble phase after all pressure treatments. Pressurization up to 350 MPa also increased levels of soluble calcium and phosphorus, in all samples and concentrations, whereas treatment at 450 MPa reduced the levels of soluble Ca and P. Experimental data suggest dissociation of calcium phosphate and subsequent casein micelle destabilization as a result of pressure treatment. Treatment of 10% micellar casein concentrate and 10% milk protein concentrate samples at 450 MPa resulted in weak, physical gels, which featured aggregates of uniformly distributed, casein substructures of 15 to 20 nm in diameter. Serum proteins were significantly denatured by pressures above 250 MPa. These results provide information on pressure-induced changes in high-concentration protein systems, and may inform the development on new milk protein-based foods with novel textures and potentially high nutritional quality, of particular interest being the soft gel structures formed at high pressure levels. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  10. Use of pre-industrial floodplain lake sediments to establish baseline river metal concentrations downstream of Alberta oil sands: a new approach for detecting pollution of rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Johan A; Hall, Roland I; Farwell, Andrea J; George Dixon, D; Wolfe, Brent B; Edwards, Thomas WD

    2014-01-01

    In the Alberta oil sands region, insufficient knowledge of pre-disturbance reference conditions has undermined the ability of the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) to detect pollution of the Athabasca River, because sampling began three decades after the industry started and the river naturally erodes oil-bearing strata. Here, we apply a novel approach to characterize pre-industrial reference metal concentrations in river sediment downstream of Alberta oil sands development by analyzing metal concentrations in sediments deposited in floodplain lakes of the Athabasca Delta during 1700–1916, when they were strongly influenced by Athabasca River floodwaters. We compared results to metal concentrations in surficial bottom sediments sampled by RAMP (2010–2013) at downstream sites of the Athabasca River and distributaries. When normalized to lithium content, concentrations of vanadium (a metal of concern in the oil sands region) and other priority pollutants (Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in nearly all of the RAMP river sediment samples lie below the upper 95% prediction interval linearly extrapolated from the river-derived lake sediments. Assuming the RAMP protocols obtained recently deposited sediment, this indicates that the metal concentrations in downstream Athabasca River sediment have not increased above pre-disturbance levels. Reference conditions derived from the lake sediment data were used to develop profiles of metal residual concentrations versus time for the RAMP river sediment data, which provides an excellent tool for decision-makers to identify and quantify levels of metal pollution for any given sample, and to monitor for future trends. We recommend that the approach be applied to resurrect the utility of RAMP data at other river sampling locations closer to the development, and for ongoing risk assessment. The approach is also readily transferable to other rivers where insufficient pre-disturbance reference data impairs an ability to

  11. Concentration Analysis in the Turkish Domestic Air Transportation Industry using with CRm and Herfindahl-Hirschman Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım KİRACI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentration means that economic activities are dominated or owned by a small number of firms in any market. Accordingly, there is a negative relationship between concentration ratio in the market and level of competition. In other words, as the concentration rate increases, level of competition decreases and vice-versa. The low market concentration ratio and imperfect competition are common occurences in the emerging countries such as Turkey. In this study, concentration ratio and level of competition of the top five airports in Turkey will be examined by years. In this context, the airlines’ (using these top five airports number of passengers and cargo volumes between 2012 and 2015 will be used to analyse. This study is significant as it is the first study to investigate airport market concentration and market structure in Turkey. In this context, the relationship between domestic air transportation concentration ratio and market structure will be demonstrated with using M-Firm Concentration Ratio (CRm and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI analysis methods. After the analyses, our results justified that market structure is far from competition. In addition, there are recommendations and determinations to what to do for ensuring competition and maintaining it truly in this study.

  12. A Study on introduction of Bench Marking in the power industry - concentrated on the Bench Marking issue in the power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuck Soo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    Recently it takes too much pains for enterprises to be adapted to the more complicated social structure. There are no guarantees to survive in competition only with improving service quality of a product, reducing cost by improving production efficiency, and reducing labors. To survive in a keen competition, it is important to acquire new management techniques and management theories. Among them, a benchmarking technique, improving competitive power through the analysis of top-ranking companies or companies with excellent results in a comparative sector, is in the spotlight recently. Therefore, the approaches to bench marking were discussed with the focus on the adaptation of KEPCO with a new paradigm. However, this study contained the limit of applying benchmarking technique due to its huge scale. Therefore, it was focused on brining up benchmarking issue by reflecting the basic problems of power industry to the developed countries. (author). 29 refs., 16 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Development of high speed and reliable data transmission system for industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fuqiang; Dong Yanli; Liu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of large capacity,high speed and high reliability of data transmission for industrial CT, a data transmission system based on USB 2.0 was designed. In the process of data transmission, FPGA was the main controller, and USB 2.0 CY7C68013A worked in slave FIFO mode. The system sent the data got from data acquisition system to host computer for image reconstruction. The testing results show that the transmission rate can reach 33 MB/s and the precision is 100%. The system satisfies the requirements of data transmission for industrial CT. (authors)

  14. INNOVATIVE MODELS OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF SKILLED PERSONNEL FOR HIGH TECH INDUSTRIES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Shyshkina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of development of innovative learning environment of continuous education and training of skilled personnel for high-tech industry are described. Aspects of organization of ICT based learning environment of vocational and technical school on the basis of cloud computing and outsourcing are revealed. The three-stage conceptual model for perspective education and training of workers for high-tech industries is proposed. The model of cloud-based solution for design of learning environment for vocational education and training of skilled workers is introduced.

  15. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  16. Photoluminescence of highly compensated GaAs doped with high concentration of Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaru; Watanabe, Akira; Suezawa, Masashi

    1999-12-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ge-doped GaAs crystals to confirm the validity of a theory developed by Shklovskii and Efros to explain the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombination in potential fluctuation. GaAs crystals doped with Ge of various concentrations were grown by a liquid-encapsulated Czochralski method. They were homogenized by annealing at 1200°C for 20 h under the optimum As vapor pressure. Both quasi-continuous and time-resolved PL spectra were measured at 4.2 K. The quasi-continuous PL spectra showed that the peak position shifted to lower energy as the Ge concentration increased, which was consistent with the Shklovskii and Efros's theory. Under very strong excitation in time-resolved measurements, the exciton peak appeared within short periods after excitation and then the peak shifted to that of DAP recombination. This clearly showed that the potential fluctuation disappeared under strong excitation and then recovered as the recombination proceeded.

  17. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Makino

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d.

  18. Storage in high-barrier pouches increases the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yoshio; Nishimura, Yuto; Oshita, Seiichi; Mizosoe, Takaharu; Akihiro, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation. The sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets was significantly elevated by 1.9- to 2.8-fold after 2 d of storage under hypoxia at ca. 0% O2 and ca. 24% CO2 at 20°C, whereas no such increase was observed following storage under normoxia at ca. 0% O2 without CO2 at 20°C. Furthermore, after 2 d, the sulforaphane concentration under hypoxia was 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher than that under normoxia. These results suggest that storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels can elevate the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli florets. However, the elevated sulforaphane concentration could not be maintained beyond 2 d. There was no significant difference in the concentration of ethanol between florets that were stored under hypoxia with/without CO2 or normoxia at 2 d. However, the ethanol concentrations inside the pouches significantly increased between 2 d and 7 d. These findings indicate that the quality of broccoli florets can be improved through storage under hypoxia with high CO2 levels at 20°C for 2 d.

  19. Cation effect on small phosphonium based ionic liquid electrolytes with high concentrations of lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Kerr, Robert; Forsyth, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes with high alkali salt concentrations have displayed some excellent electrochemical properties, thus opening up the field for further improvements to liquid electrolytes for lithium or sodium batteries. Fundamental computational investigations into these high concentration systems are required in order to gain a better understanding of these systems, yet they remain lacking. Small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with high concentrations of alkali metal ions have recently shown many promising results in experimental studies, thereby prompting us to conduct further theoretical exploration of these materials. Here, we conducted a molecular dynamics simulation on four small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with 50 mol. % LiFSI salt, focusing on the effect of cation structure on local structuring and ion diffusional and rotational dynamics—which are closely related to the electrochemical properties of these materials.

  20. High-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement concentration based on Laguerre–Gaussian mode selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wuhong; Su, Ming; Wu, Ziwen; Lu, Meng; Huang, Bingwei; Chen, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    Twisted photons enable the definition of a Hilbert space beyond two dimensions by orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates. Here we propose a feasible entanglement concentration experiment, to enhance the quality of high-dimensional entanglement shared by twisted photon pairs. Our approach is started from the full characterization of entangled spiral bandwidth, and is then based on the careful selection of the Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) modes with specific radial and azimuthal indices p and ℓ. In particular, we demonstrate the possibility of high-dimensional entanglement concentration residing in the OAM subspace of up to 21 dimensions. By means of LabVIEW simulations with spatial light modulators, we show that the Shannon dimensionality could be employed to quantify the quality of the present concentration. Our scheme holds promise in quantum information applications defined in high-dimensional Hilbert space. (letter)

  1. Use of wastes in high-temperature processes of the chemical industry; Verwertung von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Domschke, T.; Steinebrunner, K. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The examples presented in this paper from diverse application areas of the chemical industry serve as an illustration of the many different ways in which wastes can be used for high-temperature processes in this branch. A review of the environmentally friendly concepts implemented at BASF AG in Ludwigshafen in the course of the past five years gives an idea of the immense potential opened up by a consistent application of the four-stage model for the prevention, reduction, and utilisation of wastes. In this period it was possible to reduce waste arisings by 34%, down from a potential 2 million tons, physically recycle 51%, and convert 11.5% to energy. This left a comparatively small fraction of 3.5%, or 70,000 tons, to be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way. Furthermore, the amount of pollutants produced per tonne of products sold fell from 40.6 kg in 1987 to 6.7 kg in 1997. [Deutsch] Die Beispiele aus den unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsbereichen der chemischen Industrie koennen als Auswahl der vielfaeltigen Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der Chemie betrachtet werden. Das immense Potential, das sich durch konsequente Anwendung des 4-Stufen-Modells zur Vermeidung, Verminderung und Verwertung von Abfaellen eroeffnet, zeigt sich in einer Fuenfjahresbilanz der umgesetzten Umweltschutzbetrachtungen in der BASF AG in Ludwigshafen. So konnten in diesem Zeitraum von potentiellen 2 Mio t Abfall/a ca. 34% vermieden und vermindert, 51% stofflich und 11,5% energetisch verwertet werden, so dass nur noch ein geringer Anteil von 3,5%, entsprechend ca. 70000 t/a, umweltgerecht entsorgt werden musste. Dies fuehrte auch zu einer drastischen Reduktion der auf der Tonne Verkaufsprodukt bezogenen Menge an umweltbelastenden Stoffen von 40,6 kg im Jahre 1987 auf 6,7 kg im Jahre 1997. (orig.)

