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Sample records for highly charged b-like

  1. Taming Highly Charged Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Usman; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Jang, Fuluni; Schultz, Brad; Simon, Vanessa; Delheij, Paul; Dilling, Jens; Gwinner, Gerald

    2012-10-01

    The precise and accurate mass of short-lived radioisotopes is a very important parameter in physics. Contribution to the improvement of nuclear models, metrological standard fixing and tests of the unitarity of the Caibbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are a few examples where the mass value plays a major role. TRIUMF's ion trap for atomic and nuclear physics (TITAN) is a unique facility of three online ion traps that enables the mass measurement of short-lived isotopes with high precision (˜10-8). At present TITAN's electron beam ion trap (EBIT) increases the charge state to increase the precision, but there is no facility to significantly reduce the energy spread introduced by the charge breeding process. The precision of the measured mass of radioisotopes is linearly dependent on the charge state while the energy spread of the charged radioisotopes affects the precision adversely. To boost the precision level of mass measurement at TITAN without loosing too many ions, a cooler Penning trap (CPET) is being developed. CPET is designed to use either positively (proton) or negatively (electron) charged particles to reduce the energy spread via sympathetic cooling. Off-line setup of CPET is complete. Details of the working principles and updates are presented

  2. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspy, J. D.

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of highly charged ions, the methods of producing them (with particular emphasis on table-top devices), and their use as a tool for both basic science and applied technology. Topics discussed include: charge dependence and scaling laws along isoelectronic or isonuclear sequences (for wavefunction size or Bohr radius, ionization energy, dipole transition energy, relativistic fine structure, hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, line intensities, linewidths, strength of parity violation, etc), changes in angular momentum coupling schemes, selection rules, interactions with surfaces, electron-impact ionization, the electron beam ion trap (EBIT), ion accelerators, atomic reference data, cosmic chronometers, laboratory x-ray astrophysics, vacuum polarization, solar flares, ion implantation, ion lithography, ion microprobes (SIMS and x-ray microscope), nuclear fusion diagnostics, nanotechnology, quantum computing, cancer therapy and biotechnology.

  4. High resolution printing of charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-06-16

    Provided are methods of printing a pattern of charge on a substrate surface, such as by electrohydrodynamic (e-jet) printing. The methods relate to providing a nozzle containing a printable fluid, providing a substrate having a substrate surface and generating from the nozzle an ejected printable fluid containing net charge. The ejected printable fluid containing net charge is directed to the substrate surface, wherein the net charge does not substantially degrade and the net charge retained on the substrate surface. Also provided are functional devices made by any of the disclosed methods.

  5. Charging of highly resistive granular metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, M. F.; Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Colchero, J.; Palacios-Lidón, E.; Grenet, T.; Delahaye, J.

    2017-05-01

    We have used the scanning Kelvin probe microscopy technique to monitor the charging process of highly resistive granular thin films. The sample is connected to two leads and is separated by an insulator layer from a gate electrode. When a gate voltage is applied, charges enter from the leads and rearrange across the sample. We find very slow processes with characteristic charging times exponentially distributed over a wide range of values, resulting in a logarithmic relaxation to equilibrium. After the gate voltage has been switched off, the system again relaxes logarithmically slowly to the new equilibrium. The results cannot be explained with diffusion models, but most of them can be understood with a hopping percolation model, in which the localization length is shorter than the typical site separation. The technique is very promising for the study of slow phenomena in highly resistive systems and will be able to estimate the conductance of these systems when direct macroscopic measurement techniques are not sensitive enough.

  6. Highly charged Arq+ ions interacting with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jijin; Zhang, Jian; Gu, Jiangang; Luo, Xianwen; Hu, Bitao

    2009-12-01

    Using computer simulation, alternative methods of the interaction of highly charged ions Arq+ with metals (Au, Ag) are used and verified in the present work. Based on the classical over-barrier model, we discussed the promotion loss and peeling off processes. The simulated total potential electron yields agree well with the experiment data in incident energy ranging from 100 eV to 5 keV and all charge states of Arq+ . Based on the TRIM code, we obtain the side-feeding rate as well as the motion and charge transfer of HCI below the surface. Some results, including the array of KLx x-ray satellite lines, the respective contribution of autoionization, and side-feeding to inner shells, and the filling rates and lifetime of inner shells for Ar agree well with experiment or theory.

  7. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Div. California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years.

  8. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  9. EXTRACTOR FOR HIGH ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1964-04-01

    A particle-extracting apparatus for use with a beam of high-energy charged particles such as travel in an evacuated chamber along a circular equilibrium axis is described. A magnetized target is impacted relatively against the beam whereby the beam particles are deflected from the beam by the magnetic induction in the target. To this end the target may be moved into the beam or the beam may coast into the target and achieve high angular particle deflection and slow extraction. A deflecting septum magnet may additionally be used for deflection at even sharper angles. (AEC)

  10. Charging-discharging system with high power factor, high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Joe, Kee Yeon; Byun, Young Bok; Koo, Heun Hoi [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents equipment for charging and discharging with high power factor and high efficiency. This equipment is consisted of 3{Phi} SPWM AC/DC converter for improving input current waveform and input power factor, and bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric isolation in the DC link Part. Therefore, Input power factor and the total efficiency in the proposed system can be increased more than in the conventional phase-controlled thyristor charging-discharging System. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to stored and cooled highly-charged radionuclides offers unprecedented opportunities to perform high-precision investigations of their decays. Since the few-electron ions, e.g. hydrogen- or helium-like ions, are quantum mechanical systems with clear electronic ground state configurations, the decay studies of such ions are performed under well-defined conditions and allow for addressing fundamental aspects of the decay process. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR of GSI. A particular emphasis is given to the investigations of the two-body beta decay, namely the bound-state β-decay and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron-capture.

  12. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  13. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  14. Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2015-03-13

    Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we report on the Coulomb crystallization of HCIs (specifically (40)Ar(13+)) produced in an electron beam ion trap and retrapped in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap by means of sympathetic motional cooling through Coulomb interaction with a directly laser-cooled ensemble of Be(+) ions. We also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar(13+) ion by a single Be(+) ion-the prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with a potential 10(-19) accuracy level. Achieving a seven-orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature starting at megakelvin down to the millikelvin range removes the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high-precision laser spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Successive Charge Transitions of Unusually High-Valence Fe3.5+ : Charge Disproportionation and Intermetallic Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Yoshiteru; Denis Romero, Fabio; Ichikawa, Noriya; Saito, Takashi; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2017-04-03

    A perovskite-structure oxide containing unusually high-valence Fe3.5+ was obtained by high-pressure synthesis. Instability of the Fe3.5+ in Ca0.5 Bi0.5 FeO3 is relieved first by charge disproportionation at 250 K and then by intermetallic charge transfer between A-site Bi and B-site Fe at 200 K. These previously unobserved successive charge transitions are due to competing intermetallic and disproportionation charge instabilities. Both transitions change magnetic and structural properties significantly, indicating strong coupling of charge, spin, and lattice in the present system. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  17. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  18. Highly charged ion based time of flight emission microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Alan V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Hamza, Alex V.; Schneider, Dieter H.; Doyle, Barney

    2001-01-01

    A highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope has been designed, which improves the surface sensitivity of static SIMS measurements because of the higher ionization probability of highly charged ions. Slow, highly charged ions are produced in an electron beam ion trap and are directed to the sample surface. The sputtered secondary ions and electrons pass through a specially designed objective lens to a microchannel plate detector. This new instrument permits high surface sensitivity (10.sup.10 atoms/cm.sup.2), high spatial resolution (100 nm), and chemical structural information due to the high molecular ion yields. The high secondary ion yield permits coincidence counting, which can be used to enhance determination of chemical and topological structure and to correlate specific molecular species.

  19. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  20. Highly charged ion injector in the terminal of tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M; Asozu, T; Nakanoya, T; Kutsukake, K; Hanashima, S; Takeuchi, S, E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Nuclear Science Research Institute, Tandem Accelerator Section 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    A highly charged heavy ion injector using an all permanent magnet type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed in the high voltage terminal of the vertical and folded type 20UR Pelletron tandem accelerator at Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Tokai. The new in-terminal injector made it possible to accelerate highly charged heavy ions which have not been obtained from the tandem accelerator. Beam energy and beam intensity have been remarkably increased and the noble gas ion beams have become available.

  1. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Maria; Versolato, Oscar; Windberger, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H2 partial pressure of about 10−15 mbar...

  2. Cold highly charged ions in a cryogenic Paul trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versolato, O.O.; Schwarz, M.; Windberger, A.

    2013-01-01

    Narrow optical transitions in highly charged ions (HCIs) are of particular interest for metrology and fundamental physics, exploiting the high sensitivity of HCIs to new physics. The highest sensitivity for a changing fine structure constant ever predicted for a stable atomic system is found in Ir...

  3. Progress Towards Charge Exchange Cross-Sections with Highly Charged Ions: Computation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Steven James

    This thesis is a summary of the computational and experimental progress towards measuring the charge exchange cross-section of highly charged ions (HCIs). Electronic structure calculations were carried out for the molecular ion LiHe+ using NWChem on the Clemson University Palmetto Cluster. Potential energy surfaces for 40 electronic states are presented. The electronic configurations of the six lowest states have been identified by their energies in the separate atom limit, which deviate from experimental values by at most 1.2%. Future work will investigate higher charge states of LiHe and the interaction between low-Z HCIs and neutral gases. Two experimental apparatus were designed and constructed for experiments with HCIs. To aid in the detection of trapped HCIs, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for radial extraction from Paul traps was constructed and tested using a Mg + source. Lastly, a gas cell was designed and constructed for charge exchange cross-section measurements using HCIs produced in the Clemson University Electron Beam Ion Trap (CUEBIT).

  4. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  5. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  6. High Energy Charged Particles in Space at One Astronomical Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feynman, J.; Gabriel, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    Single event effects and many other spacecraft anomalies are caused by positively charged high energy particles impinging on the vehicle and its component parts. Reviewed here are the current knowledge of the interplanetary particle environment in the energy ranges that are most important for these effects. State-of-the-art engineering models are briefly described along with comments on the future work required.

  7. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  8. Physics with Highly-Charged Ions in an EBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Bapat, B.; Draganić, I.; Feuerstein, B.; Fischer, D.; Lörch, H.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; DuBois, R. D.; Zou, Y.

    After the commissioning of the Freiburg electron beam ion trap, experiments on dielectronic recombination of the low-lying resonances in He-like Ar16+ have been carried out at high resolution. Forbidden transitions (``coronal lines'') of highly charged argon ions in the optical range have been measured with an accuracy around 1 ppm. Ions extracted from FreEBIT have been used to perform collision experiments using the Cold Target Recoil-Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) technique.

  9. Electron impact ionization of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K L

    1992-10-01

    Electron impact ionization cross sections can provide valuable information about the charge-state and power balance of highly charged ions in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the present work, a novel technique based on x-ray measurements has been used to infer the ionization cross section of highly charged lithiumlike ions on the Livermore electron beam ion trap. In particular, a correspondence is established between an observed x ray and an ionization event. The measurements are made at one energy corresponding to approximately 2.3 times the threshold energy for ionization of lithiumlike ions. The technique is applied to the transition metals between Z=22 (titanium, Ti[sup 19+]) and Z=26 (iron, Fe[sup 23+]) and to Z=56 (barium, Ba[sup 53+]). The results for the transition metals, which have an estimated 17-33% uncertainty, are in good overall agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave calculation. However, less good agreement is found for barium, which has a larger uncertainty. Methods for properly accounting for the polarization in the x-ray intensities and for inferring the charge-state abundances from x-ray observations, which were developed for the ionization measurements, as well as an x-ray model that assists in the proper interpretation of the data are also presented.

  10. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  11. Physics with Highly-Charged Ions in an EBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Bapat, B.; Draganic, I.; Feuerstein, B.; Fischer, D.; Loerch, H.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); DuBois, R. D. [University of Missoury (United States); Zou, Y. [Fudan University (China)

    2003-03-15

    After the commissioning of the Freiburg electron beam ion trap, experiments on dielectronic recombination of the low-lying resonances in He-like Ar{sup 16+} have been carried out at high resolution. Forbidden transitions ('coronal lines') of highly charged argon ions in the optical range have been measured with an accuracy around 1 ppm. Ions extracted from FreEBIT have been used to perform collision experiments using the Cold Target Recoil-Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) technique.

  12. A high linearity 14-bit pipelined charge summation ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Nigel; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-06-01

    Presented in this paper is a low power, area efficient pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC), utilising a charge summation technique and a switched-capacitor implementation. Utilising switched capacitor, a staircase ramp is produced caused by the switching capacitors and a fixed reference voltage, as opposed to a linear ramp. The advantage of the charge summation technique is the reduction in power usage as the charging time of the capacitors is small so for most of the sample period the circuit is quiescent. The paper presents the use of this architecture as a 14-bit pipelined ADC, which can sample data at a rate of 1 MSps. The pipeline architecture itself is novel as the typical sub-DAC is not required. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the ADC is improved by using a spatial over-sampling technique, which reduces the thermal noise effect on in the switched capacitor circuit. The effects of opamps finite gain and offset on the linearity of the ramp are reduced by employing a finite gain and offset compensated integrator architecture and through the use of low-resolution pipeline stages. The proposed architecture is a strong candidate for applications demanding high resolution with low power requirements.

  13. Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.

  14. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  15. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  16. The TITAN EBIT charge breeder for mass measurements on highly charged short-lived isotopes-First online operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, A., E-mail: lapierre@nscl.msu.ed [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); National Superconducting Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Brodeur, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Brunner, T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Physik Department E12, Technische Universitaet Muechen, James Franck Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A.T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Simon, V. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Good, M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Froese, M.W.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Delheij, P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Epp, S. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2010-12-01

    TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science) is a novel online facility for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. TITAN is the only such facility that employs an Electron-Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) charge-state breeder to produce highly charged ions for their use to increase the precision of mass measurements. We describe the recently commissioned TITAN EBIT and present the results of first injection, charge breeding, and extraction tests performed with stable and radioactive ions.

  17. X-ray emission from charge exchange of highly-charged ions in atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, J. B.; Williams, I. D.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2000-01-01

    Charge exchange followed by radiative stabilization are the main processes responsible for the recent observations of X-ray emission from comets in their approach to the Sun. A new apparatus was constructed to measure, in collisions of HCIs with atoms and molecules, (a) absolute cross sections for single and multiple charge exchange, and (b) normalized X-ray emission cross sections.

  18. Electromagnetic Charge Radius of the Pion at High Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Das, Diganta

    2017-09-01

    We present a determination of the pion charge radius from high precision data on the pion vector form factor from both timelike and spacelike regions, using a novel formalism based on analyticity and unitarity. At low energies, instead of the poorly known modulus of the form factor, we use its phase, known with high accuracy from Roy equations for π π elastic scattering via the Fermi-Watson theorem. We use also the values of the modulus at several higher timelike energies, where the data from e+e- annihilation and τ decay are mutually consistent, as well as the most recent measurements at spacelike momenta. The experimental uncertainties are implemented by Monte Carlo simulations. The results, which do not rely on a specific parametrization, are optimal for the given input information and do not depend on the unknown phase of the form factor above the first inelastic threshold. Our prediction for the charge radius of the pion is rπ=(0.657 ±0.003 ) fm , which amounts to an increase in precision by a factor of about 2.7 compared to the Particle Data Group average.

  19. Charge regulation of weak polyelectrolytes at low- and high-dielectric-constant substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Netz, R R

    2003-01-01

    As is well known, the effective charge of weak polyelectrolytes (PEs) decreases with decreasing salt concentration due to the electrostatic repulsion between dissociated charges. Close to dielectric boundaries, image-charge effects influence the dissociation equilibrium. At low-dielectric-constant substrates, one finds a further charge decrease and repulsion from the interface, while at high-dielectric-constant (e.g. metallic) substrates, the effective charge increases and the PE is attracted to the interface.

  20. Space-charge effects in high-energy photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verna, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.verna@uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Greco, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Scuola Dottorale in Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Offi, Francesco; Stefani, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • N-body simulations of interacting photoelectrons in hard X-ray experiments. • Secondary electrons have a pivotal role in determining the energy broadening. • Space charge has negligible effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. • A simple model provides the characteristic time for energy-broadening mechanism. • The feasibility of time-resolved high-energy experiments with FELs is discussed. - Abstract: Pump-and-probe photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with femtosecond pulsed sources opens new perspectives in the investigation of the ultrafast dynamics of physical and chemical processes at the surfaces and interfaces of solids. Nevertheless, for very intense photon pulses a large number of photoelectrons are simultaneously emitted and their mutual Coulomb repulsion is sufficiently strong to significantly modify their trajectory and kinetic energy. This phenomenon, referred as space-charge effect, determines a broadening and shift in energy for the typical PES structures and a dramatic loss of energy resolution. In this article we examine the effects of space charge in PES with a particular focus on time-resolved hard X-ray (∼10 keV) experiments. The trajectory of the electrons photoemitted from pure Cu in a hard X-ray PES experiment has been reproduced through N-body simulations and the broadening of the photoemission core-level peaks has been monitored as a function of various parameters (photons per pulse, linear dimension of the photon spot, photon energy). The energy broadening results directly proportional to the number N of electrons emitted per pulse (mainly represented by secondary electrons) and inversely proportional to the linear dimension a of the photon spot on the sample surface, in agreement with the literature data about ultraviolet and soft X-ray experiments. The evolution in time of the energy broadening during the flight of the photoelectrons is also studied. Despite its detrimental consequences on the energy

  1. Experimental investigation on the use of highly charged nanoparticles to improve the stability of weakly charged colloidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd; Badarudin, A; Kazi, S N; Misran, Misni; Amiri, Ahmad; Sadri, Rad; Khalid, Solangi

    2015-09-15

    The present work highlighted on the implementation of a unique concept for stabilizing colloids at their incipiently low charge potential. A highly charged nanoparticle was introduced within a coagulated prone colloidal system, serving as stabilizer to resist otherwise rapid flocculation and sedimentation process. A low size asymmetry of nanoparticle/colloid serves as the new topic of investigation in addition to the well-established large size ratio nanoparticle/microparticle study. Highly charged Al2O3 nanoparticles were used within the present research context to stabilize TiO2 and Fe3O4 based colloids via the formation of composite structures. It was believed, based on the experimental evidence, that Al2O3 nanoparticle interact with the weakly charged TiO2 and Fe3O4 colloids within the binary system via absorption and/or haloing modes to increase the overall charge potential of the respective colloids, thus preventing further surface contact via van der Waal's attraction. Series of experimental results strongly suggest the presence of weakly charged colloids in the studied bimodal system where, in the absence of highly charged nanoparticle, experience rapid instability. Absorbance measurement indicated that the colloidal stability drops in accordance to the highly charged nanoparticle sedimentation rate, suggesting the dominant influence of nanoparticles to attain a well-dispersed binary system. Further, it was found that the level of colloidal stability was enhanced with increasing nanoparticle fraction within the mixture. Rheological observation revealed that each hybrid complexes demonstrated behavior reminiscence to water with negligible increase in viscosity which serves as highly favorable condition particularly in thermal transport applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Photorecombination studies of highly charged tungsten ions at Shanghai EBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, B.; Xiao, J.; Yao, K.; Wang, X.; Shen, Y.; Yang, Y.; Lu, D.; Huang, L.; Zhen, C.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we report studies on photorecombination (PR) processes for highly charged W ions. The experiment was performed at Shanghai electron beam ion trap by employing a fast electron beam-energy scanning technique. The KLL dielectronic recombination (DR) resonance strengths for He- up to O-like W ions were determined. The strong interference effect between DR and radiative recombination (RR) was observed and the Fano factor, which measures the interference degree, was determined for the main resonances of ground state He-, Be-, B-, C-, N-, and O-like W ions. In addition, we show experimentally that an autoionizing state can have both Fano and Lorentzian behavior naturally, depending on the processes involved. A fully relativistic configuration interaction method implemented in the flexible atomic code was employed to calculate DR, RR processes and also the inference effect.

  3. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  4. Polyimide Nanocomposites Prepared from High-Temperature, Reduced Charge Organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delozier, D. M.; Orwoll, R. A.; Cahoon, J. F.; Ladislaw, J. S.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Montmorillonite clays modified with the dihydrochloride salt of 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) were used in the preparation of polyimide/organoclay hybrid films. Organoclays with varying surface charge based upon APB were prepared and examined for their dispersion behavior in the polymer matrix. High molecular weight poly(amide acid) solutions were prepared in the presence of the organoclays. Films were cast and subsequently heated to 300C to cause imidization. The resulting nanocomposite films, containing 3 wt% of organoclay, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The clay's cation exchange capacity (CEC) played a key role in determining the extent of dispersion in the polyimide matrix. Considerable dispersion was observed in some of the nanocomposite films. The most effective organoclay was found to have a CEC of 0.70 meq/g. Nanocomposite films prepared with 3-8 wt% of this organoclay were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thin-film tensile testing. High levels of clay dispersion could be achieved even at the higher clay loadings. Results from mechanical testing revealed that while the moduli of the nanocomposites increased with increasing clay loadings, both strength and elongation decreased.

  5. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  6. High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghazi, M E

    2002-01-01

    addition, another very weak satellites with wavevector (1/2, 1, 1/2) were observed possibly due to spin ordering. two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd sub 1 sub / sub 2 Sr sub 1 sub / sub 2 MnO sub 3 a series of phase transitions were observed using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering. Above the charge ordering transition temperature, T sub C sub O , by measuring the peak profiles of Bragg reflections as a function of temperature, it was foun...

  7. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  8. Shapes and Fissility of Highly Charged and Rapidly Rotating Levitated Liquid Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L.; Hill, R. J. A.

    2017-09-01

    We use diamagnetic levitation to investigate the shapes and the stability of free electrically charged and spinning liquid drops of volume ˜1 ml. In addition to binary fission and Taylor cone-jet fission modes observed at low and high charge density, respectively, we also observe an unusual mode which appears to be a hybrid of the two. Measurements of the angular momentum required to fission a charged drop show that nonrotating drops become unstable to fission at the amount of charge predicted by Lord Rayleigh. This result is in contrast to the observations of most previous experiments on fissioning charged drops, which typically exhibit fission well below Rayleigh's limit.

  9. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravel, Roland [U.S. Department of Energy' s Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Maronde, Carl [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Gehrke, Chris [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Fiveland, Scott [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    2010-10-30

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well

  10. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high

  11. Fragmentation processes of OCS in collision with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, J.; Tezuka, T.; Fukutome, A.; Karimi, R.; Wales, B.; Sanderson, J. H.; Shiromaru, H.

    2014-04-01

    Fragmentation of (OCS)3+ and (OCS)4+ produced by 120 keV Ar8+ collision was studied by using a position-sensitive time-of-flight (PS-TOF) method. We identified stepwise processes involving CO2+ and CS2+ metastable species as well as the concerted process (simultaneous breakup of the two bonds). For the (OCS)4+ events, the stepwise processes were found for fragmentation channels containing a doubly-charged terminal atom.

  12. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Elshenawy, Tamer; Soliman, Salah; Hawass, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  13. Generation of initial kinetic distributions for simulation of long-pulse charged particle beams with high space-charge intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel—both in terms of low-order rms (envelope properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of kinetic distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of unbunched or weakly bunched beams with intense space-charge fields including the following: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various nonequilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of standard accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial kinetic distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear focusing, single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for noncontinuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulations that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

  14. Numerical calculations of high-altitude differential charging: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laframboise, J. G.; Godard, R.; Prokopenko, S. M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A two dimensional simulation program was constructed in order to obtain theoretical predictions of floating potential distributions on geostationary spacecraft. The geometry was infinite-cylindrical with angle dependence. Effects of finite spacecraft length on sheath potential profiles can be included in an approximate way. The program can treat either steady-state conditions or slowly time-varying situations, involving external time scales much larger than particle transit times. Approximate, locally dependent expressions were used to provide space charge, density profiles, but numerical orbit-following is used to calculate surface currents. Ambient velocity distributions were assumed to be isotropic, beam-like, or some superposition of these.

  15. Pricing Strategy in Online Retailing Marketplaces of Homogeneous Goods: Should High Reputation Seller Charge More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewen; Wei, Kwok Kee; Chen, Huaping

    There are two conflicting streams of research findings on pricing strategy: one is high reputation sellers should charge price premium, while the other is high reputation sellers should charge relatively low price. Motivated by this confliction, this study examines pricing strategy in online retailing marketplace of homogeneous goods. We conduct an empirical study using data collected from a dominant online retailing marketplace in China. Our research results indicate that, in online retailing marketplace of homogeneous goods, high reputation sellers should charge relatively low price, because the consumers of high reputation sellers are more price sensitive than the consumers of low reputation sellers.

  16. Multi-Configuration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF Calculations for B-Like Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic configuration interaction results are presented for several B-like ions (Ge XXVIII, Rb XXXIII, Sr XXXIV, Ru XL, Sn XLVI, and Ba LII using the multi-configuration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF method. The calculations are carried out in the active space approximation with the inclusion of the Breit interaction, the finite nuclear size effect, and quantum electrodynamic corrections. Results for fine structure energy levels for 1s22s22p and 2s2p2 configurations relative to the ground state are reported. The transition wavelengths, transition probabilities, line strengths, and absorption oscillator strengths for 2s22p–2s2p2 electric dipole (E1 transitions are calculated. Both valence and core-valence correlation effects were accounted for through single-double multireference (SD-MR expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. Comparisons are made with the available data and good agreement is achieved. The values calculated using core–valence correlation are found to be very close to other theoretical and experimental values. The behavior of oscillator strengths as a function of nuclear charge is studied. We believe that our results can guide experimentalists in identifying the fine-structure levels in their future work.

  17. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P. Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Methods Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (i.e. albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1–5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. Results At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~ 0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1 % w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. Conclusions The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs. PMID:25823649

  18. High-frequency acoustic charge transport in GaAs nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Hernandez-Minguez, A.; Vratzov, B.; Somaschini, C.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Santos, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    The oscillating piezoelectric fields accompanying surface acoustic waves are able to transport charge carriers in semiconductor heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate high-frequency (above 1 GHz) acoustic charge transport in GaAs-based nanowires deposited on a piezoelectric substrate. The short

  19. Charge transport in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) at low temperature and high electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsouras, I.; Najafi, A.; Asadi, K.; Kronemeijer, A. J.; Oostra, A. J.; Koster, L. J. A.; de Leeuw, D. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    Charge transport in poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV)-based hole-only diodes is investigated at high electric fields and low temperatures using a novel diode architecture. Charge carrier densities that are in the range of those in a field-effect transistor are

  20. Nonlinear relaxation field in charged systems under high electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawetz, K

    2000-07-01

    The influence of an external electric field on the current in charged systems is investigated. The results from the classical hierarchy of density matrices are compared with the results from the quantum kinetic theory. The kinetic theory yields a systematic treatment of the nonlinear current beyond linear response. To this end the dynamically screened and field-dependent Lenard-Balescu equation is integrated analytically and the nonlinear relaxation field is calculated. The classical linear response result known as Debye - On-Sager relaxation effect is only obtained if asymmetric screening is assumed. Considering the kinetic equation of one specie the other species have to be screened dynamically while the screening with the same specie itself has to be performed statically. Different other approximations are discussed and compared. (author)

  1. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  2. On the Nature of High Field Charge Transport in Reinforced Silicone Dielectrics: Experiment and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    The high field charge injection and transport properties in reinforced silicone dielectrics were investigated by measuring the time-dependent space charge distribution and the current under dc conditions up to the breakdown field, and were compared with properties of other dielectric polymers. It is argued that the energy and spatial distribution of localized electronic states are crucial to determining these properties for polymer dielectrics. Tunneling to localized states likely dominates the charge injection process. A transient transport regime arises due to the relaxation of charge carriers into deep traps at the energy band tails, and is successfully verified by a Monte Carlo simulation using the multiple-hopping model. The charge carrier mobility is found to be highly heterogeneous due to non-uniform trapping. The slow moving electron packet exhibits a negative field dependent drift velocity possibly due to the spatial disorder of traps.

  3. A high-performance channel engineered charge-plasma-based MOSFET with high-κ spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chan; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Bao, Meng-tian; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of graded channel double-gate MOSFET (GC-DGFET) that utilizes the charge-plasma concept and a high-κ spacer is investigated through 2-D device simulations. The results demonstrate that GC-DGFET with high-κ spacer can effectively improve the ON-state driving current (ION) and reduce the OFF-leakage current (IOFF). We find that reduction of the initial energy barrier between the source and channel is the origin of this ION enhancement. The reason for the IOFF reduction is identified to be the extension of the effective channel length owing to the fringing field via high-κ spacers. Consequently, these devices offer enhanced performance by reducing the total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) and decreasing the intrinsic delay (τ).

  4. Studies at the border between nuclear and atomic physics: Weak decays of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Bühler, P.; Cakirli, R. B.; Chen, X. C.; Dillmann, I.; Faestermann, T.; Gao, B. S.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Glorius, J.; Grisenti, R.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Kienle, P.; Kozhuharov, C.; Lane, G.; Langer, C.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Litvinov, S. A.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Ma, X. W.; Najafi, M. A.; Nolden, F.; Ohtsubo, T.; Ozawa, A.; Ozturk, F. C.; Patyk, Z.; Pavicevic, M. K.; Petridis, N.; Reifarth, R.; Sanchez, R.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schneider, D.; Shevelko, V.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Sun, B. H.; Suzaki, F.; Suzuki, T.; Torilov, S. Yu; Trageser, C.; Trassinelli, M.; Tu, X. L.; Uesaka, T.; Walker, P. M.; Wang, M.; Weick, H.; Winckler, N.; Woods, P. J.; Xu, H. S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yan, X. L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; ">ILIMA, highly charged ions is presented. The paper closely follows the progress-report presentation given at the conference. Due to the limited space an emphasis is given to an exhaustive bibliography.

  5. Capture and isolation of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Samuel M.; Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N.

    2013-01-01

    We recently used a compact Penning trap to capture and isolate highly-charged ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Isolated charge states of highly-stripped argon and neon ions with total charge $Q \\geq 10$, extracted at energies of up to $4\\times 10^3\\,Q$ eV, are captured in a trap with well depths of $\\,\\approx (4\\, {\\rm to}\\, 12)\\,Q$ eV. Here we discuss in detail the process to optimize velocity-tuning, capture, ...

  6. A High-Level Functional Architecture for GNSS-Based Road Charging Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabic, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Within recent years, GNSS-based road charging systems have been highly profiled on the policy makers’ agenda. These types of systems are however technically challenging and are considered one of the most complex types of charging systems. To understand the structure and behavior of such road...... charging systems, it is important to highlight the overall system architecture which is the framework that defines the basic functions and important concepts of the system. This paper presents a functional architecture for GNSS-based road charging systems based on the concepts of system engineering. First......, a short introduction is provided followed by a presentation of the system engineering methodology to illustrate how and why system architectures can be beneficial for GNSS-based road charging systems. Hereafter, a basic set of system functions is determined based on functional system requirements, which...

  7. Weakly nonlinear electrophoresis of a highly charged colloidal particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Zeyde, Roman; Yavneh, Irad; Yariv, Ehud

    2013-05-01

    At large zeta potentials, surface conduction becomes appreciable in thin-double-layer electrokinetic transport. In the linear weak-field regime, where this effect is quantified by the Dukhin number, it is manifested in non-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobilities. In this paper we go beyond linear response, employing the recently derived macroscale model of Schnitzer and Yariv ["Macroscale description of electrokinetic flows at large zeta potentials: Nonlinear surface conduction," Phys. Rev. E 86, 021503 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021503] as the infrastructure for a weakly nonlinear analysis of spherical-particle electrophoresis. A straightforward perturbation in the field strength is frustrated by the failure to satisfy the far-field conditions, representing a non-uniformity of the weak-field approximation at large distances away from the particle, where salt advection becomes comparable to diffusion. This is remedied using inner-outer asymptotic expansions in the spirit of Acrivos and Taylor ["Heat and mass transfer from single spheres in Stokes flow," Phys. Fluids 5, 387 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706630], with the inner region representing the particle neighborhood and the outer region corresponding to distances scaling inversely with the field magnitude. This singular scheme furnishes an asymptotic correction to the electrophoretic velocity, proportional to the applied field cubed, which embodies a host of nonlinear mechanisms unfamiliar from linear electrokinetic theories. These include the effect of induced zeta-potential inhomogeneity, animated by concentration polarization, on electro-osmosis and diffuso-osmosis; bulk advection of salt; nonuniform bulk conductivity; Coulomb body forces acting on bulk volumetric charge; and the nonzero electrostatic force exerted upon the otherwise screened particle-layer system. A numerical solution of the macroscale model validates our weakly nonlinear analysis.

  8. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uraniumand other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Galloway, Michelle L.; Loew, Timothy J.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Rodriguez, Ingrid Castro; Todd, Damon S.

    2007-11-15

    The next generation, superconducting ECR ion source VENUS(Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) started operation with 28GHzmicrowave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world recordion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e mu A of O6+, 200 e mu A of U33+or U34+, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e mu A of Ar18+, 270e mu A of Ar16+, 28 e mu A of Xe35+ and 4.9 e mu A of U47+ have beenproduced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to theserecord intensities is given and the production of high intensity uraniumbeams is discussed in more detail.

  9. Monovalent counterion distributions at highly charged water interfaces: proton-transfer and Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Vaknin, David; Travesset, Alex

    2005-12-01

    Surface sensitive synchrotron-x-ray scattering studies reveal the distributions of monovalent ions next to highly charged interfaces. A lipid phosphate (dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate) was spread as a monolayer at the air-water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion distributions (Cs+) next to the negatively charged interface over a wide range of ionic concentrations. We argue that at low salt concentrations and for pure water the enhanced concentration of hydroniums H3O+ at the interface leads to proton transfer back to the phosphate group by a high contact potential, whereas high salt concentrations lower the contact potential resulting in proton release and increased surface charge density. The experimental ionic distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized-surface-charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory without fitting parameters or additional assumptions.

  10. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  11. Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclei in High-Energy Oxygen-Lead Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use stacks of CR-39 plastic track detectors to look for fractionally charged projectile fragments produced in collisions of high-energy oxygen, sulfur, and calcium nuclei with a lead target. The expected charge resolution is @s^z~=~0.06e for fragments with 17e/3~@$<$~Z~@$<$~23e/3. We request that two target + stack assemblies be exposed to 1~x~10|5 oxygen nuclei at maximum available energy.

  12. Measurement of charge exchange cross sections for highly charged xenon and thorium ions with molecular hydrogen in a Penning Ion Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, G.M.

    1995-12-01

    Highly charged xenon (35+ to 46+) and thorium (72+ to 79+) ions were produced in an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). The ions were extracted from EBIT in a short pulse. Ions of one charge state were selected using an electromagnet. The ions were recaptured at low energy in a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP). As the ions captured electrons from molecular hydrogen, populations of the various charge states were obtained by measuring the image currents induced by the ions on the electrodes of the trap. Data on the number of ions in each charge state vs. time were compared to theoretical rate equations in order to determine the average charge exchange rates. These rates were compared to charge exchange rates of an ion with a known charge exchange cross section (Ar{sup 11+}) measured in a similar manner in order to determine the average charge exchange cross sections for the highly charged ions. The energy of interaction between the highly charged ions and hydrogen was estimated to be 4 eV in the center of mass frame. The mean charge exchange cross sections were 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup 2} for Xe{sup 43+} to Xe{sup 46+} and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2} for Th{sup 73+} to Th{sup 79+}. Double capture was approximately 20--25% of the total for both xenon and thorium. A fit indicated that the cross sections were approximately proportional to q. This is consistent with a linear dependence of cross section on q within the measurement uncertainties.

  13. Capture and isolation of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Samuel M; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    We recently used a compact Penning trap to capture and isolate highly-charged ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Isolated charge states of highly-stripped argon and neon ions with total charge $Q \\geq 10$, extracted at energies of up to $4\\times 10^3\\,Q$ eV, are captured in a trap with well depths of $\\,\\approx (4\\, {\\rm to}\\, 12)\\,Q$ eV. Here we discuss in detail the process to optimize velocity-tuning, capture, and storage of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap designed to provide easy radial access for atomic or laser beams in charge exchange or spectroscopic experiments, such as those of interest for proposed studies of one-electron ions in Rydberg states or optical transitions of metastable states in multiply-charged ions. Under near-optimal conditions, ions captured and isolated in such rare-earth Penning traps can be characterized by an initial energy distribution that is $\\approx$ 60 times narrower than typically...

  14. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Yasuura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  15. Highly charged ions in exotic atoms research at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Biri, S.; Boisbourdain, V.; Demeter, M.; Borchert, G.; Egger, J.P.; Fuhrmann, H.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A.; Hennebach, M.; Indelicato, P.; Liu, Y.W.; Manil, B.; Markushin, V.E.; Marton, H.; Nelms, N.; Rusi El Hassani, A.J.; Simons, L.M. E-mail: leopold.simons@psi.ch; Stingelin, L.; Wasser, A.; Wells, A.; Zmeskal, J

    2003-05-01

    During their de-excitation, exotic atoms formed in low pressure gases reach a state of high or even complete ionization. X-rays emitted from higher n-states of electron-free atoms have well defined energies with the error originating only from the error in the mass values of the constituent particles. They served as a basis for a new determination of the pion mass as well as for a high precision measurement of the pionic hydrogen ground state shift. The response function of the Bragg spectrometer has been determined with X-rays from completely ionized pionic carbon and with a dedicated electron cyclotron resonance ion trap (ECRIT). A further extension of the ECRIT method implemented in the experiment allows a direct calibration of exotic atom transitions as well as a precise determination of the energy of fluorescence lines.

  16. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.

  18. Uncharted Frontiers in the Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Beiersdorfer, P; Crespo, J; Kim, S H; Neill, P; Utter, S; Widmann, K

    2000-01-01

    The development of novel techniques is critical for maintaining a state-of-the-art core competency in atomic physics and readiness for evolving programmatic needs. We have carried out a three-year effort to develop novel spectroscopic instrumentation that added new dimensions to our capabilities for measuring energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and electron-ion excitation processes. The new capabilities created were in areas that heretofore had been inaccessible to scientific scrutiny and included high-resolution spectroscopy of hard x rays, femtosecond lifetime measurements, measurements of transition probabilities of long-lived metastable levels, polarization spectroscopy, ultra-precise determinations of energy levels, and the establishment of absolute wavelength standards in x-ray spectroscopy. Instrumentation developed during the period included a transmission-type crystal spectrometer, a flat-field EUV spectrometer, and the development and deployment of absolutely calibrated monolithic cry...

  19. Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Muller, H.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.

  20. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.H., E-mail: zhangxiaohu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yuan, Y.J.; Yin, X.J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, H.; Li, Z.S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-11

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  1. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  2. High throughput on-chip analysis of high-energy charged particle tracks using lensfree imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Shabbir, Faizan; Gong, Chao; Gulec, Cagatay; Pigeon, Jeremy; Shaw, Jessica; Greenbaum, Alon; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chandrashekhar [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ozcan, Aydogan, E-mail: ozcan@ucla.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bioengineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate a high-throughput charged particle analysis platform, which is based on lensfree on-chip microscopy for rapid ion track analysis using allyl diglycol carbonate, i.e., CR-39 plastic polymer as the sensing medium. By adopting a wide-area opto-electronic image sensor together with a source-shifting based pixel super-resolution technique, a large CR-39 sample volume (i.e., 4 cm × 4 cm × 0.1 cm) can be imaged in less than 1 min using a compact lensfree on-chip microscope, which detects partially coherent in-line holograms of the ion tracks recorded within the CR-39 detector. After the image capture, using highly parallelized reconstruction and ion track analysis algorithms running on graphics processing units, we reconstruct and analyze the entire volume of a CR-39 detector within ∼1.5 min. This significant reduction in the entire imaging and ion track analysis time not only increases our throughput but also allows us to perform time-resolved analysis of the etching process to monitor and optimize the growth of ion tracks during etching. This computational lensfree imaging platform can provide a much higher throughput and more cost-effective alternative to traditional lens-based scanning optical microscopes for ion track analysis using CR-39 and other passive high energy particle detectors.

  3. OTR studies for the high charge CTF3 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; Vermare, C

    2003-01-01

    The CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3) will produce 1.56µs long intense electron pulses. The unbunched 5.4A beam of the injector will have a transverse beam size ~1mm. After the buncher the current is reduced to 3.5A and the transverse size varies between a few hundred micrometers and one millimetre along the length of the linac. Calculations indicate that these beam parameters will impose an unbearable thermal load for the intercepting screens currently in use (scintillators and aluminium OTR foils). Graphite and SiC have been investigated as possible alternative materials for the OTR radiators. The possibility of replacing scintillating screens with OTR targets at the low energies of the injector has also been considered. A possible limitation in the use of such high temperature radiators has been identified; ions released from the heated target could focus further the beam with the risk of damaging the target itself and/or blowing up the beam. This would also affect the emittance measurement and would hinder any...