  2. The relationship between the bone mineral density and urinary cadmium concentration of residents in an industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Minah; Paek, Domyung [Institute of Health and Environment, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chungsik, E-mail: csyoon@snu.ac.kr [Institute of Health and Environment, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: An association between cadmium exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in elderly women, but has not been well studied in youths and men. Some studies report either no or a weak association between cadmium exposure and bone damage. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the urinary cadmium (U-Cd) levels and BMD of females and males of all ages. Methods: A total of 804 residents near an industrial complex were surveyed in 2007. U-Cd and BMD on the heel (non-dominant calcaneus) were analyzed with AAS-GTA and Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Demographic characteristics were collected by structured questionnaires. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined by BMD cut-off values and T-scores set by the WHO; T score>-1, normal; -2.5high U-Cd levels ({>=}1.0 {mu}g/g creatinine) in females (OR=2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.64) and in males (OR=3.37; 95% CI, 1.09-10.38). With the multiple linear regression model, the BMD of the adult group was negatively associated with U-Cd (<0.05), gender (female, p<0.001) and age (p<0.001). The BMD of participants who were {<=}19 years of age was negatively associated with gender (female, p<0.01), whereas it was positively associated with age and BMI (p<0.001). BMD was not associated with exercise, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, job or parental education. Conclusion: Results suggested that U-Cd might be associated with osteopenia as well as osteoporosis in both male and female adults. Age and female gender were negatively associated with BMD in the adult group, whereas age was positively

  3. The relationship between the bone mineral density and urinary cadmium concentration of residents in an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Minah; Paek, Domyung; Yoon, Chungsik

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association between cadmium exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in elderly women, but has not been well studied in youths and men. Some studies report either no or a weak association between cadmium exposure and bone damage. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the urinary cadmium (U-Cd) levels and BMD of females and males of all ages. Methods: A total of 804 residents near an industrial complex were surveyed in 2007. U-Cd and BMD on the heel (non-dominant calcaneus) were analyzed with AAS-GTA and Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Demographic characteristics were collected by structured questionnaires. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined by BMD cut-off values and T-scores set by the WHO; T score>-1, normal; -2.5< T score <-1, osteopenia; and T score <-2.5, osteoporosis. Logistic and multiple linear regressions were applied to estimate the association between U-Cd levels and BMD. Results: The U-Cd levels in females (0.64 μg/g creatinine) were higher than those in males (0.48 μg/g creatinine) (p<0.001). With the logistic regression model, osteopenia was associated with high U-Cd levels (≥1.0 μg/g creatinine) in females (OR=2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.64) and in males (OR=3.37; 95% CI, 1.09-10.38). With the multiple linear regression model, the BMD of the adult group was negatively associated with U-Cd (<0.05), gender (female, p<0.001) and age (p<0.001). The BMD of participants who were ≤19 years of age was negatively associated with gender (female, p<0.01), whereas it was positively associated with age and BMI (p<0.001). BMD was not associated with exercise, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, job or parental education. Conclusion: Results suggested that U-Cd might be associated with osteopenia as well as osteoporosis in both male and female adults. Age and female gender were negatively associated with BMD in the adult group, whereas age was positively associated with

  4. EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, C.; Bogusch, E.; Bredimas, A.; Delannay, N.; Viala, C.; Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E.; Chauvet, V.; Hittner, D.; Fütterer, M.A.; Groot, S. de; Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K.; Moron, R.; Baudrand, O.; Griffay, G.; Baaten, A.; Segurado-Gimenez, J.

    2012-01-01

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.

  5. EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo, C., E-mail: carmen.angulo@gdfsuez.com [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Bogusch, E. [AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Bredimas, A. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Delannay, N. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Viala, C. [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E. [SAIPEM S.A., 1/7 Avenue San Fernando, 78884 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex (France); Chauvet, V. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Hittner, D. [AREVA NP Inc., 3315 Old Forest Road, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Fuetterer, M.A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Groot, S. de [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse,52425 Juelich (Germany); Moron, R. [Solvay SA, rue du Prince Albert 33, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baudrand, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Griffay, G. [Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, rue Luigi Cherubini 1A5, 39200 Saint Denis (France); Baaten, A. [USG/Baaten Energy Consulting, Burgermeester-Ceulen-Straat 78, 6212CT Maastricht (Netherlands); Segurado-Gimenez, J. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.

  6. Diffusion Patterns in Convergence among High-Technology Industries: A Co-Occurrence-Based Analysis of Newspaper Article Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeokseong Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firms in high-technology industries have faced great technological and market uncertainty and volatility in the past few decades. In order to be competitive and sustainable in this environment, firms have been pursuing technological innovation, product differentiation, vertical integration, and alliances, which eventually drive industry convergence, defined as the process of blurring boundaries between previously distinct industries. Although industry convergence has greatly affected industrial structure and the economy, little research has investigated this phenomenon, especially its diffusion patterns; thus, it is still unclear which industries are converging more rapidly or have a higher potential for convergence. This paper explores these issues by investigating industry convergence in U.S. high-technology industries, using a large set of newspaper articles from 1987 to 2012. We perform a co-occurrence-based analysis to obtain information on industry convergence and estimate its diffusion patterns using an internal-influence logistic model. We find heterogeneous diffusion patterns, depending on convergent-industry pairs and their wide dispersion. In addition, we find that the potential degree of industry convergence is significantly negatively associated with its growth rate, which indicates that a great deal of time will be required for industry convergence between high-technology industries with this high potential to achieve a high degree of convergence.

  7. Re-Engineering a High Performance Electrical Series Elastic Actuator for Low-Cost Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Isik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires careful consideration of the key performance parameters for an optimal performance-to-cost component selection. To optimize the performance of the new design, we started by matching the capabilities of a high-performance SEA while cutting down its production cost significantly. Our posit was that performing a re-engineering design process on an existing high-end device will significantly reduce the cost without compromising the performance drastically. As a case study of design for manufacturability, we selected the University of Texas Series Elastic Actuator (UT-SEA, a high-performance SEA, for its high power density, compact design, high efficiency and high speed properties. We partnered with an industrial corporation in China to research the best pricing options and to exploit the retail and production facilities provided by the Shenzhen region. We succeeded in producing a low-cost industrial grade actuator at one-third of the cost of the original device by re-engineering the UT-SEA with commercial off-the-shelf components and reducing the number of custom-made parts. Subsequently, we conducted performance tests to demonstrate that the re-engineered product achieves the same high-performance specifications found in the original device. With this paper, we aim to raise awareness in the robotics community on the possibility of low-cost realization of low-volume, high performance, industrial grade research and education hardware.

  8. Increased albumin excretion in industrial workers due to shift work rather than to prolonged exposure to low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard, P J; Caubo, M E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--It has been reported that groups of workers in petrochemical industries who have been exposed to low concentrations of chemicals for prolonged periods have an increased urinary albumin excretion compared with unexposed controls. This increase, however, seemed to be unrelated to the extent, duration, and type of exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suggestion that the small increase in albumin excretion might be due to differences in physical workload betwe...

  9. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  10. An assessment of a spiral duct centrifuge using standard and high concentration aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.D.

    1982-12-01

    The Stoeber spiral duct centrifuge has been calibrated by means of polystyrene latex microspheres for the subsequent measurement of aerosol particle size distributions. Intermediate (1 g m -3 ) ad high (100 g m -3 ) sodium chloride aerosol concentrations have been sampled by the centrifuge to determine possible limitations in the equipment. Corrections have to be made for the effect of Coriolis forces, and aerosol concentrations above 1 g m -3 should be diluted before sampling. The spiral duct centrifuge is an extremely versatile instrument for aerosol analysis, and shows a high degree of reliability when operated under well-defined conditions. (author)

  11. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi

    2001-01-01

    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  12. The Relevance of Vocational High School Curriculum with the Requirement of the Heavy Equipment Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfiyanur, E. P.; Sumardi, K.; Rahayu, Y.; Putra, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to determine the relevance of competencies developed by vocational high schools with the needs of workers in the industrial world. This is to answer the statement from the world of industry that the competencies possessed by vocational secondary education graduates are not in accordance with industry standards. This research is a qualitative research conducted by collecting data, presenting accurate and objective information. Respondents of this research are industrial institutions in the field of heavy equipment, vocational education institutions and government agencies in charge of manpower. Selection of informants / sources of information used is purposive sample technique, which aims to give consideration to select informants who meet the criteria in providing accurate information. The results of this study provide insight and input to vocational secondary education managers about various information in developing vocational secondary education curriculum, major issues include curriculum content relevance, technological advances in the heavy equipment industry, updating of school facilities and collaboration between educational institutions and labor institutions and the industrial world in the development of vocational secondary education.

  13. Vitamin E concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinoseki Kaio, Daniella J Itinoseki; Rondó, Patricia Helen C; Luzia, Liania Alves; Souza, José Maria P; Firmino, Aline Vale; Santos, Sigrid Sousa

    2014-09-15

    HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.

  14. FORMATION OF THE HUMAN CAPITAL IN MODEL OF INTEGRATION OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE IN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Mityakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the problems of reproduction of human resources in the scientific and educational cooperation and collaboration of university research with industry. Proposed a model integration high school science to industry of the region, including the internal and external levels. On the internal level, proposed a scheme of transfer technology in a technical university, where the formation of human capital is produced in two related areas: training of competitive labor market specialists with higher education, as well as consolidation in the universities of highly qualified personnel. On the external level, proposed creation of an integrated research and education production cluster, which brings together the personnel and technological capabilities of the industrial region.

  15. Design of scanning motion control system for high-energy X-ray industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Liming

    2008-01-01

    A scanning motion control system was developed for the high-energy X-ray industrial computerized tomography (CT). The system consists of an industrial control computer, a counter card, a control card, servo drivers, servo motors, working platforms, gratings and control software. Based on windows driver model(WDM) mode, the composition of the driver pro- gram for the system was studied. Took the motor control card as an example, the method to develop the driver program was researched, and the intercourse process between the device driver program and the user-program was analyzed. The real-time control of the system was implemented using the WDM driver. The real-time performance and reliability of the system can satisfy the requirement of high-energy X-ray industrial CT. (authors)

  16. Separation and Concentration without Clogging Using a High-Throughput Tunable Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossige, E. J.; Jensen, A.; Mielnik, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a detailed experimental study of a hydrodynamic filtration microchip and show how chip performance can be tuned and clogging avoided by adjusting the flow rates. We demonstrate concentration and separation of microspheres at throughputs as high as 29 ml /min and with 96% pureness. Results of streakline visualizations show that the thickness of a tunable filtration layer dictates the cutoff size and that two different concentration mechanisms exist. Particles larger than pores are concentrated by low-velocity rolling over the filtration pillars, while particles smaller than pores are concentrated by lateral drift across the filtration layer. Results of microscopic particle image velocimetry and particle-tracking velocimetry show that the degree of lateral migration can be quantified by the slip velocity between the particle and the surrounding fluid. Finally, by utilizing differences in inertia and separation mode, we demonstrate size-based separation of particles in a mixture.

  17. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  18. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of methodologies and polices for evaluation of energy efficiency in high energy-consuming industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Jia; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The classification of the industrial energy efficiency index has been summarized. • The factors of energy efficiency and their implement in industries are discussed. • Four main evaluation methodologies of energy efficiency in industries are concluded. • Utilization of the methodologies in energy efficiency evaluations are illustrated. • Related polices and suggestions based on energy efficiency evaluations are provided. - Abstract: Energy efficiency of high energy-consuming industries plays a significant role in social sustainability, economic performance and environmental protection of any nation. In order to evaluate the energy efficiency and guide the sustainability development, various methodologies have been proposed for energy demand management and to measure the energy efficiency performance accurately in the past decades. A systematical review of these methodologies are conducted in the present paper. First, the classification of the industrial energy efficiency index has been summarized to track the previous application studies. The single measurement indicator and the composite index benchmarking are highly recognized as the modeling tools for power industries and policy-making in worldwide countries. They are the pivotal figures to convey the fundamental information in energy systems for improving the performance in fields such as economy, environment and technology. Second, the six factors that influence the energy efficiency in industry are discussed. Third, four major evaluation methodologies of energy efficiency are explained in detail, including stochastic frontier analysis, data envelopment analysis, exergy analysis and benchmarking comparison. The basic models and the developments of these methodologies are introduced. The recent utilization of these methodologies in the energy efficiency evaluations are illustrated. Some drawbacks of these methodologies are also discussed. Other related methods or influential indicators

  20. Enhanced Enzymatic Production of Cephalexin at High Substrate Concentration with in situ Product Removal by Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengchao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin (CEX was synthesized with 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA and D(–-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME using immobilized penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli. It was found that substrate concentration and in situ product could remarkably influence the ratio of synthesis to hydrolysis (S/H and the efficiency of CEX synthesis. The optimal ratio of enzyme to substrate was 65 IU/mM 7-ADCA. High substrate concentration improved the 7-ADCA conversion from 61 to 81 % in the process without in situ product removal (ISPR, while in the synthetic process with ISPR, high substrate concentration increased the 7-ADCA conversion from 88 to 98 %. CEX was easily separated from CEX/β-naphthol complex and its purity and overall yield were 99 and 70 %, respectively.

  1. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  2. Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Francisco B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of industrial bioethanol production will depend on the rational design and manipulation of industrial strains to improve their robustness against the many stress factors affecting their performance during very high gravity (VHG or lignocellulosic fermentations. In this study, a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes found, through genome-wide screenings, to confer resistance to the simultaneous presence of different relevant stresses were identified as required for maximal fermentation performance under industrial conditions. Results Chemogenomics data were used to identify eight genes whose expression confers simultaneous resistance to high concentrations of glucose, acetic acid and ethanol, chemical stresses relevant for VHG fermentations; and eleven genes conferring simultaneous resistance to stresses relevant during lignocellulosic fermentations. These eleven genes were identified based on two different sets: one with five genes granting simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and furfural, and the other with six genes providing simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and vanillin. The expression of Bud31 and Hpr1 was found to lead to the increase of both ethanol yield and fermentation rate, while Pho85, Vrp1 and Ygl024w expression is required for maximal ethanol production in VHG fermentations. Five genes, Erg2, Prs3, Rav1, Rpb4 and Vma8, were found to contribute to the maintenance of cell viability in wheat straw hydrolysate and/or the maximal fermentation rate of this substrate. Conclusions The identified genes stand as preferential targets for genetic engineering manipulation in order to generate more robust industrial strains, able to cope with the most significant fermentation stresses and, thus, to increase ethanol production rate and final ethanol titers.

  3. Niacin alters the ruminal microbial composition of cattle under high-concentrate condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20, high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80, and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN. Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding. Ruminal fluid was sampled at the end of each period for microbial DNA extraction. Overall, our findings revealed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA was induced and the α-diversity of ruminal bacterial community decreased in the cattle of HC group. Adding niacin in HC could relieve the symptoms of SARA in the cattle but the ruminal pH value and the Shannon index of ruminal bacterial community of HCN group were still lower than those of HF group. Whatever the diet was, the ruminal bacterial community of cattle was dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. High-concentrate diet significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella, and decreased the abundance of Paraprevotella, Sporobacter, Ruminococcus and Treponema than HF. Compared with HC, HCN had a trend to decrease the percentage of Prevotella, and to increase the abundance of Succiniclasticum, Acetivibrio and Treponema. Increasing concentrate ratio could decrease ruminal pH value, and change the ruminal microbial composition. Adding niacin in HC could increase the ruminal pH value, alter the ruminal microbial composition.

  4. Atmospheric concentrations, distributions and air-soil exchange tendencies of PAHs and PCBs in a heavily industrialized area in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu; Yurdakul, Sema; Keles, Melek; Celik, Isil; Ozturk, Fatma; Dogan, Cevdet

    2017-09-01

    Dilovasi is one of the heavily industrialized areas in Turkey with serious environmental problems. In this study, the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and PCBs were measured for a whole year at 23 sites. The average ambient air Σ 15 PAH and Σ 41 PCB concentrations were found as 285 ± 431 ng m -3 and 4152 ± 6072 pg m -3 , respectively. PAH concentrations increased with decreasing temperature especially in urban areas, indicating the impact of residential heating. However, PCB concentrations mostly increased with temperature probably due to enhanced volatilization from their sources. The gradient obtained for PCBs, rural air were higher in industrial-urban areas than rural sites, showing that soil was a secondary source for PAHs. Fugacity ratios of PCBs were mostly <1.0 for the whole sampling period. Although the source/sink tendency of soil for some PCBs depends on their volatility, considering the whole data, PCBs were generally deposited to soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints

  6. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  7. Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in sportsmen and untrained male adults. F.A. Niyi-Odumosu, O. A. Bello, S.A. Biliaminu, B.V. Owoyele, T.O. Abu, O.L. Dominic ...

  8. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  9. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  10. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Innovative encapsulated oxygen-releasing beads for bioremediation of BTEX at high concentration in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wen; Wu, Chih-Hung; Guo, Pei-Yu; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2017-12-15

    Both a low concentration of dissolved oxygen and the toxicity of a high concentration of BTEX inhibit the bioremediation of BTEX in groundwater. A novel method of preparing encapsulated oxygen-releasing beads (encap-ORBs) for the biodegradation of BTEX in groundwater was developed. Experimental results show that the integrality and oxygen-releasing capacity of encap-ORBs exceeded those of ORBs. The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with high M.W. to prepare encap-ORBs improved their integrality. The encap-ORBs effectively released oxygen for 128 days. High concentration of BTEX (480 mg L -1 ) inhibited the biodegradation by the free cells. Immobilization of degraders in the encap-ORB alleviated the inhibition. Scanning electron microscope analysis reveals that the BTEX degraders grew on the surface of encap-ORB after bioremediation. The above results indicate that the encap-ORBs were effective in the bioremediation of BTEX at high concentration in groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of the Gas Flow in an Industrial Directional Solidification Furnace for Production of High Purity Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucible cover was designed as gas guidance to control the gas flow in an industrial directional solidification furnace for producing high purity multicrystalline silicon. Three cover designs were compared to investigate their effect on impurity transport in the furnace and contamination of the silicon melt. Global simulations of coupled oxygen (O and carbon (C transport were carried out to predict the SiO and CO gases in the furnace as well as the O and C distributions in the silicon melt. Cases with and without chemical reaction on the cover surfaces were investigated. It was found that the cover design has little effect on the O concentration in the silicon melt; however, it significantly influences CO gas transport in the furnace chamber and C contamination in the melt. For covers made of metal or with a coating on their surfaces, an optimal cover design can produce a silicon melt free of C contamination. Even for a graphite cover without a coating, the carbon concentration in the silicon melt can be reduced by one order of magnitude. The simulation results demonstrate a method to control the contamination of C impurities in an industrial directional solidification furnace by crucible cover design.

  13. Accurate determination of 41Ca concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bourlès, Didier; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2013-01-01

    The radiological characterisation of nuclear waste is essential for managing storage sites. Determining the concentration of Long‐Lived RadioNuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long-term management. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 41 Ca concentrations in ions exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). 41 Ca concentrations were successfully measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) after the acid digestion of resin samples, followed by radioactive decontamination and isobaric suppression through successive hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate and final CaF 2 precipitations. Measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 ng/g, i.e. from 0.06 to 0.09 Bq/g. The 41 Ca/ 60 Co activity ratios obtained were remarkably reproducible and in good agreement with the current ratio used for resins management. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 41 Ca in spent resins using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. • A chemical treatment procedure was developed to quantitatively recover calcium in solution and selectively extract it. • Developed firstly on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • Accelerator mass spectrometry allowed measuring concentrations of 41 Ca in spent resins as low as 0.02 ng/g of dry resin. • Final results are in agreement with current data used for spent resins management

  14. A multidimensional conspiracy around the software industry: arguments for intervention in high technology sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wilian Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current debate about governmental intervention in high tech industries. On one hand, there are arguments against such interventions that consider the high tech industries as a capital intensive sector; instead of technological intensity, the capital intensity determines the value added. On the other hand, we could prove that there is at least one high tech industry, which is job intensive and non capital intensive, with high value added, that generates several positive externalities (the software industry. Such externalities are important arguments to support governmental intervention in high tech industries and cast doubts on the capital’s value added argument.Este artigo analisa o debate atual relacionado à intervenção estatal nas indústrias de alta intensidade tecnológica. Por um lado, existem argumentos contra tais intervenções que consideram essas indústrias setores também intensivos em capital. Ao contrário do que se pensa, para esta corrente, a intensidade de capital – e não a tecnológica – seria o fator determinante da adição de valor. Por ouro lado, foi possível provar, neste trabalho, que existe ao menos uma indústria de alta intensidade tecnológica, intensiva em trabalho e não em capital, com alto valor adicionado, que gera diversas externalidades positivas em âmbitos social e econômico: a indústria de software. Tais externalidades servem como importantes argumentos para justificar a intervenção estatal em setores de alta intensidade tecnológica e lança dúvidas sobre o argumento da exclusividade do capital como determinante de adição de valor.

  15. Voltage magnitude and margin controller for remote industrial microgrid with high wind penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yu; Lin, Jin; Song, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the remote industrial microgrid is located at the periphery of the grid, which is weakly connected to the main grid. In order to enhance the voltage stability and ensure a good power quality for industries, a voltage magnitude and margin controller based on wind turbines...... is proposed in this paper. This controller includes two parts to improve voltage stability in different time scales by using local measurements. Case studies conducted for a remote microgrid with high wind penetration have proved the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme....

  16. Agglomeration externalities, market structure and employment growth in high-tech industries: Revisiting the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the existing empirical evidence on the effects of various agglomeration externalities and the market structure on employment growth in the high-tech industries of the European Economic Area (EEA. Our study is based on the dynamic panel dataset of two-digit NACE rev 1.1. industries in 285 regions of the European Economic Area for the period 1995-2007. We find that employment growth is negatively related to competition, while localization and urbanization externalities do not seem to affect growth.

  17. Product Stewardship in Uranium: A Way for the Industry to Demonstrate its High Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Product stewardship is an means for communicating the high performance on health, safety and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle including uranium mining. • It has been effective with other products and is appropriate for uranium. • Can be a vehicle for addressing public concerns across the industry. • Due to uranium’s unique characteristics it has the potential to be a best practice example of product stewardship. • Work is underway in the international arena to progress uranium product stewardship and it represent a unique opportunity to provide whole of industry benefits

  18. Quality of care and patient satisfaction in hospitals with high concentrations of black patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Carthon, J Margo; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Sloane, Douglas M; Cimiotti, Jeannie P; Aiken, Linda H

    2011-09-01

    To examine the influence of nursing-specifically nurse staffing and the nurse work environment-on quality of care and patient satisfaction in hospitals with varying concentrations of Black patients. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of 2006-2007 nurse survey data collected across four states (Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and California), the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey, and administrative data. Global analysis of variance and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the concentration of Black patients on quality measures (readiness for discharge, patient or family complaints, health care-associated infections) and patient satisfaction, before and after accounting for nursing and hospital characteristics. Nurses working in hospitals with higher concentrations of Blacks reported poorer confidence in patients' readiness for discharge and more frequent complaints and infections. Patients treated in hospitals with higher concentrations of Blacks were less satisfied with their care. In the fully adjusted regression models for quality and patient satisfaction outcomes, the effects associated with the concentration of Blacks were explained in part by nursing and structural hospital characteristics. This study demonstrates a relationship between nursing, structural hospital characteristics, quality of care, and patient satisfaction in hospitals with high concentrations of Black patients. Consideration of nursing factors, in addition to other important hospital characteristics, is critical to understanding and improving quality of care and patient satisfaction in minority-serving hospitals. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. High concentrations of thiosulfate in scala tympani perilymph after systemic administration in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Pernilla Videhult; Engmér, Cecilia; Wallin, Inger; Laurell, Göran; Ehrsson, Hans

    2009-02-01

    High concentrations of the antioxidant thiosulfate reach scala tympani perilymph after i.v. administration in the guinea pig. Thiosulfate concentrations in perilymph remain elevated longer than in blood. This warrants further studies on the possibility of obtaining otoprotection by thiosulfate administration several hours before that of cisplatin without compromising the anticancer effect caused by cisplatin inactivation in the blood compartment. Thiosulfate may reduce cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, presumably by oxidative stress relief and formation of inactivate platinum complexes. This study aimed to explore to what extent thiosulfate reaches scala tympani perilymph after systemic administration in the guinea pig. Scala tympani perilymph (1 microl) was aspirated from the basal turn of each cochlea up to 3 h after thiosulfate administration (103 mg/kg b.w., i.v.). Blood samples were also taken. Thiosulfate was quantified by HPLC and fluorescence detection. Substantial thiosulfate concentrations were found in perilymph. The area under the concentration-time curve for thiosulfate in perilymph and blood was 3100 microMxmin and 6300 microMxmin, respectively. The highest thiosulfate concentrations in perilymph were found at the first sampling at about 10 min. Due to a more rapid elimination from blood, perilymph concentrations exceeded those of blood towards the end of the experiment.