  4. Non-targeted effects induced by high LET charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Tom K.; Chai, Yunfei; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Uchihori, Yukio

    Radiation-induced non-targeted response represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation in that extranuclear and extracellular effects may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Using the gpt delta transgenic mouse model, there is evidence that irradiation of a small area (1 cm by 1 cm) of the lower abdominal area of animals with a 5 Gy dose of X-rays induced cyclooxygenase-2 as well as deletion mutations in the out-of-field lung tissues of the animals. The mutation correlated with an increase in prostaglandin levels in the bystander lung tissues and with an increase in the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative DNA damage marker. An increase in COX-2 level was also detected in the out-of-field lung tissues of animals similarly exposed to high LET argon and carbon ions accelerated at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These results provide the first evidence that the COX-2 -related pathway, which is essential in mediating cellular inflammatory response, is the critical signaling link for the non-targeted, bystander phenomenon. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the non-targeted, out of field phenomenon together with evidence of their occurrence in vivo will allow us to formulate a more accurate assessment of radiation risk.

  5. Investigating interactions between phospholipase B-Like 2 and antibodies during Protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Benjamin; Grosskopf, Vanessa; Wang, Xiangdan; Yang, Jihong; Walker, Don; Yu, Christopher; McDonald, Paul

    2016-03-18

    Purification processes for therapeutic antibodies typically exploit multiple and orthogonal chromatography steps in order to remove impurities, such as host-cell proteins. While the majority of host-cell proteins are cleared through purification processes, individual host-cell proteins such as Phospholipase B-like 2 (PLBL2) are more challenging to remove and can persist into the final purification pool even after multiple chromatography steps. With packed-bed chromatography runs using host-cell protein ELISAs and mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrated that different therapeutic antibodies interact to varying degrees with host-cell proteins in general, and PLBL2 specifically. We then used a high-throughput Protein A chromatography method to further examine the interaction between our antibodies and PLBL2. Our results showed that the co-elution of PLBL2 during Protein A chromatography is highly dependent on the individual antibody and PLBL2 concentration in the chromatographic load. Process parameters such as antibody resin load density and pre-elution wash conditions also influence the levels of PLBL2 in the Protein A eluate. Furthermore, using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that there is a preference for PLBL2 to interact with IgG4 subclass antibodies compared to IgG1 antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Charge Localization in High-Mobility, Solution-Crystallized Small Molecule Semiconductors Studied by Charge Modulation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meneau, Aurélie Y. B.; Olivier, Yoann; Backlund, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    In solution-processable small molecule semiconductors, the extent of charge carrier wavefunction localization induced by dynamic disorder can be probed spectroscopically as a function of temperature using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS). Here, it is shown based on combined fi eld-effect......, in principle, be observed at low temperatures if other transport bottlenecks associated with grain boundaries or contacts could be removed....

  7. High-Sensitivity Charge Detection with a Single-Lead Quantum Dot for Scalable Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Matthew; Bartlett, Ian; Pakkiam, Prasanna; Koch, Matthias; Peretz, Eldad; van der Heijden, Joost; Kobayashi, Takashi; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle

    We report the development of a high sensitivity semiconductor charge sensor based on a quantum dot coupled to a single lead, designed to minimize the geometric requirements of a charge sensor for scalable quantum computing architectures. The quantum dot is fabricated in Si:P using atomic precision lithography and its charge transitions are measured with rf reflectometry. A second quantum dot with two leads placed 42 nm away serves as both a charge for the sensor to measure and as a conventional rf single electron transistor (rf-SET) with which to make a comparison of the charge detection sensitivity. We demonstrate sensitivity equivalent to an integration time of 550 ns to detect a single charge with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1, compared with an integration time of 55 ns for the rf-SET. This level of sensitivity is suitable for fast (Communication Technology (Project No. CE110001027) and the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-13-1-0024.

  8. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a cathepsin B-like protease family unique to Trypanosoma congolense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palomares, Carlos; Biteau, Nicolas; Giroud, Christiane; Coustou, Virginie; Coetzer, Theresa; Authié, Edith; Boulangé, Alain; Baltz, Théo

    2008-04-01

    Cysteine proteases have been shown to be essential virulence factors and drug targets in trypanosomatids and an attractive antidisease vaccine candidate for Trypanosoma congolense. Here, we describe an important amplification of genes encoding cathepsin B-like proteases unique to T. congolense. More than 13 different genes were identified, whereas only one or two highly homologous genes have been identified in other trypanosomatids. These proteases grouped into three evolutionary clusters: TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and TcoCBc6, which possess the classical catalytic triad (Cys, His, and Asn), and TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13, which contains an unusual catalytic site (Ser, Xaa, and Asn). Expression profiles showed that members of the TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and the TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13 groups are expressed mainly in bloodstream forms and localize in the lysosomal compartment. The expression of recombinant representatives of each group (TcoCB1, TcoCB6, and TcoCB12) as proenzymes showed that TcoCBc1 and TcoCBc6 are able to autocatalyze their maturation 21 and 31 residues, respectively, upstream of the predicted start of the catalytic domain. Both displayed a carboxydipeptidase function, while only TcoCBc1 behaved as an endopeptidase. TcoCBc1 exhibited biochemical differences regarding inhibitor sensitivity compared to that of other cathepsin B-like proteases. Recombinant pro-TcoCBs12 did not automature in vitro, and the pepsin-matured enzyme was inactive in tests with cathepsin B fluorogenic substrates. In vivo inhibition studies using CA074Me (a cell-permeable cathepsin B-specific inhibitor) demonstrated that TcoCB are involved in lysosomal protein degradation essential for survival in bloodstream form. Furthermore, TcoCBc1 elicited an important immune response in experimentally infected cattle. We propose this family of proteins as a potential therapeutic target and as a plausible antigen for T. congolense diagnosis.

  9. Two-Step Delamination of Highly Charged, Vermiculite-like Layered Silicates via Ordered Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daab, Matthias; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Kalo, Hussein; Stöter, Matthias; Bojer, Beate; Siegel, Renée; Förster, Stephan; Senker, Jürgen; Breu, Josef

    2017-05-16

    Because of strong Coulomb interactions, the delamination of charged layered materials becomes progressively more difficult with increasing charge density. For instance, highly charged sodium fluorohectorite (Na0.6Mg2.4Li0.6Si4O10F2, Na-Hec) cannot be delaminated directly by osmotic swelling in water because its layer charge exceeds the established limit for osmotic swelling of 0.55 per formula unit Si4O10F2. Quite surprisingly, we found that this hectorite at the border of the smectite and vermiculite group can, however, be utterly delaminated into 1-nm-thick platelets with a high aspect ratio (24 000) in a two-step process. The hectorite is first converted by partial ion exchange into a one-dimensionally ordered, interstratified heterostructure with strictly alternating Na(+) and n-butylammonium (C4) interlayers. This heterostructure then spontaneously delaminates into uniform single layers upon immersion in water whereas neither of the homoionic phases (Na-Hec and C4-Hec) swells osmotically. The delamination of more highly charged synthetic layered silicates is a key step to push the aspect ratio beyond the current limits.

  10. High-Frequency Pulsed-Electro-Acoustic (PEA) Measurements for Mapping Charge Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Kristina; Pearson, Lee; Dennison, J. R.; Doyle, Timothy; Hartley, Kent

    2012-10-01

    High-frequency pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements are a non-destructive method used to investigate internal charge distributions in dielectric materials. This presentation discusses the theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments and shows results of PEA measurements. PEA experiments involve a thin dielectric positioned between two conducting electrodes. A voltage signal on the two electrodes generates an electric field across the dielectric, which stimulates embedded charge and creates a pressure wave that propagates within the capacitor. A coupled acoustic sensor then measures the ensuing pressure pulse response. Spatial distributions of the charge profile are obtained from the resultant pressure waveform. Gaussian filters and other signal processing methods are used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in this waveform. Estimates of the charge distribution inside the dielectric are extracted from this analysis. Our ultimate objective is to develop high resolution PEA methods to investigate in vacuo charge deposition in thin film polymeric, ceramic, or glass dielectric materials using medium to high energy (approximately 103 to 107 eV) electron beams.

  11. Study of neutral-charged particle correlations in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dao, F T

    1973-01-01

    Recent experiments at Serpukhov, NAL, and CERN indicate a strong correlation between neutral and charged pions produced in high energy collisions, in contrast to the trend shown by data at lower energies. This study of the energy and charge dependence of these correlations indicates that they do not depend upon the initial state particles and that they are in reasonable agreement with the critical fluid gas model. These high energy correlation data are also studied in terms of a semi-inclusive Koba- Nielsen-Olesen scaling relation. (9 refs).

  12. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, Helmut [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hora, Heinrich [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)]|[Regensburg Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Anwenderzentrum

    1996-12-31

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10{sup 11} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ``hot`` electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author).

  13. High-Q Tunable Filters and High Efficiency Charge Pumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The supply voltages of modern baseband digital integrated circuits are well below the required actuation voltages for the MEMS tunable filters. Therefore, a charge...

  14. EBIT spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions relevant to hot plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is a versatile device for studying highly charged ions. We have been using two types of EBITs for the spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions. One is a high-energy device called the Tokyo-EBIT, and another is a compact low-energy device called CoBIT. Complementary use of them enables us to obtain spectroscopic data for ions over a wide charge-state range interacting with electrons over a wide energy range. In this talk, we present EBIT spectra of highly charged ions for tungsten, iron, bismuth, etc., which are relevant to hot plasmas. Tungsten is considered to be the main impurity in the ITER (the next generation nuclear fusion reactor) plasma, and thus its emission lines are important for diagnosing and controlling the ITER plasma. We have observed many previously unreported lines to supply the lack of spectroscopic data of tungsten ions. Iron is one of the main components of the solar corona, and its spectra are used to diagnose temperature, density, etc. The diagnostics is usually done by comparing observed spectra with model calculations. An EBIT can provide spectra under a well-defined condition; they are thus useful to test the model calculations. Laser-produced bismuth plasma is one of the candidates for a soft x-ray source in the water window region. An EBIT has a narrow charge state distribution; it is thus useful to disentangle the spectra of laser-produced plasma containing ions with a wide charge-state range. Performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS09KOAJ003) and JSPS KAKENHI Number 23246165, and partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics.

  15. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, Gregory A.; Vazquez, Marcelo; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Slater, James M.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. METHODS: Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. ROTAROD TEST: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. OPEN FIELD TEST: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. MORRIS WATER MAZE: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the CNS. ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process.

  16. Initial observations of high-charge, low-emittance electron beams at HIBAF (High Brightness Accelerator FEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Feldman, R.B.; Carsten, B.E.; Feldman, D.W.; Sheffield, R.L.; Stein, W.E.; Johnson, W.J.; Thode, L.E.; Bender, S.C.; Busch, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    We report our initial measurements of bright (high-charge, low-emittance) electron beams generated at the Los Alamos High Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) Facility. Normalized emittance values of less than 50 {pi} mm-mrad for charges ranging from 0.7 to 8.7 nC were obtained for single micropulses at a y-waist and at an energy of 14.7 MeV. These measurements were part of the commissioning campaign on the HIBAF photoelectric injector. Macropulse measurements have also been performed and are compared with PARMELA simulations. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Generating free charges by carrier multiplication in quantum dots for highly efficient photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Sybren; Sandeep, C S Suchand; Liu, Yao; Law, Matt; Kinge, Sachin; Houtepen, Arjan J; Schins, Juleon M; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: In a conventional photovoltaic device (solar cell or photodiode) photons are absorbed in a bulk semiconductor layer, leading to excitation of an electron from a valence band to a conduction band. Directly after photoexcitation, the hole in the valence band and the electron in the conduction band have excess energy given by the difference between the photon energy and the semiconductor band gap. In a bulk semiconductor, the initially hot charges rapidly lose their excess energy as heat. This heat loss is the main reason that the theoretical efficiency of a conventional solar cell is limited to the Shockley-Queisser limit of ∼33%. The efficiency of a photovoltaic device can be increased if the excess energy is utilized to excite additional electrons across the band gap. A sufficiently hot charge can produce an electron-hole pair by Coulomb scattering on a valence electron. This process of carrier multiplication (CM) leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs for the absorption of one photon. In bulk semiconductors such as silicon, the energetic threshold for CM is too high to be of practical use. However, CM in nanometer sized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) offers prospects for exploitation in photovoltaics. CM leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs that are initially in close proximity. For photovoltaic applications, these charges must escape from recombination. This Account outlines our recent progress in the generation of free mobile charges that result from CM in QDs. Studies of charge carrier photogeneration and mobility were carried out using (ultrafast) time-resolved laser techniques with optical or ac conductivity detection. We found that charges can be extracted from photoexcited PbS QDs by bringing them into contact with organic electron and hole accepting materials. However, charge localization on the QD produces a strong Coulomb attraction to its counter charge in the organic material. This limits the production

  18. Charge Transfer and Triplet States in High Efficiency OPV Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    The advantage of using polymers and molecules in electronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LED), field-effect transistors (FET) and, more recently, solar cells (SC) is justified by the unique combination of high device performance and processing of the semiconductors used. Power conversion efficiency of nanostructured polymer SC is in the range of 10% on lab scale, making them ready for up-scaling. Efficient charge carrier generation and recombination in SC are strongly related to dissociation of the primary singlet excitons. The dissociation (or charge transfer) process should be very efficient in photovoltaics. The mechanisms governing charge carrier generation, recombination and transport in SC based on the so-called bulk-heterojunctions, i.e. blends of two or more semiconductors with different electron affinities, appear to be very complex, as they imply the presence of the intermediate excited states, neutral and charged ones. Charge transfer states, or polaron pairs, are the intermediate states between free electrons/holes and strongly bound excitons. Interestingly, the mostly efficient OLEDs to date are based on the so-called triplet emitters, which utilize the triplet-triplet annihilation process. In SC, recent investigations indicated that on illumination of the device active layer, not only mobile charges but also triplet states were formed. With respect to triplets, it is unclear how these excited states are generated, via inter-system crossing or via back transfer of the electron from acceptor to donor. Triplet formation may be considered as charge carrier loss channel; however, the fusion of two triplets may lead to a formation of singlet excitons instead. In such case, a generation of charges by utilizing of the so far unused photons will be possible. The fundamental understanding of the processes involving the charge transfer and triplet states and their relation to nanoscale morphology and/or energetics of blends is essential for the

  19. A high etendue spectrometer suitable for core charge eXchange recombination spectroscopy on ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, R.J.E.; Scheffer, M.; Kappatou, A.; Valk, N.C.J. van der; Durkut, M.; Snijders, B.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Pokol, G.I.; Erdei, G.; Zoletnik, S.; Dunai, D.

    2012-01-01

    A feasibility study for the use of core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on ITER has shown that accurate measurements on the helium ash require a spectrometer with a high etendue of 1mm 2sr to comply with the measurement requirements [S. Tugarinov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2075

  20. Highly-charged ions in a penning trap: mass measurements, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jertz, R.; Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Bergström, I.; Carlberg, C.; Schuch, R.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a Penning trap will start a new generation of precision experiments on highly charged ions. The long storage time of the ions in combination with a controlled confinement in a very small volume will enable accuracies in mass determination better than δ m/ m=10-8.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF ANGULAR-MOMENTUM ON DOUBLE ELECTRON-CAPTURE BY HIGHLY CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTHUMUS, JH; LUKEY, P; MORGENSTERN, R

    1992-01-01

    Double electron capture during collisions of highly charged ions with H-2 or He is studied by measuring and analysing energy spectra of the resulting autoionization electrons and by comparing the experimentally determined population probabilities for the various states with those calculated from a

  2. Hydrogenated carbon clusters produced by highly charged ion impact on solid C-84

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatholter, T; Newman, MW; Niedermayr, TR; Machicoane, GA; McDonald, JW; Schenkel, T; Hoekstra, R; Hamza, AV

    2000-01-01

    The emission of small (hydrogenated) carbon cluster ions: CnHm+ (n = 2-22) upon highly charged Xeq+ (q = 20- 14) impact on C-84 surfaces is studied by means of time-of-flight secundary ion mass spectrometry. The respective stage of hydrogenation/protonation of a certain carbon cluster ion C-n(+) is

  3. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  4. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  5. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  6. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  7. Charged Particle Production in High Q2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, $\\xp$, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic $\\ep$ scattering at high $Q^2$ in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality $100 < Q^2 < 20 000 \\GeV^{2}$. Compared with previous results presented by HERA experiments this analysis has a significantly higher statistical precision and extends the phase space to higher $Q^{2}$ and to the full range of $\\xp$. The results are compared with $e^+e^-$ annihilation data and with various calculations based on perturbative QCD using different models of the hadronisation process.

  8. On the charge dispersion in high-energy proton-xenon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yuming; Massmann, H.; Xu Shuyan; Gross, D.H.E.; Zhang Xiaoze; Lu Zhaoqi; Sa Benhao

    1987-08-06

    The mass yield and the charge dispersion of secondary fragments produced in high-energetic proton-xenon bombardment are analysed in the frame of our statistical multifragmentation model. The critical mass distribution as well as the charge dispersion, which have led to the discussion of a nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are easily reproduced within our model. A clear signal of a 'phase transition' at T = 5 MeV is found and is analysed in terms of various multifragment correlations.

  9. Inter-electrode charge collection in high-purity germanium detectors with amorphous semiconductor contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looker, Q., E-mail: qlooker@lbl.gov [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Amman, M. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, K. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detectors with segmented signal readout electrodes combine excellent energy resolution with fine spatial resolution, opening exciting possibilities in radiation imaging applications. Segmenting the electrodes provides the ability to determine the positions of radiation interactions in the detector, but it also brings potential challenges that can inhibit performance. A challenge unique to segmented electrode detectors is collection of charge carriers to the gap between adjacent electrodes rather than to the electrodes themselves, which gives a deficit in the summed energy. While amorphous semiconductor electrical contacts have enabled a simplified fabrication process capable of fine electrode segmentation, the amorphous semiconductor passivation layer between electrodes is prone to inter-electrode charge collection. This article presents a study of the impact of fabrication process parameters on the energy deficit due to inter-electrode charge collection for double-sided strip detectors. Eight double-sided strip HPGe detectors were fabricated with amorphous germanium (a-Ge) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) contacts formed by sputter deposition. Each detector was evaluated for inter-electrode charge collection performance, using as a metric the deficit in the summed signal of two adjacent electrodes. It is demonstrated that both a-Ge and a-Si contacts can be produced with nearly non-existent inter-electrode charge collection when the appropriate combination of sputter gas hydrogen content and gas pressure are selected.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Charge Variants on Stability and Viscosity of a High Concentration Antibody Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Shantanu V; Fernandez, Jason E; Mecozzi, Vincent J; Kravets, Yana; Yang, William C; Feng, Pamela; Liu, Suli; Zang, Li; Capili, Allan D; Estey, Tia B; Gupta, Kapil

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing molecular charge variants or isoforms is essential for understanding safety, potency, and bioavailability of antibody therapeutics. However, there is little information on how they influence stability and viscosity-properties governing immunogenicity and delivery. To bridge this gap, we studied antibody stability as a function of charge variant content generated via bioreactor process. We were able to systematically vary acidic variant levels as a function of bioreactor harvest time. Importantly, we do not observe any impact on aggregation behavior of a formulated antibody at high protein concentration as a function of acidic variant level. Furthermore, we confirm that acidic variants enriched using fractionation do not influence viscosity, colloidal or conformational stability. Interestingly, variants with the most acidic isoelectric points contribute disproportionately to formulation color. We discuss our findings in context of antibody manufacturing processes that may yield increased charge variant content. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  12. Unconventional charge order in a co-doped high-Tc superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, D.; Vučković, M.; Grafe, H.-J.; Baek, S.-H.; Požek, M.

    2016-09-01

    Charge-stripe order has recently been established as an important aspect of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. However, owing to the complex interplay between competing phases and the influence of disorder, it is unclear how it emerges from the parent high-temperature state. Here we report on the discovery of an unconventional ordered phase between charge-stripe order and (pseudogapped) metal in the cuprate La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4. We use three complementary experiments--nuclear quadrupole resonance, nonlinear conductivity and specific heat--to demonstrate that the order appears through a sharp phase transition and exists in a dome-shaped region of the phase diagram. Our results imply that the new phase is a state, which preserves translational symmetry: a charge nematic. We thus resolve the process of charge-stripe development in cuprates, show that this nematic phase is distinct from high-temperature pseudogap and establish a link with other strongly correlated electronic materials with prominent nematic order.

  13. Unconventional charge order in a co-doped high-Tc superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, D; Vučković, M; Grafe, H-J; Baek, S-H; Požek, M

    2016-09-08

    Charge-stripe order has recently been established as an important aspect of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. However, owing to the complex interplay between competing phases and the influence of disorder, it is unclear how it emerges from the parent high-temperature state. Here we report on the discovery of an unconventional ordered phase between charge-stripe order and (pseudogapped) metal in the cuprate La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4. We use three complementary experiments-nuclear quadrupole resonance, nonlinear conductivity and specific heat-to demonstrate that the order appears through a sharp phase transition and exists in a dome-shaped region of the phase diagram. Our results imply that the new phase is a state, which preserves translational symmetry: a charge nematic. We thus resolve the process of charge-stripe development in cuprates, show that this nematic phase is distinct from high-temperature pseudogap and establish a link with other strongly correlated electronic materials with prominent nematic order.

  14. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  15. Charge Transfer across Quantum Dot-Oxide Interfaces for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Mischa

    Metal oxides constitute robust and relatively cheap semiconductor materials that are finding increasing applications in opto-electronics, but their band gaps are typically prohibitively wide for the generation of free charges through the absorption of visible light. Several approaches have been developed to circumvent this drawback. Specifically, the sensitization of mesoporous oxides by semiconductor quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals represents a promising route for the development of low-cost photovoltaics in QD sensitized solar cells. In addition to their tuneable band gap, QDs have the ability to generate multiple charge carriers from single photons by a process called carrier multiplication (CM), which potentially provides a means towards high-efficiency photovoltaics. Although CM has been widely interrogated in colloidal QDs in solution, the collection of those multiple charge carriers at oxide electrodes has not been clearly elucidated. The contribution of CM towards the overall device performance is ultimately determined by a competition between transfer to the electrode material and charge recombination within the QDs. We report interfacial electron transfer dynamics from quantum dots grown directly onto mesoporous oxide films. Such systems are well-suited for achieving efficient multiple charge transfer by CM, as electron transfer from QD-to-oxide is substantially faster than charge recombination. However, despite CM occurring in the QD, only one electron is transferred to the oxide. This seemingly counterintuitive result can be understood by noting that efficient hot electron transfer at the QD-oxide interface can compete with CM within the QDs. Hot electron transfer is observed to occur on sub-100 fs timescales, nulling the CM efficiency. Implications of these results for solar energy conversion are discussed.

  16. Charging operation with high energy efficiency for electric vehicle valve-regulated lead-acid battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae Res. Lab., Lithium Battery Project, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power Co., Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst. Inc., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power Co., Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    A new, high-energy-efficiency charging operation with as little amount of overcharge as possible is proposed to improve the energy efficiency and the cycle life for an EV valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Under this operation, the EV battery system is charged with 105% of amount of the preceding discharge five out of six times and once with 115% in order that it is fully charged. The cycle lives were estimated using a valve-regulated lead-acid battery system of 12 modules connected in series, by SFUDS79 pattern discharging and measurement of the amount of discharge every 50 cycles. Three-step constant current charging with 115% of amount of the preceding discharge required more than 5 h with the final charging step of more than 210 min, with coulomb efficiency of only 87% and energy efficiency of 74%. On the other hand, under the high-energy-efficiency charging operation, three-step charging with 105% shortens the final charging time to 132 min. It was completed in less than 4 h with coulomb and energy efficiency of 95% and 84%, respectively. This operation increased the energy efficiency from 74% to 83% on average in six charging, and extended the cycle life by about 30% to more than 400 cycles. Decreasing the amount of charge by as much as possible suppressed the corrosion of the grids in the positive plate and the heat evolution in batteries due to shortening of the final charging step. Although the high-energy-efficiency charging operation led to the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} at the upper part of the negative plate, possibly due to the decreasing amount of overcharge, this operation could prolong the cycle life. Full charging once every six times is though to be effective in suppressing degradation caused by the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} in the negative plate due to the shortage of charge. (orig.)

  17. Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices employing an easily fabricated charge generation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huishan; Yu, Yaoyao; Wu, Lishuang; Qu, Biao; Lin, Wenyan; Yu, Ye; Wu, Zhijun; Xie, Wenfa

    2018-02-01

    We have realized highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing an easily fabricated charge generation unit (CGU) combining 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile with ultrathin bilayers of CsN3 and Al. The charge generation and separation processes of the CGU have been demonstrated by studying the differences in the current density–voltage characteristics of external-carrier-excluding devices. At high luminances of 1000 and 10000 cd/m2, the current efficiencies of the phosphorescent tandem device are about 2.2- and 2.3-fold those of the corresponding single-unit device, respectively. Simultaneously, an efficient tandem white OLED exhibiting high color stability and warm white emission has also been fabricated.

  18. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  19. Phonons, electronic charge response and electron-phonon interaction in the high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the complete phonon dispersion, the phonon induced electronic charge response and the corresponding self-consistent change of the crystal potential an electron feels as a direct measure of the electron-phonon interaction in the high-temperature superconductors within a microscopic model in the framework of linear response theory. Moreover, dielectric and infrared properties are calculated. The experimentally observed strong renormalization of the in-plane oxygen bond-stretching modes which appears upon doping in the high-temperature superconductors is discussed. It is shown that the characteristic softening, indicating a strong nonlocal electron-phonon interaction, is most likely a generic effect of the CuO plane and is driven by a nonlocal coupling of the displaced ions to the localized charge-fluctuations at the Cu and the Oxy ions. At hand of the oxygen bond-stretching modes it is illustrated how lattice-, charge- and spin-degrees of freedom may act synergetically for anisotropic pairing in the high-temperature superconductors. The different behaviour of these modes during the insulator-metal transition via the underdoped phase is calculated and from a comparison of these generic modes in the different phases conclusions about the electronic state are drawn. For the non-cuprate potassium doped high-temperature superconductor Ba-Bi-O also a very strong and anisotropic renormalization of the oxygen bond-stretching modes is predicted. In another investigation c-axis polarized infrared- and Raman-active modes of the HTSC's are calculated in terms of charge fluctuations and anisotropic dipole-fluctuations. Mode assignments discussed controversially in the literature are proposed. Finally, interlayer phonons propagating along the c-axis and their accompanying charge response are investigated. Depending on the strength of the interlayer coupling calculations are performed ranging from the static, adiabatic response regime to the non-adiabatic regime

  20. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  1. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  2. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter; Wechselwirkung niederenergetischer hochgeladener Ionen mit Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-06-09

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  3. Exploring charge density analysis in crystals at high pressure: data collection, data analysis and advanced modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Nicola; Genoni, Alessandro; Meyer, Benjamin; Krawczuk, Anna; Macchi, Piero

    2017-08-01

    The possibility to determine electron-density distribution in crystals has been an enormous breakthrough, stimulated by a favourable combination of equipment for X-ray and neutron diffraction at low temperature, by the development of simplified, though accurate, electron-density models refined from the experimental data and by the progress in charge density analysis often in combination with theoretical work. Many years after the first successful charge density determination and analysis, scientists face new challenges, for example: (i) determination of the finer details of the electron-density distribution in the atomic cores, (ii) simultaneous refinement of electron charge and spin density or (iii) measuring crystals under perturbation. In this context, the possibility of obtaining experimental charge density at high pressure has recently been demonstrated [Casati et al. (2016). Nat. Commun. 7, 10901]. This paper reports on the necessities and pitfalls of this new challenge, focusing on the species syn-1,6:8,13-biscarbonyl[14]annulene. The experimental requirements, the expected data quality and data corrections are discussed in detail, including warnings about possible shortcomings. At the same time, new modelling techniques are proposed, which could enable specific information to be extracted, from the limited and less accurate observations, like the degree of localization of double bonds, which is fundamental to the scientific case under examination.

  4. High Performance Charge Breeder for HIE-ISOLDE and TSR@ISOLDE Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert C.; Pikin, Alexander; Wenander, Fredrik J.C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development of the HEC2 (High Energy Compression and Current) charge breeder, a possible high performance successor to REXEBIS at ISOLDE. The new breeder would match the performance of the HIE-ISOLDE linac upgrade and make full use of the possible installation of a storage ring at ISOLDE (the TSR@ISOLDE initiative [1]). Dictated by ion beam acceptance and capacity requirements, the breeder features a 2-3.5 A electron beam. In many cases very high charge states, including bare ions up to Z=70 and Li/Na-like up to Z=92 could be requested for experiments in the storage ring, therefore, electron beam energies up to 150 keV are required. The electron-beam current density needed for producing ions with such high charge states at an injection rate into TSR of 0.5-1 Hz is between 10 and 20 kA/cm2, which agrees with the current density needed to produce A/q<4.5 ions for the HIE-ISOLDE linac with a maximum repetition rate of 100 Hz. The first operation of a prototype electron gun with a pulsed elect...

  5. High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Aleksandrin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered. Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  6. High capacity WO3 film as efficient charge collection electrode for solar rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Enqiang; Wei, Yingjin; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Chen, Gang

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrated the dye-sensitized solar rechargeable batteries devices sharing a structure of Dye-TiO2/electrolyte/Ni/WO3. The WO3 film was prepared by a simple sol-gel process exhibit high cavities and large surface area allowing efficient chemical/electrical reactions. The WO3 films with 2 ± 0.5 μm in thickness as charge collection electrodes exhibited a high energy density over other materials reported thus far. Under irradiation energy of 7.5 mWcm-2 in the photo-charging, the discharging time sustained 1758 s at the current density of 0.05 mA cm-2 in dark, the first specific discharge capacities of WO3 nano-film reach 40.6 mAh g-1 (0.0244 mAh cm-2). This work substantially pushes forward the easy processing solar rechargeable batteries for future potential applications.

  7. On-chip high-voltage generator design design methodology for charge pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    This book provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.  This new edition includes a variety of useful updates, including coverage of power efficiency and comprehensive optimization methodologies for DC-DC voltage multipliers, modeling of extremely low voltage Dickson charge pumps, and modeling and optimum design of AC-DC switched-capacitor multipliers for energy harvesting and power transfer for RFID.

  8. Half-life measurements for neutral and highly-charged {alpha}-emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinon, Fabio [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: E073-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The influence of the bound electron cloud on the {alpha}-decay constant {lambda} has been discussed theoretically since the late 50s. Tiny changes in Q-values and {alpha}-decay half-lives of fully stripped ions are expected and can provide information on the electron screening energy, thereby deducing reliable reaction rates in stellar environments. Recently, the measurements of {alpha}-decay half-lives are feasible also for highly-charged radioactive nuclides. Using a {sup 238}U beam at relativistic energies at the present FRS-ESR facility at GSI it is possible to produce, efficiently separate and store highly charged {alpha}-emitters. {sup 213}Fr{sup 86+} have been investigated by using the Schottky Mass Spectrometry technique. In order to establish a solid reference data set, lifetime measurements of the corresponding neutral atoms have been performed directly at the FRS by implanting the separated ions into an active silicon stopper. These results are reported.

  9. Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Chintan; Bernitt, Sven; Dobrodey, Stepan; Steinbrügge, René; Beilmann, Christian; Amaro, Pedro; Hu, Zhimin; Weber, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; López-Urrutia, José R Crespo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron beam ion trap with the electron beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce $K\\alpha$ x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted--wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-$Z$ element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

  10. High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Aleksandrin

    Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered.

    Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  11. Characterisation of a Thin Fully Depleted SOI Pixel Sensor with High Momentum Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Marco; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Giubilato, Piero; Mattiazzo, Serena; Pantano, Devis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the characterisation of a thin, fully depleted pixel sensor manufactured in SOI technology on high-resistivity substrate with high momentum charged particles. The sensor is thinned to 70 $\\mu$m and a thin phosphor layer contact is implanted on the back-plane. Its response is compared to that of thick sensors of same design in terms of signal and noise, detection efficiency and single point resolution based on data collected with 300 GeV pions at the CERN SPS. We observe that the charge collected and the signal-to-noise ratio scale according to the estimated thickness of the sensitive volume and the efficiency and single point resolution of the thinned chip are comparable to those measured for the thick sensors.

  12. Explicit high-order symplectic integrators for charged particles in general electromagnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Molei

    2016-01-01

    This article considers non-relativistic charged particle dynamics in both static and non-static electromagnetic fields, which are governed by nonseparable, possibly time-dependent Hamiltonians. For the first time, explicit symplectic integrators of arbitrary high-orders are constructed for accurate and efficient simulations of such mechanical systems. Performances superior to the standard non-symplectic method of Runge-Kutta are demonstrated on two examples: the first is on the confined motio...

  13. Superelastic Scattering Of Electrons From Highly Charged Ions With Inner Shell Vacancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavodszky, P. A.; Aliabadi, H.; Bhalla, C. P.; Richard, P.; Toth, G.; Tanis, J. A.

    2001-07-16

    We report the measurement of electrons scattered superelastically from highly charged ions having an initial K -shell vacancy. In this process, the scattered electron gains {approx}725 eV of energy from the deexcitation of an excited He-like F{sup 7+}( 1s2sS{sup 3}) metastable ion to its ground state. Theoretical calculations based on an R -matrix approach agree well in position, shape, and magnitude with the experimental data.

  14. State of charge estimation of high power lithium iron phosphate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huria, T.; Ludovici, G.; Lutzemberger, G.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a state of charge (SOC) evaluation algorithm for high power lithium iron phosphate cells characterized by voltage hysteresis. The algorithm is based on evaluating the parameters of an equivalent electric circuit model of the cell and then using a hybrid technique with adequate treatment of errors, through an additional extended Kalman filter (EKF). The model algorithm has been validated in terms of effectiveness and robustness by several experimental tests.

  15. K-Vacancy Production in the Collision of Highly Charged Relativistic Ions With Heavy Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    KHABIBULLAEV, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A general expression for the cross section of the inelastic collision of relativistic highly charged ion with heavy (relativistic) atoms is obtained using the generalized eikonal approximation. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the obtained formula coincides with a known exact one. As an application of the obtained result, probability and cross section of the K-vacany production in the U92+ - U91+ collision are calculated.

  16. Supercharging with m-nitrobenzyl alcohol and propylene carbonate: forming highly charged ions with extended, near-linear conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Catherine C; Williams, Evan R

    2015-04-07

    The effectiveness of the supercharging reagents m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate at producing highly charged protein ions in electrospray ionization is compared. Addition of 5% m-NBA or 15% propylene carbonate increases the average charge of three proteins by ∼21% or ∼23%, respectively, when these ions are formed from denaturing solutions (water/methanol/acetic acid). These results indicate that both reagents are nearly equally effective at supercharging when used at their optimum concentrations. A narrowing of the charge state distribution occurs with both reagents, although this effect is greater for propylene carbonate. Focusing the ion signal into fewer charge states has the advantage of improving sensitivity. The maximum charge state of ubiquitin formed with propylene carbonate is 21+, four charges higher than previously reported. Up to nearly 30% of all residues in a protein can be charged, and the collisional cross sections of the most highly charged ions of both ubiquitin and cytochrome c formed with these supercharging reagents were measured for the first time and found to be similar to those calculated for theoretical highly extended, linear or near-linear conformations. Under native supercharging conditions, m-NBA is significantly more effective at producing high charge states than propylene carbonate.

  17. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  19. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  20. Research and development of a high-performance differential-hybrid charge sensitive preamplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Hu, Chuanhao; Wei, Shilong; Yang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Ge, Liangquan; Tan, Chengjun

    2017-02-01

    A differential-hybrid charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) was designed by taking a monolithic dual N-Channel Junction Field-effect Transistor (JFET) and a high-speed, low-noise, operational amplifier as the core parts. Input-stage of the circuit employs low-noise differential dual JFET, which ensures high input impedance and low noise. The differential dual transistor makes the quiescent point of the first-stage differential output stable, which is convenient for connecting with the post stage high-speed operational amplifier. Broadband could be amplified by connecting to the double differential dual transistors through the folded cascode-bootstrap. The amplifying circuit which replaces the interstage and post stage discrete components of a traditional CSP with integrated operational amplifier is simpler and more reliable. It simplifies the design of the quiescent point, gives full play to advantages of releasing large open-loop gain, and improves charge-voltage conversion gain stability. Particularly, the charge-voltage conversion gain is larger under a smaller feedback capacitor, thus enabling to gain better signal-noise ratio. The designed CSP was tested, reporting 3.3×10 13 V/C charge sensitivity, about 90ns rise time of signals, 35:1 signal-noise ratio to gamma-rays of 137 Cs (662keV) and a 0.023 fC/pF noise slope. Gamma-rays of 241 Am (59.5keV) were measured by the BPX66 detector and the designed CSP under room temperature, providing 1.97% energy resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and characterization of WhiB-like family proteins of the Bifidobacterium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averina, Olga V; Zakharevich, Natalia V; Danilenko, Valery N

    2012-08-01

    Bifidobacteria are strictly anaerobic bacteria, that are an important component of human microbiote due to their probiotic characteristics. They are frequently exposed to a variety of stresses, therefore, identification of genes implicated in stress responses in bifidobacteria is critical for biomedicine and maintenance of industrial strains. The WhiB-like family proteins unique for Actinobacteria are transcriptional regulators involved in major cellular processes, including stress responses. The aim of this study was the identification of WhiB-like family proteins of the Bifidobacterium genus of the Actinobacteria class and functional characterization of conservative whiB-like genes. The DNA sequence database of 36 strains revealed a family of WhiB-encoding genes. It were identified the wblE orthologs in all Bifidobacteria species and the whiB2 orthologs in all bifidobacterial strains except of all strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium gallicum. Some strains, in particular, those of the Bifidobacterium longum group, contain additional whiB-like genes of different length and a low degree of similarity in sequences. The wblE and whiB2 genes of the Bifidobacterium genus are evolutionary conservative and ancient genes. The real-time PCR analysis showed that transcription of wblE is induced by a variety of stress conditions such as heat shock, osmotic, oxidative stresses, by antibiotic tetracycline and bile salt treatment, the nutrient starvation and entry into late stationary phase. The wblE gene may play a significant role in general stress responses in bifidobacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Charge Summing in Spectroscopic X-Ray Detectors With High-Z Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, Thomas; Cecilia, Angelica; Ballabriga, Rafael; Baumbach, Tilo; Llopart, Xavier; Fiederle, Michael; Zuber, Marcus; Hamann, Elias; Fauler, Alex; Campbell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The spectroscopic performance of photon counting detectors is limited by the effects of charge sharing between neighboring pixels and the emission of characteristic X-rays. For these reasons, an event can be either missed or counted more than once. These effects become more and more of a concern when pixel pitches are reduced, and for the technology available so far, this meant that there would always be a trade-off between a high spatial and a high spectral resolution. In this work, we present first measurements obtained with the new Medipix3RX ASIC, which features a network of charge summing circuits establishing a communication between pixels which helps to mitigate these effects. Combined with cadmium telluride sensors, we show that this new technology is successful at improving a detector's spectroscopic capabilities even at pixel pitches as small as 55 mu m. At this pitch, we measure an energy response function similar to that observed for a pixel pitch of 165 mu m in the absence of a charge summing cir...

  3. Kinetics of charged particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in a nonuniform electrostatic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpakov, V. A., E-mail: kolpakov683@gmail.com; Krichevskii, S. V.; Markushin, M. A. [Korolev Samara National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    A high-voltage gas discharge is of interest as a possible means of generating directed flows of low-temperature plasma in the off-electrode space distinguished by its original features [1–4]. We propose a model for calculating the trajectories of charges particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.15 Torr existing in a nonuniform electrostatic field and the strength of this field. Based on the results of our calculations, we supplement and refine the extensive experimental data concerning the investigation of such a discharge published in [1, 2, 5–8]; good agreement between the theory and experiment has been achieved. The discharge burning is initiated and maintained through bulk electron-impact ionization and ion–electron emission. We have determined the sizes of the cathode surface regions responsible for these processes, including the sizes of the axial zone involved in the discharge generation. The main effect determining the kinetics of charged particles consists in a sharp decrease in the strength of the field under consideration outside the interelectrode space, which allows a free motion of charges with specific energies and trajectories to be generated in it. The simulation results confirm that complex electrode systems that allow directed plasma flows to be generated at a discharge current of hundreds or thousands of milliamperes and a voltage on the electrodes of 0.3–1 kV can be implemented in practice [3, 9, 10].

  4. Coil Design for High Misalignment Tolerant Inductive Power Transfer System for EV Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafeel Ahmed Kalwar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inductive power transfer (IPT system for electric vehicle (EV charging has acquired more research interest in its different facets. However, the misalignment tolerance between the charging coil (installed in the ground and pick-up coil (mounted on the car chassis, has been a challenge and fundamental interest in the future market of EVs. This paper proposes a new coil design QDQ (Quad D Quadrature that maintains the high coupling coefficient and efficient power transfer during reasonable misalignment. The QDQ design makes the use of four adjacent circular coils and one square coil, for both charging and pick-up side, to capture the maximum flux at any position. The coil design has been modeled in JMAG software for calculation of inductive parameters using the finite element method (FEM, and its hardware has been tested experimentally at various misaligned positions. The QDQ coils are shown to be capable of achieving good coupling coefficient and high efficiency of the system until the misalignment displacement reaches 50% of the employed coil size.

  5. Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirringhaus, H.; Brown, P.J.; Friend, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Self-organization in many solution-processed, semiconducting conjugated polymers results in complex microstructures, in which ordered microcrystalline domains are embedded in an amorphous matrix(I). This has important consequences for electrical properties of these materials: charge transport...... of the ordered microcrystalline domains in the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, Self-organization in P3HT results in a lamella structure with two-dimensional conjugated sheets formed by interchain stacking. We find that, depending on processing conditions, the lamellae can adopt two different...... character of the polaronic charge carriers, which exhibit lower relaxation energies than the corresponding radical cations on isolated one-dimensional chains. The possibility of achieving high mobilities via two-dimensional transport in self-organized conjugated lamellae is important for applications...

  6. Charged particle production in high Q{sup 2} deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, x{sub p}, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q{sup 2} in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100 < Q{sup 2} < 20 000 GeV{sup 2}. Compared with previous results presented by HERA experiments this analysis has a significantly higher statistical precision and extends the phase space to higher Q{sup 2} and to the full range of x{sub p}. The results are compared with e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data and with various calculations based on perturbative QCD using different models of the hadronisation process. (orig.)

  7. Influence of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions in highly charged ions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Zhan-Bin; Chen, Wen-Cong; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Fu, Nian; Wang, Kai

    2017-11-01

    Considering the quantum effects of diffraction and the collective screening effects, the potential of test charge in semiclassical plasmas is derived. It is generalized exponential screened Coulomb potential. Using the Ritz variational method incorporating this potential, the effects of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions are investigated systematically, taking highly charged H-like ion as an example. The Debye plasma model is also employed for comparison purposes. Comparisons and analysis are made between these two sets of results and the differences are discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  8. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  9. Highly charged ions trapping for lifetime measurements; Piegeage d'ions tres charges pour la mesure de duree de vie d'etats metastables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2007-10-15

    A new experimental setup dedicated to highly charged ion trapping is presented in this work. The final goal is to perform lifetime measurement of metastable states produced by our ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source. Lifetimes to be measured are in the range of a few ms and more. We have measured the lifetimes of the M1 transitions of the metastable states of Ar{sup 9+}, Ar{sup 13+} and Ar{sup 14+}. These measurements are useful to test the N-body problem in the relativistic range. The trap we have built, was designed a few years ago at the Weizman Institute in Israel, it allows ions with an energy of several keV to be trapped for lifetimes of about 1 second. This trap was originally designed to study the dynamics of excited molecules. We have shown for the first time how the trap operates and that it can operate with highly charged ions. We have studied the beam dynamics of highly charged ions and the trap has been tested with various species of ions and different charge states: from O{sup +} to O{sup 6+}, from Ar{sup 8+} to Ar{sup 13+}, and from Kr{sup 13+} to Kr{sup 20+}.

  10. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  11. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what

  12. Microporous nano-MgO/diatomite ceramic membrane with high positive surface charge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian; Liu, Zhimeng; Deng, Cheng; Zhu, Mengfu; Wang, Deyin; Li, Kui; Deng, Yu; Jiang, Mingming

    2016-12-15

    A novel microporous nano-MgO/diatomite ceramic membrane with high positive surface charge was prepared, including synthesis of precursor colloid, dip-coating and thermal decomposition. Combined SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS studies show the nano-MgO is irregularly distributed on the membrane surface or pore walls and forms a positively charged nano coating. And the nano-MgO coating is firmly attached to the diatomite membrane via SiO chemical bond. Thus the nano-MgO/diatomite membrane behaves strong electropositivity with the isoelectric point of 10.8. Preliminary filtration tests indicate that the as-prepared nano-MgO/diatomite membrane could remove approximately 99.7% of tetracycline in water through electrostatic adsorption effect. The desirable electrostatic property enables the nano-MgO/diatomite membrane to be a candidate for removal of organic pollutants from water. And it is convinced that there will be a great application prospect of charged ceramic membrane in water treatment field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Dynamic Range X-Ray Detector Pixel Architectures Utilizing Charge Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Becker, Julian; Chamberlain, Darol; Purohit, Prafull; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2017-04-01

    Several charge integrating CMOS pixel front ends utilizing charge removal techniques have been fabricated to extend dynamic range for X-ray diffraction applications at synchrotron sourcesand X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The pixels described herein build on the mixed mode pixel array detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging. These new pixels boast several orders of magnitude improvement in maximum flux over the MM-PAD, which is capable of measuring a sustained flux in excess of 108 X-rays/pixel/s while maintaining sensitivity to smaller signals, down to single X-rays. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the frontend amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is, thereby, shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a sustained flux > 1011 X-rays/pixel/s. Pixel front-end linearity was evaluated by direct current injection and results are presented. A small-scale readout ASIC utilizing these pixel architectures has been fabricated and the use of these architectures to increase single X-ray pulse dynamic range at XFELs is discussed briefly.

  14. Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Tin Ions for AN Extreme Ultraviolet Light Source for Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretti, Francesco; Windberger, Alexander; Ubachs, Wim; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Versolato, Oscar; Ryabtsev, Alexander; Borschevsky, Anastasia; Berengut, Julian; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose

    2017-06-01

    Laser-produced tin plasmas are the prime candidates for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light around 13.5 nm in nanolithographic applications. This light is generated primarily by atomic transitions in highly charged tin ions: Sn^{8+}-Sn^{14+}. Due to the electronic configurations of these charge states, thousands of atomic lines emit around 13.5 nm, clustered in a so-called unresolved transition array. As a result, accurate line identification becomes difficult in this regime. Nevertheless, this issue can be circumvented if one turns to the optical: with far fewer atomic states, only tens of transitions take place and the spectra can be resolved with far more ease. We have investigated optical emission lines in an electron-beam-ion-trap (EBIT), where we managed to charge-state resolve the spectra. Based on this technique and on a number of different ab initio techniques for calculating the level structure, the optical spectra could be assigned [1,2]. As a conclusion the assignments of EUV transitions in the literature require corrections. The EUV and optical spectra are measured simultaneously in the controlled conditions of the EBIT as well as in a droplet-based laser-produced plasma source providing information on the contribution of Sn^{q+} charge states to the EUV emission. [1] A. Windberger, F. Torretti, A. Borschevsky, A. Ryabtsev, S. Dobrodey, H. Bekker, E. Eliav, U. Kaldor, W. Ubachs, R. Hoekstra, J.R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, O.O. Versolato, Analysis of the fine structure of Sn^{11+} - Sn^{14+} ions by optical spectroscopy in an electron beam ion trap, Phys. Rev. A 94, 012506 (2016). [2] F. Torretti, A. Windberger, A. Ryabtsev, S. Dobrodey, H. Bekker, W. Ubachs, R. Hoekstra, E.V. Kahl, J.C. Berengut, J.R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, O.O. Versolato, Optical spectroscopy of complex open 4d-shell ions Sn^{7+} - Sn^{10+}, arXiv:1612.00747

  15. High performance charge breeder for HIE-ISOLDE and TSR@ISOLDE applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shornikov, Andrey, E-mail: andrey.shornikov@cern.ch; Mertzig, Robert C.; Wenander, Fredrik J. C. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Beebe, Edward N.; Pikin, Alexander [Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    We report on the development of the HEC{sup 2} (High Energy Compression and Current) charge breeder, a possible high performance successor to REXEBIS at ISOLDE. The new breeder would match the performance of the HIE-ISOLDE linac upgrade and make full use of the possible installation of a storage ring at ISOLDE (the TSR@ISOLDE initiative [1]). Dictated by ion beam acceptance and capacity requirements, the breeder features a 2–3.5 A electron beam. In many cases very high charge states, including bare ions up to Z=70 and Li/Na-like up to Z=92 could be requested for experiments in the storage ring, therefore, electron beam energies up to 150 keV are required. The electron-beam current density needed for producing ions with such high charge states at an injection rate into TSR of 0.5–1 Hz is between 10 and 20 kA/cm{sup 2}, which agrees with the current density needed to produce A/q<4.5 ions for the HIE-ISOLDE linac with a maximum repetition rate of 100 Hz. The first operation of a prototype electron gun with a pulsed electron beam of 1.5 A and 30 keV was demonstrated in a joint experiment with BNL [2]. In addition, we report on further development aiming to achieve CW operation of an electron beam having a geometrical transverse ion-acceptance matching the injection of 1{sup +} ions (11.5 μm), and an emittance/energy spread of the extracted ion beam matching the downstream mass separator and RFQ (0.08 μm normalized / ± 1%)

  16. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO{sub 2}. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 {+-} 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO{sub 2} targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar{sup 7+} was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 {+-} 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO{sub 2} and for charge states below q=7. For Ar{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 9+}, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO{sub 2}. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric

  17. A high etendue spectrometer suitable for core charge eXchange recombination spectroscopy on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, R. J. E.; Scheffer, M. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kappatou, A. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Valk, N. C. J. van der; Durkut, M.; Snijders, B. [TNO Science and Industry, P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institut fuer Energie und Klimaforschung-IEK-4 Forschungszentrum, Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Pokol, G. I. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, EURATOM Association, P. O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Erdei, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, EURATOM Association, P. O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Zoletnik, S.; Dunai, D. [WIGNER RCP, RMKI, EURATOM Association, P. O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-10-15

    A feasibility study for the use of core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on ITER has shown that accurate measurements on the helium ash require a spectrometer with a high etendue of 1mm{sup 2}sr to comply with the measurement requirements [S. Tugarinov et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2075 (2003)]. To this purpose such an instrument has been developed consisting of three separate wavelength channels (to measure simultaneously He/Be, C/Ne, and H/D/T together with the Doppler shifted direct emission of the diagnostic neutral beam, the beam emission (BES) signal), combining high dispersion (0.02 nm/pixel), sufficient resolution (0.2 nm), high efficiency (55%), and extended wavelength range (14 nm) at high etendue. The combined measurement of the BES along the same sightline within a third wavelength range provides the possibility for in situ calibration of the charge eXchange recombination spectroscopy signals. In addition, the option is included to use the same instrument for measurements of the fast fluctuations of the beam emission intensity up to 2 MHz, with the aim to study MHD activity.

  18. A high etendue spectrometer suitable for core charge eXchange recombination spectroscopy on ITERa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, R. J. E.; Scheffer, M.; Kappatou, A.; van der Valk, N. C. J.; Durkut, M.; Snijders, B.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Pokol, G. I.; Erdei, G.; Zoletnik, S.; Dunai, D.

    2012-10-01

    A feasibility study for the use of core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on ITER has shown that accurate measurements on the helium ash require a spectrometer with a high etendue of 1mm2sr to comply with the measurement requirements [S. Tugarinov et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2075 (2003)], 10.1063/1.1537443. To this purpose such an instrument has been developed consisting of three separate wavelength channels (to measure simultaneously He/Be, C/Ne, and H/D/T together with the Doppler shifted direct emission of the diagnostic neutral beam, the beam emission (BES) signal), combining high dispersion (0.02 nm/pixel), sufficient resolution (0.2 nm), high efficiency (55%), and extended wavelength range (14 nm) at high etendue. The combined measurement of the BES along the same sightline within a third wavelength range provides the possibility for in situ calibration of the charge eXchange recombination spectroscopy signals. In addition, the option is included to use the same instrument for measurements of the fast fluctuations of the beam emission intensity up to 2 MHz, with the aim to study MHD activity.

  19. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  20. High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, S; Smorra, C; Mooser, A; Franke, K; Nagahama, H; Schneider, G; Higuchi, T; Van Gorp, S; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-08-13

    Invariance under the charge, parity, time-reversal (CPT) transformation is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This CPT invariance implies that the fundamental properties of antiparticles and their matter-conjugates are identical, apart from signs. There is a deep link between CPT invariance and Lorentz symmetry--that is, the laws of nature seem to be invariant under the symmetry transformation of spacetime--although it is model dependent. A number of high-precision CPT and Lorentz invariance tests--using a co-magnetometer, a torsion pendulum and a maser, among others--have been performed, but only a few direct high-precision CPT tests that compare the fundamental properties of matter and antimatter are available. Here we report high-precision cyclotron frequency comparisons of a single antiproton and a negatively charged hydrogen ion (H(-)) carried out in a Penning trap system. From 13,000 frequency measurements we compare the charge-to-mass ratio for the antiproton (q/m)p- to that for the proton (q/m)p and obtain (q/m)p-/(q/m)p − 1 =1(69) × 10(-12). The measurements were performed at cyclotron frequencies of 29.6 megahertz, so our result shows that the CPT theorem holds at the atto-electronvolt scale. Our precision of 69 parts per trillion exceeds the energy resolution of previous antiproton-to-proton mass comparisons as well as the respective figure of merit of the standard model extension by a factor of four. In addition, we give a limit on sidereal variations in the measured ratio of anomaly parameter of |α − 1| < 8.7 × 10(-7).

  1. A high performance charge plasma PN-Schottky collector transistor on silicon-on-insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Rafat, M.; Alamoud, Abdul Rehman M.; Abbasi, Shuja A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new high performance PN-Schottky collector (PN-SC) lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI). The proposed device addresses the problem of poor speed of conventional lateral PNP-BJT device by using a Schottky collector. Further, it does not use the conventional ways of ion implantation/diffusion to realize n and p type doped region. However, it uses metal electrodes of different work functions to create n and p type charge plasma in an undoped silicon film. The simulation study of the proposed lateral PN-SC bipolar charge plasma transistor on SOI (PN-SC-BCPT) device has shown a significant improvement in current gain (β), cutoff frequency (f T) and switching performance in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT and PNP-bipolar charge plasma transistor (PNP-BCPT) devices. A significantly high β is obtained in the proposed PN-SC-BCPT (˜2100) in comparison to PNP-BCPT (˜1450) and the conventional BJT (˜9) devices, respectively. It has been observed that there is 89.56% and 153.5% increase in f T for the proposed PN-SC-BCPT device (2.18 GHz) in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT (1.15 GHz) and PNP-BCPT (0.86 GHz) devices, respectively. Further, reductions of 24.6% and 15.4% in switching ON-delay and 66% and 30.76% in switching OFF-delay have been achieved in the proposed device based inverters in comparison to PNP-BCPT and the conventional BJT devices based inverters, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed device does not face doping related issues and the requirement of high temperature processing is absent.

  2. Experimental characterization of a space charge induced modulation in high-brightness electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shaftan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental investigation of a collective effect driving strong modulation in the longitudinal phase space of a high-brightness electron beam. The measured beam energy spectrum was analyzed in order to reveal the main parameters of modulation. The experimental results were compared with a model of space-charge oscillations in the beam longitudinal phase space. The measurements and analysis allowed us to determine the range of the parameters of the observed effect on the modulation dynamics and illustrate its potential impact on short-wavelength free-electron laser performance.

  3. Plasma Effects On Atomic Data For The K-Vacancy States Of Highly Charged Iron Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Deprince, J; Fritzsche, S; Kallman, T. R.; Palmeri, P; Quinet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the present work is to estimate the effects of plasma environment on the atomic parameters associated with the K-vacancy states in highly charged iron ions within the astrophysical context of accretion disks around black holes. In order to do this, multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock computations have been carried out by considering a time averaged Debye-H\\"uckel potential for both the electron-nucleus and electron-electron interactions. In the present paper, a first sample of resu...

  4. Interaction of slow and highly charged ions with surfaces: formation of hollow atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Grether, M.; Spieler, A.; Niemann, D. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Arnau, A.

    1997-03-01

    The method of Auger spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of highly charged ions with Al and C surfaces. The formation of hollow Ne atoms in the first surface layers was evaluated by means of a Density Functional theory including non-linear screening effects. The time-dependent filling of the hollow atom was determined from a cascade model yielding information about the structure of the K-Auger spectra. Variation of total intensities of the L- and K-Auger peaks were interpreted by the cascade model in terms of attenuation effects on the electrons in the solid. (author)

  5. Determination of Charge Component Composition in Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, A. T.; Lebedeva, O. A.; Torbunov, S. S.

    2005-05-01

    A method for determining the component composition of the charge for the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of intermetallic compounds from the maximum value of the emitted heat in the combustion of thermit, which is required for melting the alloying components, is suggested. The mass composition of the alloying components is determined by solving a closed system of algebraic equations represented by regression equations derived from the results of physical experiment for obtaining specific properties of the intermetallic compound. Theoretical computations are partially confirmed by experimental results.

  6. Estimation of Transformer Parameters and Loss Analysis for High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    In a bi-directional DC-DC converter for capacitive charging application, the losses associated with the transformer makes it a critical component. In order to calculate the transformer losses, its parameters such as AC resistance, leakage inductance and self capacitance of the high voltage (HV......) winding has to be estimated accurately. This paper analyzes the following losses of bi-directional flyback converter namely switching loss, conduction loss, gate drive loss, transformer core loss, and snubber loss, etc. Iterative analysis of transformer parameters viz., AC resistance, leakage inductance...

  7. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility. A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Beyer, H.F.; Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (DE)] (and others)

    2006-11-15

    The key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and setups required to reach the physics goals is given. (orig.)

  8. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany) and Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: t.stoehlker@gsi.de; Beyer, H.F. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Brandau, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Kozhuharov, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kluge, H.J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Noertershaeuser, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Schramm, U. [LMU, Munich (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and set-ups required to reach the physics goals is given.

  9. Collision of highly charged ion with clusters. Simulation study for electronic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabana, Kazuhiro [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Collision of highly charged ion with cluster, for example, collision of C{sub 60}-Ar{sup 8+} at E=80 KeV, was simulated by the time-dependence Kohn-Shame equation. The distribution of electron densities and the self-consistent potential were obtained. A part of C{sub 60} potential curve became depressed by the Coulomb force of ion, so that the saddle point was produced on the potential. The behavior of electron transfer on the saddle point was agreed with the classical barrier model. Time-dependent density functional method was explained. (S.Y.)

  10. High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, S; Mooser, A; Franke, K; Nagahama, H; Schneider, G; Higuchi, T; Van Gorp, S; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-01-01

    Invariance under the charge, parity, time-reversal (CPT) transformation$^{1}$ is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This CPT invariance implies that the fundamental properties of antiparticles and their matter-conjugates are identical, apart from signs. There is a deep link between CPT invariance and Lorentz symmetry—that is, the laws of nature seem to be invariant under the symmetry transformation of spacetime—although it is model dependent$^{2}$. A number of high-precision CPT and Lorentz invariance tests—using a co-magnetometer, a torsion pendulum and a maser, among others—have been performed$^{3}$, but only a few direct high-precision CPT tests that compare the fundamental properties of matter and antimatter are available$^{4, 5, 6, 7, 8}$. Here we report high-precision cyclotron frequency comparisons of a single antiproton and a negatively charged hydrogen ion (H$^−$) carried out in a Penning trap system. From 13,000 frequency measurements we compare th...

  11. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  12. Effects of High Temperature and Thermal Cycling on the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells: Acceleration of Charge Recombination and Deterioration of Charge Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Arif D; Munir, Rahim; Haque, Md Azimul; Bera, Ashok; Hu, Weijin; Shaikh, Parvez; Amassian, Aram; Wu, Tom

    2017-10-11

    In this work, we investigated the effects of high operating temperature and thermal cycling on the photovoltaic (PV) performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a typical mesostructured (m)-TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-spiro-OMeTAD architecture. After temperature-dependent grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, in situ X-ray diffraction, and optical absorption experiments were carried out, the thermal durability of PSCs was tested by subjecting the devices to repetitive heating to 70 °C and cooling to room temperature (20 °C). An unexpected regenerative effect was observed after the first thermal cycle; the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased by approximately 10% in reference to the as-prepared device. This increase of PCE was attributed to the heating-induced improvement of the crystallinity and p doping in the hole transporter, spiro-OMeTAD, which promotes the efficient extraction of photogenerated carriers. However, further thermal cycles produced a detrimental effect on the PV performance of PSCs, with the short-circuit current and fill factor degrading faster than the open-circuit voltage. Similarly, the PV performance of PSCs degraded at high operation temperatures; both the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage decreased with increasing temperature, but the temperature-dependent trend of the fill factor was the opposite. Our impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed a monotonous increase of the charge-transfer resistance and a concurrent decrease of the charge-recombination resistance with increasing temperature, indicating a high recombination of charge carriers. Our results revealed that both thermal cycling and high temperatures produce irreversible detrimental effects on the PSC performance because of the deteriorated interfacial photocarrier extraction. The present findings suggest that the development of robust charge transporters and proper interface engineering are critical for the deployment of perovskite PVs in harsh

  13. Effects of High Temperature and Thermal Cycling on the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells: Acceleration of Charge Recombination and Deterioration of Charge Extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Sheikh, Arif D.

    2017-09-18

    In this work, we investigated the effects of high operating temperature and thermal cycling on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a typical mesostructured (m)-TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-spiro-OMeTAD architecture. After carrying out temperature-dependent grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption experiments, thermal durability of PSCs was tested by subjecting the devices to repetitive heating to 70 °C and cooling to room temperature (20 °C). An unexpected regenerative effect was observed after the first thermal cycle; the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased by approximately 10 % in reference to the as-prepared device. This increase of PCE was attributed to the heating-induced improvement of crystallinity and p-doping in the hole-transporter, Spiro-OMeTAD, which promotes the efficient extraction of photo-generated carriers. However, further thermal cycles produced a detrimental effect on the photovoltaic performance of PSCs with short-circuit current and fill factor degrading faster than the open-circuit voltage. Similarly, the photovoltaic performance of PSCs degraded at high operation temperatures; both short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage decreased with increasing temperature, but the temperature-dependent trend of fill factor was opposite. Our impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed a monotonous increase of charge transfer resistance and a concurrent decrease of charge recombination resistance with increasing temperature, indicating high recombination of charge carriers. Our results revealed that both thermal cycling and high temperatures produce irreversible detrimental effects on the PSC performance due to the deteriorated interfacial photo-carrier extraction. The present findings suggest that development of robust charge transporters and proper interface engineering are critical for the deployment of perovskite photovoltaics in harsh

  14. Confinement physics for thermal, neutral, high-charge-state plasmas in nested-well solenoidal traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, D D; Ordonez, C A

    1999-06-01

    A theoretical study is presented which indicates that it is possible to confine a neutral plasma using static electric and solenoidal magnetic fields. The plasma consists of equal temperature electrons and highly stripped ions. The solenoidal magnetic field provides radial confinement, while the electric field, which produces an axial nested-well potential profile, provides axial confinement. A self-consistent, multidimensional numerical solution for the electric potential is obtained, and a fully kinetic theoretical treatment on axial transport is used to determine an axial confinement time scale. The effect on confinement of the presence of a radial electric field is explored with the use of ion trajectory calculations. A thermal, neutral, high-charge-state plasma confined in a nested-well trap opens new possibilities for fundamental studies on plasma recombination and cross-field transport processes under highly controlled conditions.

  15. Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission due to Highly Charged Ion Collisions with H, He, and H2: Line Ratios for Heliospheric and Interstellar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbee, R. S.; Mullen, P. D.; Lyons, D.; Shelton, R. L.; Fogle, M.; Schultz, D. R.; Stancil, P. C.

    2018-01-01

    The fundamental collisional process of charge exchange (CX) has been established as a primary source of X-ray emission from the heliosphere, planetary exospheres, and supernova remnants. In this process, X-ray emission results from the capture of an electron by a highly charged ion from a neutral atom or molecule, to form a highly excited, high-charge state ion. As the captured electron cascades down to the lowest energy level, photons are emitted, including X-rays. To provide reliable CX-induced X-ray spectral models to realistically simulate these environments, line ratios and spectra are computed using theoretical CX cross sections obtained with the multi-channel Landau-Zener, atomic-orbital close-coupling, molecular-orbital close-coupling, and classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods for various collisional velocities relevant to astrophysics. X-ray spectra were computed for collisions of bare and H-like C to Al ions with H, He, and H2 with results compared to available experimental data. Using these line ratios, XSPEC models of CX emission in the northeast rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant and the heliosphere are shown as examples with ion velocity dependence.

  16. Pore space partition and charge separation in cage-within-cage indium-organic frameworks with high CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Bu, Julia T; Li, Yufei; Wu, Tao; Zuo, Fan; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2010-12-08

    The integration of negatively charged single-metal building blocks {In(CO2)4} and positively charged trimeric clusters {In3O} leads to three unique cage-within-cage-based porous materials, which exhibit not only high hydrothermal, thermal, and photochemical stability but also attractive structural features contributing to a very high CO2 uptake capacity of up to 119.8 L/L at 273 K and 1 atm.

  17. Enhanced Charge Collection in MOF‐525–PEDOT Nanotube Composites Enable Highly Sensitive Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu‐Yen; Kung, Chung‐Wei; Liao, Yu‐Te; Kao, Sheng‐Yuan; Cheng, Mingshan; Chang, Ting‐Hsiang; Henzie, Joel; Alamri, Hatem R.; Alothman, Zeid A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract With the aim of a reliable biosensing exhibiting enhanced sensitivity and selectivity, this study demonstrates a dopamine (DA) sensor composed of conductive poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) conformally coated with porphyrin‐based metal–organic framework nanocrystals (MOF‐525). The MOF‐525 serves as an electrocatalytic surface, while the PEDOT NTs act as a charge collector to rapidly transport the electron from MOF nanocrystals. Bundles of these particles form a conductive interpenetrating network film that together: (i) improves charge transport pathways between the MOF‐525 regions and (ii) increases the electrochemical active sites of the film. The electrocatalytic response is measured by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, where the linear concentration range of DA detection is estimated to be 2 × 10−6–270 × 10−6 m and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.04 × 10−6 m with high selectivity toward DA. Additionally, a real‐time determination of DA released from living rat pheochromocytoma cells is realized. The combination of MOF5‐25 and PEDOT NTs creates a new generation of porous electrodes for highly efficient electrochemical biosensing. PMID:29201623

  18. Electron Impact Excitation and Dielectronic Recombination of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwen Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electron impact excitation (EIE and dielectronic recombination (DR of tungsten ions are basic atomic processes in nuclear fusion plasmas of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER tokamak. Detailed investigation of such processes is essential for modeling and diagnosing future fusion experiments performed on the ITER. In the present work, we studied total and partial electron-impact excitation (EIE and DR cross-sections of highly charged tungsten ions by using the multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method. The degrees of linear polarization of the subsequent X-ray emissions from unequally-populated magnetic sub-levels of these ions were estimated. It is found that the degrees of linear polarization of the same transition lines, but populated respectively by the EIE and DR processes, are very different, which makes diagnosis of the formation mechanism of X-ray emissions possible. In addition, with the help of the flexible atomic code on the basis of the relativistic configuration interaction method, DR rate coefficients of highly charged W37+ to W46+ ions are also studied, because of the importance in the ionization equilibrium of tungsten plasmas under running conditions of the ITER.

  19. A triple GEM detector with pad readout for high rate charged particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Felici, G; Murtas, F; Valente, P; Cardini, A; Lai, A; Pinci, D; Saitta, B; Bosio, C

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, results of a time performance study of triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R&D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. However, the results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e. for experiments with high rate charged particle triggering. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM detectors. Only one group measured double GEM detector time resolution with the Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture. Our study aimed at triple GEM detector optimisation for good time performance through a detailed investigation of the role played by detector geometry, electric fields and gas mixture. The results reported here, in particular when using the gas mixture Ar/CO//2/CF //4 (60/20/20), considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper and make the triple GEM detector a promising option for high rate charged particle triggering.

  20. Modelling and design of high compression electron guns for EBIS/T charge breeders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087190; Zschornack, G.; Lettry, J.; Wenander, F.

    In this thesis the optimization of the REXEBIS charge breeder at the ISOLDE facility is presented. REXEBIS in its current state provides a current density of 200A/cm² inside the trapping region at 2 T and will be optimized to the physical limit of its design. To overcome this limit a new electron gun, the HEC² gun, was designed in collaboration with the BNL and is in commission at TestEBIS. This electron gun promises a current density of >10 kA/cm², which decreases the charge breeding time significantly. This thesis presents novel simulation techniques supporting the commissioning phase by explaining the sources of occurring loss current and, in addition, evaluate the currently installed collector for compatibility with the HEC2 gun operating at its design limit. The experience gained from the commission of the HEC² gun and the established numerical techniques lead to the development of a smaller high-compression electron gun for medical purposes, the MEDeGUN. This electron gun should provide a high-quali...

  1. Evolution of electronic structure in highly charge doped MoS2 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Subhan, Mohammed; Watson, Matthew; Liu, Zhongkai; Walters, Andrew; Hoesch, Moritz; Howard, Chris; Diamond I05 beamline Collaboration

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are a group of layered materials that exhibit a rich array of electronic ground states including semiconductivity, metallicity, superconductivity and charge density waves. In recent years, 2D TMDCs have attracted considerable attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in optoelectronics. It has been shown that the charge carrier density in few layer MoS2 can be tunably increased via electrostatic gating. At high levels of doping, MoS2 exhibits superconductivity with a dome-like dependence of Tc on doping analogous to that found in the cuprate superconductors. High doping can also be achieved via intercalation of alkali metals in bulk MoS2. The origin of this superconductivity is not yet fully understood with predictions ranging from exotic pairing mechanisms in bulk systems to Ising superconductivity in single layers. Despite these interesting properties, there has been limited research to date on the electronic structure of these doped compounds. Here we present our work on alkali metal intercalated MoS2 using the low temperature metal ammonia solution method. Using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and ARPES measurements we will discuss the physical and electronic structure of these materials. EPSRC, Diamond Light Source.

  2. Space Charge Behavior in Paper Insulation Induced by Copper Sulfide in High-Voltage Direct Current Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Liao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main insulation system in high-voltage direct current (HVDC transformer consists of oil-paper insulation. The formation of space charge in insulation paper is crucial for the dielectric strength. Unfortunately, space charge behavior changes because of the corrosive sulfur substance in oil. This paper presents the space charge behavior in insulation paper induced by copper sulfide generated by corrosive sulfur in insulation oil. Thermal aging tests of paper-wrapped copper strip called the pigtail model were conducted at 130 °C in laboratory. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the surface of copper and paper. Pulse electroacoustic (PEA and thermally stimulated current (TSC methods were used to obtain the space charge behavior in paper. Results showed that both maximum and total amount of space charge increased for the insulation paper contaminated by semi-conductor chemical substance copper sulfide. The space charge decay rate of contaminated paper was significantly enhanced after the polarization voltage was removed. The TSC results revealed that copper sulfide increased the trap density and lowered the shallow trap energy levels. These results contributed to charge transportation by de-trapping and trapping processes. This improved charge transportation could be the main reason for the decreased breakdown voltage of paper insulation material.

  3. Competitive adsorption and ordered packing of counterions near highly charged surfaces: From mean-field theory to Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiayi; Zhou, Shenggao; Xu, Zhenli; Li, Bo

    2012-04-01

    Competitive adsorption of counterions of multiple species to charged surfaces is studied by a size-effect-included mean-field theory and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The mean-field electrostatic free-energy functional of ionic concentrations, constrained by Poisson's equation, is numerically minimized by an augmented Lagrangian multiplier method. Unrestricted primitive models and canonical ensemble MC simulations with the Metropolis criterion are used to predict the ionic distributions around a charged surface. It is found that, for a low surface charge density, the adsorption of ions with a higher valence is preferable, agreeing with existing studies. For a highly charged surface, both the mean-field theory and the MC simulations demonstrate that the counterions bind tightly around the charged surface, resulting in a stratification of counterions of different species. The competition between mixed entropy and electrostatic energetics leads to a compromise that the ionic species with a higher valence-to-volume ratio has a larger probability to form the first layer of stratification. In particular, the MC simulations confirm the crucial role of ionic valence-to-volume ratios in the competitive adsorption to charged surfaces that had been previously predicted by the mean-field theory. The charge inversion for ionic systems with salt is predicted by the MC simulations but not by the mean-field theory. This work provides a better understanding of competitive adsorption of counterions to charged surfaces and calls for further studies on the ionic size effect with application to large-scale biomolecular modeling.

  4. Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: A mechanistic analysis of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseán, D.; Dubarry, M.; Devie, A.; Liaw, B. Y.; García, V. M.; Viera, J. C.; González, M.

    2016-07-01

    One of the major issues hampering the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) is the anxiety associated with long charging time. Hence, the ability to fast charging lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems is gaining notable interest. However, fast charging is not tolerated by all LIB chemistries because it affects battery functionality and accelerates its aging processes. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of multistage fast charging on a commercial high power LiFePO4-based cell and compare it to another cell tested under standard charging. Coupling incremental capacity (IC) and IC peak area analysis together with mechanistic model simulations ('Alawa' toolbox with harvested half-cell data), we quantify the degradation modes that cause aging of the tested cells. The results show that the proposed fast charging technique caused similar aging effects as standard charging. The degradation is caused by a linear loss of lithium inventory, coupled with a less degree of linear loss of active material on the negative electrode. This study validates fast charging as a feasible mean of operation for this particular LIB chemistry and cell architecture. It also illustrates the benefits of a mechanistic approach to understand cell degradation on commercial cells.

  5. Ionisation from the 3s sub-level of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L. B.; Sampson, D. H.; Omidvar, K.

    1978-01-01

    Scaled electron-impact cross sections are calculated for ionization from the 3s sublevel of hydrogenic ions with Z equal infinity by use of the Born exchange or the Coulomb-Born Oppenheimer approximation (which is exact, apart from relativistic corrections, in this limit). The results are fitted to an analytic expression which goes into the correct Bethe approximation result at high energies and which can readily be integrated over a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution to obtain collision rates. These results permit calculation of the approximate cross section and collision rate for ionization from the 3s sublevel of any highly charged ion with Z/N larger than approximately 2. Results obtained by the described procedure for Fe-14(+) and Fe-15(+) are compared with results obtained by other procedures.

  6. Generation of high charge state platinum ions on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Nikolaev, A G; Izotov, I V; Savkin, K P; Golubev, S V; Oks, E M

    2014-02-01

    The hybrid high charge metal ion source based on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation into simple magnetic trap has been developed. Two types of magnetic traps were used: a mirror configuration and a cusp one with inherent "minimum-B" structure. Pulsed high power (>100 kW) gyrotrons with frequency 37.5 GHz and 75 GHz were used for heating the vacuum arc plasma injected into the traps. Two different ways were used for injecting the metal plasma-axial injection by a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and simultaneous radial injection by a number of sources mounted radially at the midplane of the traps. This article represents all data gathered for platinum ions, thus making comparison of the experimental results obtained with different traps and injections convenient and accurate.

  7. High electrokinetic energy conversion efficiency in charged nanoporous nitrocellulose/sulfonated polystyrene membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldrup, Sofie; Catalano, Jacopo; Hansen, Michael Ryan; Wagner, Manfred; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Bentien, Anders

    2015-02-11

    The synthesis, characterization, and electrokinetic energy conversion performance have been investigated experimentally in a charged polymeric membrane based on a blend of nitrocellulose and sulfonated polystyrene. The membrane is characterized by a moderate ion exchange capacity and a relatively porous structure with average pore diameter of 11 nm. With electrokinetic energy conversion, pressure can be converted directly into electric energy and vice versa. From the electrokinetic transport properties, a remarkably large intrinsic maximum efficiency of 46% is found. It is anticipated that the results are an experimental verification of theoretical models that predict high electrokinetic energy conversion efficiency in pores with high permselectivity and hydrodynamic slip flow. Furthermore, the result is a promising step for obtaining efficient low-cost electrokinetic generators and pumps for small or microscale applications.

  8. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and atomic models of highly charged heavy ions in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, C.; Murakami, I.; Koike, F.; Tamura, N.; Sakaue, H. A.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Sudo, S.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent results of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The LHD is an ideal source of experimental databases of EUV spectra because of high brightness and low opacity, combined with the availability of pellet injection systems and reliable diagnostic tools. The measured heavy elements include tungsten, tin, lanthanides and bismuth, which are motivated by ITER as well as a variety of plasma applications such as EUV lithography and biological microscopy. The observed spectral features drastically change between quasicontinuum and discrete depending on the plasma temperature, which leads to some new experimental identifications of spectral lines. We have developed collisional-radiative models for some of these ions based on the measurements. The atomic number dependence of the spectral feature is also discussed.

  9. Charged iodide in chains behind the highly efficient iodine doping in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Tristant, Damien; Nie, Chunyang; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Headrick, Robert J.; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro; Meunier, Vincent; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Monthioux, Marc; Gerber, Iann C.; Puech, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    The origin of highly efficient iodine doping of carbon nanotubes is not well understood. Relying on first-principles calculations, we found that iodine molecules (I2) in contact with a carbon nanotube interact to form monoiodide or/and polyiodide from two and three I2 as a result of removing electrons from the carbon nanotube (p -type doping). Charge per iodine atom for monoiodide ion or iodine atom at end of iodine chain is significantly higher than that for I2. This atomic analysis extends previous studies showing that polyiodide ions are the dominant dopants. Moreover, we observed isolated I atoms in atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy, which proves the production of monoiodide. Finally, using Raman spectroscopy, we quantitatively determined the doping level and estimated the number of conducting channels in high electrical conductivity fibers composed of iodine-doped double-wall carbon nanotubes.

  10. Two-particle Azimuthal Correlations of High-pT Charged Hadrons at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Szuba, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Two-particle azimuthal correlations of high-pT hadrons can serve as a probe of interactions of partons with the dense medium produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. First NA49 results on such correlations are presented for central and mid-central Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV beam energy, for different centrality bins and charge combinations of trigger and associate particles. These results feature a flattened away-side peak in the most central collisions, which is consistent with expectations of the medium-interaction scenario. A comparison with CERES Pb+Au results at the same energy, as well as with PHENIX Au+Au results at the top RHIC energy, is provided.

  11. High efficiency laser-assisted H- charge exchange for microsecond duration beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Sarah; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Kay, Martin; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Gorlov, Timofey; Liu, Yun; Long, Cary; Menshov, Alexander; Plum, Michael; Shishlo, Andrei; Webster, Andrew; Johnson, David

    2017-12-01

    Laser-assisted stripping is a novel approach to H- charge exchange that overcomes long-standing limitations associated with the traditional, foil-based method of producing high-intensity, time-structured beams of protons. This paper reports on the first successful demonstration of the laser stripping technique for microsecond duration beams. The experiment represents a factor of 1000 increase in the stripped pulse duration compared with the previous proof-of-principle demonstration. The central theme of the experiment is the implementation of methods to reduce the required average laser power such that high efficiency stripping can be accomplished for microsecond duration beams using conventional laser technology. The experiment was performed on the Spallation Neutron Source 1 GeV H- beam using a 1 MW peak power UV laser and resulted in ˜95 % stripping efficiency.

  12. Charge transfer in high velocity C{sub n}{sup +} + He collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, M [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Martinet, G [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Mezdari, F [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Diaz-Tendero, S [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beroff-Wohrer, K [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Desesquelles, P [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Della-Negra, S [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Hamrita, H [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); LePadellec, A [IRSAMC, Universite Paul Sabatier et CNRS, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tuna, T [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Montagnon, L [IRSAMC, Universite Paul Sabatier et CNRS, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Barat, M [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Simon, M [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matiere et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, Universite Paris 6 et CNRS, 11 rue P et M Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ismail, I [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-06-14

    Dissociative and non-dissociative charge transfer cross sections in high velocity (v = 2.6 au) collisions between ionic carbon clusters C{sub n}{sup +} (n 2-10) and helium atoms have been measured. The sum of the cross sections has been found to increase significantly with n. Measurements of branching ratios for all fragmentation channels of excited C{sub n} clusters are reported. The summed branching ratios associated with a given number of emitted fragments exhibit odd-even alternations reflecting the higher stability of the species having an odd number of atoms. From an analysis of the summed branching ratios within the statistical microcanonical metropolis Monte Carlo model, and knowing the temperature of the incident clusters, deposited energy distributions due to the charge transfer process are deduced (n = 5-9). These distributions, of similar characteristics whatever n, peak around 4-5 eV and exhibit a large percentage of superexcited states situated above the continuum.