  20. Concentration-Induced Association in a Protein System Caused by a Highly Directional Patch Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Lund, Mikael; Bergenholtz, Johan; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2016-09-01

    Self-association of the protein lactoferrin is studied in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Effective static structure factors have been shown to exhibit either a monotonic or a nonmonotonic dependence on protein concentration in the small wavevector limit, depending on salt concentration. The behavior correlates with a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration, such that a maximum appears in the structure factor at a low protein concentration when the second virial coefficient is negative and close to a minimum. The results are interpreted in terms of an integral equation theory with explicit dimers, formulated by Wertheim, which provides a consistent framework able to explain the behavior in terms of a monomer-dimer equilibrium that appears because of a highly directional patch attraction. Short attraction ranges preclude trimer formation, which explains why the protein system behaves as if it were subject to a concentration-dependent isotropic protein-protein attraction. Superimposing an isotropic interaction, comprising screened Coulomb repulsion and van der Waals attraction, on the patch attraction allows for a semiquantitative modeling of the complete transition pathway from monomers in the dilute limit to monomer-dimer systems at somewhat higher protein concentrations.

  1. Physiological epidermal growth factor concentrations activate high affinity receptors to elicit calcium oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Marquèze-Pouey

    Full Text Available Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer. In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

  2. Physiological epidermal growth factor concentrations activate high affinity receptors to elicit calcium oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquèze-Pouey, Béatrice; Mailfert, Sébastien; Rouger, Vincent; Goaillard, Jean-Marc; Marguet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer). In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar) concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

  3. Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in youths treated with high-dose osmotic release oral system formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan R; George, Robert A; Fusillo, Steven; Stern, Theodore A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2010-02-01

    Children and adolescents are being treated increasingly for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a variety of stimulants in higher than Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses and in combination with other medications. We sought to determine methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents treated with high-dose, extended-release osmotic release oral system (OROS) MPH plus concomitant medications, and to examine MPH concentrations with respect to the safety and tolerability of treatment. Plasma MPH concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 4-5 hours after administration of medication in a sample of youths diagnosed with ADHD. These youths were treated naturalistically with higher than FDA-approved doses of OROS MPH in addition to their concomitant medications. Markers of safety and tolerability (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) were also examined. Among the 17 patients (with a mean age of 16.2 +/- 2 years and a mean number of concurrent medications of 2.23 +/- 0.94), the mean plasma MPH concentration was 28 +/- 9.1 ng/mL, despite a mean daily dose of OROS MPH of 169 +/- 5 mg (3.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg per day). No patient had a plasma MPH level >or=50 ng/mL or clinical signs of stimulant toxicity. No correlation was found between plasma MPH concentrations and OROS MPH dose or changes in vital signs. High-dose OROS MPH, used in combination with other medications, was not associated with either unusually elevated plasma MPH concentrations or with clinically meaningful changes in vital signs. Study limitations include a single time-point sampling of MPH concentrations, a small sample size, and a lack of outcome measures to address treatment effectiveness.

  4. Investigation on the effect of thermal resistances on a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system is studied. • The performances of different cooling systems are analyzed and compared. • Sandwiching a copper plate between the PV and TE can improve the efficiency. • Four thermal design principles of the system are proposed. - Abstract: A thermal analysis of a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system is carried out in this paper. Both the output power and the temperature distribution in the hybrid system are calculated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. Three possible approaches for designing the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system are presented by analyzing the thermal resistance of the whole system. First, the sensitivity analysis shows that the thermal resistance between the TE module and the environment has a more great effect on the output power than the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The influence of the natural convection and the radiation can be ignored for the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. Second, it is necessary to sandwich a copper plate between the PV and the TE for decreasing the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The role of the copper plate is to improve the temperature uniformity. Third, decreasing the area of PV cells can improve the efficiency of the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. It should be pointed out that decreasing the area of PV cells also increases the total thermal resistance, but the raise of the efficiency is caused by the reduction of the heat transfer rate of the system. Therefore, the principle of minimizing the total thermal resistance may not be suitable for optimizing the area of PV cells.

  5. Influence of vibration on structure rheological properties of a highly concentrated suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriev Uriev, Boris N.; Uriev, Naum B.

    2005-08-01

    The influence of mechanical vibration on the flow properties of a highly concentrated multiphase food system is explored in this work. An experimental set-up was designed and adapted to a conventional rotational rheometer with precise rheological characterization capability. A number of calibration tests were performed prior to fundamental experiments with a highly concentrated chocolate suspension. Also, the prediction of wall slippage in shear flow under vibration was evaluated. Analysis of the boundary conditions shows that no side effects such as wall slippage or the Taylor effect were present during the shear experiment under vibration. It was found that superposition of mechanical vibration and shear flow radically decreases the shear viscosity. Comparison between reference shear viscosities at specified shear rates and those measured under vibration shows considerable differences in flow properties. Conversion of the behaviour of the concentrated suspension from strongly shear-thinning to Newtonian flow is reported. Also, the appearance of vibration-induced dilatancy as a new phenomenon is described. It is suggested to relate such phenomena to the non-equilibrium between structure formation and disintegration under vibration and hydrodynamic forces of shear flow. The influence of vibration on structure formation can be well observed during measurement of the yield value of the chocolate suspension under vibration. Comparison with reference data shows how sensitive the structure of the concentrated suspension is to vibration in general. The effects and observations revealed provide a solid basis for further fundamental investigations of structure formation regularities in the flow of any highly concentrated system. The results also show the technological potential for non-conventional treatment of concentrated, multiphase systems.

  6. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangagni Rao, A; Venkata Naidu, G; Krishna Prasad, K; Chandrasekhar Rao, N; Venkata Mohan, S; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater were found to be very high with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and startup of the reactor was carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it was found that the optimum OLR was 10 kg COD/m(3)/day. The wastewater under investigation, which had a considerable quantity of SS, was treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater were monitored and at steady state and optimum OLR 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD were removed. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and the reaction could withstand the shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS.

  7. HRM in a highly uncertain strategic situation: The case of the electronuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbel, P. [University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, LAREQUOI, Management Research Centre, 47 boulevard Vauban, F-78047 Guyancourt (France)]. E-mail: Pascal.Corbel@quoi.uvsq.fr

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear industry has some specific strategic features that result in a very high level of uncertainty. The demand for new reactors has been declining for more than twenty years, and gains in performance have slowed down during the same period. As a result, at first sight, this technology should be classified as declining in terms of demand and maturing in terms of technological life cycle. This situation has important consequences on HRM inside this industry. In particular, power plant constructors have had to considerably reduce their personnel numbers. However, this industry also expects a strong revival of demand, which means that it has to preserve its key competences. This paper deals with the management of this paradoxical situation. (author)

  8. Mass Customisation and Highly Individualised Solutions. Stretching Mass Customisation Beyond the Traditional Paradigm of Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2007-01-01

    and consumption patterns. The reference to a paradigm shift helps emphasising the inherent limits of industrial production and the elements of changes brought about by the possibility to generate highly individualised solutions. The concept of mass customisation was introduced to extend the domain of industrial...... production beyond its original limitations, however it is strongly linked to the paradigm of industrial production and not always usable to support and explain new ways of organising value creation. This paper proposes an analysis of this paradigm shift through three cases, which emphasise some elements...... of mass customisation that are still relevant to the new paradigm. At the same time the paper emphasises the limits of this concept and the need for a new perspective view to interpret the ongoing change in production and consumption systems....

  9. HRM in a highly uncertain strategic situation: The case of the electronuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry has some specific strategic features that result in a very high level of uncertainty. The demand for new reactors has been declining for more than twenty years, and gains in performance have slowed down during the same period. As a result, at first sight, this technology should be classified as declining in terms of demand and maturing in terms of technological life cycle. This situation has important consequences on HRM inside this industry. In particular, power plant constructors have had to considerably reduce their personnel numbers. However, this industry also expects a strong revival of demand, which means that it has to preserve its key competences. This paper deals with the management of this paradoxical situation. (author)

  10. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  11. Design and Optimization of Fresnel Lens for High Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical optimization design is proposed, in which the solar direct light spectrum and multijunction cell response range are taken into account in combination, particularly for the Fresnel concentrators with a high concentration and a small aspect ratio. In addition, the change of refractive index due to temperature variation in outdoor operation conditions is also considered in the design stage. The calculation results show that this novel Fresnel lens achieves an enhancement of energy efficiency of about 10% compared with conventional Fresnel lens for a given solar spectrum, solar cell response, and corrected sunshine hours of different ambient temperature intervals.

  12. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electricity Production and Characterization of High-Strength Industrial Wastewaters in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Afsin Y; Ozdemir, Oguz Kaan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestami

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance. In the second step of this study, various wastewaters such as chocolate industry, gum industry and slaughterhouse industry were investigated for anode bacteria sources. Several electrochemical techniques have been employed to elucidate how wastewaters affect the MFCs' performance. Among all the mentioned wastewaters, the best performance was achieved by the MFCs fed with slaughterhouse wastewater; this device produced a maximum power density of 267 mW·m -2 .

  14. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-01-26

    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  15. Pollutant removal-oriented yeast biomass production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewater: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial single-cell-protein (SCP) production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewaters is considered an attractive method for both wastewater purification and resource utilization. In the last two decades, pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes, i.e., yeast treatment processes, have attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of research groups worldwide. Different from conventional SCP production processes, yeast treatment processes are characterized by higher pollutant removal rates, lower production costs, highly adaptive yeast isolates from nature, no excess nutrient supplements, and are performed under non-sterile conditions. Furthermore, yeast treatment processes are similar to bacteria-dominated conventional activated sludge processes, which offer more choices for yeast SCP production and industrial wastewater treatment. This review discusses why highly adaptive yeast species isolated from nature are used in the yeast treatment process rather than commercial SCP producers. It also describes the application of yeast treatment processes for treating high-carboxyhydrate, oil-rich and high-salinity industrial wastewater, focusing primarily on high-strength biodegradable organic substances, which usually account for the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand. Also discussed is the biodegradation of xenobiotics, such as color (including dye and pigment) and toxic substances (including phenols, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), present in industrial wastewater. Based on molecular information of yeast community structures and their regulation in yeast treatment systems, we also discuss how to maintain efficient yeast species in yeast biomass and how to control bacterial and mold proliferation in yeast treatment systems. - Highlights: • Pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes offer more choices. • Highly adaptive yeast isolates replace commercial SCP producers. • Yeasts degrade

  16. Spectral and Concentration Sensitivity of Multijunction Solar Cells at High Temperature: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Steiner, Myles A.; Perl, Emmett E.; Simon, John

    2017-06-14

    We model the performance of two-junction solar cells at very high temperatures of ~400 degrees C and beyond for applications such as hybrid PV/solar-thermal power production, and identify areas in which the design and performance characteristics behave significantly differently than at more conventional near-room-temperature operating conditions. We show that high-temperature operation reduces the sensitivity of the cell efficiency to spectral content, but increases the sensitivity to concentration, both of which have implications for energy yield in terrestrial PV applications. For other high-temperature applications such as near-sun space missions, our findings indicate that concentration may be a useful tool to enhance cell efficiency.

  17. Influence of a High-Pressure Comminution Technology on Concentrate Yields in Copper Ore Flotation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saramak D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the issues of flotation process effectiveness in relationship to the operating conditions of a high-pressure comminution process course. Experimental programme covering a flotation laboratory batch tests was a verification technique of a high-pressure crushing operations course. The most favorable values of flotation concentrate weight recoveries were obtained for the pressing force 6 kN and 4% of the feed moisture. It was also determined the model of the concentrate weight recovery as a function of pressing force in the press and feed moisture content. This model was the basis for the optimization of effects of copper ore flotation processes preceded in high-pressure crushing operation in roller presses.

  18. The role of silicon interstitials in the deactivation and reactivation of high concentration boron profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboy, Maria [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: marabo@tel.uva.es; Pelaz, Lourdes [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Marques, Luis A. [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, Pedro [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barbolla, Juan [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Venezia, V.C. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Duffy, R. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Griffin, Peter B. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-12-15

    Boron cluster formation and dissolution in high concentration B profiles and the role of Si interstitials in these processes are analyzed by kinetic non-lattice Monte Carlo atomistic simulations. For this purpose, we use theoretical structures as simplifications of boron implants into preamorphized Si, followed by low-temperature solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth or laser thermal annealing process. We observe that in the presence of high B concentrations (above 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), significant deactivation occurs during high temperature anneal, even in the presence of only equilibrium Si interstitials. The presence of additional Si interstitials from an end of range (EOR) damage region accelerates the deactivation process and makes B deactivation slightly higher. We show that B deactivation and reactivation processes can be clearly correlated to the evolution of Si interstitial defects at the EOR. The minimum level of activation occurs when the Si interstitial defects at EOR dissolve or form very stable defects.

  19. Phenomenon of energy concentration in super-high energy γ-hadron families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhiqiang; Xue Liang; Li Jinyu; Zhang Xueyao; Feng Cunfeng; Fu Yu; Li Jie; Cao Peiyuan; Zhang Naijian; He Mao; Wang Chengrui; Ren Jingru; Lu Suiling

    2000-01-01

    The family events observed with iron emulsion chambers at Mt. Kanbala are analyzed and compared with the simulations by the COSMOS code and CORSIKA code respectively. A detailed study on the production of super-high energy γ-hadron families with energy concentration behavior is carried out. The preliminary conclusions are: 1) the energy concentration behavior of super-high energy γ-hadron families is the external embodiment of high energy central shower clusters contained in the families. 2) the mean lateral spread of these clusters is about 0.37 cm. 3) the frequency of this phenomenon appeared under the conditions of R≤10 mm and X 10 ≥90% is (20.5 +- 3.1)%. 4) compared to the COSMOS code based on the phenomenological multi-cluster model, the simulation by the CORSIKA code that adopts SIBYLL model is closer to the analytical results of experiment

  20. High concentrations of H2O2 make aerobic glycolysis energetically more favourable than cellular respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over eight decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2 above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP in response to the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources. This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  1. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C 18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  3. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations and mercury depositions at a high-altitude mountain peak in south China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Fu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available China is regarded as the largest contributor of mercury (Hg to the global atmospheric Hg budget. However, concentration levels and depositions of atmospheric Hg in China are poorly known. Continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were carried out from May 2008 to May 2009 at the summit of Mt. Leigong in south China. Simultaneously, deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in precipitation, throughfall and litterfall were also studied. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 2.80±1.51 ng m−3, which was highly elevated compared to global background values but much lower than semi-rural and industrial/urban areas in China. Sources identification indicates that both regional industrial emissions and long range transport of Hg from central, south and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM level. Seasonal and diurnal variations of GEM were observed, which reflected variations in source intensity, deposition processes and meteorological factors. Precipitation and throughfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Leigong were comparable or lower compared to those reported in Europe and North America, whereas litterfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg were higher compared to Europe and North America. This highlights the importance of vegetation to Hg atmospheric cycling. In th remote forest ecosystem of China, deposition of GEM via uptake of foliage followed by litterfall was very important for the depletion of atmospheric Hg. Elevated GEM level in ambient air may accelerate the foliar uptake of Hg through air which may partly explain the elevated litterfall deposition fluxes of Hg observed in Mt. Leigong.

  4. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  5. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  6. Discontentment and knowledge spillovers in an emerging high-tech industry: a study of the emergence of the RFID industry

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is an inductive study of how entrepreneurs and their collaborators use or encourage knowledge spillovers to fuel technological innovations during the emergence of a knowledge intensive industry. Drawing on theories of the entrepreneurial process, innovation during industry emergence, and knowledge spillovers, this thesis seeks to explain the process by which entrepreneurs, facing market, organizational and technological uncertainty, use their existing knowledge to procure, share a...

  7. Inhibition of raw starch digestion by one glucoamylase preparation from black Aspergillus at high enzyme concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, B C; Veda, S

    1981-09-01

    Raw starch digestion by glucoamylase I (Ab. G-I) preparation from black Aspergillus was inhibited significantly at relatively high concentration of the enzyme. The properties of this enzyme were studied together with those of another glucoamylase I (Nor. G-I), also from black Aspergillus. The two glucoamylases do not differ so much in their physico-chemical properties such as molecular weight, pH and thermal stability, pH and temperature optimum, substrate specificity, debranching activity, isoelectric point etc. The adsorption rate of both enzymes on raw starch increased by the increase of enzyme concentration. The raw starch digestion rate by adsorbed Ab. G-I, however, was decreased with the increase of concentration of enzyme whereas the same was increased in case of Nor. G-I. The inhibitory effect was weaker at 60 deg. Celcius or above. (Refs. 11).

  8. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for Refinery Wastewater Treatment Contains High Phenol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Alif Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Refinery wastewater is characterized by a high phenol content. Phenol is toxic and resistant to biological processes for treatment of the petroleum refinery wastewater. The combination of an AOP and a biological process can be used for treatment of the refinery wastewater. It is necessary to conduct a study to determine the appropriate condition of AOP to meet the phenol removal level. Two AOP configurations were investigated: H2O2 / UV and H2O2 / UV / O3. From each process samples, COD, phenol and pH were measured. The oxidation was carried out until the targeted phenol concentration of treated effluent were obtained. The better result obtained by using process H2O2 / UV / O3 with the H2O2 concentration 1000 ppm. After 120 minutes, the final target has been achieved in which phenol concentration of 37.5 mg/L or phenol degradation of 93.75%.

  9. Diffusion of ion-implanted B in high concentration P- and As-doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, R.B.; Pappas, P.N.

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion of ion-implanted B in Si in the presence of a uniform background of high concentration P or As was studied by correlating numerical profile calculations with profiles determined by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Retarded B diffusion is observed in both As- and P-doped Si, consistent with the effect of the local Fermi-level position in the Si band gap on B diffusivity, D/sub B/. It is shown that D/sub B/ is linearly dependent on the free hole concentration, p, over the range 0.1 less than p/n/sub ie/ less than 30, where n/sub ie/ is the effective intrinsic electron concentration. This result does not depend on the way in which the background dopant has been introduced (implantation predeposition or doped-oxide source), nor the type of dopant used (P or As). (U.S.)

  10. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  11. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  12. Generation of high-titer viral preparations by concentration using successive rounds of ultracentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Christine V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral vectors provide a method of stably introducing exogenous DNA into cells that are not easily transfectable allowing for the ectopic expression or silencing of genes for therapeutic or experimental purposes. However, some cell types, in particular bone marrow cells, dendritic cells and neurons are difficult to transduce with viral vectors. Successful transduction of such cells requires preparation of highly concentrated viral stocks, which permit a high virus concentration and multiplicity of infection (MOI during transduction. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G envelope protein is common practice for both lentiviral and retroviral vectors. The VSV-G glycoprotein adds physical stability to retroviral particles, allowing concentration of virus by high-speed ultracentrifugation. Here we describe a method report for concentration of virus from large volumes of culture supernatant by means of successive rounds of ultracentrifugation into the same ultracentrifuge tube. Method Stable retrovirus producer cell lines were generated and large volumes of virus-containing supernatant were produced. We then tested the transduction ability of virus following varying rounds of concentration by ultra-centrifugation. In a second series of experiments lentivirus-containing supernatant was produced by transient transfection of 297T/17 cells and again we tested the transduction ability of virus following multiple rounds of ultra-centrifugation. Results We report being able to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus for as many as four rounds of ultracentrifugation while observing an additive increase in viral titer. Even after four rounds of ultracentrifugation we did not reach a plateau in viral titer relative to viral supernatant concentrated to indicate that we had reached the maximum tolerated centrifugation time, implying that it may be possible to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus even further should it be necessary

  13. Performance analysis of high-concentrated multi-junction solar cells in hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Alzanki, Talal H.; Alenezi, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Multi-junction concentrator solar cells are a promising technology as they can fulfill the increasing energy demand with renewable sources. Focusing sunlight upon the aperture of multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells can generate much greater power densities than conventional PV cells. So, concentrated PV multi-junction solar cells offer a promising way towards achieving minimum cost per kilowatt-hour. However, these cells have many aspects that must be fixed to be feasible for large-scale energy generation. In this work, a model is developed to analyze the impact of various atmospheric factors on concentrator PV performance. A single-diode equivalent circuit model is developed to examine multi-junction cells performance in hot weather conditions, considering the impacts of both temperature and concentration ratio. The impacts of spectral variations of irradiance on annual performance of various high-concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV) panels are examined, adapting spectra simulations using the SMARTS model. Also, the diode shunt resistance neglected in the existing models is considered in the present model. The present results are efficiently validated against measurements from published data to within 2% accuracy. Present predictions show that the single-diode model considering the shunt resistance gives accurate and reliable results. Also, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and air mass are most important atmospheric parameters having a significant impact on HCPV cell performance. In addition, the electrical efficiency (η) is noticed to increase with concentration to a certain concentration degree after which it decreases. Finally, based on the model predictions, let us conclude that the present model could be adapted properly to examine HCPV cells' performance over a broad range of operating conditions.