  13. Microscopic observation of highly mobile charge carriers in organic transistors of semicrystalline conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Shinya; Wakamatsu, Ayato; Kuroda, Shin-ichi; Takenobu, Taishi; Tanaka, Hisaaki

    2018-02-01

    Charge carrier dynamics in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) of semicrystalline conducting polymers poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) have been investigated down to 4 K by field-induced electron spin resonance (FI-ESR) spectroscopy. The highly mobile nature of charge carriers within the ordered regions of the polymers has been clarified from the observation of the motional narrowing effect of the ESR spectra even below 30 K, where device operation cannot be observed presumably owing to the effect of domain boundaries. The activation energy of carrier motion observed by ESR has been determined as 17 meV for PBTTT and 13 meV for P3HT, which are an order of magnitude smaller than that of FET mobility (>110 meV) obtained for the same devices. These results demonstrate that the intrinsic carrier mobility within the ordered region is much higher than that expected from the macroscopic transport measurements in the semicrystalline polymers.

  14. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4-5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  15. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G., E-mail: geeraj88@gmail.com, E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S., E-mail: geeraj88@gmail.com, E-mail: skpras@gmail.com [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India); Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore (W) 721 102 (India)

    2014-10-21

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  16. Charge-Reversal APTES-Modified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with High Drug Loading and Release Controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Yi; Wang, Jine; Yang, Yang; Li, Yulin; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-07-13

    In this study, we demonstrate a facile strategy (DL-SF) for developing MSN-based nanosystems through drug loading (DL, using doxorubicin as a model drug) followed by surface functionalization (SF) of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) via aqueous (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) silylation. For comparison, a reverse functionalization process (i.e., SF-DL) was also studied. The pre-DL process allows for an efficient encapsulation (encapsulation efficiency of ∼75%) of an anticancer drug [doxorubicin (DOX)] inside MSNs, and post-SF allows in situ formation of an APTES outer layer to restrict DOX leakage under physiological conditions. This method makes it possible to tune the DOX release rate by increasing the APTES decoration density through variation of the APTES concentration. However, the SF-DL approach results in a rapid decrease in drug loading capacity with an increase in APTES concentration because of the formation of the APTES outer layer hampers the inner permeability of the DOX drug, resulting in a burst release similar to that of undecorated MSNs. The resulting DOX-loaded DL-SF MSNs present a slightly negatively charged surface under physiological conditions and become positively charged in and extracellular microenvironment of solid tumor due to the protonation effect under acidic conditions. These merits aid their maintenance of long-term stability in blood circulation, high cellular uptake by a kind of skin carcinoma cells, and an enhanced intracellular drug release behavior, showing their potential in the delivery of many drugs beyond anticancer chemotherapeutics.

  17. Energy loss of a high-charge bunched electron beam in plasma: Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been much recent experimental and theoretical interest in the blowout regime of plasma wakefield acceleration, which features ultrahigh accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion. A quantitative understanding of the blowout regime including all these effects has, to this point, been available only through detailed simulations. This paper represents an initial step towards an analytical theory of this regime, in which the mechanism of energy loss in the drive beam is investigated. We find, first from examination of electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations, and then through analytical investigations, that under short pulse, high-charge conditions, the plasma electrons receive a strong initial push along the direction of beam motion. This nonlinear effect is unanticipated by linear theory, where the return current motion is in the opposite direction. In the limit of short pulses (the δ-function limit, the beam energy loss is shown to be linear in charge even with a nonlinear plasma response dominated by relativistic, electromagnetic effects, despite the fact that the initial plasma electron response changes qualitatively from the familiar electrostatic, nonrelativistic limit.

  18. Identification of high momentum charged hadrons in ALICE:. detector performance and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, G.

    2010-04-01

    The results obtained by the RHIC experiments at BNL from high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have shown the importance of identifying high momentum charged hadrons. At LHC, the relevant range for particle identification is expected to be wider than at RHIC, i.e. well above 10 GeV/c. In the ALICE experiment, dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions at LHC energies, particles with momentum below 10 GeV/c are identified by high-quality particle identification detectors based on the measurements of ionization energy losses in the Time-Projection-Chamber (TPC), Time-of- Flight (TOF) and Cherenkov radiation (HMPID). At higher momenta, statistical identification of hadrons is envisaged by measuring the ionization energy loss in the relativistic rise momentum region of the TPC. However, since the topology of the jets having a baryon leading particle may be different than those with a meson leading particle, it will also be necessary to identify track by track the highest momentum particles. For this reason, a proposal for an up-grade of the high momentum particle identification is being considered. Such an upgrade would consist of a ring imaging Cherenkov detector, called VHMPID (Very High Momentum Particle IDentification), exploiting the focusing properties of a segmented spherical mirror and using C4F10 as Cherenkov radiator. Characteristics and expected performance of the ALICE high momentum identification systems and of the VHMPID will be reviewed in this paper.

  19. High resolution interferometry as a tool for characterization of swelling of weakly charged hydrogels subjected to amphiphile and cyclodextrin exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ming; Gawel, Kamila; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2013-01-01

    A high resolution interferometric technique was used to determine swelling behavior of weakly charged polyacrylamide hydrogels in the presence of oppositely charged surfactants and subsequent exposure to cyclodextrins. Hydrogels of copolymerized acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (0.22, 0.44, 0.88 mol%) and crosslinked with bisacrylamide (3, 6, 12 mol%) were employed. The equilibrium swelling and swelling kinetics of the hydrogels were determined with 2 nanometer reso...

  20. Highly positive-charged zinc(II) phthalocyanine as non-aggregated and efficient antifungal photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Shu; Guo, Jun; Zhuang, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-06-01

    A new tetra-α-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine containing dodeca-amino groups (compound 4) and its quaternized analogue (compound 5) have been prepared and evaluated for their photoactivities against Candida albicans. Compared with the dodeca-amino phthalocyanine 4, the dodeca-cationic phthalocyanine 5 exhibits a higher photodynamic inactivation against C. albicans with an IC90 value down to 1.46 μM, which can be attributed to its non-aggregated nature in aqueous environments and more efficient cellular uptake. More interestingly, 5 shows a higher photodynamic inactivation on C. albicans due to its stronger affinity to C. albicans cells than mammalian cells. These results suggest that the highly positive-charged phthalocyanine 5 is a potential non-aggregated antifungal photosensitizer, which shows some selectivity toward the fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Douglas H [PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  2. Splitting of a high-energy positively-charged particle beam with a bent crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, L.; Kirillin, I. V.; Bagli, E.; Berra, A.; De Salvador, D.; Guidi, V.; Lietti, D.; Mazzolari, A.; Prest, M.; Shul'ga, N. F.; Sytov, A.; Vallazza, E.

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of high-energy positively-charged particle beam splitting by means of a short bent axially oriented silicon crystal was recently reported in an experiment carried out at CERN SPS H8 extracted line with a 400 GeV/c proton beam. Here, we investigate more deeply such a possibility focusing our attention on the efficiency of beam splitting and its modulation for different crystal-to-beam orientations. New experimental results confirm the possibility of modulating the 400 GeV/c proton beam intensity in different planar channels by adjusting the orientation of the crystal. Furthermore, an analysis of the beam splitting efficiency vs. the curvature of the crystal was carried out through simulation, highlighting that there exists a bending radius for which the efficiency is maximal.

  3. Highly Efficient Enrichment of Volatile Iodine by Charged Porous Aromatic Frameworks with Three Sorption Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhuojun; Yuan, Ye; Tian, Yuyang; Zhang, Daming; Zhu, Guangshan

    2015-10-19

    The targeted synthesis of a series of novel charged porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs) is reported. The compounds PAF-23, PAF-24, and PAF-25 are built up by a tetrahedral building unit, lithium tetrakis(4-iodophenyl)borate (LTIPB), and different alkyne monomers as linkers by a Sonogashira-Hagihara coupling reaction. They possess excellent adsorption properties to organic molecules owing to their "breathing" dynamic frameworks. As these PAF materials assemble three effective sorption sites, namely the ion bond, phenyl ring, and triple bond together, they exhibit high affinity and capacity for iodine molecules. To the best of our knowledge, these PAF materials give the highest adsorption values among all porous materials (zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, and porous organic frameworks) reported to date. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Three dimensional space charge model for large high voltage satellites. [plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, D.; Parker, L. W.; Mccoy, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    High power solar arrays for satellite power systems with dimensions of kilometers, and with tens of kilovolts distributed over their surface face many plasma interaction problems that must be properly anticipated. In most cases, the effects cannot be adequately modeled without detailed knowledge of the plasma sheath structure and space charge effects. Two computer programs were developed to provide fully self consistent plasma sheath models in three dimensions as a result of efforts to model the experimental plasma sheath studies at NASA/JSC. Preliminary results indicate that for the conditions considered, the Child-Langmuir diode theory can provide a useful estimate of the plasma sheath thickness. The limitations of this conclusion are discussed. Some of the models presented exhibit the strong ion focusing observed in the JSC experiments.

  5. HITRAP - a facility for experiments on heavy highly charged ions and on antiprotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andjelkovic, Z; Barth, W; Brantjes, N P M; Braeuning-Demian, A; Dahl, L; Herfurth, F; Kester, O; Kluge, H J; Koszudowski, S; Kozhuharov, C; Maero, G; Noertershaeuser, W [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Birkl, G [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Blank, I; Goetz, S [Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Blaum, K [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bodewits, E; Hoekstra, R [KVI Groningen (Netherlands); Church, D [Texas AM University, Texas (United States); Pfister, J, E-mail: w.quint@gsi.d [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    HITRAP is a facility for very slow highly-charged heavy ions at GSI. HITRAP uses the GSI relativistic ion beams, the Experimental Storage Ring ESR for electron cooling and deceleration to 4 MeV/u, and consists of a combination of an interdigital H-mode (IH) structure with a radiofrequency quadrupole structure for further deceleration to 6 keV/u, and a Penning trap for accumulation and cooling to low temperatures. Finally, ion beams with low emittance will be delivered to a large variety of atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Presently, HITRAP is in the commissioning phase. The deceleration of heavy-ion beam from the ESR storage ring to an energy of 500 keV/u with the IH structure has been demonstrated and studied in detail. The commissioning of the RFQ structure and the cooler trap is ongoing.

  6. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Sorokin, M. [National Research Centre ’Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV {sup 129}Xe{sup (33–40)+} and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I{sup 9+} and 374 MeV–2.2 GeV {sup 197}Au{sup 25+}. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  7. Atomic physics studies of highly charged ions on tokamaks using x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.

    1989-07-01

    An overview is given of atomic physics issues which have been studied on tokamaks with the help resolution x-ray spectroscopy. The issues include the testing of model calculations predicting the excitation of line radiation, the determination of rate coefficients, and accurate atomic structure measurements. Recent research has focussed primarily on highly charged heliumlike (22 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) and neonlike (34 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 63) ions, and results are presented from measurements on the PLT and TFTR tokamaks. Many of the measurements have been aided by improved instrumental design and new measuring techniques. Remarkable agreement has been found between measurements and theory in most cases. However, in this review those areas are stressed where agreement is worst and where further investigations are needed. 19 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Development of a Bragg spectrometer for experiments with highly charged ions at storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, D.; Jagodzinski, P.; Pajek, M.; Stöhlker, Th; Trassinelli, M.; Beyer, H. F.; Reuschl, R.; Spillmann, U.

    2007-03-01

    The construction and results of the Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulations for a low energy x-ray crystal spectrometer designed for future experiments at the ESR storage ring with fast highly charged ions are presented. The spectrometer has a radius of the Rowland circle R = 0.5 m and operates in the Johann geometry. The x-rays emitted from a source are di.racted by spherically bent silicon Si(111) crystal and registered by two-dimensional deep depleted back-illuminated CCD camera. The estimated spectrometer e.ciency, calculated according to a dynamical theory of x-ray di.raction is about 10-6. The energy resolution of the spectrometer obtained from the simulations is about 0.5 eV. influence of the source size and Doppler broadening on the spectrometer resolution is discussed.

  9. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  10. Benchmarking of 3D space charge codes using direct phase space measurements from photoemission high voltage dc gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Bazarov

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron bunches from a high voltage dc photoemission gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit emittance measurement system over a range of bunch charge and solenoid current values. The data are compared with detailed simulations using the 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D. The initial particle distributions were generated from measured transverse and temporal laser beam profiles at the photocathode. The beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach within a factor of 2 the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and the accelerating field at the photocathode.

  11. Facile Access to Twisted Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Fluorogens Bearing Highly Pretwisted Donor-Acceptor Systems Together with Readily Fine-Tuned Charge-Transfer Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanju; Wang, Yan; Chen, Shiqi; Wang, Ning; Qi, Yige; Zhang, Xiaogen; Yang, Minghui; Huang, Yan; Li, Ming; Yu, Junsheng; Luo, Daibing; Lu, Zhiyun

    2017-05-01

    Twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) fluorogens bearing highly pretwisted geometries and readily-fine-tuned charge-transfer characters are quite promising sensor and electroluminescence (EL) materials. In this study, by using 4-aryloxy-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives as the molecular framework, it is demonstrated for the first time that a CO bond could serve as the central bond to construct new TICT D-A systems. Photophysical and quantum chemical studies confirm that rotation around central CO bonds is responsible for the formation of a stable TICT state in these compounds. More importantly, owing to the structural adjustability of the aryl moiety and the strong steric interactions between the naphthalimide and the aryl ring systems, these compounds can display readily-fine-tuned TICT characters, hence exhibiting an adjustable solvent polarity threshold for aggregation-induced emission (AIE) activity, and could be AIE-active even in less-polar toluene and nonpolar cyclohexane. Furthermore, these compounds could possess highly-pretwisted ground-state geometries, hence could show good EL performance. The findings reveal a facile but effective molecular constructive strategy for versatile, high-performance optoelectronic TICT compounds. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The effect of laser contrast on generation of highly charged Fe ions by ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenov, Anatoly Ya.; Alkhimova, Maria A.; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Skobelev, Igor Yu.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Sagisaka, Akito; Dover, Nicholas P.; Kondo, Kotaro; Ogura, Koichi; Fukuda, Yuji; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Andreev, Alexander; Nishitani, Keita; Miyahara, Takumi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Kando, Masaki; Kodama, Ruosuke; Kondo, Kiminori

    2017-07-01

    Experimental studies on the formation of highly charged ions of medium-Z elements using femtosecond laser pulses with different contrast levels were carried out. Multiply charged Fe ions were generated by laser pulses with 35 fs duration and an intensity exceeding 1021 W/cm2. Using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopic methods, bulk electron temperature of the generated plasma has been identified. It is shown that the presence of a laser pre-pulse at a contrast level of 105-106 with respect to the main pulse drastically decreases the degree of Fe ionization. We conclude that an effective source of energetic, multiply charged moderate and high- Z ions based on femtosecond laser-plasma interactions can be created only using laser pulses of ultra-high contrast.

  13. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.

    2013-12-27

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Contribution of the hdeB-like gene (SEN1493) to survival of Salmonella enterica enteritidis Nal(R) at pH 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, Rolf D; Choi, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Periplasmic proteins are particularly vulnerable to denaturation upon entry into a highly acid environment. In Escherichia coli, a level of protection of these proteins is afforded by acid-inducible chaperonins encoded by hdeAB. In contrast, Salmonella enterica only harbors an hdeB-like gene and it is currently not known what function it plays in this genus. In the present study, the hdeB-like gene was deleted in Salmonella enterica Enteritidis Nal(R) and Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795. When grown overnight in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium buffered at pH 5.5 and then exposed to TSB pH 2 for 20 min, Enteritidis wild-type strain experienced a 0.5-log10 reduction in colony-forming units, whereas the deletion strain's surviving cells were reduced by 1.6 log10. No difference in survival was observed in the corresponding Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795 strains treated the same way. Exposure of the strains to pH 2.5 or 3 resulted in the same log reduction regardless of the presence of the hdeB-like gene. When wild-type and deletion strains of both serovars were grown in medium buffered at pH 7 prior to exposure to the acidic pHs, no difference in survival with respect to serovar or presence/absence of the hdeB-like gene was found. Salmonella enterica Enteritidis Nal(R) carrying its own or the intragenic region upstream of the hdeB-like from Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795 cloned in front of the gfp gene from pFPV25 showed maximum fluorescence when grown at pH 5.5, whereas the corresponding plasmid-carrying Salmonella enterica Kentucky strains did not exhibit fluorescence regardless of the pH of the growth medium. Therefore, the hdeB-like gene in Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, but not in Salmonella enterica Kentucky 3795, contributed to survival at pH 2 and its expression is responsive to the pH of the medium.

  15. Ultrafast high harmonics for probing the fastest spin and charge dynamics in magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast light based on the high-harmonic up-conversion of femtosecond laser pulses have been successfully employed to access resonantly enhanced magnetic contrast at the Mabsorption edges of the 3d ferromagnets Fe, Co and Ni in a table-top setup. Thus, it has been possible to study element-specific dynamics in magnetic materials at femtosecond time scales in a laboratory environment, providing a wealth of opportunities for a greater fundamental understanding of correlated phenomena in solid-state matter. However, these investigations have so far been limited to linear polarized harmonics, since most techniques by which circular soft x-rays can be generated are highly inefficient reducing the photon flux to a level unfit for scientific applications. Besides presenting key findings of our ultrafast studies on charge and spin dynamics, we introduce a simple setup which allows for the efficient generation of circular harmonics bright enough for XMCD experiments. Our work thus represents a critical advance that enables element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution on the tabletop. In collboration with Ronny Knut, Emrah Turgut, Dmitriy Zusin, Christian Gentry, Henry Kapteyn, Margaret Murnane, JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder; Justin Shaw, Hans Nembach, Tom Silva, Electromagnetics Division, NIST, Boulder, CO; and Ofer Kfir, Avner Fleischer, Oren Cohen, Extreme Nonlinear Optics Group, Solid State Institute, Technion, Israel.

  16. Characterization of Cs-Sb cathodes for high charge RF photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082505; Beghi, Marco

    Future accelerators such as CLIC (Compact LInear Collider), require high brightness electron beams that could be produced with a photoinjector (laser-driven electron source). Cs2Te photocathodes in combination with ultra-violet (UV) laser beams are currently used in many photoinjector facilities, but requirements to the electron sources for future accelerators like CLIC are more demanding. The main challenge for the CLIC drive beam photoinjector is to achieve high bunch charges (8.4 nC), high bunch repetition rates (500 MHz) within long trains (140 s) and with suciently long cathode lifetimes. In particular the laser pulse energy in UV, for such long pulse trains, is currently limited due to a degradation of the beam quality during the 4th harmonic frequency conversion process. Using the 2nd harmonic (green laser beam), provided it is matched with a low photoemission threshold photocathode material, would overcome this limitation. Cesium antimonide (Cs3Sb), being a photoemissive material in the visible range,...

  17. EUV magnetic-dipole lines from highly-charged high-Z ions with an open 3d shell

    CERN Document Server

    Osin, D; Reader, J; Ralchenko, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used to produce highly-charged ions of hafnium, tantalum and gold with an open 3d shell. The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from these ions were recorded with a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4.5 nm to 25 nm. A total of 133 new spectral lines, primarily due to magnetic-dipole transitions within the ground-state $3d^n$ configurations of the Co-like to K-like ions, were identified by comparing energy-dependent experimental spectra with a detailed collisional-radiative modeling of the EBIT plasma.

  18. EV Charging Analysis with High EV Penetration in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the driving pattern analysis and the electric vehicle (EV) charging ananlysis of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. The contents in the report are driving pattern analysis of the passenger cars and electrical charging load profiles of EVs based on the analyzed driving patterns...

  19. Highly charged ions impinging on a stepped metal surface under grazing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, A; Niemann, D; Stolterfoht, N; Heiland, W

    We report on energy loss measurements and charge state distributions for 60 keV N6+ and 75 keV N5+ ions scattered off a Pt(110)(1x2) single crystal surface. In particular, the influence of surface steps on the energy loss and the outgoing charge states is discussed. The scattering angle and the

  20. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    For many high precision experiments with highly charged ions in ion traps it is necessary to work with low energy ions. One possibility to slow ions down to a very low energy in a trap is electron cooling, a method, which is already successfully used in storage rings to produce ion beams with high phase space density. Fast ions and a cold electron plasma are inserted into a Penning trap. The ions lose their energy due to Coulomb interaction with the electrons while they cross the plasma, the electrons are heated. The cooling time is the time, which is needed to cool an ion from a given initial energy to a low final energy. To calculate cooling times it is necessary to solve coupled differential equations for the ion energy and electron temperature. In a Penning trap the strong external magnetic field constitutes a theoretical challenge, as it influences the energy loss of the ions in an electron plasma, which can no longer be calculated analytically. In former estimates of cooling times this influence is neglected. But simulations show a dramatic decrease of the energy loss in the presence of a strong magnetic field, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the cooling times. This work presents a model to calculate cooling times, which includes both the magnetic field and the trap geometry. In a first step a simplified model without the external trap potential is developed. The energy loss of the ions in the magnetized electron plasma is calculated by an analytic approximation, which requires a numerical solution of integrals. With this model the dependence of the cooling time on different parameters like electron and ion density, magnetic field and the angle between ion velocity and magnetic field is studied for fully ionized uranium. In addition the influence of the electron heating is discussed. Another important topic in this context is the recombination between ions and electrons. The simplified model for cooling times allows to

  1. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grames

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  2. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  3. Health risks of space exploration: targeted and nontargeted oxidative injury by high-charge and high-energy particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Gonon, Géraldine; Buonanno, Manuela; Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; de Toledo, Sonia M; Pain, Debkumar; Azzam, Edouard I

    2014-03-20

    During deep space travel, astronauts are often exposed to high atomic number (Z) and high-energy (E) (high charge and high energy [HZE]) particles. On interaction with cells, these particles cause severe oxidative injury and result in unique biological responses. When cell populations are exposed to low fluences of HZE particles, a significant fraction of the cells are not traversed by a primary radiation track, and yet, oxidative stress induced in the targeted cells may spread to nearby bystander cells. The long-term effects are more complex because the oxidative effects persist in progeny of the targeted and affected bystander cells, which promote genomic instability and may increase the risk of age-related cancer and degenerative diseases. Greater understanding of the spatial and temporal features of reactive oxygen species bursts along the tracks of HZE particles, and the availability of facilities that can simulate exposure to space radiations have supported the characterization of oxidative stress from targeted and nontargeted effects. The significance of secondary radiations generated from the interaction of the primary HZE particles with biological material and the mitigating effects of antioxidants on various cellular injuries are central to understanding nontargeted effects and alleviating tissue injury. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the cellular responses to HZE particles, particularly under reduced gravity and situations of exposure to additional radiations, such as protons, should be useful in reducing the uncertainty associated with current models for predicting long-term health risks of space radiation. These studies are also relevant to hadron therapy of cancer.

  4. Defined characteristics of cathepsin B-like proteins from nematodes: inferred functional diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, A; Jasmer, D P

    1999-08-20

    Numerous cathepsin B-like protein sequences (CBLs) have been reported from nematodes. However, the relationships among these proteins remain unclear. Here, expression of several CBL transcripts in the gut of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was demonstrated. To assess potential functional diversity, multiple nematode CBL sequences were compared with known functional domains of cathepsin B. These domains included the occluding loop, S2' and S2 subsites, and the pro region. Four groups of CBLs were defined based on variable characteristics in the occluding loop region, which incorporates a portion of the S2' subsite. Further diversity was observed in amino acids expected to contribute to the S2 subsite. In addition, short signature sequences near the cysteinyl active site region characterized known CBLs of parasites from the orders Strongylida and Rhabditida. The criteria established were used to identify two predicted CBLs from parasitic (Ascaris suum) and free-living (Caenorhabditis elegans) nematodes as potential orthologues, and provided a basis to evaluate orthologue status of other CBLs. Variability in the domains analyzed suggests substantial functional diversity in enzymatic properties of nematode CBLs. Results suggest that the selective amplification and evolution of distinct CBL lineages has contributed to differences in CBLs among species and groups of nematodes. Nutrient digestion is one potential factor promoting CBL diversification in these organisms.

  5. A fast multi-GEM-based detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bencivenni, G; Cardini, A; Deplano, C; De Simone, P; Felici, G; Marras, D; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, results of a time performance study of gas electron multiplier (GEM)-based detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R & D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. Results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e., for experiments in which high-rate charged-particle triggering is needed. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM- based detectors, with the exception of one paper reporting the measurement of a double-GEM detector time resolution with an Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture where the authors quoted a time resolution such that high-efficiency muon triggering at LHCb would be impossible. The results reported here, obtained with the addition of CF//4 and isobutane to the Ar/CO//2 standard mixture, considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper, allowing one to reach a time distribution root mean square of 5 ns with an isobutane-based mixture. In these conditions, a spark probability per incomi...

  6. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  7. Charge collection efficiency in ionization chambers exposed to electron beams with high dose per pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, R F; Guerra, A S; Pimpinella, M; Caporali, C; Petrucci, A

    2006-12-21

    The correction for charge recombination was determined for different plane-parallel ionization chambers exposed to clinical electron beams with low and high dose per pulse, respectively. The electron energy was nearly the same (about 7 and 9 MeV) for any of the beams used. Boag's two-voltage analysis (TVA) was used to determine the correction for ion losses, k(s), relevant to each chamber considered. The presence of free electrons in the air of the chamber cavity was accounted for in determining k(s) by TVA. The determination of k(s) was made on the basis of the models for ion recombination proposed in past years by Boag, Hochhäuser and Balk to account for the presence of free electrons. The absorbed dose measurements in both low-dose-per-pulse (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high-dose-per-pulse (20-120 mGy per pulse range) electron beams were compared with ferrous sulphate chemical dosimetry, a method independent of the dose per pulse. The results of the comparison support the conclusion that one of the models is more adequate to correct for ion recombination, even in high-dose-per-pulse conditions, provided that the fraction of free electrons is properly assessed. In this respect the drift velocity and the time constant for attachment of electrons in the air of the chamber cavity are rather critical parameters because of their dependence on chamber dimensions and operational conditions. Finally, a determination of the factor k(s) was also made by zero extrapolation of the 1/Q versus 1/V saturation curves, leading to the conclusion that this method does not provide consistent results in high-dose-per-pulse beams.

  8. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  9. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  10. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Cathepsin B-Like Protease Family Unique to Trypanosoma congolense▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palomares, Carlos; Biteau, Nicolas; Giroud, Christiane; Coustou, Virginie; Coetzer, Theresa; Authié, Edith; Boulangé, Alain; Baltz, Théo

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteases have been shown to be essential virulence factors and drug targets in trypanosomatids and an attractive antidisease vaccine candidate for Trypanosoma congolense. Here, we describe an important amplification of genes encoding cathepsin B-like proteases unique to T. congolense. More than 13 different genes were identified, whereas only one or two highly homologous genes have been identified in other trypanosomatids. These proteases grouped into three evolutionary clusters: TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and TcoCBc6, which possess the classical catalytic triad (Cys, His, and Asn), and TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13, which contains an unusual catalytic site (Ser, Xaa, and Asn). Expression profiles showed that members of the TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and the TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13 groups are expressed mainly in bloodstream forms and localize in the lysosomal compartment. The expression of recombinant representatives of each group (TcoCB1, TcoCB6, and TcoCB12) as proenzymes showed that TcoCBc1 and TcoCBc6 are able to autocatalyze their maturation 21 and 31 residues, respectively, upstream of the predicted start of the catalytic domain. Both displayed a carboxydipeptidase function, while only TcoCBc1 behaved as an endopeptidase. TcoCBc1 exhibited biochemical differences regarding inhibitor sensitivity compared to that of other cathepsin B-like proteases. Recombinant pro-TcoCBs12 did not automature in vitro, and the pepsin-matured enzyme was inactive in tests with cathepsin B fluorogenic substrates. In vivo inhibition studies using CA074Me (a cell-permeable cathepsin B-specific inhibitor) demonstrated that TcoCB are involved in lysosomal protein degradation essential for survival in bloodstream form. Furthermore, TcoCBc1 elicited an important immune response in experimentally infected cattle. We propose this family of proteins as a potential therapeutic target and as a plausible antigen for T. congolense diagnosis. PMID:18281598

  11. Direct Imaging of Highly Anisotropic Photogenerated Charge Separations on Different Facets of a Single BiVO4 Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Fan, Fengtao; Chen, Ruotian; An, Hongyu; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2015-07-27

    Spatially resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SRSPS) was employed to obtain direct evidence for highly anisotropic photogenerated charge separation on different facets of a single BiVO4 photocatalyst. Through the controlled synthesis of a single crystal with preferentially exposed {010} facets, highly anisotropic photogenerated hole transfer to the {011} facet of single BiVO4 crystals was observed. The surface photovoltage signal intensity on the {011} facet was 70 times stronger than that on the {010} facets. The influence of the built-in electric field in the space charge region of different facets on the anisotropic photoinduced charge transfer in a single semiconductor crystal is revealed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High Performance PbS Quantum Dot/Graphene Hybrid Solar Cell with Efficient Charge Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are fabricated from multilayer stacks of lead sulfide (PbS) CQD and single layer graphene (SG). The inclusion of graphene interlayers is shown to increase power conversion efficiency by 9.18%. It is shown that the inclusion of conductive graphene enhances charge extraction in devices. Photoluminescence shows that graphene quenches emission from the quantum dot suggesting spontaneous charge transfer to graphene. CQD photodetectors exhibit increased photoresponse and improved transport properties. We propose that the CQD/SG hybrid structure is a route to make CQD thin films with improved charge extraction, therefore resulting in improved solar cell efficiency. PMID:27213219

  13. The imbalance of cathepsin B-like activity in acromegalic patients--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Jacek; Bolanowski, Marek; Kaluzny, Marcin; Siewinski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease due to growth hormone (GH) excess. Patients must be carefully follow up because of mortality and co-morbidity increased risks. Since routinely used GH and insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) estimations are not always sufficient, patients require assessment of organ- or tissue-specific tests. Cysteine proteases (CP), including cathepsin B, have been tested in a number of pathologies in respect of a role in pathogenesis and potential utility in the disease activity and prognosis assessment. There is lack of data on CP activity in acromegaly. In present study cathepsin B-like and cysteine peptidase inhibitor (CPI) activities have been tested in 29 acromegaly patients and in 15 healthy controls. Cathepsin B activity was assayed with N-bansoyl-DL-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (BANA) as substrate by the Barrett method. CPI activity was determined by measuring the inhibition of papain. Serum cathepsin B activity (median: 1.38 U/ml) and CPI activity (median: 93.08 U/ml) were higher in acromegaly then in controls (0.93 U/ml and 82.55 U/ml, p=0.000017 and 0.00285, respectively). Neither cathepsin B nor CPI activity was correlated with GH or IGF-1 level. No correlation was recorded between cathepsin B and CPI activity. It was shown for the first time that cathepsin B and CPI activities are increased in acromegaly. These findings suggest to study cathepsin system as an adjuvant parameter in the assessment of the overall acromegaly complications. Moreover, CP may be involved in pathomechanism of organ complications in acromegaly and may interfere with IGF-1 action.

  14. Cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases confer intestinal cysteine protease activity in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shompole, S; Jasmer, D P

    2001-01-26

    Cathepsin B-like cysteine protease genes (cbls) constitute large multigene families in parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes. Although expressed in the intestine of some nematodes, the biological and biochemical functions of the CBL proteins remain unresolved. Di- and tetra-oligopeptides were used as fluorogenic substrates and irreversible/competitive inhibitors to establish CBL functions in the intestine of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Cysteine protease activity was detected against diverse substrates including the cathepsin B/L substrate FR, the caspase 1 substrate YVAD, the cathepsin B substrate RR, but not the CED-3 (caspase 3) substrate DEVD. The pH at which maximum activity was detected varied according to substrate and ranged from pH 5.0 to 7.0. Individual CBLs were affinity isolated using FA and YVAD substrates. pH influenced CBL affinity isolation in a substrate-specific manner that paralleled pH effects on individual substrates. N-terminal sequencing identified two isolated CBLs as H. contortus GCP-7 (33 kDa) and AC-4 (37 kDa). N termini of each began at a position consistent with proregion cleavage and protease activation. Isolation of the GCP-7 band by each peptide was preferentially inhibited when competed with a diazomethane-conjugated inhibitor, Z-FA-CHN(2), demonstrating one functional difference among CBLs and among inhibitors. Substrate-based histological analysis placed CBLs on the intestinal microvilli. Data indicate that CBLs are responsible for cysteine protease activity described from H. contortus intestine. Results also support a role of CBLs in nutrient digestion.

  15. Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshani Silwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium (Y 26 + –Y 36 + were observed in the electron beam ion trap of the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4 nm-20 nm. The electron beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV–6.0 keV to selectively produce different ionization stages. Fifty-nine spectral lines corresponding to Δ n = 0 transitions within the n = 2 and n = 3 shells have been identified using detailed collisional-radiative (CR modeling of the non-Maxwellian plasma. The uncertainties of the wavelength determinations ranged between 0.0004 nm and 0.0020 nm. Li-like resonance lines, 2s– 2 p 1 / 2 and 2s–2 p 3 / 2 , and the Na-like D lines, 3s– 3 p 1 / 2 and 3s– 3 p 3 / 2 , have been measured and compared with previous measurements and calculations. Forbidden magnetic dipole (M1 transitions were identified and analyzed for their potential applicability in plasma diagnostics using large-scale CR calculations including approximately 1.5 million transitions. Several line ratios were found to show strong dependence on electron density and, hence, may be implemented in the diagnostics of hot plasmas, in particular in fusion devices.

  16. Highly charged swelling mica reduces Cu bioavailability in Cu-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckey, Jason W. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Neaman, Alexander [Facultad de Agronomia, P. Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (Chile); Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Martinez, Carmen Enid [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: cem17@psu.edu

    2009-01-15

    This is the first test of a highly charged swelling mica's (Na-2-mica) ability to reduce the plant-absorbed Cu in Cu-contaminated soils from Chile. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was grown in two acid soils (Sector 2: pH 4.2, total Cu = 172 mg Cu kg{sup -1} and Sector 3: pH 4.2, total Cu = 112 mg Cu kg{sup -1}) amended with 0.5% and 1% (w/w) mica, and 1% (w/w) montmorillonite. At 10 weeks of growth, both mica treatments decreased the shoot Cu of ryegrass grown in Sector 2 producing shoot Cu concentrations above 21-22 mg Cu kg{sup -1} (the phytotoxicity threshold for that species), yet the mica treatments did not reduce shoot Cu concentrations when grown in Sector 3, which were at a typical level. The mica treatments improved shoot growth in Sector 3 by reducing free and extractable Cu to low enough levels where other nutrients could compete for plant absorption and translocation. In addition, the mica treatments improved root growth in both soils, and the 1% mica treatment reduced root Cu in both soils. This swelling mica warrants further testing of its ability to assist re-vegetation and reduce Cu bioavailability in Cu-contaminated surface soils. - In situ remediation of Cu-contaminated soils with a synthetic mica (Na-2-mica) will aid in re-vegetative efforts.

  17. Spectroscropy of middle charge state high-z ions in the ultraviolet for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utter, Steven Bryan [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1999-12-11

    The quest for the creation of an economically feasible thermonuclear fusion energy reactor is sttill active after many decades of research. Modern machines produce plasmas which are both hotter and more dense than those created 30 years ago and future devices promise to continue this trend. Paramount to this research is the capability to adequately measure certain parameters of the plasma such as temperature, density, impurity concentration and radiation loss. This dissertation reports three sets of spectroscopic measurements from intermediate charge state of high-Z ions, which have been performed at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, relevant to the development of spectral plasma diagnostics and to the understanding of radiative energy loss from heavy impurity ions of today's and future fusion devices: measurements of W radiation from 40 - 85 A, precision measurements along the Cu isoelectric sequence, and UV spectroscopy of Ti-like W. The results are also compared to the best available theoretical calculations.

  18. Fast-type high-accuracy universal polarimeter using charge-coupled device spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akifumi Takanabe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A fast, high-accuracy universal polarimeter was developed using a charge-coupled device (CCD spectrometer (CCD-HAUP, to carry out simultaneous optical anisotropic (linear birefringence, LB; linear dichroism, LD and chiroptical (circular birefringence, CB; circular dichroism, CD measurements on single crystals without any pretreatment, in the visible region between 400–680 nm. The principle of the HAUP method is to measure the intensities of emergent light passing through a polarizer, a crystal sample, and then an analyzer, as the azimuth angles of the polarizer and analyzer are independently altered. The CCD-HAUP has the unique feature that white transmitted light intensity can be measured using a CCD spectrometer, compared with the generalized HAUP (G-HAUP system in which monochromatic transmitted light is measured using a photomultiplier. The CCD-HAUP measurements across the entire wavelength region are completed within the G-HAUP measurement time for a single wavelength. The CCD-HAUP drastically reduces the measurement time for a dataset to only 1.5 h, from the 24 h required for the G-HAUP system. LB, LD, CB, and CD measurements of single crystals of α-quartz and enantiomeric photomechanical salicylidenephenylethylamines before, during, and after ultraviolet light irradiation show results comparable to those obtained using the G-HAUP system. The newly developed system is very effective for samples susceptible to degradation induced by external stimuli, such as light and heat.

  19. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Chikashi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI2008), held at the University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan from 1-5 September 2008. This series of conferences began in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982 and has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992), Vienna, Austria (1994), Omiya, Japan (1996), Bensheim, Germany (1998), Berkeley, USA (2000), Caen, France (2002), Vilnius, Lithuania (2004) and Belfast, UK (2006). Highly charged ions (HCI), which are defined as highly ionized (i.e. positively charged atomic) ions here, mainly exist in hot plasmas such as the solar corona and fusion plasmas. It is true that its importance in plasma physics has driven researchers to the spectroscopic studies of HCIs, but the spectroscopy of few-electron ions is not only important for plasmas but also interesting for fundamental atomic physics. Electrons moving fast near a heavy nucleus give a suitable system to test the fundamental atomic theory involving relativistic and quantum electro-dynamic effects in a strong field. Also, the huge potential energy of a HCI induces drastic reaction in the interaction with matter. This unique property of HCIs, coupled with the recent development of efficient ion sources, is opening the possibility to utilize them in new technologies in the field such as nano-fabrication, surface analysis, medical physics, and so on. Hence, this conference is recognized as a valuable gathering place for established practitioners and also for newcomers; we exchange information, we are introduced to the subject itself, and to unexpected interfaces with other fields. On 31 August, the day before the opening of HCI2008, we welcomed the delegates at the university's restaurant—and we were greeted with an unusually heavy summer shower! The conference then opened on

  20. Reliable operation of the Brookhaven EBIS for highly charged ion production for RHIC and NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, E., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Alessi, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Binello, S., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Kanesue, T., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; McCafferty, D., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Morris, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Okamura, M., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Pikin, A., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Ritter, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Schoepfer, R., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC EBIS) was commissioned at Brookhaven in September 2010 and since then it routinely supplies ions for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) as the main source of highly charged ions from Helium to Uranium. Using three external primary ion sources for 1+ injection into the EBIS and an electrostatic injection beam line, ion species at the EBIS exit can be switched in 0.2 s. A total of 16 different ion species have been produced to date. The length and the capacity of the ion trap have been increased by 20% by extending the trap by two more drift tubes, compared with the original design. The fraction of Au{sup 32+} in the EBIS Au spectrum is approximately 12% for 70-80% electron beam neutralization and 8 pulses operation in a 5 Hertz train and 4-5 s super cycle. For single pulse per super cycle operation and 25% electron beam neutralization, the EBIS achieves the theoretical Au{sup 32+} fractional output of 18%. Long term stability has been very good with availability of the beam from RHIC EBIS during 2012 and 2014 RHIC runs approximately 99.8%.

  1. Suppression of the high-p(T) charged-hadron R(AA) at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, A; Shen, C

    2012-11-16

    We present a parameter-free postdiction of the high-p(T) charged-hadron nuclear modification factor (R(AA)) in two centralities, measured by the CMS Collaboration in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. The evolution of the bulk medium is modeled using viscous fluid dynamics, with parameters adjusted to describe the soft hadron yields and elliptic flow. Assuming the dominance of radiative energy loss, we compute the medium modification of the R(AA) using a perturbative QCD-based formalism, the higher twist scheme. The transverse momentum diffusion coefficient q[over ^] is assumed to scale with the entropy density and is normalized by fitting the R(AA) in the most central Au-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. This setup is validated in noncentral Au-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and then extrapolated to Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC, keeping the relation between q[over ^] and entropy density unchanged. We obtain a satisfactory description of the CMS R(AA) over the p(T) range from 10 to 100 GeV.

  2. Direct electron-pair production by high energy heavy charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Dong, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Direct electron pain production via virtual photons by moving charged particles is a unique electro-magnetic process having a substantial dependence on energy. Most electro-magnetic processes, including transition radiation, cease to be sensitive to the incident energy above 10 TeV/AMU. Thus, it is expected, that upon establishment of cross section and detection efficiency of this process, it may provide a new energy measuring technique above 10 TeV/AMU. Three accelerator exposures of emulsion chambers designed for measurements of direct electron-pains were performed. The objectives of the investigation were to provide the fundamental cross-section data in emulsion stacks to find the best-fit theoretical model, and to provide a calibration of measurements of direct electron-pairs in emulsion chamber configurations. This paper reports the design of the emulsion chambers, accelerator experiments, microscope measurements, and related considerations for future improvements of the measurements, and for possible applications to high energy cosmic ray experiments. Also discussed are the results from scanning 56m of emulsion tracks at 1200x magnification so that scanning efficiency is optimized. Measurements of the delta-ray range spectrum were also performed for much shorter track lengths, but with sufficiently large statistics in the number of measured delta-rays.

  3. Final Report for "Design calculations for high-space-charge beam-to-RF conversion".

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N Smithe

    2008-10-17

    Accelerator facility upgrades, new accelerator applications, and future design efforts are leading to novel klystron and IOT device concepts, including multiple beam, high-order mode operation, and new geometry configurations of old concepts. At the same time, a new simulation capability, based upon finite-difference “cut-cell” boundaries, has emerged and is transforming the existing modeling and design capability with unparalleled realism, greater flexibility, and improved accuracy. This same new technology can also be brought to bear on a difficult-to-study aspect of the energy recovery linac (ERL), namely the accurate modeling of the exit beam, and design of the beam dump for optimum energy efficiency. We have developed new capability for design calculations and modeling of a broad class of devices which convert bunched beam kinetic energy to RF energy, including RF sources, as for example, klystrons, gyro-klystrons, IOT's, TWT’s, and other devices in which space-charge effects are important. Recent advances in geometry representation now permits very accurate representation of the curved metallic surfaces common to RF sources, resulting in unprecedented simulation accuracy. In the Phase I work, we evaluated and demonstrated the capabilities of the new geometry representation technology as applied to modeling and design of output cavity components of klystron, IOT's, and energy recovery srf cavities. We identified and prioritized which aspects of the design study process to pursue and improve in Phase II. The development and use of the new accurate geometry modeling technology on RF sources for DOE accelerators will help spark a new generational modeling and design capability, free from many of the constraints and inaccuracy associated with the previous generation of “stair-step” geometry modeling tools. This new capability is ultimately expected to impact all fields with high power RF sources, including DOE fusion research, communications

  4. Molecular-dynamics simulations of hillocks induced by highly-charged Arq+, Xeq+ ions impact on HOPG surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengrong; Cheng, Xinlu; Li, Huifang; Song, Ting; Guo, Fen; Liu, Zijiang; Chen, Jianhong

    2015-11-01

    The hillocks on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface induced by highly charged Arq+, Xeq+ ions are studied by using molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. And a hybrid potential created by combining the ReaxFF potential with the repulsive ZBL potential is used to describe the interatomic interactions. The effects of incident highly charged ion (HCI)'s kinetic energy and the energy gain due to the interaction of HCI with its own image on the formation of the hillocks are considered in the present simulations. Our results show that both potential and kinetic energy of HCI may affect the hillock size. However, the potential energy of HCI increases dramatically with charge state, which is more important than kinetic energy in the formation of the hillock in extremely high charge states. And it is found that both the height and width of the hillock agree well with experimental data. In addition, the bond breaking and bond formation during the formation of the hillock are also investigated, and the results show that there are many σ bonds breaking and interlayer bonds formation in one layer or between two layers during this process. Furthermore, most of the interlayer bonds in HOPG surface induced by HCI impact are sp2 bond, although some interlayer sp3 bonds are also observed in the present work.

  5. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the

  6. Thermal Analysis of a Fast Charging Technique for a High Power Lithium-Ion Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel García Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-constant voltage (CV/fast discharge (4C in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated with cell overpotential, although evidence of the reversible component is also observed, associated with the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell-specific heats and the cell materials’ thickness. The model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems.

  7. Electron-emission processes in highly charged Ar and Xe ions impinging on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite at energies just above the kinetic threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-01-01

    At keV energies, many electronic processes contribute to the emission of secondary electrons in the interaction of highly charged ions on surfaces. To unravel contributions resulting from isolated hollow atoms in front of the surface or embedded in the electron gas of the target, heavy highly

  8. Impact of electrostatics on the chemodynamics of highly charged metal-polymer nanoparticle complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Farinha, José Paulo S; Pinheiro, José P

    2013-11-12

    In this work, the impact of electrostatics on the stability constant, the rate of association/dissociation, and the lability of complexes formed between Cd(II), Pb(II), and carboxyl-modified polymer nanoparticles (also known as latex particles) of radius ∼ 50 nm is systematically investigated via electroanalytical measurements over a wide range of pHs and NaNO3 electrolyte concentrations. The corresponding interfacial structure and key electrostatic properties of the particles are independently derived from their electrokinetic response, successfully interpreted using soft particle electrohydrodynamic formalism, and complemented by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The results underpin the presence of an ∼0.7-1 nm thick permeable and highly charged shell layer at the surface of the polymer nanoparticles. Their electrophoretic mobility further exhibits a minimum versus NaNO3 concentration due to strong polarization of the electric double layer. Integrating these structural and electrostatic particle features with recent theory on chemodynamics of particulate metal complexes yields a remarkable recovery of the measured increase in complex stability with increasing pH and/or decreasing solution salinity. In the case of the strongly binding Pb(II), the discrepancy at pH > 5.5 is unambiguously assigned to the formation of multidendate complexes with carboxylate groups located in the particle shell. With increasing pH and/or decreasing electrolyte concentration, the theory further predicts a kinetically controlled formation of metal complexes and a dramatic loss of their lability (especially for lead) on the time-scale of diffusion toward a macroscopic reactive electrode surface. These theoretical findings are again shown to be in agreement with experimental evidence.

  9. Highly charged swelling mica reduces free and extractable Cu levels in Cu-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Jason W; Neaman, Alexander; Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2008-12-15

    Smelting of copper (Cu) results in the atmospheric deposition of Cu onto surrounding soils. Excess concentrations of Cu in soils can be absorbed by soil biota to toxic levels or leached into the groundwater, threatening the entire ecosystem. A means to restrict Cu mobility and uptake by plants is to remove it from the aqueous phase by applying an adsorptive material. A synthetic clay (highly charged swelling mica) was tested for its ability to decrease the levels of free and 0.1 M KNO3-extractable Cu in 15 surface soils from three different Cu mining areas in central Chile. The soils contained excessive total Cu levels (112-2790 mg Cu (kg soil)(-1)), while extractable Cu ranged from 0.3 to 22.9 mg Cu L(-1). The mica was applied to each soil at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 2% (w/w). A 2% sodium-montmorillonite treatment and the nonamended soil served as controls. The order of treatment efficacy in reducing extractable Cu and free Cu2+ for low pH soils ( 1% mica > 2% montmorillonite > 0.1% mica. At 120 days, the 2% mica treatment maintained reductions of up to 93% in the free Cu2+ activity and up to 75% in the extractable Cu concentration upon acidification to the original soil pH value. In addition, Cu retention in mica-treated soils was more resistant to acidification than in lime-treated soils. This mica has promise for the remediation of acidic soils with metal contamination at the surface.

  10. Irradiation of Neurons with High-Energy Charged Particles: An In Silico Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Murat; Parihar, Vipan K; Limoli, Charles L; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a stochastic computational model of microscopic energy deposition events is used to study for the first time damage to irradiated neuronal cells of the mouse hippocampus. An extensive library of radiation tracks for different particle types is created to score energy deposition in small voxels and volume segments describing a neuron's morphology that later are sampled for given particle fluence or dose. Methods included the construction of in silico mouse hippocampal granule cells from neuromorpho.org with spine and filopodia segments stochastically distributed along the dendritic branches. The model is tested with high-energy (56)Fe, (12)C, and (1)H particles and electrons. Results indicate that the tree-like structure of the neuronal morphology and the microscopic dose deposition of distinct particles may lead to different outcomes when cellular injury is assessed, leading to differences in structural damage for the same absorbed dose. The significance of the microscopic dose in neuron components is to introduce specific local and global modes of cellular injury that likely contribute to spine, filopodia, and dendrite pruning, impacting cognition and possibly the collapse of the neuron. Results show that the heterogeneity of heavy particle tracks at low doses, compared to the more uniform dose distribution of electrons, juxtaposed with neuron morphology make it necessary to model the spatial dose painting for specific neuronal components. Going forward, this work can directly support the development of biophysical models of the modifications of spine and dendritic morphology observed after low dose charged particle irradiation by providing accurate descriptions of the underlying physical insults to complex neuron structures at the nano-meter scale.

  11. End-label, free-solution capillary electrophoresis of highly charged oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudor, J; Novotny, M V

    1995-11-15

    The effect of fluorescent tags on the separation of negatively charged oligosaccharides, derived from a partially hydrolyzed kappa-carrageenan, was studied. When the charge-to-friction ratio of oligosaccharides is increased by the end-label, the migration order is from smaller to larger oligomers, and the resolution of larger oligomers could be improved by using a sieving medium. The migration order can be entirely reversed when the charge-to-friction ratio of the solute is decreased by the end-label. The experimental electrophoretic mobilities obtained in this work are in excellent agreement with the recently reported theoretical model (Mayer, P.; Slater, G. W.; Drouin, G. Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 1777-1780). The maximum number of separated oligomers (Mmax) as a function of applied voltage and injection time was also studied, but no strong dependencies were found. Resolution between small oligomers could be significantly improved by following this separation principle.

  12. Dijet Production in Charged and Neutral Current $e^{+}p$ Interactions at High $Q^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Krucker, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Kutuev, R.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    Jet production in charged and neutral current events in the kinematic range of Q^2 from 640 to 35000 GeV^2 is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The measured rate of multi-jet events and distributions of jet polar angle, transverse energy, dijet mass, and other dijet variables are presented. Using parton densities derived from inclusive DIS cross sections, perturbative QCD calculations in NLO are found to give a consistent description of both the neutral and charged current dijet production. A direct, model independent comparison of the jet distributions in charged and neutral current events confirms that the QCD dynamics of the hadronic final state is independent of the underlying electroweak scattering process.

  13. Acceleration of highly charged GeV Fe ions from a low-Z substrate by intense femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiuchi, M., E-mail: nishiuchi.mamiko@jaea.go.jp; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan); Nishio, K.; Orlandi, R.; Koura, H.; Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperature of RAS, Izhorskaya St. 13 Bd. 2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Skobelev, I. Yu. [Joint Institute for High Temperature of RAS, Izhorskaya St. 13 Bd. 2, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sako, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsukawa, K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan); Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, 5-1-1 Fukae-minami, Higashinada, Kobe (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Almost fully stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated with a 200 TW femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiating a micron-thick Al foil with Fe impurity on the surface. An energetic low-emittance high-density beam of heavy ions with a large charge-to-mass ratio can be obtained, which is useful for many applications, such as a compact radio isotope source in combination with conventional technology.

  14. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  15. Damage induced by high energy multiply charged oxygen ions in oxide coated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)]. E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in; Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kulkarni, V.R. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Bogle, K.A. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Shinde, N.S. [Ecotopia Science Institute, Division of Energy Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-03-15

    P-type oxide coated silicon samples of resistivity 120 {omega} cm were irradiated with 60 MeV oxygen ions of fixed charge states 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}, 6{sup +} and 7{sup +} at an equal fluence of, {phi}, {approx}10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The induced damage was estimated by Hall voltage, Hall coefficient, carrier concentration and lifetime of minority carriers. The results indicate that Hall voltage (V {sub H}) and Hall coefficient (R {sub H}) increases, while carrier concentration (n) decreases with the charge state of impinging oxygen ions. The V {sub H} increases from 22 mV to 76.5 mV at typical current of 0.5 mA, R {sub H} from 0.42 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}/C to 2.16 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}/C and n decreases from 9 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} to 2.88 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for the different charge states. This fact is an evidence that the oxygen ions with an individual fixed charge state passing through very thin 40 A layer of silicon dioxide, induces significant damage at the SiO{sub 2}-Si interface through the mechanism of electronic stopping power. The lifetime of minority charge carriers, {tau} (bulk property), remains constant at around 6 {mu}s for all the charge states of the 60 MeV energy oxygen ion irradiated samples at a constant fluence of, {phi}, 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

    2012-02-01

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 μs) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  17. On the complex ageing characteristics of high-power LiFePO4/graphite battery cells cycled with high charge and discharge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groot, Jens; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are known to undergo complex ageing processes, where the operating conditions have a profound and non-linear effect on both calendar life and cycle life. This is especially a challenge for the automotive industry, where the requirements on product lifetime and reliability...... are demanding. The aim of the present work is to quantify the ageing in terms of capacity fade and impedance growth as a function of operating conditions typical to high-power automotive applications; high charge and discharge rate, elevated temperatures and wide state-of-charge windows. The cycle life of 34...

  18. Epoxy Based Nanodielectrics for High Voltage DC Applications : Synthesis, Dielectric Properties and Space Charge Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.J.; Andritsch, T.M.

    Main goal of the research described in this PhD thesis was to determine the influences of filler size, material and distribution on the DC breakdown strength, permittivity and space charge behaviour of nanocomposites. This should lay the groundwork for tailored insulation materials for HVDC

  19. Epoxy Based Nanodielectrics for High Voltage DC Applications : Synthesis, Dielectric Properties and Space Charge Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andritsch, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Main goal of the research described in this PhD thesis was to determine the influences of filler size, material and distribution on the DC breakdown strength, permittivity and space charge behaviour of nanocomposites. This should lay the groundwork for tailored insulation materials for HVDC

  20. Effects of Confinement on Microstructure and Charge Transport in High Performance Semicrystalline Polymer Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Himmelberger, Scott

    2012-11-23

    The film thickness of one of the most crystalline and highest performing polymer semiconductors, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b] thiophene) (PBTTT), is varied in order to determine the effects of interfaces and confinement on the microstructure and performance in organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Crystalline texture and overall film crystallinity are found to depend strongly on film thickness and thermal processing. The angular distribution of crystallites narrows upon both a decrease in film thickness and thermal annealing. These changes in the film microstructure are paired with thin-film transistor characterization and shown to be directly correlated with variations in charge carrier mobility. Charge transport is shown to be governed by film crystallinity in films below 20 nm and by crystalline orientation for thicker films. An optimal thickness is found for PBTTT at which the mobility is maximized in unannealed films and where mobility reaches a plateau at its highest value for annealed films. The effects of confinement on the morphology and charge transport properties of poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) are studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction and field-effect transistor measurements. Polymer crystallinity is found to limit charge transport in the thinnest films while crystalline texture and intergrain connectivity modulate carrier mobility in thicker films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Energy loss of a high charge bunched electron beam in plasma: Simulations, scaling, and accelerating wakefields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss and gain of a beam in the nonlinear, “blowout” regime of the plasma wakefield accelerator, which features ultrahigh accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion, has been asserted, through previous observations in simulations, to scale linearly with beam charge. Additionally, from a recent analysis by Barov et al., it has been concluded that for an infinitesimally short beam, the energy loss is indeed predicted to scale linearly with beam charge for arbitrarily large beam charge. This scaling is predicted to hold despite the onset of a relativistic, nonlinear response by the plasma, when the number of beam particles occupying a cubic plasma skin depth exceeds that of plasma electrons within the same volume. This paper is intended to explore the deviations from linear energy loss using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that arise in the case of experimentally relevant finite length beams. The peak accelerating field in the plasma wave excited behind the finite-length beam is also examined, with the artifact of wave spiking adding to the apparent persistence of linear scaling of the peak field amplitude into the nonlinear regime. At large enough normalized charge, the linear scaling of both decelerating and accelerating fields collapses, with serious consequences for plasma wave excitation efficiency. Using the results of parametric particle-in-cell studies, the implications of these results for observing severe deviations from linear scaling in present and planned experiments are discussed.

  2. Characterization of the surface charge distribution on kaolinite particles using high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Naveen; Zhao, Cunlu; Klaassen, Aram Harold; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sîretanu, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Most solid surfaces, in particular clay minerals and rock surfaces, acquire a surface charge upon exposure to an aqueous environment due to adsorption and/or desorption of ionic species. Macroscopic techniques such as titration and electrokinetic measurements are commonly used to determine the

  3. ELECTRON-CAPTURE IN HIGHLY-CHARGED ION-ATOM COLLISIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORGENSTERN, R

    1993-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the most important mechanisms responsible for the rearrangement of electrons during collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms at keV energies. It is discussed to which extent the influence of binding energy, angular momentum of heavy particles and electrons,

  4. Real Experiments versus Phet Simulations for Better High-School Students' Understanding of Electrostatic Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajredini, Fadil; Izairi, Neset; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of computer simulations (virtual experiments) on one hand and real experiments on the other hand on the conceptual understanding of electrical charging. The investigated sample consists of students in the second year (10th grade) of three gymnasiums in Macedonia. There were two experimental groups and one…

  5. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  6. Transmutation prospect of long-lived nuclear waste induced by high-charge electron beam from laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Y.; Luo, W.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yan, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam (e-beam) from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately 100 nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density (NCD) plasma. Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching 1011 per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide 126Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of 109 per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser-accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.

  7. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming; Hutton, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This issue contains papers presented at the 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions, HCI2010. The conference was held at Fudan University, Shanghai, 29 August-3 September 2010. HCI is a biannual conference series going back to the very first conference held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. Previous editions in this millennium were held in Berkeley, USA, 2000; Caen, France, 2002; Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004; Belfast, UK, 2006, and Tokyo, Japan, 2008. The physics of highly charged ions, HCIs, is of great interest due to their key role in testing quantum electrodynamics in strong fields, and possible testing of parity non-conservation. However, HCIs also play crucial roles in the physics of hot plasmas, for example those produced in tokamak fusion devices and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Much of the diagnostics of matter under such extreme environments relies very heavily on high quality atomic data of HCIs. The field of x-ray astronomy hinges almost entirely on the use of spectral lines from HCIs to provide information from distant astrophysical plasmas and objects. Given these fundamental interests and the current rapid developments in fusion and x-ray astronomy, it is clear that the physics of HCIs is a rich area of research with strong and important connections to many important subfields of physics. New application areas of HCI physics are also under development: two examples are (a) to provide 13.5 nm—and later half of this wavelength—radiation for lithography and (b) applications in medical research. The need for high quality atomic data of HCIs is as important now as it has ever been. HCI2010 was attended by over 200 scientists from around 20 countries; see the following table. Over 70 of the participants were students, which is very encouraging for the future of HCI related physics. The academic programme was organized based on the suggestions from the International Advisory Board, and consisted of six review lectures

  8. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  9. Determination of the charge radii of several light nuclei from precision, high-energy electron elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Al Amin [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high-energy electron scattering has been used to determine the charge radii of nuclei for several decades. Recent analysis of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen found an r.m.s. radius significantly different than the electron scattering result. To understand this puzzle we have analyzed the "LEDEX" data for the (e, e'p) reaction. This experiment includes measurements on several light nuclei, hydrogen, deuterium, lithium, boron, and carbon. To test our ability to measure absolute cross sections, as well as our ability to extract the charge radius, we tested our technique against the extremely well-measured carbon case and found excellent agreement using the Fourier-Bessel parametrization. We then extended the procedure to boron and lithium, which show nice agreement with the latest theoretical calculations. For hydrogen, we see clearly the limits of this technique and therefore, the charge radius is determined from the traditional extrapolation to q2 = 0. We will show that there is a model dependence in extracting the charge radius of hydrogen and its unambiguous determination is very difficult with available electron-scattering measurements.

  10. Space charge

    CERN Document Server

    Schindl, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The Coulomb forces between the charged particles of a high-intensity beam in an accelerator create a self-field which acts on the particles inside the beam like a distributed lens, defocusing in both transverse planes. A beam moving with speed n is accompanied by a magnetic field which partially cancels the electrostatic defocusing effect, with complete cancellation at c, the speed of light. The effect of this 'direct space charge' is evaluated for transport lines and synchrotrons where the number of betatron oscillations per machine turn, Q, is reduced by DQ. In a real accelerator, the beam is also influenced by the environment (beam pipe, magnets, etc.) which generates 'indirect' space charge effects. For a smooth and perfectly conducting wall, they can easily be evaluated by introducing image charges and currents. These 'image effects' do not cancel when n approaches c, thus they become dominant for high-energy synchrotrons. Each particle in the beam has its particular incoherent tune Q and incoherent tune...

  11. 16th international conference on the physics of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Stephan; Stöhlker, Thomas; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2013-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 16th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2012) held at the Ruprecht-Karls University in Heidelberg, Germany, 2-7 September 2012 (figure 1). This conference has been part of a biannual conference series that was started in Stockholm in 1982 and, since then, has been organized at various places around the world, with recent venues in Belfast (UK, 2006), Tokyo (Japan, 2008) and Shanghai (China, 2010). The physics of highly charged ions (HCI) is a rapidly developing and attractive field of research with impact upon many other research disciplines. Apart from fundamental studies on the structure and dynamics of matter in extreme fields, or the search for physics beyond the standard model, detailed knowledge about the properties and behavior of HCI is crucial for other areas, from astro- and solar physics to hot plasma and fusion research to extreme ultra-violet and ion lithography, or even to medical research, to name just a few. In fusion research, for example, of whether tokamak, stellarator or confinement fusion facilities, most models and diagnostics deeply rely on the understanding of HCI and the (theoretical) prediction of accurate atomic data for these systems. In life science, moreover, ion therapy or the laser acceleration of ions and electrons may help save and improve the quality of life in the future. Many of these and further topics are addressed in these proceedings. After 30 years, the HCI conference series, and especially the meeting in Heidelberg, is appreciated much as a key forum for bringing together senior experts with students, young researchers and scientists from related disciplines who make use and give back impact upon the research with HCI. More than 250 scientists from 23 countries participated in HCI 2012 and presented the current status of the field. About one third of them were post-graduate students, showing that the field attracts many young and talented

  12. Optimal radius of crystal curvature for planar channeling of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kirillin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of planar channeling of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was considered on the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation. We show the existence of an optimal radius of crystal curvature for planar channeling, corresponding to the maximum deflection of the particle beam. The analytical calculation was carried out in the parabolic planar potential approximation, and in the numerical simulation the Doyle-Turner approximation was used.

  13. Optimal radius of crystal curvature for planar channeling of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillin, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    The problem of planar channeling of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was considered on the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation. We show the existence of an optimal radius of crystal curvature for planar channeling, corresponding to the maximum deflection of the particle beam. The analytical calculation was carried out in the parabolic planar potential approximation, and in the numerical simulation the Doyle-Turner approximation was used.

  14. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  15. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: The Contribution of the Heavy Highly Charged (Minority) Solar Wind Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface helps determine the composition of the lunar exosphere and contributes to surface weathering. To date, only the effects of the two dominant solar wind constituents, H+ and He+, have been considered. The heavier, less abundant solar wind constituents have much larger sputtering yields because they have greater mass (kinetic sputtering) and they are highly charged (potential sputtering) Their contribution to total sputtering can therefore be orders of magnitude larger than their relative abundances would suggest

  16. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  17. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  18. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  20. Self-assembly of highly charged polyelectrolyte complexes with superior proton conductivity and methanol barrier properties for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaztuerk, Serpil; Deligoez, Hueseyin; Yilmazoglu, Mesut; Damyan, Hakan; Oeksuezoemer, Faruk; Koc, S. Naci; Durmus, Ali; Ali Guerkaynak, M. [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34320 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-02-01

    The paper is concerned with the formation of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly of highly charged polyvinyl sulfate potassium salt (PVS) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) on Nafion membrane to obtain the multilayered composite membranes with both high proton conductivity and methanol blocking properties. Also, the influences of the salt addition to the polyelectrolyte solutions on membrane selectivity (proton conductivity/methanol permeability) are discussed in terms of controlled layer thickness and charge density. The deposition of the self-assembly of PAH/PVS is confirmed by SEM analysis and it is observed that the polyelectrolyte layers growth on each side of Nafion membrane regularly. (PAH/PVS){sub 10}-Na{sup +} and (PAH/PVS){sub 10}-H{sup +} with 1.0 M NaCl provide 55.1 and 43.0% reduction in lower methanol permittivity in comparison to pristine Nafion, respectively, while the proton conductivities are 12.4 and 78.3 mS cm{sup -1}. Promisingly, it is found that the membrane selectivity values ({phi}) of all multilayered composite membranes in H{sup +} form are much higher than those of Na{sup +} form and perfluorosulfonated ionomers reported in the literature. These encouraging results indicate that composite membranes having both superior proton conductivity and improved methanol barrier properties can be prepared from highly charged polyelectrolytes including salt for fuel cell applications. (author)

  1. High-resolution peptide mapping separations with MS-friendly mobile phases and charge-surface-modified C18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Matthew A; Koza, Stephan M; McCall, Scott A; Alden, Bonnie A; Iraneta, Pamela C; Fountain, Kenneth J

    2013-07-16

    Ionic analytes, such as peptides, can be challenging to separate by reverse-phase chromatography with optimal efficiency. They tend, for instance, to exhibit poor peak shapes, particularly when eluted with mobile phases preferred for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that a novel charged-surface C18 stationary phase alleviates some of the challenges associated with reverse-phase peptide separations. This column chemistry, known as CSH (charged-surface hybrid) C18, improves upon an already robust organosilica hybrid stationary phase, BEH (ethylene-bridged hybrid) C18. Based on separations of a nine-peptide standard, CSH C18 was found to exhibit improved loadability, greater peak capacities, and unique selectivity compared to BEH C18. Its performance was also seen to be significantly less dependent on TFA-ion pairing, making it ideal for MS applications where high sensitivity is desired. These performance advantages were evaluated through application to peptide mapping, wherein CSH C18 was found to aid the development of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity LC-UV-MS peptide mapping method for the therapeutic antibody, trastuzumab. From these results, the use of a C18 stationary phase with a charged surface, such as CSH C18, holds significant promise for facilitating challenging peptide analyses.

  2. Charge Dynamics in Low Dimensional Prototype Correlated Systems: A View with High-Energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Md-Zahid

    2002-03-20

    The electronic structure of Mott systems continues to be an unsolved problem in physics despite more than half-century of intense research efforts. Well-developed momentum-resolved spectroscopies such as photoemission and neutron scattering cannot directly address problems associated with the full Mott gap as angle-resolved photoemission probes the occupied states and neutrons do not couple to the electron's charge directly. Our observation of dispersive particle- hole pair excitations across the charge gap (effective Mott gap) in several low dimensional prototype Mott insulators using high resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering suggests that the excitations across the gap are highly anisotropic and momentum dependent. The results indirectly provide some information about the momentum dependence of unoccupied states in these correlated systems. The x-ray scattering results are complementary to the electron scattering results by the possibility of studying the excitations in the high momentum transfer regimes (near the zone boundaries and comers). This is also demonstrated in case of studying plasmons near the wave vector regime where Landau damping starts to dominate. X-ray scattering also allows one to probe the symmetry characters of localized electrons and the excitations through the strong polarization dependence of scattering near a core resonance. The study of charge-orbital localization is demonstrated in case of manganese oxides. Given its deeply bulk-sensitive and weak-coupling nature and the ability to probe dispersive behavior of charge fluctuations over several Brillouin zones, inelastic x-ray scattering shows the promise to become an important experimental tool to study the electronic structure of complex quantum systems.

  3. High-Surface-Area Architectures for Improved Charge Transfer Kinetics at the Dark Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffeditz, William L.; Katz, Michael J.; Deria, Pravas; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2014-06-11

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) redox shuttles other than triiodide/iodide have exhibited significantly higher charge transfer resistances at the dark electrode. This often results in poor fill factor, a severe detriment to device performance. Rather than moving to dark electrodes of untested materials that may have higher catalytic activity for specific shuttles, the surface area of platinum dark electrodes could be increased, improving the catalytic activity by simply presenting more catalyst to the shuttle solution. A new copper-based redox shuttle that experiences extremely high charge-transfer resistance at conventional Pt dark electrodes yields cells having fill-factors of less than 0.3. By replacing the standard Pt dark electrode with an inverse opal Pt electrode fabricated via atomic layer deposition, the dark electrode surface area is boosted by ca. 50-fold. The resulting increase in interfacial electron transfer rate (decrease in charge-transfer resistance) nearly doubles the fill factor and therefore the overall energy conversion efficiency, illustrating the utility of this high-area electrode for DSCs.

  4. Optimization of High-Current Ion Beam Acceleration and Charge Compensation in Two Cusps of Induction Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Karas, Vyacheslav I

    1996-01-01

    Results of the numerical simulation of the hollow high-current ion beam (HHCIB) dynamics in two magnet-isolated accelerat- ing gaps separated by the drift gap are presented. The previous study has shown that the good charge and current compensations of the ion beam by the specially injected electron beam occur in the accelerating gaps of the i nduction linac. However in the drift gap the high positive electric potential due to the positive space charge of HHCIB was obtained because the essential dif- ference between the electron and ion drift velocities exists un- der this compensation method. This disadvantage impairing the brightness of the ion beam can be considerably reduced by the additional injection of the thermal electrons into the drift region. In present report the some cases of the cold electron injection into drift gap are considered. The more optimal regime for the effec- tive charge and current compensations of HHCIB without loss in the stability of ion beam was found

  5. High stability X-ray spectroscopy system with on-chip front-end in charge amplifier configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guazzoni, Chiara; Chiesa, Marco; Sampietro, Marco E-mail: marco.sampietro@polimi.it; Lechner, Peter

    2003-10-11

    This paper presents the performance of a two-chip detector system based on a silicon drift detector and on a charge amplifier, part of the latter being integrated in the detector chip. The two-chip system is intended for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy experiments in which stability of operation is mandatory to avoid on-line calibration procedures. Experimental measurements have been carried out to test the stability of the whole system with a quantitative analysis of the gain stability obtained by comparing X-ray spectra taken at different operating conditions, varying the temperature and/or the detector bias. A gain variation of less than 0.4% has been obtained at extreme operating conditions. The problems and critical aspects of the two-chip charge amplifier solution are discussed.

  6. Atomic physics with highly-charged heavy ions at the GSI future facility: The scientific program of the SPARC collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumberidze, A. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.gumberidze@gsi.de; Bosch, F. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Stoehlker, Th. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The proposed new international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will open up exciting and far-reaching perspectives for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions: it will provide the highest intensities of relativistic beams of both stable and unstable heavy nuclei. In combination with the strongest possible electromagnetic fields produced by the nuclear charge of the heaviest nuclei, this will allow to extend atomic spectroscopy up to the virtual limits of atomic matter. Based on the experience and results already achieved at the experimental storage ring (ESR), a substantial progress in atomic physics research has to be expected in this domain, due to a tremendous improvement of intensity, energy and production yield of both stable and unstable nuclei.

  7. Shot-to-shot reproducibility in the emission of fast highly charged metal ions from a laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krása, J; Velyhan, A; Margarone, D; Krouský, E; Krouský, L; Jungwirth, K; Rohlena, K; Ullschmied, J; Parys, P; Ryć, L; Wołowski, J

    2012-02-01

    The generation of fast highly charged metal ions with the use of the sub-nanosecond Prague Asterix Laser System, operated at a fundamental wavelength of 1315 nm, is reported. Particular attention is paid to shot-to-shot reproducibility in the ion emission. Au and Pd targets were exposed to intensities up to 5 × 10(16) W∕cm(2). Above the laser intensity threshold of ∼3 × 10(14) W∕cm(2) the plasma is generated in a form of irregular bursts. The maximum energy of protons constituting the leading edge of the fastest burst reaches a value up to 1 MeV. The fast ions in the following bursts have energy gradually decreasing with the increasing burst number, namely, from a value of about 0.5 MeV∕charge regardless of the atomic number and mass of the ionized species.

  8. High resolution probe of coherence in low-energy charge exchange collisions with oriented targets

    CERN Document Server

    Leredde, A; Cassimi, A; Hennecart, D; Pons, B

    2013-01-01

    The trapping lasers of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are used to bring Rb atoms into well defined oriented states. Coupled to recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS), this yields a unique MOTRIMS setup which is able to probe scattering dynamics, including their coherence features, with unprecedented resolution. This technique is applied to the low-energy charge exchange processes Na$^+$+Rb($5p_{\\pm 1}$) $\\rightarrow$ Na($3p,4s$)+Rb$^+$. The measurements reveal detailed features of the collisional interaction which are employed to improve the theoretical description. All of this enables to gauge the reliability of intuitive pictures predicting the most likely capture transitions.

  9. Surgery of fast, highly charged ions studied by zero-degree Auger spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Miller, P.D.; Krause, H.F.; Yamazaki, Y.; Swenson, J.K.; Bruch, R.; Dittner, P.F.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    Zero-degree Auger spectra were measured in collisions of oxygen and carbon on He with incident charge states of q = 2 to 5 and for energies from 5 to 30 MeV. Since the light target particle He acts selectively on the projectile ion, we refer to the present method as ion surgery. Apart from the one-electron processes single excitation and single loss, two-electron processes such as transfer excitation and transfer loss are studied. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Factorization breaking in high-transverse-momentum charged-hadron production at the Tevatron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, S; Kniehl, B A; Kramer, G

    2010-06-18

    We compare the transverse-momentum (pT) distribution of inclusive light-charged-particle production measured by the CDF Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron with the theoretical prediction evaluated at next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics using fragmentation functions recently determined through a global data fit. While in the lower pT range the data agree with the prediction within the theoretical error or slightly undershoot it, they significantly exceed it in the upper pT range, by several orders of magnitude at the largest values of pT, potentially challenging the factorization theorem.

  11. Measurement of the spatial specific impulse distribution due to buried high explosive charge detonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Denefeld

    2017-06-01

    The momentum transfer to a vehicle depends on a number of influencing factors such as: charge mass, embedding material (e.g. sand, gravel, clay, density, water content, saturation, depth of burial, ground clearance and vehicle shape. The presented technology is applied to quantify the influence of the embedding material (alluvial sand, quartz sand, the burial depth and the water content on the local specific impulse distribution. The obtained data can be used as initial condition for the numerical simulation of occupant safety assessment and as input for empirical modeling of momentum transfer on structures.

  12. Charge and orbital orders and structural instability in high-pressure quadruple perovskite CeCuMn6O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari; Belik, Alexei A.

    2018-02-01

    We prepared a quadruple perovskite CeCuMn6O12 under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa and about 1670 K and investigated its structural, magnetic and transport properties. CeCuMn6O12 crystallizes in space group Im-3 above T CO  =  297 K below this temperature, it adopts space group R-3 with the 1:3 (Mn4+:Mn3+) charge and orbital orders. Unusual compressed Mn3+O6 octahedra are realized in CeCuMn6O12 similar to CaMn7O12 with the  ‑Q 3 Jahn–Teller distortion mode. Below about 90 K, structural instability takes place with phase separation and the appearance of competing phases; and below 70 K, two R-3 phases coexist. CeCuMn6O12 exhibits a ferromagnetic-like transition below T C  =  140 K, and it is a semiconductor with the magnetoresistance reaching about  ‑40% at 140 K and 70 kOe. We argued that the valence of Ce is  +3 in CeCuMn6O12 with the Ce3+(C{{u}2+}Mn23+ )(Mn33+M{{n}4+} )O12 charge distribution in the charge-ordered R-3 phase and Ce3+(C{{u}2+}Mn23+ )(Mn43.25+ )O12 in the charge-disordered Im-3 phase.

  13. Engineering the Charge Transport of Ag Nanocrystals for Highly Accurate, Wearable Temperature Sensors through All-Solution Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hyungmok; Lee, Seung-Wook; Seong, Mingi; Lee, Woo Seok; Oh, Soong Ju

    2017-06-01

    All-nanocrystal (NC)-based and all-solution-processed wearable resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are introduced. The charge transport mechanisms of Ag NC thin films are engineered through various ligand treatments to design high performance RTDs. Highly conductive Ag NC thin films exhibiting metallic transport behavior with high positive temperature coefficients of resistance (TCRs) are achieved through tetrabutylammonium bromide treatment. Ag NC thin films showing hopping transport with high negative TCRs are created through organic ligand treatment. All-solution-based, one-step photolithography techniques that integrate two distinct opposite-sign TCR Ag NC thin films into an ultrathin single device are developed to decouple the mechanical effects such as human motion. The unconventional materials design and strategy enables highly accurate, sensitive, wearable and motion-free RTDs, demonstrated by experiments on moving or curved objects such as human skin, and simulation results based on charge transport analysis. This strategy provides a low cost and simple method to design wearable multifunctional sensors with high sensitivity which could be utilized in various fields such as biointegrated sensors or electronic skin. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, M., E-mail: Mikko.Saarela@oulu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  15. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cathepsin B and cathepsin B-Like proteins of Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kang, Heekyoung; Seo, Ga-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2017-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics. Seven hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB McAbs and three hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB-L McAbs were produced. Among these, 2C9 (monoclone for rNfCPB) and 1C8 (monoclone for rNfCPB-L) McAb showed high antibody titres and were finally selected for use. As determined by western blotting, 2C9 McAb bound to N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB protein, which had bands of 28 kDa and 38.4 kDa. 1C8 McAb reacted with N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB-L protein, which had bands of 24 kDa and 34 kDa. 2C9 and 1C8 monoclonal antibodies did not bind to lysates of other amoebae, such as N. gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii and A. polyphaga in western blot analyses. Immuno-cytochemistry analysis detected NfCPB and NfCPB-L proteins in the cytoplasm of N. fowleri trophozoites, particularly in the pseudopodia and food-cup. These results suggest that monoclonal antibodies produced against rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins may be useful for further immunological study of PAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High resolution separations of charge variants and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates using ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, W Hampton; He, Yan; Mellors, J Scott; Batz, Nicholas G; Ramsey, J Michael; Jorgenson, James W

    2017-11-10

    Ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength has been applied to the separation of the charge variants, drug conjugates, and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies. Samples composed of many closely related species are difficult to resolve and quantify using traditional analytical instrumentation. High performance instrumentation can often save considerable time and effort otherwise spent on extensive method development. Ideally, the resolution obtained for a given CE buffer system scales with the square root of the applied voltage. Currently available commercial CE instrumentation is limited to an applied voltage of approximately 30kV and a maximum electric field strength of 1kV/cm due to design limitations. The instrumentation described here is capable of safely applying potentials of at least 120kV with electric field strengths over 2000V/cm, potentially doubling the resolution of the best conventional CE buffer/capillary systems while decreasing analysis time in some applications. Separations of these complex mixtures using this new instrumentation demonstrate the potential of ultra-high voltage CE to identify the presence of previously unresolved components and to reduce analysis time for complex mixtures of antibody variants and drug conjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A salt water battery with high stability and charging rates made from solution processed conjugated polymers with polar side chains

    KAUST Repository

    Moia, Davide

    2017-11-28

    We report a neutral salt water based battery which uses p-type and n-type solution processed polymer films as the cathode and the anode of the cell. The specific capacity of the electrodes (approximately 30 mAh cm-3) is achieved via formation of bipolarons in both the p-type and n-type polymers. By engineering ethylene glycol and zwitterion based side chains attached to the polymer backbone we facilitate rapid ion transport through the non-porous polymer films. This, combined with efficient transport of electronic charge via the conjugated polymer backbones, allowed the films to maintain constant capacity at high charge and discharge rates (>1000 C-rate). The electrodes also show good stability during electrochemical cycling (less than 30% decrease in capacity over >1000 cycles) and an output voltage up to 1.4 V. The performance of these semiconducting polymers with polar side-chains demonstrates the potential of this material class for fast-charging, water based electrochemical energy storage devices.