  14. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Shardell, Michelle D; Hicks, Gregory E; Orwig, Denise L; Hochberg, Marc C; Semba, Richard D; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S; Miller, Ram R

    2011-03-01

    fracture patients demonstrated higher vitamin E concentrations. Thus, the relatively high degree of function among this cohort of hip fracture patients may explain their higher-than-expected vitamin E concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluidized bed combustion of single coal char particles at high CO{sub 2} concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Combustion of single coal char particles was studied at 850{sup o}C in a lab-scale fluidized bed at high CO{sub 2} concentration, typical of oxyfiring conditions. The burning rate of the particles was followed as a function of time by continuously measuring the outlet CO and O{sub 2} concentrations. Some preliminary evaluations on the significance of homogeneous CO oxidation in the reactor and of carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} in the char were also carried out. Results showed that the carbon burning rate increases with oxygen concentration and char particle size. The particle temperature is approximately equal to that of the bed up to an oxygen concentration of 2%, but it is considerably higher for larger oxygen concentrations. Both CO{sub 2} gasification of char and homogeneous CO oxidation are not negligible. The gasification reaction rate is slow and it is likely to be controlled by intrinsic kinetics. During purely gasification conditions the extent of carbon loss due to particle attrition by abrasion (estimated from the carbon mass balance) appears to be much more important than under combustion conditions.

  16. Detection and Estimation of 2-D Distributions of Greenhouse Gas Source Concentrations and Emissions over Complex Urban Environments and Industrial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T.; Dobler, J. T.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work highlights the use of the greenhouse-gas laser imaging tomography experiment (GreenLITETM) data in conjunction with a sparse tomography approach to identify and quantify both urban and industrial sources of CO2 and CH4. The GreenLITETM system provides a user-defined set of time-sequenced intersecting chords or integrated column measurements at a fixed height through a quasi-horizontal plane of interest. This plane, with unobstructed views along the lines of sight, may range from complex industrial facilities to a small city scale or urban sector. The continuous time phased absorption measurements are converted to column concentrations and combined with a plume based model to estimate the 2-D distribution of gas concentration over extended areas ranging from 0.04-25 km2. Finally, these 2-D maps of concentration are combined with ancillary meteorological and atmospheric data to identify potential emission sources and provide first order estimates of their associated fluxes. In this presentation, we will provide a brief overview of the systems and results from both controlled release experiments and a long-term system deployment in Paris, FR. These results provide a quantitative assessment of the system's ability to detect and estimate CO2 and CH4 sources, and demonstrate its ability to perform long-term autonomous monitoring and quantification of either persistent or sporadic emissions that may have both health and safety as well as environmental impacts.

  17. Technical note: False low turbidity readings from optical probes during high suspended-sediment concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.; Griffiths, Ronald E.

    2018-03-01

    Turbidity, a measure of water clarity, is monitored for a variety of purposes including (1) to help determine whether water is safe to drink, (2) to establish background conditions of lakes and rivers and detect pollution caused by construction projects and stormwater discharge, (3) to study sediment transport in rivers and erosion in catchments, (4) to manage siltation of water reservoirs, and (5) to establish connections with aquatic biological properties, such as primary production and predator-prey interactions. Turbidity is typically measured with an optical probe that detects light scattered from particles in the water. Probes have defined upper limits of the range of turbidity that they can measure. The general assumption is that when turbidity exceeds this upper limit, the values of turbidity will be constant, i.e., the probe is pegged; however, this assumption is not necessarily valid. In rivers with limited variation in the physical properties of the suspended sediment, at lower suspended-sediment concentrations, an increase in suspended-sediment concentration will cause a linear increase in turbidity. When the suspended-sediment concentration in these rivers is high, turbidity levels can exceed the upper measurement limit of an optical probe and record a constant pegged value. However, at extremely high suspended-sediment concentrations, optical turbidity probes do not necessarily stay pegged at a constant value. Data from the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, and a laboratory experiment both demonstrate that when turbidity exceeds instrument-pegged conditions, increasing suspended-sediment concentration (and thus increasing turbidity) may cause optical probes to record decreasing false turbidity values that appear to be within the valid measurement range of the probe. Therefore, under high-turbidity conditions, other surrogate measurements of turbidity (e.g., acoustic-attenuation measurements or suspended-sediment samples) are necessary to

  18. Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2013-10-01

    A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Pb concentration stress on Typha latifolia growth and Pb removal in microcosm wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiu; Chen, Fengzhen; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Chaohua

    2015-01-01

    When constructed wetlands are used to treat high-Pb wastewater, Pb may become a stress to wetland plants, which subsequently reduces treatment performance and the other ecosystem services. To facilitate the design and operation of constructed wetlands for treatment of Pb-rich wastewater, we investigated the irreversible inhibitory level of Pb for Typha latifolia through experiments in microcosm wetlands. Seven horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands were built with rectangular plastic tanks and packed with marble chips and sand. All wetlands were transplanted with nine stems of Typha latifolia each. The wetlands were batch operated in a greenhouse with artificial wastewater (10 L each) for 12 days. Influent to the seven wetlands had different concentrations of Pb: 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that leaf chlorophyll relative content, relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and content of malondialdehyde were not affected when initial Pb concentration was at 100 mg/L and below. But when initial Pb concentration was above 100 mg/L, all of them were seriously affected. We conclude that high Pb concentrations wastewater could inhibit the growth of Typha latifolia and decrease the removal rate of wetlands.

  20. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael; Lindström, G

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2*10/sup 14/ to 9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10601130f the initial doping concentration for [O/sub i/]=9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, while for normal detector grade material with [O/sub i/] below 5*10/sup 16/ cm /sup -3/ that value is 60-90Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentratio...

  1. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanzin, Alberto; Corazzin, Mirco; Piasentier, Edi; Bovolenta, Stefano

    2018-05-16

    During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows' diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion) and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion) alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH) to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  2. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romanzin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows’ diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  3. High Concentrations of Measles Neutralizing Antibodies and High-Avidity Measles IgG Accurately Identify Measles Reinfection Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Jennifer S.; Hickman, Carole J.; Mercader, Sara; Redd, Susan; McNall, Rebecca J.; Williams, Nobia; McGrew, Marcia; Walls, M. Laura; Rota, Paul A.; Bellini, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 9% of the measles cases reported from 2012 to 2014 occurred in vaccinated individuals. Laboratory confirmation of measles in vaccinated individuals is challenging since IgM assays can give inconclusive results. Although a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay result from an appropriately timed specimen can provide confirmation, negative results may not rule out a highly suspicious case. Detection of high-avidity measles IgG in serum samples provides laboratory evidence of a past immunologic response to measles from natural infection or immunization. High concentrations of measles neutralizing antibody have been observed by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays among confirmed measles cases with high-avidity IgG, referred to here as reinfection cases (RICs). In this study, we evaluated the utility of measuring levels of measles neutralizing antibody to distinguish RICs from noncases by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Single and paired serum samples with high-avidity measles IgG from suspected measles cases submitted to the CDC for routine surveillance were used for the analysis. The RICs were confirmed by a 4-fold rise in PRN titer or by RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, while the noncases were negative by both assays. Discrimination accuracy was high with serum samples collected ≥3 days after rash onset (area under the curve, 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.854 to 0.993). Measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml identified RICs with 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 74 to 98%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 82 to 100%). Therefore, when serological or RT-qPCR results are unavailable or inconclusive, suspected measles cases with high-avidity measles IgG can be confirmed as RICs by measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml. PMID:27335386

  4. High power CO2 lasers and their applications in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser is one of the most popular lasers in industry for material processing applications. It has very high power capability and high efficiency, can be operated in continuous wave (CW), modulated and pulsed modes, and has relatively low cost. Due to these characteristics high power CO 2 lasers are being used worldwide in different industries for a wide variety of materials processing operations. In nuclear industry, CO 2 laser has made its way in many applications. Some of the tasks performed by multikilowatt CO 2 laser are cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies, sealing/fixing/removing radioactive contaminations onto/from concrete surfaces and surface modification of engineering components for improved surface mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. We have developed various models of CW CO 2 lasers of power up to 12 kW and a high repetitive rate TEA (Transversely Excited Atmospheric pressure) CO 2 laser of 500 W average power operating at 500 Hz repetition rates. We have carried many materials processing applications of direct relevance to DAE. Recent work includes laser welding of end plug PFBR fuel tubes, martensitic stainless steel and titanium alloy, surface cladding of turbine blades made of Ni-super alloy with stellite 694, fabrication on graded material of stainless steel and stellite, and laser scabbling, drilling and cutting of concrete which have potential application in decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A brief overview of these indigenous developments will be presented. (author)

  5. Strategic project selection based on evidential reasoning approach for high-end equipment manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guangyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, emerging information technologies have significantly changed the daily life of people. In such context, strategic project selection for high-end equipment manufacturing industries faces more and more complexities and uncertainties with the consideration of several complex criteria. For example, a group of experts rather than a single expert should be invited to select strategic project for high-end equipment manufacturing industries and the experts may feel difficulty to express their preferences towards different strategic projects due to their limited cognitive capabilities. In order to handle these complexities and uncertainties, the criteria framework of strategic project selection is firstly constructed based on the characteristics of high-end equipment manufacturing industries and then evidential reasoning (ER approach is introduced in this paper to help experts express their uncertain preferences and aggregate these preferences to generate an appropriate strategic project. A real case of strategic project selection in a high-speed train manufacturing enterprise is investigated to demonstrate the validity of the ER approach in solving strategic project selection problem.

  6. The UK High Power RF Faraday Partnership Industrial, Academia, and Public Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, A.D.R.; Carter, R.G.; Clunie, D.; Bowater, S.P.; Ellis, D.; Gamble, D.; Large, T.; Lucas, W.; Pettit, C.; Poole, M. W.; Smith, H.; Smith, P.W.; Wilcox, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    The High Power Radio Frequency (HPRF) Faraday Partnership is a UK technology forum for all users, designers, developers and researchers of RF and microwave devices and systems. High power RF and microwave engineering are key enabling technologies in a wide range of industrial sectors. Formed in October 2001 and funded initially by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the purpose of the HPRF Faraday Partnership is the development of a vibrant research, development and manufacturing base capable of exploiting opportunities in high power radio-frequency engineering. The partnership includes the key UK industrial companies, research laboratories and university research groups. The number of partners is constantly growing and already numbers over thirty. The partnership provides the enabling technology for future high power RF systems and their power supplies through its research programme. It is training people for the sector through PhD studentships and employment as Research Associates. It is planned to develop a Masters Training program. Support and involvement in research for companies in the supply chain is provided through a Partnership Office, a web site and through a range of government funded research schemes. The HPRF Faraday Partnership is seeking to establish more long term international research and development collaborations

  7. High-brightness electron beams for production of high intensity, coherent radiation for scientific and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams with high six-dimensional phase space densities, i.e., high-brightness beams, are the basis for efficient generation of intense and coherent radiation beams for advanced scientific and industrial applications. The remarkable progress in synchrotrons radiation facilities from the first generation to the current, third-generation capability illustrates this point. With the recent development of the high-brightness electron gun based on laser-driven rf photocathodes, linacs have become another important option for high-brightness electron beams. With linacs of about 100 MeV, megawatt-class infrared free-electron lasers can be designed for industrial applications such as power beaming. With linacs of about 10 GeV, 1- angstrom x-ray beams with brightness and time resolution exceeding by several orders of magnitude the current synchrotrons radiation sources can be generated based on self-amplified spontaneous emission. Scattering of a high-brightness electron beam by high power laser beams is emerging as a compact method of generating short-pulse, bright x-rays. In the high-energy frontier, photons of TeV quantum energy could be generated by scattering laser beams with TeV electron beams in future linear colliders

  8. High Concentration of Melatonin Regulates Leaf Development by Suppressing Cell Proliferation and Endoreduplication in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiannan; An, Bang; Shi, Haitao; Luo, Hongli; He, Chaozu

    2017-05-05

    N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (Melatonin), as a crucial messenger in plants, functions in adjusting biological rhythms, stress tolerance, plant growth and development. Several studies have shown the retardation effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on plant growth and development. However, the in vivo role of melatonin in regulating plant leaf growth and the underlying mechanism are still unclear. In this study, we found that high concentration of melatonin suppressed leaf growth in Arabidopsis by reducing both cell size and cell number. Further kinetic analysis of the fifth leaves showed that melatonin remarkably inhibited cell division rate. Additionally, flow cytometic analysis indicated that melatonin negatively regulated endoreduplication during leaf development. Consistently, the expression analysis revealed that melatonin regulated the transcriptional levels of key genes of cell cycle and ribosome. Taken together, this study suggests that high concentration of melatonin negatively regulated the leaf growth and development in Arabidopsis , through modulation of endoreduplication and the transcripts of cell cycle and ribosomal key genes.