  18. Structure and rheological behavior of highly charged colloidal particles in a cylindrical pore I. Effect of pore size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Miguel A; Gámez-Corrales, Rogelio

    2003-11-01

    In this work we performed nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics (NEBD) computer simulations of highly charged colloidal particles in diluted suspension under a parabolic flow in cylindrical pores. The influence of charged and neutral cylindrical pores on the structure and rheology of suspensions is analyzed. A shear-induced disorder-order-disorder-like transition was monitored for low shear rates and small pore diameters. We calculate the concentration profiles, axial distribution functions, and axial-angular pair correlation functions to determine the structural properties at steady state for a constant shear flow for different pore sizes and flow strengths. Similar behavior has been observed in a planar narrow channel in the case of charged interacting colloidal particles (M.A. Valdez, O. Manero, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 190 (1997) 81). The mobility of the particles in the radial direction decreases rapidly with the flow and becomes practically frozen. The flow exhibits non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior due to interparticle interactions and particle-wall interaction; the apparent viscosity is lower as the pore diameter decreases, giving rise to an apparent slip in the colloidal suspension. The calculated slip velocity was higher than that obtained in a rectangular slit under shear flow.

  19. Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Irlbeck, Brad

    2006-01-01

    Although it looks like module level voltage drives the cutoff for charge, the actual cutoff is due to unbalanced cell voltages that drive the module voltage up. Individual cell voltage drives the cutoff for discharge Low resistance cells are the first to reach the low-voltage cutoff Cell-to-Cell voltage differences are generally small and show similar trends for each cycle Increase for a distinct window during charge and at the end of discharge Increase in max to min cell voltage difference with time/cycles Decrease in max to min cell voltage difference during high current pulses with time/cycles Individual cell voltage trends (with respect to other cells) are very repeatable from cycle to cycle, although voltage slowly degrades with time/cycles (resistance growth) Much more difference observed near end of discharge Little change in order of cell voltage (cell with highest voltage to cell with lowest voltage) Temp sensor on the side of cell (between 2 cells) shows much greater rise during discharge than for single cell tests (18 C vs 5 C) Conclusion: Serial Charging of this string of cells is feasible as it has only a minor impact on useful capacity

  20. High flux, positively charged loose nanofiltration membrane by blending with poly (ionic liquid) brushes grafted silica spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Liang [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Yatao, E-mail: zhangyatao@zzu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); UNESCO Center for Membrane Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang, Yuanming; Zhang, Haoqin [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Liu, Jindun, E-mail: liujindun@zzu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • SiO{sub 2} spheres were modified by poly (ionic liquid) brushes via RATRP. • Positively charged NF membranes were fabricated by incorporation of SiO{sub 2}-PIL. • The membranes exhibited higher rejection for dyes and superior penetration for salts. - Abstract: Silica spheres modified by poly (ionic liquid) brushes, a novel positively charged nanomaterial is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A high flux positively charged loose nanofiltration membrane is fabricated via “blending-phase inversion” method. The morphology structures, hydrophilicity, thermal and mechanical properties, permeation performance of these membranes are investigated in detail. The results reveal that the hybrid membranes have enhanced surface hydrophilicity, water permeability, thermal stability, and mechanical properties. Characterization of membrane separation properties shows that the hybrid membranes possess higher salt permeability and relatively higher rejection for reactive dyes, which may open opportunities for the recycling of reactive dyes wastewater. Moreover, such hybrid membranes have an outstanding operational stability and salts concentration showed little effect on the separation properties.

  1. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  2. Azimuthal asymmetries in production of charged hadrons by high energy muons on polarized deuterium targets

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Igor A.

    2010-01-01

    Search for azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged hadrons by 160 GeV muons on the longitudinally polarized deuterium target, has been performed using the 2002- 2004 COMPASS data. The observed asymmetries integrated over the kinematical variables do not depend on the azimuthal angle of produced hadrons and are consistent with the ratio $g_1^d(x)/f_1^d(x)$. The asymmetries are parameterized taking into account possible contributions from different parton distribution functions and parton fragmentation functions depending on the transverse spin of quarks.They can be modulated (either/or/and) with $\\sin(\\phi), \\sin(2\\phi), \\sin(3\\phi)$ and $\\cos(\\phi)$. The $x$-, $z$- and $p_h^T$-dependencies of these amplitudes are studied.

  3. Expression and mutational analysis of DinB-like protein DR0053 in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Deepti; Seo, Ho Seong; Jeong, Sunwook; Im, Sunghun; Joe, Minho; Song, Dusup; Choi, Jungjoon; Lim, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism governing radiation resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans, current efforts are aimed at identifying potential candidates from a large repertoire of unique Deinococcal genes and protein families. DR0053 belongs to the DinB/YfiT protein family, which is an over-represented protein family in D. radiodurans. We observed that dr0053 transcript levels were highly induced in response to gamma radiation (γ-radiation) and mitomycin C (MMC) exposure depending on PprI, RecA and the DrtR/S two-component signal transduction system. Protein profiles demonstrated that DR0053 is a highly induced protein in cultures exposed to 10 kGy γ-radiation. We were able to determine the transcriptional start site of dr0053, which was induced upon irradiation, and to assign the 133-bp promoter region of dr0053 as essential for radiation responsiveness through primer extension and promoter deletion analyses. A dr0053 mutant strain displayed sensitivity to γ-radiation and MMC exposure, but not hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that DR0053 helps cells recover from DNA damage. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that DR0053 is similar to the Bacillus subtilis protein YjoA, which is a substrate of bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases. Taken together, the DNA damage-inducible (din) gene dr0053 may be regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels.

  4. Expression and mutational analysis of DinB-like protein DR0053 in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Appukuttan

    Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism governing radiation resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans, current efforts are aimed at identifying potential candidates from a large repertoire of unique Deinococcal genes and protein families. DR0053 belongs to the DinB/YfiT protein family, which is an over-represented protein family in D. radiodurans. We observed that dr0053 transcript levels were highly induced in response to gamma radiation (γ-radiation and mitomycin C (MMC exposure depending on PprI, RecA and the DrtR/S two-component signal transduction system. Protein profiles demonstrated that DR0053 is a highly induced protein in cultures exposed to 10 kGy γ-radiation. We were able to determine the transcriptional start site of dr0053, which was induced upon irradiation, and to assign the 133-bp promoter region of dr0053 as essential for radiation responsiveness through primer extension and promoter deletion analyses. A dr0053 mutant strain displayed sensitivity to γ-radiation and MMC exposure, but not hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that DR0053 helps cells recover from DNA damage. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that DR0053 is similar to the Bacillus subtilis protein YjoA, which is a substrate of bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases. Taken together, the DNA damage-inducible (din gene dr0053 may be regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels.

  5. Design of a charge pump for high voltage driver applications based on 0.35 μm BCD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tiezhu; Zhang, Yuning; Ji, Rendong

    2017-07-01

    Based on the switched capacitor system theory, a new charge pump is designed as the driver of the H-bridge power circuits. The proposed circuit is added with the output feedback control module to realize the steady output, lower the ripple and power noise, and improve the transforming efficiency. Simulation based on 0.35 μm BCD350GE process demonstrates that the circuit has a ripple voltage as low as 200 mV and reaches a high efficiency up to 70% with a load as much as 20 mA when the supply voltage changes from 8 V to 36 V.

  6. Quightness: A proposed figure of merit for sources of low-energy, high-charge-state ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (US))

    1990-03-01

    A variety of ion sources, including the EBIS and ECRIS, are distinguished by their ability to produce low-energy ions of very high charge state. It would be useful to have some figure of merit that is particularly sensitive to this performance. I propose here such a quantity, called Quightness,'' which is related to brightness but which enhances the contrast between sources supplying multicharged ions of low energy. The rationale for introducing this quantity, its etymology and relationship to other figures of merit, and some representative values are presented.

  7. Polyoxometalates as artificial nucleases: hydrolytic cleavage of DNA promoted by a highly negatively charged Zr(IV)-substituted Keggin polyanion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T K N; Govaerts, I; Robben, J; Shestakova, P; Parac-Vogt, T N

    2017-01-03

    A highly negatively charged binuclear Zr(IV)-substituted Keggin polyoxometalate [{α-PW11O39Zr(μ-OH)(H2O)}2](8-) (ZrK 2 : 2) has been shown to promote the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphoester bonds in the supercoiled plasmid pUC19 DNA under physiological pH and temperature, giving relaxed and linear forms of pUC19 as hydrolysis products. The interaction between ZrK 2 : 2 and DNA was experimentally proven by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and (31)P diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy.

  8. A vacuum double-crystal spectrometer for reference-free highly charged ions X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro, P; Schlesser, S; Gumberidze, Alexandre; Kessler, Ernest G; Henins, Albert; Bigot, E -O Le; Trassinelli, M; Isac, Jean-Michel; Travers, Pascal; Guerra, Mauro; Santos, J P; Indelicato, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We have built a vacuum double crystal spectrometer, which coupled to an electron-cyclotron resonance ion source, allows to measure low-energy x-ray transitions in highly-charged ions with accuracies of the order of a few parts per million. We describe in detail the instrument and its performances. Furthermore, we present a few spectra of transitions in Ar$^{14+}$, Ar$^{15+}$ and Ar$^{16+}$. We have developed an \\emph{ab initio} simulation code that allows us to obtain accurate line profiles. It can reproduce experimental spectra with unprecedented accuracy. The quality of the profiles allows the direct determination of line width.

  9. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  10. Optimization of tetravalent manganese feroxyhyte's negative charge density: A high-performing mercury adsorbent from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, E; Simeonidis, K; Pinakidou, F; Katsikini, M; Mitrakas, M

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates an optimization procedure for the development of an Hg-specified adsorbent able to comply with the regulation limit for drinking water of 1μg/L. On this purpose, the synthesis of Mn(IV)-feroxyhyte was modified to achieve high negative charge density by combining alkaline and extreme oxidizing conditions. In particular, precipitation of FeSO4 at pH9 and excess of KMnO4 follows a very fast nucleation step providing a product with very small nanocrystal size (1-2nm), high specific surface area (300m(2)/g) and maximum negative charge density (1.8mmol H(+)/g). The adsorbent was validated for Hg removal in batch experiments and column tests using natural-like water indicating an adsorption capacity as high as 2.5μg/mg at equilibrium concentration 1μg/L under reliable conditions of application. Importantly, the adsorption is an exothermic spontaneous process, resulting in the formation of inner sphere complexes by sharing both A-type and B-type oxygen atoms with the metal surface octahedral as revealed by the X-ray absorption fine structure results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High resolution interferometry as a tool for characterization of swelling of weakly charged hydrogels subjected to amphiphile and cyclodextrin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Gawel, Kamila; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2013-01-15

    A high resolution interferometric technique was used to determine swelling behavior of weakly charged polyacrylamide hydrogels in the presence of oppositely charged surfactants and subsequent exposure to cyclodextrins. Hydrogels of copolymerized acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (0.22, 0.44, 0.88 mol%) crosslinked with bisacrylamide (3, 6, 12 mol%) were employed. The equilibrium swelling and swelling kinetics of the hydrogels were determined with 2nm resolution of the optical length and sampled at approximately 1 Hz. These properties were determined for the hydrogels exposed to cationic surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at concentrations from 10(-7) up to 2×10(-3)M. The distribution of surfactant within one AAM-co-AMPSA hydrogel equilibrated in CTAB/perylene solution was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Hydrogels equilibrated at selected surfactant concentrations were subsequently exposed to cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD, methyl-β-CD and γ-CD) forming inclusion complexes with the surfactants. The results show different types of behavior for the two surfactants used, arising from the difference in the length of surfactant hydrophobic tail. The changes in the surfactant induced swelling of the hydrogels are suggested to arise from the net effect of electrostatic screening of sulfonic acid-amide group interactions and surfactant micellization. Hydrogels with the largest charge density and the lowest crosslink density yielded the most pronounced changes in swelling properties on exposure to DTAB or CTAB. The hydrogels displayed swelling kinetics on stepwise changes in surfactant concentrations that depended on the surfactant concentration range. The high resolution monitoring of hydrogel swelling associated with supramolecular complex formation in three-component systems hydrogel-amphiphilic molecule-cyclodextrin provides more details on the swelling behavior than

  12. A pulse-width modulated, high reliability charge controller for small photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, K. [Morningstar Corp., Olney, MD (United States); Welsh, D. [Morningstar Corp., Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of a development effort to design, test and begin production of a new class of small photovoltaic (PV) charge controllers. Sandia National Laboratories provided technical support, test data and financial support through a Balance-of-System Development contract. One of the objectives of the development was to increase user confidence in small PV systems by improving the reliability and operating life of the system controllers. Another equally important objective was to improve the economics of small PV systems by extending the battery lifetimes. Using new technology and advanced manufacturing techniques, these objectives were accomplished. Because small stand-alone PV systems account for over one third of all PV modules shipped, the positive impact of improving the reliability and economics of PV systems in this market segment will be felt throughout the industry. The results of verification testing of the new product are also included in this report. The initial design goals and specifications were very aggressive, but the extensive testing demonstrates that all the goals were achieved. Production of the product started in May at a rate of 2,000 units per month. Over 40 Morningstar distributors (5 US and 35 overseas) have taken delivery in the first 2 months of shipments. Initial customer reactions to the new controller have been very favorable.

  13. An automated, high-throughput experimental system for induced charge electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Andrew J; Squires, Todd M

    2010-09-21

    Recent experiments in induced charge electrokinetics (ICEK) have shown that the standard theory generally overpredicts experimentally observed velocities. Such discrepancies reduce the efficacy of practical ICEK devices, and highlight our incomplete understanding of electrokinetic phenomena. Here, we present an automated experimental system that allows for the rapid collection of ICEK data under a variety of conditions ( approximately 1000 per day) to help develop and constrain new theories. We demonstrate this system by studying the ICEK slip flows over electrodes that have been controllably "contaminated" with a dielectric layer, either SiO(2) or an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, of known thickness. We also develop a theory that accounts for the effects of the dielectric coatings surface chemistry that yields quantitative agreement with experiments over nearly a thousand distinct conditions in the SiO(2) system and present an additional three thousand experiments of flows over alkanethiol monolayers. Our experimental system allows the direct interrogation of the physico-chemical effects that influence ICEK flows and for the optimization of these flows in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  14. Azimuthal asymmetries of charged hadrons produced in high-energy muon scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anfimov, N V; Anosov, V; Augsten, K; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, M; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bodlak, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Chang, W-C; Chatterjee, C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S-U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Dreisbach, Ch; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giarra, J; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; Hamar, G; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Heitz, R; Herrmann, F; Horikawa, N; d’Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jorg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O M; Kramer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kulinich, Y; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lian, Y-S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G V; Meyer, M; Meyer, W; Mikhailov, Yu V; Mikhasenko, M; Mitrofanov, E; Mitrofanov, N; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Novy, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Pierre, N; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Roskot, M; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rybnikov, A; Rychter, A; Salac, R; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sawada, T; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Seder, E; Selyunin, A; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Smolik, J; Srnka, A; Steffen, D; Stolarski, M; Subrt, O; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tasevsky, M; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Thiel, A; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wallner, S; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavada, P; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2016-01-01

    Single hadron azimuthal asymmetries in the cross sections of positive and negative hadron production in muon semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons are determined using the 2006 COMPASS data and also all deuteron COMPASS data. For each hadron charge, the dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry on the hadron azimuthal angle $\\phi$ is obtained by means of a five-parameter fitting function that besides a $\\phi$-independent term includes four modulations predicted by theory: $\\sin\\phi$, $\\sin 2 \\phi$, $\\sin 3\\phi$ and $\\cos\\phi$. The amplitudes of the five terms have been first extracted for the data integrated over all kinematic variables. In further fits, the $\\phi$-dependence is determined as a function of one of three kinematic variables (Bjorken-$x$, fractional energy of virtual photon taken by the outgoing hadron and hadron transverse momentum), while disregarding the other two. Except the $\\phi$-independent term, all the modulation amplitudes are very small, and no cl...

  15. Multichannel FPGA based MVT system for high precision time (20 ps RMS) and charge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałka, M.; Strzempek, P.; Korcyl, G.; Bednarski, T.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dulski, K.; Gajos, A.; Głowacz, B.; Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B.; Kamińska, D.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Mohhamed, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Zieliński, M.; Zgardzińska, B.; Moskal, P.

    2017-08-01

    In this article it is presented an FPGA based Multi-Voltage Threshold (MVT) system which allows of sampling fast signals (1-2 ns rising and falling edge) in both voltage and time domain. It is possible to achieve a precision of time measurement of 20 ps RMS and reconstruct charge of signals, using a simple approach, with deviation from real value smaller than 10%. Utilization of the differential inputs of an FPGA chip as comparators together with an implementation of a TDC inside an FPGA allowed us to achieve a compact multi-channel system characterized by low power consumption and low production costs. This paper describes realization and functioning of the system comprising 192-channel TDC board and a four mezzanine cards which split incoming signals and discriminate them. The boards have been used to validate a newly developed Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography system based on plastic scintillators. The achieved full system time resolution of σ(TOF) ≈ 68 ps is by factor of two better with respect to the current TOF-PET systems.

  16. Wake-field and space charge effects on high brightness beams calculations and measured results for the laser driven photoelectrons at BNL-ATF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Z.

    1993-05-01

    We discuss the formalism used to study the effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, including space charge and wake fields. Some of our calculations and numerical simulation results obtained for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) high-brightness photoelectron beam at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and the measured data at ATF are also included.

  17. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  18. High Charge PHIN Photo Injector at CERN with Fast Phase switching within the Bunch Train for Beam Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Csatari Divall, M; Bolzon, B; Bravin, E; Chevallay, E; Dabrowski, A; Doebert, S; Drozdy, A; Fedosseev, V; Hessler, C; Lefevre, T; Livesley, S; Losito, R; Olvegaard, M; Petrarca, M; Rabiller, A N; Egger, D; Mete, O

    2011-01-01

    The high charge PHIN photo-injector was developed within the framework of the European CARE program to provide an alternative to the drive beam thermionic gun in the CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility) at CERN. In PHIN 1908 electron bunches are delivered with bunch spacing of 1.5 GHz and 2.33 nC charge per bunch. Furthermore the drive beam generated by CTF3 requires several fast 180 deg phase-shifts with respect to the 1.5 GHz bunch repetition frequency in order to allow the beam combination scheme developed at CTF3. A total of 8 subtrains, each 140 ns long and shifted in phase with respect to each other, have to be produced with very high phase and amplitude stability. A novel fiber modulator based phase-switching technique developed on the laser system provides this phase-shift between two consecutive pulses much faster and cleaner than the base line scheme, where a thermionic electron gun and sub-harmonic bunching are used. The paper describes the fiber-based switching system and the measurements verifying the schem...

  19. Coulomb crystals in a cryogenic Paul trap for sympathetic cooling of molecular ions and highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windberger, A.; Schwarz, M.; Versolato, O. O.; Baumann, T.; Bekker, H.; Schmöger, L.; Hansen, A. K.; Gingell, A. D.; Klosowski, L.; Kristensen, S.; Schmidt, P. O.; Ullrich, J.; Drewsen, M.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Electron beam ion traps used for spectroscopy of highly charged ions (HCI) produce a deep trapping potential leading to high temperatures of the stored ions, and thus limiting the achievable spectral resolution. A novel device at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, the Cryogenic linear Paul Trap Experiment (CryPTEx), attached to an electron beam ion trap, provides a new experimental platform to overcome these limitations. The trap assembly operates at a temperature of 4 K and offers optical access for quantum manipulation and imaging of the trapped ions. Since forbidden optical transitions in HCI do not support direct laser cooling, sympathetic cooling with Coulomb crystals of singly charged ions such as Be+ or Mg+ will be applied in order to reach the natural linewidth of optical forbidden transitions in HCI of interest. With the added advantage of long ion trapping times resulting from residual gas pressures of H2 at 4 K below 10-15 mbar, CryPTEx has been commissioned in collaboration with the Ion Trap Group in Århus using rovibrationally cooled MgH+ ions. Strong suppression of the black body radiation at the trap center, ion storage times of about 28 hours, and largely enhanced population of the rovibrational ground state were achieved.

  20. A new instrument to measure charged and neutral cometary dust particles at low and high impact velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economon, T.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    A new class of dust particle detector, the PVDF dust detector, was designed for space missions such as the Halley Comet missions where the particle impact velocity is very high. It is demonstrated that this same PVDF detector (operating in a different mode) also has the capability of detecting dust particles having low velocity (approx. 100 m/s). This low velocity detection capability is extremely important in terms of planned missions requiring measurement of low velocity dust particles such as comet rendezvous missions. An additional detecting element (charge induction cylinder) was also developed which, when combined with a PVDF detector, yields a system which will measure the charge (magnitude and sign) carried by a cometary particle as well as the particle velocity and mass for impact velocities in the range 100 to 500 m/s. Since the cylinder-PVDF detector system has a relatively small geometry factors, an array of PVDF detectors was included having a total sensing area of 0.1 sq m for measurements in regions of space where the dust flux is expected to be low. The characteristics of the detectors in this array have been chosen to provide optimum mass sensitivity for both low-velocity cometary dust as well as high-velocity asteroid associated and interplanetary dust.

  1. Shaping of nested potentials for electron cooling of highly-charged ions in a cooler Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Stefan; Kootte, Brian; Lascar, Daniel; Gwinner, Gerald; Dilling, Jens; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN) is dedicated to mass spectrometry and decay spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive nuclides in a series of ion traps including a precision Penning trap. In order to boost the achievable precision of mass measurements TITAN deploys an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) providing Highly-Charged Ions (HCI). However, the charge breeding process in the EBIT leads to an increase in the ion bunch's energy spread which is detrimental to the overall precision gain. To reduce this effect a new cylindrical Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) is being commissioned to sympathetically cool the HCI via a simultaneously trapped electron plasma. Simultaneous trapping of ions and electrons requires a high level of control over the nested potential landscape and sophisticated switching schemes for the voltages on CPET's multiple ring electrodes. For this purpose, we are currently setting up a new experimental control system for multi-channel voltage switching. The control system employs a Raspberry Pi communicating with a digital-to-analog board via a serial peripheral interface. We report on the implementation of the voltage control system and its performance with respect to electron and ion manipulation in CPET. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

  2. Incorporating Charging/Discharging Strategy of Electric Vehicles into Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow to Support High Renewable Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsung An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve the operational efficiency and security of electric power systems at high renewable penetration by exploiting the envisioned controllability or flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs; EVs interact with the grid through grid-to-vehicle (G2V and vehicle-to-grid (V2G services to ensure reliable and cost-effective grid operation. This research provides a computational framework for this decision-making process. Charging and discharging strategies of EV aggregators are incorporated into a security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF problem such that overall energy cost is minimized and operation within acceptable reliability criteria is ensured. Particularly, this SCOPF problem has been formulated for Jeju Island in South Korea, in order to lower carbon emissions toward a zero-carbon island by, for example, integrating large-scale renewable energy and EVs. On top of conventional constraints on the generators and line flows, a unique constraint on the system inertia constant, interpreted as the minimum synchronous generation, is considered to ensure grid security at high renewable penetration. The available energy constraint of the participating EV associated with the state-of-charge (SOC of the battery and market price-responsive behavior of the EV aggregators are also explored. Case studies for the Jeju electric power system in 2030 under various operational scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and improved operational flexibility via controllable EVs.

  3. High performance organic integrated device with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent properties consisting of a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Xu; Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2014-08-11

    A high performance organic integrated device (OID) with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative of 6-(3,5-bis-[9-(4-t-butylphenyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-phenoxy)-2- (4-t-butylphenyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (CzPhONI) as the active layer. The results showed that the OID had a high detectivity of 1.5 × 10{sup 11} Jones at −3 V under the UV-350 nm illumination with an intensity of 0.6 mW/cm{sup 2}, and yielded an exciplex EL light emission with a maximum brightness of 1437 cd/m{sup 2}. Based on the energy band diagram, both the charge transfer feature of CzPhONI and matched energy level alignment were responsible for the dual ultraviolet photodetective and EL functions of OID.

  4. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  5. High-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation by MALDI TOF/TOF Causes Charge-Remote Fragmentation of Steroid Sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuetian; Ubukata, Masaaki; Cody, Robert B.; Holy, Timothy E.; Gross, Michael L.

    2014-08-01

    A method for structural elucidation of biomolecules dating to the 1980s utilized high-energy collisions (~10 keV, laboratory frame) that induced charge-remote fragmentations (CRF), a class of fragmentations particularly informative for lipids, steroids, surfactants, and peptides. Unfortunately, the capability for high-energy activation has largely disappeared with the demise of magnetic sector instruments. With the latest designs of tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF/TOF), however, this capability is now being restored to coincide with the renewed interest in metabolites and lipids, including steroid-sulfates and other steroid metabolites. For these metabolites, structure determinations are required at concentration levels below that appropriate for NMR. To meet this need, we explored CRF with TOF/TOF mass spectrometry for two groups of steroid sulfates, 3-sulfates and 21-sulfates. We demonstrated that the current generation of MALDI TOF/TOF instruments can generate charge-remote fragmentations for these materials. The resulting collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra are useful for positional isomer differentiation and very often allow the complete structure determination of the steroid. We also propose a new nomenclature that directly indicates the cleavage sites on the steroid ring with carbon numbers.

  6. High resolution spectral signatures of X-ray emission following charge exchange recombination between highly charged iron and neutral helium, molecular hydrogen and molecular nitrogen: A comparison between theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Cumbee, Renata; Gu, Liyi; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2017-08-01

    We have used the LLNL electron beam ion trap EBIT-I and a NASA/GSFC quantum microcalorimeter to measure the X-ray emission following charge exchange recombination between highly charged Fe25+ and Fe 26+ and neutral helium, molecular hydrogen, and molecular nitrogen. The ~ 5 eV energy resolution of the microcalorimeter has made it possible to measure and resolve n to 1 K-shell transitions from up to n = 14. We compare the measurements to a model based on the Landau-Zener theory and also the models found in SPEX and APEC. Our results include relative intensities of the 1P1 resonance line to the 3S1 forbidden line, commonly referred to as lines w and z. These results are especially useful for interpreting spectra from celestial sources measured with XARM's Resolve and ATHENA's X-IFU. These data have also proved useful in the interpretation of Hitomi's SXS spectrum of the Perseus cluster.Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Symmetry-Breaking Charge Transfer in a Zinc Chlorodipyrrin Acceptor for High Open Circuit Voltage Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Bartynski, Andrew N.

    2015-04-29

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Low open-circuit voltages significantly limit the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Typical strategies to enhance the open-circuit voltage involve tuning the HOMO and LUMO positions of the donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively, to increase the interfacial energy gap or to tailor the donor or acceptor structure at the D/A interface. Here, we present an alternative approach to improve the open-circuit voltage through the use of a zinc chlorodipyrrin, ZCl [bis(dodecachloro-5-mesityldipyrrinato)zinc], as an acceptor, which undergoes symmetry-breaking charge transfer (CT) at the donor/acceptor interface. DBP/ZCl cells exhibit open-circuit voltages of 1.33 V compared to 0.88 V for analogous tetraphenyldibenzoperyflanthrene (DBP)/C60-based devices. Charge transfer state energies measured by Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and electroluminescence show that C60 forms a CT state of 1.45 ± 0.05 eV in a DBP/C60-based organic photovoltaic device, while ZCl as acceptor gives a CT state energy of 1.70 ± 0.05 eV in the corresponding device structure. In the ZCl device this results in an energetic loss between ECT and qVOC of 0.37 eV, substantially less than the 0.6 eV typically observed for organic systems and equal to the recombination losses seen in high-efficiency Si and GaAs devices. The substantial increase in open-circuit voltage and reduction in recombination losses for devices utilizing ZCl demonstrate the great promise of symmetry-breaking charge transfer in organic photovoltaic devices.

  8. High-potential perfluorinated phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads for generation of high-energy charge-separated states: formation and photoinduced electron-transfer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushanta K; Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-08-25

    High oxidation potential perfluorinated zinc phthalocyanines (ZnF(n)Pcs) are synthesised and their spectroscopic, redox, and light-induced electron-transfer properties investigated systematically by forming donor-acceptor dyads through metal-ligand axial coordination of fullerene (C60) derivatives. Absorption and fluorescence spectral studies reveal efficient binding of the pyridine- (Py) and phenylimidazole-functionalised fullerene (C60Im) derivatives to the zinc centre of the F(n)Pcs. The determined binding constants, K, in o-dichlorobenzene for the 1:1 complexes are in the order of 10(4) to 10(5) M(-1); nearly an order of magnitude higher than that observed for the dyad formed from zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) lacking fluorine substituents. The geometry and electronic structure of the dyads are determined by using the B3LYP/6-31G* method. The HOMO and LUMO levels are located on the Pc and C60 entities, respectively; this suggests the formation of ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Im(.-) and ZnF(n)Pc(.+)-C60Py(.-) (n=0, 8 or 16) intra-supramolecular charge-separated states during electron transfer. Electrochemical studies on the ZnPc-C60 dyads enable accurate determination of their oxidation and reduction potentials and the energy of the charge-separated states. The energy of the charge-separated state for dyads composed of ZnF(n)Pc is higher than that of normal ZnPc-C60 dyads and reveals their significance in harvesting higher amounts of light energy. Evidence for charge separation in the dyads is secured from femtosecond transient absorption studies in nonpolar toluene. Kinetic evaluation of the cation and anion radical ion peaks reveals ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination in dyads composed of perfluorinated phthalocyanine and fullerene; this implies their significance in solar-energy harvesting and optoelectronic device building applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enabling high-mobility, ambipolar charge-transport in a DPP-benzotriazole copolymer by side-chain engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias; Jung, Seok-Heon; Schott, Sam

    2015-01-01

    side-chain on the DPP-unit leads to an increase in thin-film order and charge-carrier mobility if a sufficiently solubilizing, branched, side chain is attached to the BTZ. We compare two different synthetic routes, direct arylation and Suzuki-polycondensation, by a direct comparison of polymers...... exceptionally high and near balanced average electron and hole mobilities >2 cm2 V-1 s-1 which are among the highest, robustly extracted mobility values reported for DPP copolymers in a top-gate configuration to date. Our results demonstrate clearly that linear side chain substitution of the DPP unit together...... with co-monomers that allow for the use of sufficiently long or branched solubilizing side chains can be an attractive design motif for solution processable, high mobility DPP copolymers....

  10. Charge and Discharge Analyses of a PCM Storage System Integrated in a High-Temperature Solar Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Giovannelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar Dish Micro Gas Turbine (MGT systems have the potential to become interesting small-scale power plants in off-grid or mini-grid contexts for electricity or poly-generation production. The main challenging component of such systems is the solar receiver which should operate at high temperatures with concentrated solar radiations, which strongly vary with time. This paper deals with the design and the analysis of a novel solar receiver integrated with a short-term storage system based on Phase Change Materials to prevent sudden variations in the maximum temperature of the MGT working fluid. Particularly, the charge and discharge behavior of the storage system was analyzed by means of Computational Fluid Dynamic methods to evaluate the potentiality of the concept and the component capabilities. Achieved results were highly satisfactory: the novel solar receiver has a good thermal inertia and can prevent relevant fluctuations in the working fluid temperature for 20–30 min.

  11. Benchmarking charge exchange theory in the dawning era of space-born high-resolution X-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele

    2017-08-01

    Charge Exchange (CX) is a process in which a highly charged ion captures one or more electrons from a neutral atom or molecule into an excited state during a close interaction. The electron's subsequent radiative cascade to the ground state produces diagnostic line emission in the X-ray band. CX with solar wind ions occurs frequently in the solar system, and CX may also occur astrophysically. In order to properly identify CX in astrophysical spectra and make use of its diagnostic properties, we must be able to model the emission. Theoretical treatments of CX are often computationally expensive, experimental benchmarks at high resolution are fairly scarce, and there is often poor agreement between the two. This dissertation seeks to build a better understanding of the mechanics and spectral signatures of CX through high-resolution experimental data paired with theoretical calculations of CX. Chapter 1 outlines the necessary ingredients for modeling and identifying CX spectra, describes several astrophysical environments in which CX has been observed or postulated to occur, and presents some of the challenges we are facing in identifying and understanding this emission. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical and computational tools used in this work. Chapter 3 discusses the experimental tools and facilities we use, namely an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and an X-ray microcalorimeter. Chapter 4 presents experimental K-shell data that highlights both the subtle nature of the CX interaction and the difficulty in including those nuances in spectral synthesis codes. Chapter 5 presents the first high-resolution L-shell CX spectra of Ne-like Ni and describes what we can learn from these results. In Chapter 6, we take these data a step further and present a pipeline to calculate relative state-selective capture cross sections, previously only available from theoretical modeling. We then compare some of our results to theory. In Chapter 7, we discuss several future steps for

  12. Study on high breakdown voltage GaN-based vertical field effect transistor with interfacial charge engineering for power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Dong; Liu, Yong; Bai, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Zhiguang; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    A high voltage GaN-based vertical field effect transistor with interfacial charge engineering (GaN ICE-VFET) is proposed and its breakdown mechanism is presented. This vertical FET features oxide trenches which show a fixed negative charge at the oxide/GaN interface. In the off-state, firstly, the trench oxide layer acts as a field plate; secondly, the n-GaN buffer layer is inverted along the oxide/GaN interface and thus a vertical hole layer is formed, which acts as a virtual p-pillar and laterally depletes the n-buffer pillar. Both of them modulate electric field distribution in the device and significantly increase the breakdown voltage (BV). Compared with a conventional GaN vertical FET, the BV of GaN ICE-VFET is increased from 1148 V to 4153 V with the same buffer thickness of 20 μm. Furthermore, the proposed device achieves a great improvement in the tradeoff between BV and on-resistance; and its figure of merit even exceeds the GaN one-dimensional limit.

  13. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  14. Charge collection performance of a segmented planar high-purity germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: R.Cooper@liverpool.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston PR2 9HT (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    High-precision scans of a segmented planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector have been performed with a range of finely collimated gamma ray beams allowing the response as a function of gamma ray interaction position to be quantified. This has allowed the development of parametric pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in performance. In this paper we report on the performance of this detector, designed for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) development system.

  15. High-Surface-Area Porous Platinum Electrodes for Enhanced Charge Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Yelin; Yella Aswani; Guldin Stefan; Schreier Marcel; Stellacci Francesco; Grätzel Michael; Stefik Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt based electrolytes are highly tunable and have pushed the limits of dye sensitized solar cells enabling higher open circuit voltages and new record effi ciencies. However the performance of these electrolytes and a range of other electrolytes suffer from slow electron transfer at platinum counter electrodes. High surface area platinum would enhance catalysis but pure platinum structures are too expensive in practice. Here a material effi cient host guest architecture is developed that ...

  16. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2013-03-26

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration gradients within the cell, leading to high internal resistances that ultimately limit cell lifetime, charging rates, and energy density. Herein, we report on the synthesis and electrochemical features of electrolytes based on nanoparticle salts designed to provide high tLi+. The salts are created by cofunctionalization of metal oxide nanoparticles with neutral organic ligands and tethered lithium salts. When dispersed in a conducting fluid such as tetraglyme, they spontaneously form a charged, nanoporous network of particles at moderate nanoparticle loadings. Modification of the tethered anion chemistry from -SO3 - to -SO3BF3 - is shown to enhance ionic conductivity of the electrolytes by facilitating ion pair dissociation. At a particle volume fraction of 0.15, the electrolyte exists as a self-supported, nanoporous gel with an optimum ionic conductivity of 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature. Galvanostatic polarization measurements on symmetric lithium metal cells containing the electrolyte show that the cell short circuit time, tSC, is inversely proportional to the square of the applied current density tSC ∼ J-2, consistent with previously predicted results for traditional polymer-in-salt electrolytes with low tLi+. Our findings suggest that electrolytes with tLi+ ≈ 1 and good ion-pair dissociation delay lithium dendrite nucleation and may lead to improved lithium plating in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Measurements of the Total Charge-Changing Cross Sections for Collisions of Fast Ions with Target Gas Using High Current Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Molvik, Arthur W.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shnidman, Ariel; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2009-04-13

    The sum of ionization and charge-exchange cross sections of several gas targets (H2, N2, He, Ne, Kr, Xe, Ar, and water vapor) impacted by 1MeV K+ beam are measured. In a high current ion beam, the self-electric field of the beam is high enough that ions produced from the gas ionization or charge exchange by the ion beam are quickly swept to the sides of accelerator. The flux of the expelled ions is measured by a retarding field analyzer. This allows accurate measuring of the total charge-changing cross sections (ionization plus charge exchange) of the beam interaction with gas. Cross sections for H2, He, and N2 are simulated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement.

  19. Ion-pair dissociation of highly excited carbon clusters: Size and charge effects

    OpenAIRE

    Launoy, Thibaut; Béroff, Karine; Chabot, Marin; Martinet, Guillaume; Le Padellec, A.; Pino, Thomas; Bouneau, S.; Vaeck, Nathalie; Liévin, Jacques; Féraud, Géraldine G.; Loreau, Jérôme; Mahajan, Thejus T. M

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of ion-pair dissociation (IPD) of highly excited neutral and ionized carbon clusters Cn=2-5(q=0-3)+. The tool for producing these species was a high-velocity collision between Cn+ projectiles (v=2.25 a.u.) and helium atoms. The setup allowed us to detect in coincidence anionic and cationic fragments, event by event, leading to a direct and unambiguous identification of the IPD process. Compared with dissociation without anion emission, we found typical 10-4 IPD rates, ...

  20. Bidirectional Flyback Converter with Multiple Series Connected Outputs for High Voltage Capacitive Charge and Discharge Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    V) in series with a high voltage blocking diode is added, in parallel with a high voltage freewheeling diode of a conventional flyback topology, to enable bidirectional operation. Experimental result from a digitally controlled bidirectional flyback converter shows that the discharge energy efficiency...... by lower voltage rating MOSFETs driven by a gate drive transformer. Simulation results to compare the operation of conventional and proposed converters are provided. The advantages of proposed implementation are improved energy efficiency and lower cost. Experimental results with two series connected...

  1. Optical conductivity and optical effective mass in a high-mobility organic semiconductor: Implications for the nature of charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuan

    2014-12-03

    We present a multiscale modeling of the infrared optical properties of the rubrene crystal. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data that point to nonmonotonic features in the optical conductivity spectrum and small optical effective masses. We find that, in the static-disorder approximation, the nonlocal electron-phonon interactions stemming from low-frequency lattice vibrations can decrease the optical effective masses and lead to lighter quasiparticles. On the other hand, the charge-transport and infrared optical properties of the rubrene crystal at room temperature are demonstrated to be governed by localized carriers driven by inherent thermal disorders. Our findings underline that the presence of apparently light carriers in high-mobility organic semiconductors does not necessarily imply bandlike transport.

  2. Magnetic dipole self-organization of charge carriers in high-temperature superconductors and kinetics of phase transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, A V; Shuvalov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenological model, describing the magnetic dipole self-organization of charge carriers (formation of so-called stripe-structures and energy gap in the states spectrum), is designed for interpreting the data on the nonstationary nonlinear spectroscopy of the high-temperature superconductors. It is shown that after fast heating of the superconducting sample the kinetics of the subsequent phase transition depends on the initial temperature T. The destruction of the stripe-structures at low overheating T* < T < T sub m approx = (1.4-1.5)T*, whereby T sub c and T* approx = T sub c are the temperatures of transition into the superconducting state and formation of the stripe-structures occurs slowly (the times above 10 sup - sup 9 s) in spite of practically instantaneous disappearance of the superconductivity

  3. Charge collection efficiency characterization of a HgI 2 Frisch collar spectrometer with collimated high energy gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, A.; Ariesanti, E.; James, S.; McGregor, D. S.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a 2.1×2.1×4.1 mm 3 HgI 2 Frisch collar device was characterized through probing the device with a highly collimated 662 keV gamma rays ( 137Cs check source) along the length and width of the device. In a systematic series of experiments, the detector was probed along its central line under different operating voltages of 1600, 1300, 1000, 800, 600 and 500 V. The experimental results were confirmed through a simulation of the charge collection for a device with the same size and operating conditions. It is shown that the HgI 2 Frisch collar device has a uniform response to gamma rays over two-thirds of the detector volume. The HgI 2 crystals and the Frisch collar detectors were grown and fabricated within the S.M.A.R.T Laboratory at Kansas State University.

  4. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  5. High charge carrier density at the NaTaO3/SrTiO3 hetero-interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-08-05

    The formation of a (quasi) two-dimensional electron gas between the band insulators NaTaO3 and SrTiO3 is studied by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method of density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions points to only small changes in the chemical bonding at the interface. Both the p-type (NaO)−/(TiO2)0 and n-type (TaO2)+/(SrO)0 interfaces are found to be metallic with high charge carrier densities. The effects of O vacancies are discussed. Spin-polarized calculations point to the formation of isolated O 2pmagnetic moments, located in the metallic region of the p-type interface.

  6. EUV spectral lines of highly-charged Hf, Ta and Au ions observed with an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draganic, Ilija N; Ralchenko, Yuri; Reader, Joseph; Gillaspy, J D; Tan, Joseph N; Pomeroy, Joshua M; Brewer, Samuel M; Osin, Dmitry, E-mail: yuri.ralchenko@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)

    2011-01-28

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged hafnium, tantalum and gold were produced with an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and recorded with a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range 4-20 nm. The beam energy was varied between 1.84 and 5.15 keV to selectively enhance spectra from specific ionization stages. Identifications of strong n = 4-n = 4 transitions from Rb-like hafnium (35+) to Co-like gold (52+) were determined with the aid of collisional-radiative modelling of the EBIT plasma. Good quantitative agreement between simulated and measured spectra was achieved. Over 150 spectral lines were identified, 115 of which are new.

  7. Effect of collective response on electron capture and excitation in collisions of highly charged ions with fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C

    2003-03-07

    Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions.

  8. Highly compact and accurate circuit-level macro modeling of gate-all-around charge-trap flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyun; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Young-Goan; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a highly reliable circuit model of gate-all-around (GAA) charge-trap flash (CTF) memory cell is proposed, considering the transient behaviors for describing the program operations with improved accuracy. Although several compact models have been reported in the previous literature, time-dependent behaviors have not been precisely reflected and the failures tend to get worse as the operation time elapses. Furthermore, the developed SPICE models in this work have been verified by the measurement results of the fabricated flash memory cells having silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS). This more realistic model would be beneficial in designing the system architectures and setting up the operation schemes for the leading three-dimensional (3D) stack CTF memory.

  9. Optimization of the cycle life performance of VRLA batteries, working under high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSOC) conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.

    On hybrid vehicle applications, batteries must work in a rather low state of charge (SOC), in order to be able to recover as much of the regenerative braking energy as possible. Usually SOC values around 60% are used, which promotes the development of new unexpected failure modes not previously found, mainly associated with heavy sulphation of the negative plates. In order to try to optimise the cycle life performance to the point of making these batteries a real alternative for the application of hybrid vehicles, a series of tests have been undertaken, aimed to optimise the key parameters that from previous experience are known to determine life duration in high rate low state of charge (HRPSOC) conditions. Previous works have been focused on trying to determine the optimum composition of positive and negative active material, concerning paste density in the positive, and additives in negative. In order to overcome the deleterious effect of heavy sulphation in negative plates on cycle life, the use of conductivity enhancers additives such as graphite has been proposed. The objective of this project is to optimize the performance of the glass microfiber separators, in order to maintain a high degree of compression in the group, as well as to avoid acid stratification and development of short circuits along the battery life. To do this, different glass microfiber separators with inert additives, as well as different fiber composition have been tested. Results obtained up to now, indicate a remarkable good performance of the VRLA batteries with the new separators containing very fine fiberglass and silica fillers as an additive.

  10. Strong directional out-of-plane scattering in multiple ionizing highly charged ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Hagmann, S.; Quinteros, T. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). J.R. MacDonald Lab.; Kraessig, B. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Koch, R.; Schmidt-Boecking, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Skutlartz, A. [East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The azimuthal ({phi}{sub r}) and polar angle ({theta}{sub r}) scattering of projectiles in coincidence with recoil ions has been studied for 0.53 MeV/u F{sup 8+} + Ne. For high degree of ionization of the target we find the resultant transverse momentum of all electrons emitted into the continuum to increase with the number of ejected electrons and to have a direction mostly not co-planar with the scattering plane.

  11. Theory of charge transfer at the high-Tc superconductor/electrolyte interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluzman, Sasha; Kuznetsov, Alexander M.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the kinetics of electrochemical process on the high-T-c superconducting electrodes dependent on the type of superconductivity. The existence of the hump of an appreciable height in the temperature dependence of the current clearly points towards the BCS s-type superconductivity......) mechanism. Low-temperature tails at the current/temperature curve are also informative being determined by the electronic states within the gap typical of the unconventional d-wave pairing....

  12. Surface state charge dynamics of a high-mobility three-dimensional topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason N; van Mechelen, J L M; Kuzmenko, Alexey B; van der Marel, Dirk; Brüne, Christoph; Novik, Elena G; Astakhov, Georgy V; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W

    2011-09-23

    We present a magneto-optical study of the three-dimensional topological insulator, strained HgTe, using a technique which capitalizes on advantages of time-domain spectroscopy to amplify the signal from the surface states. This measurement delivers valuable and precise information regarding the surface-state dispersion within <1 meV of the Fermi level. The technique is highly suitable for the pursuit of the topological magnetoelectric effect and axion electrodynamics.

  13. Toward High-Performance Hematite Nanotube Photoanodes: Charge-Transfer Engineering at Heterointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hong; Andoshe, Dinsefa M; Shim, Young-Seok; Moon, Cheon-Woo; Sohn, Woonbae; Choi, Seokhoon; Kim, Taemin Ludvic; Lee, Migyoung; Park, Hoonkee; Hong, Kootak; Kwon, Ki Chang; Suh, Jun Min; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Jong-Heun; Jang, Ho Won

    2016-09-14

    Vertically ordered hematite nanotubes are considered to be promising photoactive materials for high-performance water-splitting photoanodes. However, the synthesis of hematite nanotubes directly on conducting substrates such as fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass is difficult to be achieved because of the poor adhesion between hematite nanotubes and FTO/glass. Here, we report the synthesis of hematite nanotubes directly on FTO/glass substrate and high-performance photoelectrochemical properties of the nanotubes with NiFe cocatalysts. The hematite nanotubes are synthesized by a simple electrochemical anodization method. The adhesion of the hematite nanotubes to the FTO/glass substrate is drastically improved by dipping them in nonpolar cyclohexane prior to postannealing. Bare hematite nanotubes show a photocurrent density of 1.3 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V vs a reversible hydrogen electrode, while hematite nanotubes with electrodeposited NiFe cocatalysts exhibit 2.1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V which is the highest photocurrent density reported for hematite nanotubes-based photoanodes for solar water splitting. Our work provides an efficient platform to obtain high-performance water-splitting photoanodes utilizing earth-abundant hematite and noble-metal-free cocatalysts.

  14. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joao

    2017-10-01

    Powerful laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in the kTesla range. The B-fields are measured by proton-deflectometry and high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes. According to our modeling, the quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface, accounting for the space charge neutralization and the plasma magnetization. The major control parameter is the laser irradiance Iλ2 . The B-fields ns-scale is long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport into solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented enhancement of a factor 5 on the energy-density flux at 60 µm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes and to laboratory astrophysics. We acknowledge funding from French National Agency for Research (ANR), Grant TERRE ANR-2011-BS04-014, and from EUROfusion Consortium, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant 633053.

  15. Towards a g-factor determination of the electron bound in highly-charged calcium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabinger, B [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Alonso, J [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Blaum, K [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Werth, G [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Kluge, H-J [GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Wquint [GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Vogel, M [GSI, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stahl, S [Stahl-Electronics, 67582 Mettenheim (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    BOUND-state quantum electrodynamical calculations can be tested by high precision measurements of the magnetic moment of the electron bound in hydrogen-like and lithium-like ions. Measurements of hydrogen-like carbon and oxygen achieved relative experimental uncertainties as low as 2 x 10{sup -9}. In the current experiment we plan to measure the g-factor of hydrogen-like and lithium-like calcium ions. The aim is to reach a relative uncertainty {partial_derivative}g/gin the order of 10{sup -9}. Here, we will give the motivation for the experiment, present the experimental techniques and the status of the experiment.

  16. Towards a g-factor determination of the electron bound in highly-charged calcium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabinger, B.; Alonso, J.; Blaum, K.; Werth, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Wquint; Vogel, M.; Stahl, S.

    2007-03-01

    BOUND-state quantum electrodynamical calculations can be tested by high precision measurements of the magnetic moment of the electron bound in hydrogen-like and lithium-like ions. Measurements of hydrogen-like carbon and oxygen achieved relative experimental uncertainties as low as 2 × 10-9. In the current experiment we plan to measure the g-factor of hydrogen-like and lithium-like calcium ions. The aim is to reach a relative uncertainty ∂g/gin the order of 10-9. Here, we will give the motivation for the experiment, present the experimental techniques and the status of the experiment.

  17. A high-power and fast charging Li-ion battery with outstanding cycle-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Brutti, S; Navarra, M A; Panero, S; Reale, P; Matic, A; Scrosati, B

    2017-04-24

    Electrochemical energy storage devices based on Li-ion cells currently power almost all electronic devices and power tools. The development of new Li-ion cell configurations by incorporating innovative functional components (electrode materials and electrolyte formulations) will allow to bring this technology beyond mobile electronics and to boost performance largely beyond the state-of-the-art. Here we demonstrate a new full Li-ion cell constituted by a high-potential cathode material, i.e. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, a safe nanostructured anode material, i.e. TiO2, and a composite electrolyte made by a mixture of an ionic liquid suitable for high potential applications, i.e. Pyr1,4PF6, a lithium salt, i.e. LiPF6, and standard organic carbonates. The final cell configuration is able to reversibly cycle lithium for thousands of cycles at 1000 mAg-1 and a capacity retention of 65% at cycle 2000.

  18. Investigation of Transformer Winding Architectures for High Voltage Capacitor Charging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Thummala, Prasanth; Huang, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Transformer parameters such as leakage inductance and self-capacitance are rarely calculated in advance during the design phase, because of the complexity and huge analytical error margins caused by practical winding implementation issues. Thus, choosing one transformer architecture over another...... for a given design is usually based on experience or a trial and error approach. This work presents equations regarding calculation of leakage inductance, self-capacitance and AC resistance in transformer winding architectures, ranging from the common non-interleaved primary/secondary winding architecture......, to an interleaved, sectionalized and bank winded architecture. The analytical results are evaluated experimentally and through FEM simulations. Different transformer winding architectures are investigated in terms of the losses caused by the transformer parasitics for a bidirectional high-voltage (~1500 V) flyback...

  19. Neutralization of highly charged ions at grazing incidence on a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (US) Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6374 (USA)); Havener, C.C.; Meyer, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Electron energy spectra and total electron yields are studied to provide information on the neutralization of 24-keV N{sup {ital q}+} ions ({ital q}=2,4,6) incident at grazing angles on a Cu(100) surface. A computer simulation of the neutralization is presented that assumes resonant neutralization of the ions leading to highly excited hollow'' atoms. Deexcitation of these atoms is assumed to take place by purely intra-atomic Auger transitions. The results of this simulation are not in agreement with our experimental observations. A modified simulation, assuming again resonant neutralization of the ions followed by faster deexcitation processes, and, in addition, fast Auger deexcitation directly into the {ital L} shell, shows a much better agreement with the experimental observations.

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-charged heavy ions at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumberidze, A. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France)], E-mail: a.gumberidze@gsi.de; Stoehlker, Th. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitt Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Beyer, H.F.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Hagmann, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kuehl, Th.; Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Indelicato, P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Quint, W. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Warczak, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2009-01-15

    In the current contribution, we give an overview of the envisioned X-ray spectroscopy program within the atomic physics research collaboration SPARC (Stored Particle Atomic Research Collaboration) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). These activities comprise, among others, the investigation of relativistic collision dynamics, electron correlation in the presence of strong fields, the test of Quantum Electrodynamics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields, and ideas to test the predictions of fundamental theories besides Quantum Electrodynamics. The state of the art X-ray spectroscopy will be of key importance for realization of these challenging goals. The world-wide unique experimental conditions and opportunities offered by the future FAIR facility will be combined with advanced X-ray detection devices, i.e. large-area, segmented solid-state detectors, high-resolution crystal spectrometers, calorimetric detectors etc.

  1. Bent silicon strip crystals for high-energy charged particle beam collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germogli, G.; Mazzolari, A.; Guidi, V.; Romagnoni, M.

    2017-07-01

    For applications in high energy particles accelerators, such as the crystal-assisted beam collimation, several strip crystals exploiting anticlastic curvature were produced in the last decade at the Sensor and Semiconductor Laboratory (SSL) of Ferrara by means of revisited techniques for silicon micromachining, such as photolitography and wet etching. Those techniques were recently enhanced by introducing a further treatment called Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF), which allowed to fabricate crystals with ultraflat surface and miscut very close to zero. The technology of the mechanical devices used to hold and bend crystals has been also improved by employing a titanium alloy to realize the holders. Characterization method were also improved: the usage of a high resolution X-rays diffractometer was introduced to directly measure crystal bending and torsion. Accuracy of the diffractometer was furtherly enhanced with an autocollimator, which found an important application in miscut characterization. A new infrared light interferometer was used to map the thickness of the starting swafers with sub-micrometric precision, as well as to measure the length along the beam of the strips. Crystals were characterized at the H8 external lines of CERN-SPS with various hundreds-GeV ion beams, which gave results in agreement with the precharacterization performed at SSL. One strip was selected among the crystals to be installed in the LHC beam pipe during the Long Shutdown 1 in 2014. These crystals were very recently tested in a crystal-assisted collimation experiment with a 6.5 TeV proton beam, resulting in the first observation of channeling at this record energy, being also the first observation of channeling of the beam circulating in the LHC.

  2. Separation of 3′-sialyllactose and lactose by nanofiltration: A trade-off between charge repulsion and pore swelling induced by high pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    not affect SL retention significantly. The expected increase in retention levels of SL at high pH - due to repulsion between the negative charge of the membrane and the charged SL - was apparently offset by pore swelling of the NF membranes at high pH. The water permeability was measured before and after...... a membrane was used for filtration of a mixture of lactose and SL. For the NP010 and DSS-ETNA membranes, the decline in water permeability was lower when the experiments were conducted at high pH, which is ascribed to the electrostatic repulsion of SL by the membrane. Further improvements in the ratio...

  3. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  4. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  5. Index extraction for electromagnetic field evaluation of high power wireless charging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SangWook

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the precise dosimetry for highly resonant wireless power transfer (HR-WPT) system using an anatomically realistic human voxel model. The dosimetry for the HR-WPT system designed to operate at 13.56 MHz frequency, which one of the ISM band frequency band, is conducted in the various distances between the human model and the system, and in the condition of alignment and misalignment between transmitting and receiving circuits. The specific absorption rates in the human body are computed by the two-step approach; in the first step, the field generated by the HR-WPT system is calculated and in the second step the specific absorption rates are computed with the scattered field finite-difference time-domain method regarding the fields obtained in the first step as the incident fields. The safety compliance for non-uniform field exposure from the HR-WPT system is discussed with the international safety guidelines. Furthermore, the coupling factor concept is employed to relax the maximum allowable transmitting power. Coupling factors derived from the dosimetry results are presented. In this calculation, the external magnetic field from the HR-WPT system can be relaxed by approximately four times using coupling factor in the worst exposure scenario.

  6. Spin-polarized high-energy scattering of charged leptons on nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkardt, M. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics; Miller, C.A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Nowak, W.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The proton is a composite object with spin one-half, understood to contain highly relativistic spin one-half quarks exchanging spin-one gluons, each possibly with significant orbital angular momenta. While their fundamental interactions are well described by Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD), our standard theory of the strong interaction, nonperturbative calculations of the internal structure of the proton based directly on QCD are beginning to provide reliable results. Most of our present knowledge of the structure of the proton is based on experimental measurements interpreted within the rich framework of QCD. An area presently attracting intense interest, both experimental and theoretical, is the relationship between the spin of the proton and the spins and orbital angular momenta of its constituents. While remarkable progress has been made, especially in the last decade, the discovery and investigation of new concepts have revealed that much more remains to be learned. This progress is reviewed and an outlook for the future is offered. (orig.)

  7. Fast triggering of high-rate charged particles with a triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D

    2004-01-01

    A 3 year long R&D activity on triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors is reported. This activity was made in the framework of the LHCb experiment in order to find the technology to instrument the central region of the first muon station (M1R1) where a high particle rate is expected. Detector geometry, gas mixture and electric field configuration have been optimized in order to achieve the performance required by the experiment. The use of a very fast, CF//4 based, gas mixture provides a time resolution of about 4.5 ns (r.m.s.) with a single chamber with gain less than 10**4. In addition, an optimized gain sharing between the three GEMs allows to keep the discharge probability per incident hadron below $10^{-12}$. The average number of firing pads per crossing particle have been found to be lower than 1.2. In a global aging test two detectors were exposed to a dose rate of 16 Gy/h. Each detector integrated about 2 C/cm**2 equivalent to more than 10 years of operation at LHCb. Good aging properties w...

  8. Understanding charge transfer of Li+ and Na+ ions scattered from metal surfaces with high work function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Wu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Pin-Yang; Xiao, Yun-Qing; Li, Guo-Peng; Liu, Yi-Ran; Jiang, Hao-Yu; Guo, Yan-Ling; Chen, Xi-Meng

    2016-08-01

    For Li+ and Na+ ions scattered from high work function metal surfaces, efficient neutralization is observed, and it cannot be explained by the conventional free electron model. In order to explain these experimental data, we investigate the velocity-dependent neutral fraction with the modified Brako-Newns (BN) model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. We find that the parallel velocity effect plays an important role in neutralizing the Li+ and Na+ ions for large angle scattering. The nonmonotonic velocity behavior of neutral fraction is strongly related to the distance-dependent coupling strength between the atomic level and metal states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11405078 and 11474140), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. lzujbky-2014-169 and lzujbky-2015-244), the Project sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, the State Education Ministry, and the National Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program (Grant Nos. 201410730069 and 201510730078).

  9. High-voltage interactions in plasma wakes: Results from the charging hazards and wake studies (CHAWS) flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enloe, C. L.; Cooke, D. L.; Pakula, W. A.; Violet, M. D.; Hardy, D. A.; Chaplin, C. B.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Tautz, M. F.; Bonito, N.; Roth, C.; Courtney, G.; Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Hastings, D. E.; Shaw, G. B.; Giffin, G.; Sega, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the charging hazards and wake studies (CHAWS) flight experiments on board space shuttle missions STS-60 and STS-69, during which a negatively biased, high-voltage (0-5 kV) probe was placed in a plasma wake in low Earth orbit, are presented. For these experiments the source of the wake was the 4-m-diameter Wake Shield Facility (WSF), which was operated both as a free-flying spacecraft and attached to the shuttle orbiter's robot arm. Current collection by the biased probe is investigated as a function of the density and temperature of the ambient plasma and the probe's location in the plasma wake. Current collection behavior is determined by the expansion of the high-voltage sheath into the ambient plasma stream. Consistent with preflight predictions, current collection on the probe is highly nonuniform, varying by more than 5 orders of magnitude across the surface of the probe. The onset of current collection, however, begins at voltages that are an order of magnitude lower than anticipated. This is likely due to the low-energy, turbulent plasma (typically 2-5% of the ambient density and up to 40% on occasion) observed in the ambient environment. This important minority constituent of the plasma was observed in the vicinity of the shuttle Orbiter and observed while the WSF was free-flying.

  10. Highly sensitive protein detection by combination of atomic force microscopy fishing with charge generation and mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yuri D; Pleshakova, Tatyana; Malsagova, Krystina; Kozlov, Andrey; Kaysheva, Anna; Kopylov, Arthur; Izotov, Alexander; Andreeva, Elena; Kanashenko, Sergey; Usanov, Sergey; Archakov, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    An approach combining atomic force microscopy (AFM) fishing and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to detect proteins at ultra-low concentrations is proposed. Fishing out protein molecules onto a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface coated with polytetrafluoroethylene film was carried out with and without application of an external electric field. After that they were visualized by AFM and identified by MS. It was found that injection of solution leads to charge generation in the solution, and an electric potential within the measuring cell is induced. It was demonstrated that without an external electric field in the rapid injection input of diluted protein solution the fishing is efficient, as opposed to slow fluid input. The high sensitivity of this method was demonstrated by detection of human serum albumin and human cytochrome b5 in 10(-17) -10(-18) m water solutions. It was shown that an external negative voltage applied to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite hinders the protein fishing. The efficiency of fishing with an external positive voltage was similar to that obtained without applying any voltage. © 2014 FEBS.

  11. SANS from Salt-Free Aqueous Solutions of Hydrophilic and Highly Charged Star-Branched Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Boué

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scattering functions of sodium sulfonated polystyrene (NaPSS star-branched polyelectrolytes with high sulfonation degrees were measured from their salt-free aqueous solutions, using the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS technique. Whatever the concentration c, they display two maxima. The first, of abscissa q1*, is related to a position order between star cores and scales as q1* ∝ c1/3. The second, of abscissa q2*, is also observed in the scattering function of a semi-dilute solution of NaPSS linear polyelectrolytes. In the dilute regime (c < c*, non-overlapping stars, peak abscissa does not depend on concentration c and is just an intramolecular characteristic associated with the electrostatic repulsion between arms of the same star. In the semi-dilute regime, due to the star interpenetration, the scattering function – through the peak position, reflects repulsion between arms of the same star or of different stars. The c threshold between these distinct c-dependencies of q2* in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes is estimated as c*. Just as simple is the measurement of the geometrical radius R of the star obtained from the q1* value at c* through the relation 2R = 2π/q1*. By considering NaPSS stars of the same functionality with different degrees of polymerization per arm Na, we find R scaling linearly with Na, suggesting an elongated average conformation of the arms. This is in agreement with theoretical predictions and simulations. Meanwhile the value of q2* measured in the dilute regime does not allow any inhomogeneous counterion distribution inside the stars to be revealed.

  12. Charged slurry droplet research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. J.

    1989-02-01

    Rayleigh Bursting, wherein critically charged droplets explosively expel a number of micron sized sibling droplets, enhances atomization and combustion of all liquid fuels. Droplet surface charge is retained during evaporation, permitting multiple Rayleigh Bursts to occur. Moreover, the charge is available for the deagglomeration of residual particulate flocs from slurry droplet evaporation. To fill gaps in our knowledge of these processes, an experimental program involving the use of a charged droplet levitator and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer, High Speed Electrometer (QMS/HSE) has been undertaken to observe the disruption and to measure quantitatively the debris. A charged droplet levitator based on a new video frame grabber technology to image transient events, is described. Sibling droplet size is ten microns or less and is close to, if not coincident with, the predicted phase transition in droplet charging level. The research effort has focused on the exploration of this transition and its implications.

  13. Computer simulations analysis for determining the polarity of charge generated by high energy electron irradiation of a thin film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malac, Marek; Hettler, Simon; Hayashida, Misa

    2017-01-01

    Detailed simulations are necessary to correctly interpret the charge polarity of electron beam irradiated thin film patch. Relying on systematic simulations we provide guidelines and movies to interpret experimentally the polarity of the charged area, to be understood as the sign of the electrost...

  14. Charged weak currents

    CERN Document Server

    Turlay, René

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents the author concentrates on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The authors discusses the general structure of charged currents, new results on total cross- sections, the Callan-Gross relation, antiquark distributions, scaling violations and tests of QCD. A very short summary on multilepton physics is given. (44 refs).

  15. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-10-19

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained.

  16. Space charge effect of the high intensity proton beam during the resonance extraction for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chong Shik; Amundson, James; Johnstone, John; Michelotti, Leo; Nagaslaev, Vladimir; Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The proposed Mu2e experiment to search for direct {mu} {yields} e conversion at Fermilab plans slow, resonant extraction of a beam with 3 x 10{sup 12} protons from the Debuncher ring. Space charge of this high intensity beam is a critical factor, since it induces significant betatron tune spread and consequently affects resonance extraction processes, such as spill uniformity and beam losses. This study shows the multi-particle simulation results in the early stages of resonance extraction and spill uniformity in the presence of 2D and 3D space charge effects. We have presented the results of the third-integer resonance extraction in early stage for the Mu2e experiment in the presence of space charge effects. In order to track particles and to calculate self-consistent space charge effects, Synergia2 was used, which is capable of parallel computing. The space charge tune shift was computed and was reasonable value compared with the analytical calculation. Locations of the septum and Lambertson were chosen so that particles are kicked and extracted efficiently. The spill rates for with and without space charge effects were uniform, but should be improved for the early stage after the sextupole field ramping.

  17. Loading effect of a barium titanate artificial interface on high voltage capabilities at high charge and discharge rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yumi; Teranishi, Takashi; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Kishimoto, Akira

    2017-10-01

    Cyclic characteristics of BaTiO3 (BT)-decorated LiCoO2 (LC), for use as an artificial solid electrolyte interface (SEI) were evaluated at high voltages. Within the standard voltage window (i.e., 3.3-4.2 V), the BT-decorated LC exhibited greater capacities for up to 80 cycles compared with both the Al2O3 (paraelectric)-decorated and bare LC SEIs. The discharge capacity retention after 80 cycles (compared with the initial value) was 86.0% for the BT-LC cathode. This is a significant improvement over both the bare LC that showed 19.9% retention and the Al2O3-LC that displayed 71.5% retention. Thereafter, the cyclic stabilities of the BT-LC and bare LC were compared within potential windows at cutoff voltages as high as 4.9 V. In this region, BT decoration yielded marked improvements in capacity retention after 50 cycles, up to a potential of 4.7 V. The post-situ XRD analysis of the cathode sheets showed that BT decoration effectively stabilized the hexagonal crystal structure of the LC, H1, resulting in the said cyclic stability increase. These observations demonstrate that the use of BT in SEI allows a significant increase in working voltage while maintaining the chemical stability of the underlying LC matrix, a key advancement in the perpetual pursuit of ever higher cell energy densities.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of Pickering emulsions and oil gels stabilized by highly charged zein/chitosan complex particles (ZCCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wu, Lei-Yan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Guo, Jian; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-12-15

    Herein, we reported a facile method to fabricate ultra-stable, surfactant- and antimicrobial-free Pickering emulsions by designing and modulating emulsions' interfaces via zein/chitosan colloid particles (ZCCPs). Highly charged ZCCPs with neutral wettability were produced by a facile anti-solvent procedure. The ZCCPs were shown to be effective Pickering emulsifiers because the emulsions formed were highly resistant to coalescence over a 9-month storage period. The ZCCPs were adsorbed irreversibly at the interface during emulsification, forming a hybrid network framework in which zein particles were embedded within the chitosan network, yielding ultra-stable food-grade zein/chitosan colloid particles stabilized Pickering emulsions (ZCCPEs). Moreover, stable surfactant-free oil gels were obtained by a one-step freeze-drying process of the precursor ZCCPEs. This distinctive interfacial architecture accounted for the favourable physical performance, and potentially oxidative and microbial stability of the emulsions and/or oil gels. This work opens up a promising route via a food-grade Pickering emulsion-template approach to transform liquid oil into solid-like fats with zero trans-fat formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strontium insertion in methlyammonium lead iodide: long charge carrier lifetime and high fill factor solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblona, Cristina; Gil-Escrig, Lidón; Ávila, Jorge; Pérez-Del-Rey, Daniel; Forgács, David; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Hendrik J.

    2016-09-01

    Organic-inorganic (hybrid) lead halide perovskites are taking the lead among the emerging photovoltaics technologies, thanks to the demonstration of power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20 %. Hybrid perovskites have a wide spectrum of desirable properties; they are direct bandgap semiconductors with very high absorption coefficients, high and balanced hole and electron mobility, and large diffusion length. A unique feature of these materials is their versatility in terms of bandgap energy, which can be tuned by simple exchange of their components. In this paper we present vacuum and hybrid deposition routes for the preparation of different organic-inorganic lead perovskite thin films, and their incorporation into efficient solar cells. The influence of the type of organic semiconductors used as hole/electron transport layer in p-i-n solar cells will be presented. We also discuss their electroluminescence properties, either for applications in light-emitting diodes or as a diagnostic tool of the optical and electronic quality of perovskite thin films. Finally, the effect of additives and dopants in the perovskite absorber as well as in the charge selective layers will be described.

  20. Porous graphene nanoarchitectures: an efficient catalyst for low charge-overpotential, long life, and high capacity lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Shuangqiang; Munroe, Paul; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-06-11

    The electrochemical performance of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries awaits dramatic improvement in the design of porous cathode electrodes with sufficient spaces to accommodate the discharge products and discovery of effective cathode catalysts to promote both oxygen reduction reactions and oxygen evolution reactions. Herein, we report the synthesis of porous graphene with different pore size architectures as cathode catalysts for Li-O2 batteries. Porous graphene materials exhibited significantly higher discharge capacities than that of nonporous graphene. Furthermore, porous graphene with pore diameter around 250 nm showed the highest discharge capacity among the porous graphene with the small pores (about 60 nm) and large pores (about 400 nm). Moreover, we discovered that addition of ruthenium (Ru) nanocrystals to porous graphene promotes the oxygen evolution reaction. The Ru nanocrystal-decorated porous graphene exhibited an excellent catalytic activity as cathodes in Li-O2 batteries with a high reversible capacity of 17,700 mA h g(-1), a low charge/discharge overpotential (about 0.355 V), and a long cycle life up to 200 cycles (under the curtaining capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1)). The novel porous graphene architecture inspires the development of high-performance Li-O2 batteries.

  1. Preparation of cold Mg{sup +}ion clouds for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions at SPECTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazan, Radu Mircea

    2012-02-15

    The bound electrons in hydrogen-like or lithium-like heavy ions experience extremely strong electric and magnetic fields in the surrounding of the nucleus. Laser spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting in the lead region provides a sensitive tool to test strong-field quantum electro dynamics (QED), especially in the magnetic sector. Previous measurements on hydrogen-like systems performed in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) or at the experimental storage ring (ESR) were experimentally limited in accuracy due to statistics, the large Doppler broadening and the ion energy. The full potential of the QED test can only be exploited if measurements for hydrogen- and lithium-like ions are performed with accuracy improved by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Therefore, the new Penning trap setup SPECTRAP - dedicated for laser spectroscopy on trapped and cooled highly charged ions - is currently commissioned at GSI Darmstadt. Heavy highly charged ions will be delivered to this trap by the HITRAP facility in the future. SPECTRAP is a cylindrical Penning trap with axial access for external ion injection and radial optical access mounted inside a cold-bore superconducting Helmholtz-type split-coil magnet. To reach the targeted accuracy in laser spectroscopy, an efficient and fast cooling process for the highly charged ions must be employed. This can be realized by sympathetic cooling with a cloud of laser-cooled light ions. Within this thesis work, a laser system and an ion source for the production of such a {sup 24}Mg{sup +} ion cloud was developed and commissioned at SPECTRAP. An all-solid-state laser system for the generation of 279.6 nm light was designed and built. It consists of a fiber laser at 1118.5 nm followed by frequency quadrupling using two successive second-harmonic generation stages with actively stabilized ring resonators and nonlinear crystals. The laser system can deliver more than 15 mW of UV laser power under optimal conditions and requires little

  2. Far infrared conductivity of charge density wave materials and the oxygen isotope effect in high-T sub c superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creager, W.N.

    1991-09-01

    The far infrared reflectance and conductivity of (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I and TaS{sub 3} have been measured to determine the origin of a huge infrared resonance that dominates the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics along with the pinned acoustic phason mode in the related materials (TaSe{sub 4}){sub 2}I and K{sub 0. 3}MoO{sub 3}. The measurements cover frequencies from 3 to 700cm{sup {minus}1} and the temperature range from 15K to 300K. In the niobium-doped alloys (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I, the size and frequency of the giant infrared mode remain nearly constant as the impurity concentration x is increased. For TaS{sub 3}, the pinned acoustic phason near 0.5cm{sup {minus}1} dominates {var epsilon}({omega}) and an additional small mode lies near 9cm{sup {minus}1}. The latter mode is much smaller than the infrared mode in other CDW materials. These results rule out several models of a generic infrared mode'' in CDW excitations. They are compared in detail to the predictions of a recent theory attributing the infrared mode to a bound collective mode localized at impurity sites within the crystal. The transmittance of K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} has been measured at 1.2K with a strong dc electric field applied across the crystal. Under these conditions, the charge density wave depins abruptly and carries large currents with near-zero differential resistance. For some samples, the low-frequency transmittance is enhanced slightly when the CDW depins. The magnitude of the oxygen isotope effect in the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been determined by substitution of {sup 18}O for {sup 16}O. A series of cross-exchanges was performed on high-quality polycrystalline specimens to eliminate uncertainties due to sample heat treatments and sample inhomogeneities.

  3. Cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases and Caenorhabditis elegans homologues dominate gene products expressed in adult Haemonchus contortus intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Roth, J; Myler, P J

    2001-09-03

    Proteins expressed by nematode intestinal cells are potential targets for parasite control by immune or chemical based strategies. To expand our knowledge on nematode intestinal proteins, expressed sequence tags were generated for 131 cDNA clones from the intestine of adult female Haemonchus contortus. An estimated 55 distinct protein genes or gene families were identified. Predicted proteins represented diverse functions. Several predicted polypeptides were related to H. contortus proteins implicated in inducing protective immunity against challenge infections of this parasite. The dominant intestinal transcripts were represented by cathepsin B-like cysteine protease genes (cbl) (17% of protein coding expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analyzed). An estimated 11 previously undescribed cbl genes were identified, doubling the recognized members of this gene family. Multiple C-type lectin sequences were identified. Other notable sequences included a predicted Y-box binding protein, serine/threonine kinases and a cyclin E-like sequence. Predicted protein homologues were found in Caenorhabditis elegans for all but one H. contortus sequence (99%), while fewer homologues from other parasitic nematodes were found. Many of the proteases, lipase and C-type lectin homologues in C. elegans had apparent signal peptides, suggesting that they are secreted. Several gene products had no obvious similarity outside the phylum Nematoda. The ESTs identified intestinal genes with potential application to immune control, understanding of basic intestinal regulatory processes and refinement of nematode genomic resources.

  4. Antifungal effect and pore-forming action of lactoferricin B like peptide derived from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyemin; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Lee, Dong Gun

    2013-11-01

    The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans has been a medically important arthropod species by using it as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, we derived a novel lactoferricin B like peptide (LBLP) from the whole bodies of adult centipedes, S. s. mutilans, and investigated the antifungal effect of LBLP. LBLP exerted an antifungal and fungicidal activity without hemolysis. To investigate the antifungal mechanism of LBLP, a membrane study with propidium iodide was first conducted against Candida albicans. The result showed that LBLP caused fungal membrane permeabilization. The assays of the three dimensional flow cytometric contour plot and membrane potential further showed cell shrinkage and membrane depolarization by the membrane damage. Finally, we confirmed the membrane-active mechanism of LBLP by synthesizing model membranes, calcein and FITC-dextran loaded large unilamellar vesicles. These results showed that the antifungal effect of LBLP on membrane was due to the formation of pores with radii between 0.74nm and 1.4nm. In conclusion, this study suggests that LBLP exerts a potent antifungal activity by pore formation in the membrane, eventually leading to fungal cell death. © 2013.

  5. A Stimulated Raman Scattering CMOS Pixel Using a High-Speed Charge Modulator and Lock-in Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Xing Lioe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS lock-in pixel to observe stimulated Raman scattering (SRS using a high speed lateral electric field modulator (LEFM for photo-generated charges and in-pixel readout circuits is presented. An effective SRS signal generated after the SRS process is very small and needs to be extracted from an extremely large offset due to a probing laser signal. In order to suppress the offset components while amplifying high-frequency modulated small SRS signal components, the lock-in pixel uses a high-speed LEFM for demodulating the SRS signal, resistor-capacitor low-pass filter (RC-LPF and switched-capacitor (SC integrator with a fully CMOS differential amplifier. AC (modulated components remained in the RC-LPF outputs are eliminated by the phase-adjusted sampling with the SC integrator and the demodulated DC (unmodulated components due to the SRS signal are integrated over many samples in the SC integrator. In order to suppress further the residual offset and the low frequency noise (1/f noise components, a double modulation technique is introduced in the SRS signal measurements, where the phase of high-frequency modulated laser beam before irradiation of a specimen is modulated at an intermediate frequency and the demodulation is done at the lock-in pixel output. A prototype chip for characterizing the SRS lock-in pixel is implemented and a successful operation is demonstrated. The reduction effects of residual offset and 1/f noise components are confirmed by the measurements. A ratio of the detected small SRS to offset a signal of less than 10−5 is experimentally demonstrated, and the SRS spectrum of a Benzonitrile sample is successfully observed.

  6. A Stimulated Raman Scattering CMOS Pixel Using a High-Speed Charge Modulator and Lock-in Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioe, De Xing; Mars, Kamel; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2016-04-13

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) lock-in pixel to observe stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) using a high speed lateral electric field modulator (LEFM) for photo-generated charges and in-pixel readout circuits is presented. An effective SRS signal generated after the SRS process is very small and needs to be extracted from an extremely large offset due to a probing laser signal. In order to suppress the offset components while amplifying high-frequency modulated small SRS signal components, the lock-in pixel uses a high-speed LEFM for demodulating the SRS signal, resistor-capacitor low-pass filter (RC-LPF) and switched-capacitor (SC) integrator with a fully CMOS differential amplifier. AC (modulated) components remained in the RC-LPF outputs are eliminated by the phase-adjusted sampling with the SC integrator and the demodulated DC (unmodulated) components due to the SRS signal are integrated over many samples in the SC integrator. In order to suppress further the residual offset and the low frequency noise (1/f noise) components, a double modulation technique is introduced in the SRS signal measurements, where the phase of high-frequency modulated laser beam before irradiation of a specimen is modulated at an intermediate frequency and the demodulation is done at the lock-in pixel output. A prototype chip for characterizing the SRS lock-in pixel is implemented and a successful operation is demonstrated. The reduction effects of residual offset and 1/f noise components are confirmed by the measurements. A ratio of the detected small SRS to offset a signal of less than 10(-)⁵ is experimentally demonstrated, and the SRS spectrum of a Benzonitrile sample is successfully observed.

  7. Mitigation of the Impact of High Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration on Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR signals to mitigate the impact of PEV charging to several aspects of a grid, including load surge, distribution accumulative voltage deviation, and transformer aging. To build a realistic PEV charging load model, the results of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS have been analyzed and a stochastic PEV charging model has been defined based on survey results. The residential distribution grid contains 120 houses and is modeled in GridLAB-D. Co-simulation is performed using Matlab and GridLAB-D to enable the optimal control algorithm in Matlab to control PEV charging loads in the residential grid modeled in GridLAB-D. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal charging control method in mitigating the negative impacts of PEV charging on the residential grid.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Analysis of the Calcineurin B-like Protein and Calcineurin B-like Protein-Interacting Protein Kinase Gene Families in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL–CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK complex has been identified as a primary component in calcium sensors that perceives various stress signals. Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa has been widely cultivated in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau for a century as a food crop of worldwide economic significance. These CBL–CIPK complexes have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, no report is available on the genome-wide characterization of these two gene families in turnip. In the present study, 19 and 51 members of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK genes, respectively, are first identified in turnip and phylogenetically grouped into three and two distinct clusters, respectively. The expansion of these two gene families is mainly attributable to segmental duplication. Moreover, the differences in expression patterns in quantitative real-time PCR, as well as interaction profiles in the yeast two-hybrid assay, suggest the functional divergence of paralog genes during long-term evolution in turnip. Overexpressing and complement lines in Arabidopsis reveal that BrrCBL9.2 improves, but BrrCBL9.1 does not affect, salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Thus, the expansion of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK gene families enables the functional differentiation and evolution of some new gene functions of paralog genes. These paralog genes then play prominent roles in turnip's adaptation to the adverse environment of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Overall, the study results contribute to our understanding of the functions of the CBL–CIPK complex and provide basis for selecting appropriate genes for the in-depth functional studies of BrrCBL–BrrCIPK in turnip.

  9. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-07-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  10. A comparative study of high-resolution cone beam computed tomography and charge-coupled device sensors for detecting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S M; Lee, J T; Hodges, R J; Chang, T-L; Elashoff, D A; White, S C

    2009-10-01

    Conventional radiographic imaging of teeth underestimates the presence of caries. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of high-resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images and conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) images for detecting proximal and occlusal caries. Non-restored, extracted human permanent premolar and molar teeth were mounted and then imaged with a 3DX Accuitomo and a CCD. We selected 92 occlusal and 100 proximal surfaces for raters to score. Of these, 36 and 25, respectively, had lesions extending into dentin. Using a five-step confidence scale, eight practising dentists evaluated the images for the presence of caries in dentin using both modalities. Actual presence and extent of caries was established with microCT imaging. For proximal surface lesions extending into dentin, the average sensitivity score using 3DX images (0.61) was almost twice that of CCD images (0.33) and the difference was significant. The specificity values for both systems were high and not significantly different from each other. For occlusal surfaces, raters detected significantly more lesions in the enamel or dentin when using the 3DX images than when using CCD images. However, the raters also had significantly lower average specificity scores for the 3DX images compared with the CCD images for lesions at both depths. Practising dentists were able to improve their detection of proximal-surface caries extending into the dentin, but not occlusal caries, using 3DX high-resolution cone beam CT images compared with CCD images.