  9. High pressure-temperature electrical conductivity of magnesiowustite as a function of iron oxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of (Mg, Fe)O magnesiowustite containing 9 and 27.5 mol pct FeO has been measured at simultaneously high pressures (30-32 GPa) and temperatures using a diamond anvil cell heated with a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser and an external resistance heater. The conductivity depends strongly on the FeO concentration at both ambient and high pressures. At the pressures and temperatures of about 30 GPa and 2000 K, conditions expected in the lower mantle, the magnesiowustite containing 27.5 percent FeO is 3 orders of magnitude more conductive than that containing 9 percent FeO. The activation energy of magnesiowustite decreases with increasing iron concentration from 0.38 (+ or - 0.09) eV at 9 percent FeO to 0.29 (+ or - 0.05) eV at 27.5 percent FeO.

  10. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koch, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. Methods: In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4 h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). Results: In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m 3 for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m 3 and 9.6 ng/m 3 , and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m 3 and 5.9 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m 3 for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m 3 for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m 3 for La with highest median levels in discotheques. Conclusions: The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. - Highlights: ► We quantified cer, lanthanum and cadmium concentrations in indoor air. ► Cer and lanthanum concentrations were high in tobacco smoke enriched locations. ► Both elements can be considered as good markers for indoor air quality.

  11. Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Barrak M; Rotstein, David S; Law, Jerry M; Rosol, Thomas J; LeRoy, Bruce; Keene, Bruce W; Jackson, Mark W

    2002-07-15

    A 12-year-old Cocker Spaniel with an oral malignant melanoma was evaluated for progressive lethargy and anorexia. No metastases were identified during antemortem evaluation, but severe hypercalcemia was evident. Antemortem diagnostic testing failed to identify a cause for the hypercalcemia. No neoplasms other than the melanoma were identified on postmortem examination. Serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration was markedly high, and the melanoma had moderate to marked immunostaining for this protein. Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare in dogs with malignant melanoma.

  12. Effect of high concentration of molybdenum on the structure and properties of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trekina, M.I.; Vasil'eva, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of alloying of 20,25 and 30 % Mo on the structure and mechanical properties of niobium is studied. It is shown that niobium alloying with molybdenum in the studied concentration leads to grain grinding, which increases with the molybdenum content growth in the alloy. The effective energy values of recrystallization activation of the studied niobium and molybdenum alloys are determined. The high hardness level at some plasticity and deformability of niobium alloy with 20 % Mo is established

  13. Natural radionuclides in food in an area with high concentrations of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V.; Kelecom, A.; Silva, A.X. da; Lopez, J.M.; Filgueiras, R.; Carmo, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Areas of high natural radiation expose the local population to doses greater than the world average. One of the routes of exposure is food intake. The activity concentration (AC) of 5 natural radionuclides in 7 types of foods was analyzed. The highest CA measured was 2.40 Bq.kg -1 for the U nat in the potato. The multivariate statistic identified two groups: (U nat e 232 Th) and [( 210 Pb and 228 Ra) and 226 Ra

  14. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE SPHERE OF HIGH-TECH MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhela Zakhitovna Namitulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented research topic is particularly relevant due to the high value and the need to strengthen fi nancial control for the development of the military-industrial complex (MIC, to ensure the country's economic security, preservation and development of scientifi c and technical potential. The urgency of acquiring those aspects of economic relations which are connected with the supply the export of high-tech military products in a limited budget funding State should have levers of infl uence on the functioning of the military-industrial complex, the ability to pursue an independent foreign military-technical policy. In the new economic conditions, it became necessary to address the problems of fi nancial security of the defense-industrial complex, in order to strengthen the independence and security of Russia, as well as the need to give priority nature of the measures of state control in the economy related to the implementation of the defense order, ie, in the sphere of military-industrial complex. At the present stage of economic development of Russia, the rate of growth of the national economy largely depends on what the situation is in the military-industrial complex (MIC. This is due to the fact that the defense industry is the most high-quality, high-tech economy. It concentrated the largest part of the Russian potential, the best staff of scientists and experts. Products and DIC technology widely used in other industries. The modern military-industrial complex produces a signifi cant part of civil production. DIC integration with civilian industries – it is also a technological basis for solving the basic problems currently facing the Russian economy, and, above all, the basis of the formation of a new technological basis for the development of high technology and competitive products, which determines the pace of scientifi c and technological progress and the growth of the national economy. Objectives. The aim of the paper is the

  15. An Optimized Grey Dynamic Model for Forecasting the Output of High-Tech Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Xin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey dynamic model by convolution integral with the first-order derivative of the 1-AGO data and n series related, abbreviated as GDMC(1,n, performs well in modelling and forecasting of a grey system. To improve the modelling accuracy of GDMC(1,n, n interpolation coefficients (taken as unknown parameters are introduced into the background values of the n variables. The parameters optimization is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and is solved collectively using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The optimized result has been verified by a case study of the economic output of high-tech industry in China. Comparisons of the obtained modelling results from the optimized GDMC(1,n model with the traditional one demonstrate that the optimal algorithm is a good alternative for parameters optimization of the GDMC(1,n model. The modelling results can assist the government in developing future policies regarding high-tech industry management.

  16. Gene expression cross-profiling in genetically modified industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during high-temperature ethanol production from xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-10

    Production of ethanol from xylose at high temperature would be an economical approach since it reduces risk of contamination and allows both the saccharification and fermentation steps in SSF to be running at elevated temperature. Eight recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains developed from industrial strains were constructed and subjected to high-temperature fermentation at 38 °C. The best performing strain was sun049T, which produced up to 15.2 g/L ethanol (63% of the theoretical production), followed by sun048T and sun588T, both with 14.1 g/L ethanol produced. Via transcriptomic analysis, expression profiling of the top three best ethanol producing strains compared to a negative control strain, sun473T, led to the discovery of genes in common that were regulated in the same direction. Identification of the 20 most highly up-regulated and the 20 most highly down-regulated genes indicated that the cells regulate their central metabolism and maintain the integrity of the cell walls in response to high temperature. We also speculate that cross-protection in the cells occurs, allowing them to maintain ethanol production at higher concentration under heat stress than the negative controls. This report provides further transcriptomics information in the interest of producing a robust microorganism for high-temperature ethanol production utilizing xylose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct Analysis of Proteins from Solutions with High Salt Concentration Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Sistani, Habiballah; Levis, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    The detection of lysozyme, or a mixture of lysozyme, cytochrome c, and myoglobin, from solutions with varying salt concentrations (0.1 to 250 mM NaCl) is compared using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Protonated protein peaks were observed up to a concentration of 250 mM NaCl in the case of LEMS. In the case of ESI-MS, a protein solution with salt concentration > 0.5 mM resulted in predominantly salt-adducted features, with suppression of the protonated protein ions. The constituents in the mixture of proteins were assignable up to 250 mM NaCl for LEMS and were not assignable above a NaCl concentration of 0.5 mM for ESI. The average sodium adducts () bound to the 7+ charge state of lysozyme for LEMS measurements from salt concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl are 1.71, 5.23, 5.26, and 5.11, respectively. The conventional electrospray measurements for lysozyme solution containing salt concentrations of 0.1, 1, 2, and 5 mM NaCl resulted in of 2.65, 6.44, 7.57, and 8.48, respectively. LEMS displays an approximately two orders of magnitude higher salt tolerance in comparison with conventional ESI-MS. The non-equilibrium partitioning of proteins on the surface of the charged droplets is proposed as the mechanism for the high salt tolerance phenomena observed in the LEMS measurements. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander; Saih, Youssef; Gimenez, Michel; Pelletier, Jeremie; Kü hn, Fritz Elmar; D´ Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  19. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  20. Delivering high-level food industry skills for future food security through Advanced Training Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Advanced Training Partnerships initiative represents a significant investment in the provision of high-level skills for the UK food industry sector to address global food security from farm to fork. This paper summarises the background, aims and scope of the Advanced Training Partnerships, their development so far, and offers a view on future directions and evaluation of impact.

  1. Modulating fluorescence quantum yield of highly concentrated fluorescein using differently shaped green synthesized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Jisha; Thomas, Lincy; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of dye molecules with differently shaped nanoparticles is of great interest owing to the potential applications in areas of bioimaging, sensing and photodynamic therapy (biology) as well as solar cells (photonics) applications. For such applications, noble metallic nanoparticles are commonly employed to either enhance or quench the luminescence of a nearby fluorophore. However, in most of the studies, the dye concentration is limited to avoid self-quenching. This paper reports the influence of differently shaped gold nanoparticles (spherical, bean and star), prepared via green synthesis, on the emission behavior as well as on the fluorescence quantum yield of fluorescein dye at concentrations for which self-quenching occurs. The emission behavior is probed via laser based steady state fluorescence whereas quantum yield is measured using a dual beam laser based thermal lens technique. The experimentally observed fluorescence quenching with a concomitant increase in thermal lens signal in the vicinity of nanoparticles are explained in terms of nonradiative energy transfer between the donor and the acceptor. Further, the influence of pH of the prepared gold nanofluid on the absorption, emission as well as quantum yield are also accounted. These studies elucidate that even at high concentrations of dye, the gold nanoparticle and its shape clearly influences the optical properties of nearby dye molecules and thus can be exploited for future applications. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of differently shaped gold nanoparticles. • Tailoring emission properties of fluorescein with respect to nanoparticle concentration and shape. • Tailoring the quantum yield of highly concentrated fluorescein with nanoparticles.

  2. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, M.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2x10 14 to 9x10 17 cm -3 have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2x10 15 cm -2 . Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10% of the initial doping concentration for [O i ]=9x10 17 cm -3 , while for normal detector grade material with [O i ] below 5x10 16 cm -3 that value is 60-90%. Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentration with an averaged introduction rate of (1.49±0.03)x10 -2 cm -1 . Only one material was found exhibiting a significantly smaller value of about 0.6x10 -2 cm -1 and thus indicating the possibility to suppress the radiation-induced acceptor creation by material modification. Finally, we show that the experimental findings disagree in several important aspects with predictions made by microscopic defect kinetics models, leaving the physical background of some of the measured data as an open question

  3. On the peculiarities of LDA method in two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplavski, S. V.; Boiko, V. M.; Nesterov, A. U.

    2016-10-01

    Popular applications of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) in gas dynamics are reviewed. It is shown that the most popular method cannot be used in supersonic flows and two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles. A new approach to implementation of the known LDA method based on direct spectral analysis, which offers better prospects for such problems, is presented. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for gas-liquid jets. Owing to the progress in laser engineering, digital recording of spectra, and computer processing of data, the method is implemented at a higher technical level and provides new prospects of diagnostics of high-velocity dense two-phase flows.

  4. Employability skills of vocational high school graduate needed by industry in century XXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjimat, Dwi Agus

    2017-09-01

    Mastery of employability skills is one of the main characteristics of HR XXI Century. The conclusions of various theoretical and empirical studies show that human resources with high employability skills are not only easier to find a job but will also be able to exist and develop successfully in their work. This study aims to describe the opinion of the industry leaders about the importance of employability skills owned by SMK graduates, to identify the various values of employability skills that the industry needs from SMK graduates, and categorize the values of employability skills that SMK graduates should have. A total of 27 industries partner of SMK in East Java were involved in survey research and 14 productive teachers from seven SMKs were included in the FGD on employability skills development. The results showed that (1) all industry leaders argue that the graduates of SMK must have good employability skills, (2) dimensions of employability skills include the fundamental skills, personal management skills, and team work skills; and (3) the ownership of various values of employability skills by SMK graduates can be classified into two, namely (a) must be owned and should be developed in SMK, and (b) well owned and better developed in SMK.

  5. U.S. industry targets record highs after recent severe downturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.F.; Cannon, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. gas-processing industry is nearing production, total supply, and demand records. These trends make gas processing one of the few bright spots in the petroleum industry and are especially welcome after the severe conditions of 1986-89. Barring unforeseen industry upheavals, the current year promises a continuation of moderate production increases, stable demand in most major markets, and reasonable product values. A review of current trends, both inside and outside the industry, and an attempt to assess the immediate future, may help prevent the current sense of stability from becoming complacency. Although not broken out in the graphs, other significant milestones in 1991 include the following: Gas-plant ethane production totalled 193 million bbl, the highest in history. This total represents an increase of 33% since 1981 and makes ethane the principal gas-plant product today. Gas-plant propane production totalled 177 million bbl. Supplemented by 153 million bbl of refinery production and 31 million bbl of imports, both domestic production and total supply of propane in 1991 were the second highest in history. Including refinery production, total domestic gas-liquids production in 1991 was 785 million bbl, an all-time high

  6. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  7. High temperature heat pumps for industrial cooling; Hoejtemperatur varmepumper til industriel koeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lars; Nielsen, Jacob [Advansor A/S, Aarhus (Denmark); Kronborg, H. [Cronborg, Holstebro (Denmark); Skouenborg, K. [Jensens Koekken, Struer (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    This report deals with theoretical analysis of various types of integration of heat pumps in the industry, as well as a demonstration plant that serves the project's practical execution. The report describes the system integration between heat pumps and existing industrial cooling systems. Ammonia plants in industry are estimated to have an allocation of 85%, which is why only an analysis of this type of installation as surplus heat supplier is included in this report. In contrast, heat pumps with both CO{sub 2} and Isobutane as the refrigerant are analysed, since these are the interesting coolants for generating high temperature heat. It can be seen through the project that the combination of heat pump with existing cooling installations may produce favorable situations where the efficiency of the heat pump is extremely high while at the same time electricity and water consumption for the cooling system is reduced. The analysis reflects that CO{sub 2} is preferred over Isobutane in the cases where a high level of temperature boost is desired, whereas Isobutane is preferable at low level of temperature boost. In the demonstration project, the report shows that the heat pump alone has a COP of 4.1, while the achieved COP is 5.5 when by considering the system as a whole. In addition to increased performance the solution profits by having a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 81 tons/year and a saving of 470,000 DKK/year. (LN)

  8. Heat transfer for falling film evaporation of industrially relevant fluids up to very high Prandtl numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdon, Mathias; Karlsson, Erik; Innings, Fredrik; Jongsma, Alfred; Vamling, Lennart

    2016-02-01

    In many industrial applications, falling film evaporation is an attractive technique for solvent removal due to high heat transfer and low residence times. Examples are the powder production in the dairy industry and in kraft pulp production process to remove water from so called black liquor. Common for both applications is that the fluids exhibit high viscosities in industrial practice. In this paper, results from experimental studies on both black liquor and a dairy product are reported for Prandtl numbers up to 800. The results are compared with several existing correlation in literature, and the need for a modified correlation is recognized especially to cover higher Prandtl-numbers. The following correlation for the turbulent flow region with 3 < Pr < 800 was derived from the data: {Nu}t = 0.0085 \\cdot Re^{0.2} \\cdot {Pr^{0.65}} The correlation has been compared to literature data from one additional study on two other fluids (propylene glycol and cyclohexanol) with fairly high Prandtl-numbers, from 40 to 58 and from 45 to 155 respectively and the agreement was within ±40 %.

  9. Estimating NOx emissions and surface concentrations at high spatial resolution using OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. L.; Lamsal, L. N.; Loughner, C.; Swartz, W. H.; Saide, P. E.; Carmichael, G. R.; Henze, D. K.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    In many instances, NOx emissions are not measured at the source. In these cases, remote sensing techniques are extremely useful in quantifying NOx emissions. Using an exponential modified Gaussian (EMG) fitting of oversampled Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 data, we estimate NOx emissions and lifetimes in regions where these emissions are uncertain. This work also presents a new high-resolution OMI NO2 dataset derived from the NASA retrieval that can be used to estimate surface level concentrations in the eastern United States and South Korea. To better estimate vertical profile shape factors, we use high-resolution model simulations (Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and WRF-Chem) constrained by in situ aircraft observations to re-calculate tropospheric air mass factors and tropospheric NO2 vertical columns during summertime. The correlation between our satellite product and ground NO2 monitors in urban areas has improved dramatically: r2 = 0.60 in new product, r2 = 0.39 in operational product, signifying that this new product is a better indicator of surface concentrations than the operational product. Our work emphasizes the need to use both high-resolution and high-fidelity models in order to re-calculate vertical column data in areas with large spatial heterogeneities in NOx emissions. The methodologies developed in this work can be applied to other world regions and other satellite data sets to produce high-quality region-specific emissions estimates.

  10. Comparison of Low Concentration and High Concentration Arsenic Removal Techniques and Evaluation of Concentration of Arsenic in Ground Water: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Abdullah; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Shahzadi, Uzma; Saleem, Pakeeza

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal

  11. Comparison of Low Concentration and High Concentration Arsenic Removal Techniques and Evaluation of Concentration of Arsenic in Ground Water: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasar, Abdullah; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Shahzadi, Uzma; Saleem, Pakeeza [GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    The main focus of this study was the evaluation of arsenic concentration in the ground water of Lahore at different depth and application of different mitigation techniques for arsenic removal. Twenty four hours of solar oxidation gives 90% of arsenic removal as compared to 8 hr. or 16 hr. Among oxides, calcium oxide gives 96% of As removal as compared to 93% by lanthanum oxide. Arsenic removal efficiency was up to 97% by ferric chloride, whereas 95% by alum. Activated alumina showed 99% removal as compared to 97% and 95% removal with bauxite and charcoal, respectively. Elemental analysis of adsorbents showed that the presence of phosphate and silica can cause a reduction of arsenic removal efficiency by activated alumina, bauxite and charcoal. This study has laid a foundation for further research on arsenic in the city of Lahore and has also provided suitable techniques for arsenic removal.

  12. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  14. Origin of methane and sources of high concentrations in Los Angeles groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin; McMahon, Peter B.; Land, Michael; Wright, Michael; Johnson, Theodore; Landon, Matthew K.

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, samples from 37 monitoring wells at 17 locations, within or near oil fields, and one site >5 km from oil fields, in the Los Angeles Basin, California, were analyzed for dissolved hydrocarbon gas isotopes and abundances. The wells sample a variety of depths of an aquifer system composed of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments under various conditions of confinement. Concentrations of methane in groundwater samples ranged from 0.002 to 150 mg/L—some of the highest concentrations reported in a densely populated urban area. The δ13C and δ2H of the methane ranged from −80.8 to −45.5 per mil (‰) and −249.8 to −134.9‰, respectively, and, along with oxidation‐reduction processes, helped to identify the origin of methane as microbial methanogenesis and CO2 reduction as its main formation pathway. The distribution of methane concentrations and isotopes is consistent with the high concentrations of methane in Los Angeles Basin groundwater originating from relatively shallow microbial production in anoxic or suboxic conditions. Source of the methane is the aquifer sediments rather than the upward migration or leakage of thermogenic methane associated with oil fields in the basin.

  15. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  16. White-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to decolorize and tolerate the anthraquinone, indigo and triphenylmethane dye with high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruoying; Ma, Li; He, Feng; Yu, Dong; Fan, Ruozhi; Zhang, Yangming; Long, Zheping; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 to decolorize different kinds of dyes widely applied in the textile and dyeing industry, including the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), indigo dye indigo carmine and triphenylmethane dye methyl green, was evaluated in this study. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability of decolorizing high concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. Obvious reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand was observed after decolorization of different dyes. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to tolerate RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green with high concentrations. High concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green could also be efficiently decolorized by the crude enzyme of Ganoderma sp.En3. Different redox mediators such as syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone could enhance the decolorization capability for higher concentration of indigo carmine and methyl green. Different metal ions had little effect on the ability of the crude enzyme to decolorize indigo carmine and methyl green. Our study suggested that Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability for decolorizing and tolerating high concentrations of different types of dyes such as RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green.

  17. An Experimental Study of High Strength-High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Gunavant K.; Thakare, Sunil B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, and many other facilities. This paper reports the development, the basic idea, the main properties of high strength-high volume fly ash with application in concrete associated with the development and implementation of Sustainable Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC) Mixtures and Early Age Shrinkage and mechanical properties of concrete for 7,28,56 and 90days. Another alternative to make environment-friendly concrete is the development of high strength-high-volume fly ash concrete which is an synthesized from materials of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash which is rich in silicon and aluminum. In this paper 6 concrete mixtures were produced to evaluate the effect of key parameters on the mechanical properties of concrete and its behavior. The study key parameters are; binder material content, cement replacement ratios, and the steel fibers used to High Volume Fly Ash mixtures for increasing performance of concrete.

  18. Is a high serum copper concentration a risk factor for implantation failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Kitaya, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Nishiyama, Rie; Takaya, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2017-08-10

    Copper-containing contraceptive devices may deposit copper ions in the endometrium, resulting in implantation failure. The deposition of copper ions in many organs has been reported in patients with untreated Wilson's disease. Since these patients sometimes exhibit subfertility and/or early pregnancy loss, copper ions were also considered to accumulate in the uterine endometrium. Wilson's disease patients treated with zinc successfully delivered babies because zinc interfered with the absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract. These findings led to the hypothesis that infertile patients with high serum copper concentrations may have implantation failure due to the excess accumulation of copper ions. The relationship between implantation (pregnancy) rates and serum copper concentrations has not yet been examined. The Japanese government recently stated that actual copper intake was higher among Japanese than needed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether serum copper concentrations are related to the implantation (pregnancy) rates of human embryos in vivo. We included 269 patients (age copper, and zinc concentrations were measured 16 days after the first date of progesterone replacement. We compared 96 women who were pregnant without miscarriage at 10 weeks of gestation (group P) and 173 women who were not pregnant (group NP). No significant differences were observed in age or BMI between the groups. Copper concentrations were significantly higher in group NP (average 193.2 μg/dL) than in group P (average 178.1 μg/dL). According to the area under the curve (AUC) on the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of clinical pregnancy rates, the Cu/Zn ratio (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) was a better predictor than copper or zinc. When we set the cut-off as 1.59/1.60 for the Cu/Zn ratio, sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.98, 0.29, 0.71, and 0

  19. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

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    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  20. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

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    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.