  11. Effects of autoionization in electron loss from heliumlike highly charged ions in fast collisions with atomic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, K. N.; Andreev, O. Yu.; Voitkiv, A. B.

    2017-11-01

    We study theoretically single-electron loss from the ground state of a heliumlike highly charged ion in fast collisions with an atomic particle (a nucleus or an atom), focusing on electron emission energies where the so-called excitation-autoionization channel of electron loss becomes of importance. The presence of this channel leads to the appearance of sharp structures in the energy distribution of the emitted electrons and may also noticeably influence the angular distributions of the emission in the vicinity of autoionization resonances. We performed calculations for electron loss from Ca18 +(1 s2) and Zn28 +(1 s2) in 100 MeV/u collisions with neon. It is shown that two qualitatively different subchannels (which involve either one or two interactions between the electrons of the ion and the incident atomic particle) substantially contribute to excitation-autoionization and take active part in the interference with the direct channel of electron loss; however, they practically do not interfere with each other. Our consideration also shows that the account of QED corrections is important for an accurate description of electron loss even from relatively light heliumlike HCIs.

  12. A Validated High-Throughput Fluorometric Method for Determination of Omeprazole in Quality Control Laboratory via Charge Transfer Sensitized Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Ahmed, Sameh A

    2016-03-01

    A high-throughput 96-microwell plate fluorometric method was developed and validated to determine omeprazole (OMZ) in its dosage forms. The method was based on the charge-transfer (CT) sensitized fluorescence reaction of OMZ with 2, 3-dichloro-5, 6-dicyano-1, 4-benzoquinone (DDQ). This fluorescence reaction provided a new approach for simple, sensitive and selective determinations of OMZ in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present method, the fluorescence reaction was carried out in 96-microwell plates as reaction vessels in order to increase the automation of the methodology and the efficiency of its use in quality control laboratories. All factors affecting the fluorescence reaction were carefully studied and the conditions were optimized. The stoichiometry of the fluorescence reaction between OMZ and DDQ was determined and the reaction mechanism was suggested. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 100-6000 ng/ml with the lowest LOD of 33 ng/ml. Analytical performance of the proposed assay, in terms of accuracy and precision, was statistically validated and the results were satisfactory; RSD was <2.6 % and the accuracy was 98.6-101.6 %. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OMZ in its dosage forms; the recovery values were 98.26-99.60 ± 0.95-2.22 %. The developed methodology may provide a safer, automated and economic tool for the analysis of OMZ in quality control laboratories.

  13. Real-time decay of a highly excited charge carrier in the one-dimensional Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, F.; Vidmar, L.; Brockt, C.; Jeckelmann, E.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.

    2015-03-01

    We study the real-time dynamics of a highly excited charge carrier coupled to quantum phonons via a Holstein-type electron-phonon coupling. This is a prototypical example for the nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting many-body system where excess energy is transferred from electronic to phononic degrees of freedom. We use diagonalization in a limited functional space (LFS) to study the nonequilibrium dynamics on a finite one-dimensional chain. This method agrees with exact diagonalization and the time-evolving block-decimation method, in both the relaxation regime and the long-time stationary state, and among these three methods it is the most efficient and versatile one for this problem. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the time evolution by calculating the electron, phonon and electron-phonon coupling energies, and the electronic momentum distribution function. The numerical results are compared to analytical solutions for short times, for a small hopping amplitude and for a weak electron-phonon coupling. In the latter case, the relaxation dynamics obtained from the Boltzmann equation agrees very well with the LFS data. We also study the time dependence of the eigenstates of the single-site reduced density matrix, which defines the so-called optimal phonon modes. We discuss their structure in nonequilibrium and the distribution of their weights. Our analysis shows that the structure of optimal phonon modes contains very useful information for the interpretation of the numerical data.

  14. Influence of highly-charged 209Bi33+ irradiation on structure and optoelectric characteristics of GaN epilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. Q.; Zhang, C. H.; Xu, C. L.; Li, J. J.; Yang, Y. T.; Ma, Y. Z.; Li, J. Y.; Liu, H. P.; Ding, Z. N.; Yan, T. X.; Song, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The microstructure and optoelectric properties of GaN epilayer irradiated by highly-charged 209Bi33+ to different fluences are investigated by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. After Bi33+ irradiation, AFM observation shows the irradiated GaN surface is a swelling and swelling rate nonlinearly increases with increasing ions fluence. XPS analysis reveals the relative content of Ga-N bond reduces and Ga-O, Ga-Ga bonds have been produced as the fluence increases. Raman scattering spectra display the thickness of surface depletion layer increases, free carrier concentration and its mobility decrease generally with an increase in ions fluence. Furthermore, the length of Ga-N bond shortens and lattices experience compressive stress with increasing ions fluence are observed from Raman spectra. Room temperature PL spectra reflect the intensity of yellow luminescence (YL) emission increases and its peak has a blueshift after 1.061 × 1012 Bi33+/cm2 irradiation. Moreover, as the temperature rises, the thermal quenching of YL occurs and its peak position first exhibits a blueshift and then a redshift. Results may be served as a useful reference for HCI to be used in semiconductor fields.

  15. Highly luminescent charge-neutral europium(iii) and terbium(iii) complexes with tridentate nitrogen ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, Kuppusamy; Schäfer, Bernhard; Lebedkin, Sergei; Karmazin, Lydia; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario

    2015-09-21

    We report on the synthesis of tridentate-nitrogen pyrazole-pyridine-tetrazole (L(1)H) and pyrazole-pyridine-triazole (L(2)H) ligands and their complexation with lanthanides (Ln = Gd(iii), Eu(iii) and Tb(iii)) resulting in stable, charge-neutral complexes Ln(L(1))3 and Ln(L(2))3, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complexes with L(1) ligands revealed tricapped trigonal coordination geometry around the lanthanide ions. All complexes show bright photoluminescence (PL) in the solid state, indicating efficient sensitization of the lanthanide emission via the triplet states of the ligands. In particular, the terbium complexes show high PL quantum yields of 65 and 59% for L(1) and L(2), respectively. Lower PL efficiencies of the europium complexes (7.5 and 9%, respectively) are attributed to large energy gaps between the triplet states of the ligands and accepting levels of Eu(iii). The triplet state energy can be reduced by introducing an electron withdrawing (EW) group at the 4 position of the pyridine ring. Such substitution of L(1)H with a carboxylic ester (COOMe) EW group leads to a europium complex with increased PL quantum yield of 31%. A comparatively efficient PL of the complexes dissolved in ethanol indicates that the lanthanide ions are shielded against nonradiative deactivation via solvent molecules.

  16. Contribution of High Charge and Energy (HZE) Ions During Solar-Particle Event of September 29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Atwell, William; Badavi, Francis F.; Miller, Jack

    1999-01-01

    The solar-particle event (SPE) of September 29, 1989, produced an iron-rich spectrum with energies approaching 1 A GeV with an approximate spectral slope parameter of 2.5. These high charge and energy (HZE) ions challenge conventional methods of shield design and assessment of astronaut risks. In the past, shield design and risk assessment have relied on proton shielding codes and biological response models derived from X-ray and neutron exposure data. Because the HZE spectra decline rapidly with energy and HZE attenuation in materials is limited by their penetration power, details of the mass distributions about the sensitive tissues (shielding materials and the astronaut's body) are important determining factors of the exposure levels and distributions of linear energy transfer. Local tissue environments during the SPE of September 29, 1989, with its f= components are examined to analyze the importance of these ions to human SPE exposure. Typical space suit and lightly shielded structures leave significant contributions from HZE components to certain critical body tissues and have important implications on the models for risk assessment. A heavily shielded equipment room of a space vehicle or habitat requires knowledge of the breakup of these ions into lighter components, including neutrons, for shield design specifications.

  17. mRNA sequences for Haemonchus contortus intestinal cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases display an extreme in abundance and diversity compared with other adult mammalian parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka Dautova; McCarter, James P

    2004-10-01

    Cathepsin B-like cysteine protease (cbl) genes produce the most abundant mRNAs ( approximately 16%) detected in the adult female intestine of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. CBL enzymes appear to digest host proteins and are vaccine candidates for immune control of H. contortus and potentially other parasitic nematodes. Hence, it is important to quantify the extent of diversity of H. contortuscbl genes. Here, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to assess both the size and diversity of the H. contortuscbl gene family. Contig analysis of 686 cbl ESTs from a USA isolate resolved 123 clusters. ESTs were grouped into discrete sets and analyzed using an additive model. Discovery of new cbl clusters increased with each set and reached a terminal rate of about 1 per 10 ESTs. The extreme diversity was unique to cbls relative to other genes investigated and was ascribed to specific cbl clades. Sixty percent of cbl clusters from a UK isolate were shared with those identified in the USA isolate, suggesting conservation of cbl gene repertoires across regions, although minor to moderate geographic variation cannot be excluded. Sequence comparisons also suggested high potential for antigenic diversity among CBL proteins, which is relevant to vaccine strategies. Compared to other parasitic nematodes of mammals, the extreme abundance and diversity of intestinal cbl transcripts appear to be relative specializations for H. contortus. Therefore, adaptations related to nutrient acquisition may vary markedly among these parasitic nematodes.

  18. A new molecular design based on hybridized local and charge transfer fluorescence for highly efficient (>6%) deep-blue organic light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Konidena, Rajendra; Justin Thomas, K R; Kumar Dubey, Deepak; Sahoo, Snehasis; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2017-08-22

    A deep-blue emitter was developed by modifying carbazole nuclear positions C2 & C7 with a triphenylamine donor and C3 & C6 with a cyano acceptor. The molecular design features cross-conjugated localized and charge transfer chromophores which results in a hybridized local charge transfer (HLCT) excited state. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) using this material exhibited high external quantum efficiency (6.5%) with excellent color saturation (CIEy ∼ 0.06) and small full-width at half maximum (48 nm).

  19. Radiation production and absorption in human spacecraft shielding systems under high charge and energy Galactic Cosmic Rays: Material medium, shielding depth, and byproduct aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Joseph; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2018-03-01

    Deep space missions such as the planned 2025 mission to asteroids require spacecraft shields to protect electronics and humans from adverse effects caused by the space radiation environment, primarily Galactic Cosmic Rays. This paper first reviews the theory on how these rays of charged particles interact with matter, and then presents a simulation for a 500 day Mars flyby mission using a deterministic based computer code. High density polyethylene and aluminum shielding materials at a solar minimum are considered. Plots of effective dose with varying shield depth, charged particle flux, and dose in silicon and human tissue behind shielding are presented.

  20. High-Performance Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory Based on Organic Semiconductor Heterostructures of Pentacene/P13/Pentacene as Both Charge Transport and Trapping Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Yi, Mingdong; Wang, Laiyuan; Wu, Dequn; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices based on pentacene/N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13)/pentacene trilayer organic heterostructures have been proposed. The discontinuous n-type P13 embedded in p-type pentacene layers can not only provide electrons in the semiconductor layer that facilitates electron trapping process; it also works as charge trapping sites, which is attributed to the quantum well-like pentacene/P13/pentacene organic heterostructures. The synergistic effects of charge trapping in the discontinuous P13 and the charge-trapping property of the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) layer remarkably improve the memory performance. In addition, the trilayer organic heterostructures have also been successfully applied to multilevel and flexible nonvolatile memory devices. The results provide a novel design strategy to achieve high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices and allow potential applications for different combinations of various organic semiconductor materials in OFET memory.

  1. Low temperature hydrogen reduction of high surface area anatase and anatase/β-TiO₂ for high-charging-rate batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Tymoczko, Anna; Xie, Kunpeng; Xia, Wei; Muhler, Martin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    There are several strategies to improve the electrochemical performance of TiO2 as negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries. Introducing oxygen vacancies through hydrogen reduction leads to an enhancement in electrical conductivity. However, this strategy does not improve the low lithium-ion mobility. Herein, we show that by decreasing the temperature of hydrogen annealing the improved lithium-ion mobility of high-surface-area TiO2 and β-TiO2 can be combined with the enhanced electrical conductivity of oxygen deficiencies. Annealing at only 275-300 °C in pure hydrogen atmosphere successfully creates oxygen vacancies in TiO2, as confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy, whereas the temperature is low enough to maintain a high specific surface area and prevent β-to-anatase phase transformation. The hydrogen reduction of high-surface-area anatase or anatase/β-TiO2 at these temperatures leads to improvements in the performance, achieving charge capacities of 142 or 152 mAh g(-1) at 10C, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. On the Static Accuracy of Charge-Discharge Units Intended for Electrical Tests of High Capacity Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Lobanov, D. K.; Kopylov, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Fedchenko, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Performing of the cycle testing according to the principles of Dynamic Stress Test can significantly reduce the overall time of development and production of batteries, which in turn allows reducing the cost of designing and testing of the spacecraft power systems. Performing of Dynamic Stress Test require special charge-discharge units that allows to perform a full cycle of electrical tests of batteries, including cyclic testing. Providing the required accuracy of measurement and stabilization of certain attributes of Li-ion battery operating modes is one of the problems that arise during thedevelopment of such charge-discharge units. The following attributes are of particular interest: charge and discharge currents, discharge powers, battery voltages. Analysis of the charge-discharge unit as a control system allows evaluating the steady-state stabilization error of the required attributes of the developed device. Moreover, using a digital integrator in the control system of the charge-discharge unit allows providing specified values of steady-state stabilization error of required attributes in different test modes.

  3. High throughput microwell spectrophotometric assay for olmesartan medoxomil in tablets based on its charge-transfer reaction with DDQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish Ibrahim A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the development and validation of a new microwell-based spectrophotometric assay for determination of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in tablets. The formation of a colored charge-transfer (CT complex between OLM as an n-electron donor and 2,3-dichloro- -5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ as a p-electron acceptor was investigated, and employed as the basis for the development of the new assay. The proposed assay was conducted in 96-microwell plates. The absorbance of the colored-CT complex was measured at 460 nm with a microplate reader. Optimum conditions of the reaction and the analytical procedures of the assay were established. Under the optimum conditions, a linear relationship with a good correlation coefficient was found between the absorbance and the concentration of OLM in the range of 2-200 μg per well. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.53 and 1.61 μg per well, respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients present in OLM tablets or from hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine besylate that were co-formulated with OLM in some of its formulations. The assay was successfully applied to the analysis of OLM in tablets with good accuracy and precision. The assay described herein has a great practical value in the routine analysis of OLM in quality control laboratories, since it has a high throughput property and consumes low volumes of organic solvent. It thus offers a reduction in the exposure of analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, as well as a reduction in the cost of analysis.

  4. High performance charge-state resolving ion energy analyzer optimized for intense laser studies on low-density cluster targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, D.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.; Tiggesbäumker, J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on a versatile ion analyzer which is capable to resolve ion charge states and energies with a resolution of E/ΔE = 100 at 75 keV/nucleon. Charge states are identified by their characteristic deflection in a magnetic field, whereas the ion energies are independently determined by a time-of-flight measurement. To monitor the signals a delay-line detector is used which records ion impact positions and times in each laser shot. Compared to conventional Thomson parabola spectrometers our instrument provides a low background measurement, hence a superior dynamic range. Further features are an improved energy resolution and a significantly increased transmission. We demonstrate the performance by showing charge-state resolved ion energy spectra from the Coulomb explosion of a low-density target, i.e., silver clusters exposed to intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  5. Computer simulations analysis for determining the polarity of charge generated by high energy electron irradiation of a thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malac, Marek; Hettler, Simon; Hayashida, Misa; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Konyuba, Yuji; Okura, Yoshi; Iijima, Hirofumi; Ishikawa, Isamu; Beleggia, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Detailed simulations are necessary to correctly interpret the charge polarity of electron beam irradiated thin film patch. Relying on systematic simulations we provide guidelines and movies to interpret experimentally the polarity of the charged area, to be understood as the sign of the electrostatic potential developed under the beam with reference to a ground electrode. We discuss the two methods most frequently used to assess charge polarity: Fresnel imaging of the irradiated area and Thon rings analysis. We also briefly discuss parameter optimization for hole free phase plate (HFPP) imaging. Our results are particularly relevant to understanding contrast of hole-free phase plate imaging and Berriman effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Observation of the Hadronic Final State Charge Asymmetry in High Q^2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level.

  7. Observation of the hadronic final state charge asymmetry in high Q{sup 2} deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level. (orig.)

  8. High performance organic nonvolatile memory transistors based on HfO2 and poly(α-methylstyrene) electret hybrid charge-trapping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. C.; He, H. X.; Jing, X. S.; Wu, S. J.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, J. W.; Gao, X. S.; Zhou, G. F.; Lu, X. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we fabricated a high performance flash-type organic nonvolatile memory transistor, which adopted polymer-electret poly(α-methylstyrene) (PαMS) and HfO2 films as hybrid charge trapping layer (CTL). Compared with a single HfO2 or PαMS CTL structure, the hybrid HfO2/PαMS CTL structure can provide enhanced charge trapping efficiency to increase the device operation speed and reduce the leakage current to boost the device reliability. The fabricated nonvolatile organic memory transistors with the hybrid CTL shows excellent electrical properties, including low operation voltage (8 V), high speed (retention (on-off current ratio of 2.6 × 104 after 104 s), and good endurance (more than 2000 program/erase cycles). The present work provides useful idea for the design of future low-power consumption and highly reliable organic nonvolatile memories.

  9. High precision dual-axis tracking solar wireless charging system based on the four quadrant photoelectric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhilong; Wang, Biao; Tong, Weichao

    2015-08-01

    This paper designs a solar automatic tracking wireless charging system based on the four quadrant photoelectric sensor. The system track the sun's rays automatically in real time to received the maximum energy and wireless charging to the load through electromagnetic coupling. Four quadrant photoelectric sensor responsive to the solar spectrum, the system could get the current azimuth and elevation angle of the light by calculating the solar energy incident on the sensor profile. System driver the solar panels by the biaxial movement mechanism to rotate and tilt movement until the battery plate and light perpendicular to each other. Maximize the use of solar energy, and does not require external power supply to achieve energy self-sufficiency. Solar energy can be collected for portable devices and load wireless charging by close electromagnetic field coupling. Experimental data show that: Four quadrant photoelectric sensor more sensitive to light angle measurement. when track positioning solar light, Azimuth deviation is less than 0.8°, Elevation angle deviation is less than 0.6°. Use efficiency of a conventional solar cell is only 10% -20%.The system uses a Four quadrant dual-axis tracking to raise the utilization rate of 25% -35%.Wireless charging electromagnetic coupling efficiency reached 60%.

  10. Polyethylenimine Insulativity-Dominant Charge-Injection Balance for Highly Efficient Inverted Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Chen, Hongting; Fan, Lianwei; Wang, Bo; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei

    2017-06-14

    Quantum dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) with an inverted architecture suffer from charge-injection imbalance and severe QD charging, which degrade device performance. Blocking excess electron injection into QDs is crucial for efficient inverted QLEDs. It is observed that polyethylenimine (PEI) has two opposite effects on electron injection: one is blocking electron injection by its intrinsic insulativity and the other one is promoting electron injection by reducing the work function of ZnO/PEI. In this work, the insulating nature of PEI has been dominantly utilized to reduce electron injection and the charge-injection balance is realized when PEI becomes thicker and blocks more excess electrons. Furthermore, PEI contributes to QD charging suppression and results in a smoother surface morphology than that of ZnO nanoparticles, which is beneficial for leakage current reduction and QD deposition. As a result, the optimized QLED with 15 nm PEI shows a 2.5 times improved efficiency compared to that of the QLED without PEI. Also, the QLED possesses the maximum external quantum efficiency and current efficiency of 16.5% and 18.8 cd/A, respectively, accompanied with a low efficiency roll-off of 15% at 1000 cd/m2, which is comparable to that of the reported inverted red QLED with the highest efficiency.

  11. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  12. Communication: Two-step explosion processes of highly charged fullerene cations C{sub 60}{sup q+} (q = 20–60)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Kaoru; Nakamura, Takashi; Kanno, Manabu; Kono, Hirohiko, E-mail: hirokiko-kono@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Niitsu, Naoyuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nanosystem Research Institute (NRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Ueda, Kiyoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-28

    To establish the fundamental understanding of the fragmentation dynamics of highly positive charged nano- and bio-materials, we carried out on-the-fly classical trajectory calculations on the fragmentation dynamics of C{sub 60}{sup q+} (q = 20–60). We used the UB3LYP/3-21G level of density functional theory and the self-consistent charge density-functional based tight-binding theory. For q ≥ 20, we found that a two-step explosion mechanism governs the fragmentation dynamics: C{sub 60}{sup q+} first ejects singly and multiply charged fast atomic cations C{sup z+} (z ≥ 1) via Coulomb explosions on a timescale of 10 fs to stabilize the remaining core cluster. Thermal evaporations of slow atomic and molecular fragments from the core cluster subsequently occur on a timescale of 100 fs to 1 ps. Increasing the charge q makes the fragments smaller. This two-step mechanism governs the fragmentation dynamics in the most likely case that the initial kinetic energy accumulated upon ionization to C{sub 60}{sup q+} by ion impact or X-ray free electron laser is larger than 100 eV.

  13. Search for magnetic monopoles and stable particles with high electric charges in 8 TeV $pp$ collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Mora, Jennifer; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Noordeh, Emil; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-03-18

    A search for highly ionizing particles produced in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV center-of-mass energy is performed by the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 7.0 fb$^{-1}$. A customized trigger significantly increases the sensitivity, permitting a search for such particles with charges and energies beyond what was previously accessible. No event is found in the signal region, leading to production cross-section upper limits in the mass range 200--2500 GeV for magnetic monopoles with magnetic charge in the range $0.5g_{D}<|g|<2.0g_{D}$, where $g_{D}$ is the Dirac charge, and for stable particles with electric charge in the range $10<|z|<60$. Model-dependent limits are presented in given pair-production scenarios, and model-independent limits are presented in fiducial regions of particle energy and pseudorapidity.

  14. Characteristics of the Shanghai high-temperature superconducting electron-beam ion trap and studies of the space-charge effect under ultralow-energy operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, B.; Lu, Q. F.; Cheng, T.; Li, M. C.; Yang, Y.; Yao, K.; Shen, Y.; Lu, D.; Xiao, J.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2017-10-01

    A high-temperature superconducting electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) has been set up at the Shanghai EBIT Laboratory for spectroscopic studies of low-charge-state ions. In the study reported here, beam trajectory simulations are implemented in order to provide guidance for the operation of this EBIT under ultralow-energy conditions, which has been successfully achieved with a full-transmission electron-beam current of 1-8.7 mA at a nominal electron energy of 30-120 eV. The space-charge effect is studied through both simulations and experiments. A modified iterative formula is proposed to estimate the space-charge potential of the electrons and shows very good agreement with the simulation results. In addition, space-charge compensation by trapped ions is found in extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic measurements of carbon ions and is studied through simulation of ion behavior in the EBIT. Based on the simulation results, the ion-cloud radius, ion density, and electron-ion overlap are obtained.

  15. The SlCBL10 Calcineurin B-Like Protein Ensures Plant Growth under Salt Stress by Regulating Na+and Ca2+Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Pineda, Benito; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Plasencia, Félix A; Drevensek, Stéphanie; García-Sogo, Begoña; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Barrero-Gil, Javier; Atarés, Alejandro; Flores, Francisco B; Barneche, Fredy; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Carmen; Salinas, Julio; Vriezen, Wim; Esch, Elisabeth; Bowler, Chris; Bolarín, Maria C; Moreno, Vicente; Lozano, Rafael

    2018-02-01

    Characterization of a new tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) T-DNA mutant allowed for the isolation of the CALCINEURIN B-LIKE PROTEIN 10 ( SlCBL10 ) gene whose lack of function was responsible for the severe alterations observed in the shoot apex and reproductive organs under salinity conditions. Physiological studies proved that SlCBL10 gene is required to maintain a proper low Na + /Ca 2+ ratio in growing tissues allowing tomato growth under salt stress. Expression analysis of the main responsible genes for Na + compartmentalization (i.e. Na + /H + EXCHANGERs , SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE , HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1;2 , H + -pyrophosphatase AVP1 [ SlAVP1 ] and V-ATPase [ SlVHA-A1 ]) supported a reduced capacity to accumulate Na + in Slcbl10 mutant leaves, which resulted in a lower uploading of Na + from xylem, allowing the toxic ion to reach apex and flowers. Likewise, the tomato CATION EXCHANGER 1 and TWO-PORE CHANNEL 1 ( SlTPC1 ), key genes for Ca 2+ fluxes to the vacuole, showed abnormal expression in Slcbl10 plants indicating an impaired Ca 2+ release from vacuole. Additionally, complementation assay revealed that SlCBL10 is a true ortholog of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) CBL10 gene, supporting that the essential function of CBL10 is conserved in Arabidopsis and tomato. Together, the findings obtained in this study provide new insights into the function of SlCBL10 in salt stress tolerance. Thus, it is proposed that SlCBL10 mediates salt tolerance by regulating Na + and Ca 2+ fluxes in the vacuole, cooperating with the vacuolar cation channel SlTPC1 and the two vacuolar H + -pumps, SlAVP1 and SlVHA-A1 , which in turn are revealed as potential targets of SlCBL10 . © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Investigation of genes encoding calcineurin B-like protein family in legumes and their expression analyses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Meena

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants' response process. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic Ca2+-concentration for response process. A search in four leguminous plant (soybean, Medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode CBL proteins. Sequence analyses of CBL peptides and coding sequences (CDS suggested that there are nine original CBL genes in these legumes and some of them were multiplied during whole genome or local gene duplication. Coding sequences of chickpea CBL genes (CaCBL were cloned from their cDNAs and sequenced, and their annotations in the genome assemblies were corrected accordingly. Analyses of protein sequences and gene structures of CBL family in plant kingdom indicated its diverse origin but showed a remarkable conservation in overall protein structure with appearance of complex gene structure in the course of evolution. Expression of CaCBL genes in different tissues and in response to different stress and hormone treatment were studied. Most of the CaCBL genes exhibited high expression in flowers. Expression profile of CaCBL genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormones related to development and stresses (ABA, auxin, cytokinin, SA and JA at different time intervals suggests their diverse roles in development and plant defence in addition to abiotic stress tolerance. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of chickpea CBL gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in chickpea functional genomics.

  17. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zorin, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Sidorov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Bokhanov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Izotov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Razin, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Skalyga, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2013-06-02

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available, however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (~100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (~1013 cm-3) with a relatively low electron temperature (~50- 100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (~1 A/cm2) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  18. Mechanical properties, Born effective charge tensors and high frequency dielectric constants of the eight phases of BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Wang, Zheng; Jiang, Cheng-Lu; Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2017-07-01

    We have preformed the first-principles calculations for the mechanical properties, Born effective charge tensors and high frequency dielectric constants of the eight phases of BaTiO3. The independent elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were obtained, which were consistent with the available theoretical and experimental values. The mechanical stability and brittle/ductile behaviors of the eight phases of BaTiO3 have been discussed. The calculated results indicated that the eight phases were all mechanically stable and behaved in a brittle manner. The calculated Born effective charge tensors shown the covalent Ti-O bond and ionic Ba-O bond. Moreover, the high frequency dielectric constants have been given.

  19. Nontargeted stressful effects in normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to low fluences of high charge, high energy (HZE) particles: kinetics of biologic responses and significance of secondary radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, Géraldine; Groetz, Jean-Emmanuel; de Toledo, Sonia M; Howell, Roger W; Fromm, Michel; Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-04-01

    The induction of nontargeted stressful effects in cell populations exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation. We investigated the up-regulation of stress markers in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to 1,000 MeV/u iron ions [linear energy transfer (LET) ∼151 keV/μm] or 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET ∼50 keV/μm) at mean absorbed doses as low as 0.2 cGy, wherein 1-3% of the cells were targeted through the nucleus by a primary particle. Within 24 h postirradiation, significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21(Waf1) (CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were detected, which suggested participation in the stress response of cells not targeted by primary particles. This was supported by in situ studies that indicated greater increases in 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage. than expected from the number of primary particle traversals. The effect was expressed as early as 15 min after exposure, peaked at 1 h and decreased by 24 h. A similar tendency occurred after exposure of the cell cultures to 0.2 cGy of 3.7 MeV α particles (LET ∼109 keV/μm) that targets ∼1.6% of nuclei, but not after 0.2 cGy from 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET ∼13 keV/μm) by which, on average, ∼13% of the nuclei were hit, which highlights the importance of radiation quality in the induced effect. Simulations with the FLUKA multi-particle transport code revealed that fragmentation products, other than electrons, in cell cultures exposed to HZE particles comprise particles.

  20. The Simple, Effective Synthesis of Highly Dispersed Pd/C and CoPd/C Heterogeneous Catalysts via Charge-Enhanced Dry Impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D’Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pd/C and CoPd/C heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesized by adopting Charge Enhanced Dry Impregnation (CEDI. The particles size distribution, their high metal surface-to-bulk ratios, and synthesis feasibility are unmatchable to any known noble metal bimetallic heterogeneous catalyst preparation techniques. Next generation Fuel Cells and Fischer-Tropsch catalytic processes economy will be benefited from the proposed methodology.

  1. Cargas elétricas estruturais e variáveis de solos tropicais altamente intemperizados Structural and variable electric charges of highly weathered tropical soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarlina Lucia dos Santos Weber

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os solos tropicais altamente intemperizados apresentam teor significativo de colóides com carga elétrica variável. Entretanto, são poucas as referências em relação à quantificação destas cargas, principalmente em solos ácricos, que representam o extremo na escala de intemperismo. Neste estudo, foram determinadas as cargas permanentes e as variáveis de dois Latossolos Vermelhos acriférricos, um Latossolo Amarelo ácrico e um Latossolo Amarelo acriférrico, que foram comparados a um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, com carga predominantemente permanente. As amostras foram investigadas pelo método da adsorção do íon césio (Cs+, que mede a carga estrutural permanente (sigmao e baseia-se na preferência do Cs+ sobre o Li+ na superfície da siloxana de grupos de superfície ionizáveis de menor seletividade ao íon Cs+. A carga variável representou mais que 50 % da carga total dos solos estudados. Dois dos quatro Latossolos com propriedades ácricas exibiram quantidade significativa de carga permanente, provavelmente em razão da presença de vermiculita com hidróxi entrecamadas e clorita. A quantidade de carga permanente apresentada pelo Nitossolo foi até cinco vezes maior se comparada à dos Latossolos, o que pode ser atribuído à diferença na constituição mineralógica. O método da adsorção de Cs foi capaz de identificar teores significativos de carga permanente estrutural, mesmo em solos com baixo teor de minerais 2:1.Highly weathered tropical soils present high amount of colloids with variable electrical charge. However, there are few references related to the quantification of such charges, mainly in soils with acric attributes, which represent one of the extremes in the weathering scale. In this study permanent and variable charges were determined in four Oxisols and compared to an Alfisol with predominantly permanent charge. Samples were investigated using the Cs+ adsorption method, which measures the structural

  2. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  3. Measurement of Neutral and Charged Current Cross Sections in Electron-Proton Collisions at High $Q^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazarian, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyian, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    The inclusive e^-p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA, in the range of four-momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 150 and 30000 GeV^2, and Bjorken x between 0.002 and 0.65. The data were taken in 1998 and 1999 with a centre-of-mass energy of 320 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 16.4 pb^(-1). The data are compared with recent measurements of the inclusive neutral and charged current e^+p cross sections. For Q^2>1000 GeV^2 clear evidence is observed for an asymmetry between e^+p and e^-p neutral current scattering and the generalised structure function xF_3 is extracted for the first time at HERA. A fit to the charged current data is used to extract a value for the W boson propagator mass. The data are found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  4. Improvement of polypyrrole nanowire devices by plasmonic space charge generation: high photocurrent and wide spectral response by Ag nanoparticle decoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, Jaw-Won

    In this study, improvement of the opto-electronic properties of non-single crystallized nanowire devices with space charges generated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is demonstrated. The photocurrent and spectral response of single polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire (NW) devices are increased by electrostatically attached Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The photocurrent density is remarkably improved, up to 25.3 times, by the Ag NP decoration onto the PPy NW (PPyAgNPs NW) under blue light illumination. In addition, the PPyAgNPs NW shows a photocurrent decay time twice that of PPy NW, as well as an improved spectral response of the photocurrent. The improved photocurrent efficiency, decay time, and spectral response resulted from the space charges generated by the LSPR of Ag NPs. Furthermore, the increasing exponent (m) of the photocurrent (JPC ~Vm) and finite-differential time domain (FDTD) simulation straightforwardly indicate relatively large plasmonic space charge generation. Supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (no. 2013K1A3A1A32035429 and 2015R1A1A1A05027681).

  5. Anomalously high yield of doubly charged Si ions sputtered from cleaned Si surface by keV neutral Ar impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N.; Morita, K. E-mail: k-morita@mail.nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Dhole, S.D.; Ishikawa, D

    2001-08-01

    The energy spectra of positively charged and neutral species ejected from the Si(1 1 1) surfaces by keV Ar impact have been measured by means of a combined technique of the time-of-flight (TOF) analysis with the multi-photon resonance ionization spectroscopy (MPRIS). It is shown that positively charged species of Si{sup +}, Si{sup 2+} and SiO{sup +} are ejected from the as-cleaned 7x7 surface by 11 keV Ar impact. It is also shown that Ar sputter cleaning of the as-cleaned 7x7 surface for 14 min at the flux of 2x10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}s removes completely the oxygen impurity and the yields of Si{sup 2+} is comparable to that of Si{sup +}. Moreover, the ionization probability of Si atoms sputtered is shown to be expressed as an exponential function of the inverse of their velocity. The production mechanism for the doubly charged Si ion is discussed based on the L-shell ionization of Si atoms due to quasi-molecule formation in the collisions of the surface atoms with energetic recoils and subsequent Auger decay of the L-shell vacancy to doubly ionized Si ions.

  6. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kassel, Florian; Dabrowski, Anne; de Boer, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field,...

  7. Highly-Efficient Charge Separation and Polaron Delocalization in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunctions: A Comparative Multi-Frequency EPR & DFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L.; Banks, Brian P.; Grooms, Gregory M.; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing depletion of fossil fuels has led to an intensive search for additional renewable energy sources. Solar-based technologies could provide sufficient energy to satisfy the global economic demands in the near future. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are the most promising man-made devices for direct solar energy utilization. Understanding the charge separation and charge transport in PV materials at a molecular level is crucial for improving the efficiency of the solar cells. Here, we use light-induced EPR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations to study the electronic structure of charge separated states in blends of polymers (P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7) and fullerene derivatives (C60-PCBM and C70-PCBM). Solar cells made with the same composites as active layers show power conversion efficiencies of 3.3% (P3HT), 6.1% (PCDTBT), and 7.3% (PTB7), respectively. Under illumination of these composites, two paramagnetic species are formed due to photo-induced electron transfer between the conjugated polymer and the fullerene. They are the positive, P+, and negative, P-, polarons on the polymer backbone and fullerene cage, respectively, and correspond to radical cations and radical anions. Using the high spectral resolution of high-frequency EPR (130 GHz), the EPR spectra of these species were resolved and principal components of the g-tensors were assigned. Light-induced pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy allowed the determination of 1H hyperfine coupling constants of photogenerated positive and negative polarons. The experimental results obtained for the different polymer-fullerene composites have been compared with DFT calculations, revealing that in all three systems the positive polaron is distributed over distances of 40 - 60 Å on the polymer chain. This corresponds to about 15 thiophene units for P3HT, approximately three units PCDTBT, and about three to four units for PTB7. No spin density delocalization between neighboring fullerene molecules was detected by EPR. Strong

  8. Highly Repeatable and Recoverable Phototransistors Based on Multifunctional Channels of Photoactive CdS, Fast Charge Transporting ZnO, and Chemically Durable Al2O3 Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kang, Won Jun; Kim, Ye Kyun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-06-22

    Highly repeatable and recoverable phototransistors were explored using a "multifunctional channels" structure with multistacked chalcogenide and oxide semiconductors. These devices were made of (i) photoactive CdS (with a visible band gap), (ii) fast charge transporting ZnO (with a high field-effect mobility), and (iii) a protection layer of Al2O3 (with high chemical durability). The CdS TFT without the Al2O3 protection layer did not show a transfer curve due to the chemical damage that occurred on the ZnO layer during the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process used for CdS deposition. Alternatively, compared to CdS phototransistors with long recovery time and high hysteresis (ΔVth = 19.5 V), our "multi-functional channels" phototransistors showed an extremely low hysteresis loop (ΔVth = 0.5V) and superior photosensitivity with repeatable high photoresponsivity (52.9 A/W at 400 nm). These improvements are likely caused by the physical isolation of the sensing region and charge transport region by the insertion of the ultrathin Al2O3 layer. This approach successfully addresses some of the existing problems in CdS phototransistors, such as the high gate-interface trap site density and high absorption of molecular oxygen, which originate from the polycrystalline CdS.

  9. Guest Editor’s Notes on the “Atoms” Special Issue on “Perspectives of Atomic Physics with Trapped Highly Charged Ions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Träbert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of highly charged ions (HCI was pursued first at Uppsala (Sweden, by Edlén and Tyrén in the 1930s. Their work led to the recognition that the solar corona is populated by such ions, an insight which forced massive paradigm changes in solar physics. Plasmas aiming at controlled fusion in the laboratory, laser-produced plasmas, foil-excited swift ion beams, and electron beam ion traps have all pushed the envelope in the production of HCI. However, while there are competitive aspects in the race for higher ion charge states, the real interest lies in the very many physics topics that can be studied in these ions. Out of this rich field, the Special Issue concentrates on atomic physics studies that investigate highly charged ions produced, maintained, and/or manipulated in ion traps. There have been excellent achievements in the field in the past, and including fairly recent work, they have been described by their authors at conferences and in the appropriate journals. The present article attempts an overview over current lines of development, some of which are expanded upon in this Special Issue.

  10. Energy loss and electron and x-ray emission of slow highly charged Arq+ ions in grazing incidence on an Al(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xianwen; Hu, Bitao; Zhang, Chengjun; Wang, Jijin; Chen, Chunhua

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the classical over-barrier model, energy loss, electron emission, and x-ray emission of slow highly charged ion Arq+ grazing on the Al(111) single-crystal surface under various azimuthal angles have been studied. The enhancement of energy loss, potential electron emission yields, intensity of KL1 satellite lines, or x-ray yields for the Ar17+ ion grazing along low-index crystallographic directions was observed. The calculated energy-loss spectra of atomic projectiles Ar0 interacting with metallic surface agree reasonably well with experiment. The inner-shell filling contributions through the side feeding mechanism, Auger transitions, and the radiative decay process are discussed by analyzing the final charge-state distributions of the reflected ions, potential electron emission yields, and x-ray yields under different azimuthal angles.

  11. Graphite and fiberglass additives for improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycle life of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.; Hollenkamp, A. F.

    In order to accommodate regenerative braking energy input in hybrid and mild hybrid vehicles while maintaining boosting power at high rates of discharge, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries must operate permanently at partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) conditions. As a consequence, new failure modes appear, e.g., irreversible sulfation in negative plates, that have to be overcome. In this way, work has been done to apply some solutions like improving charge acceptance in this "sulfated medium". Several batches of 6 V 20 Ah AGM VRLA batteries with spiral cell design have been assembled and tested, each batch containing novel additives in the negative active material (NAM). It has been observed that the addition of a sufficient amount of expanded graphite significantly improves cycle life under PSoC conditions. Moreover, life duration is also extended, although to a lesser extent, by using a novel fiberglass which increases surface area of NAM.

  12. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  13. Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A. E-mail: anna.cavallini@bo.infn.it; Polenta, L.; Canali, C.; Nava, F

    1999-04-21

    The effect of irradiation on semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes has been investigated by means of surface potential measurements and spectroscopic techniques. Before and after irradiation the electric field exhibits a Mott barrier-like distribution, and the box-shaped space charge modifies its distribution with irradiation. The increase in density or the generation of some traps changes the compensation ratio producing a deeper active region and a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field. The latter phenomenon is also observed by EBIC images of edge-mounted diodes.

  14. Electric field and space-charge distribution in SI GaAs: effect of high-energy proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldini, A; Polenta, L; Canali, C; Nava, F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on semi-insulating gallium arsenide Schottky diodes has been investigated by means of surface potential measurements and spectroscopic techniques. Before and after irradiation the electric field exhibits a Mott barrier-like distribution, and the box-shaped space charge modifies its distribution with irradiation. The increase in density or the generation of some traps changes the compensation ratio producing a deeper active region and a more homogeneous distribution of the electric field. The latter phenomenon is also observed by EBIC images of edge-mounted diodes.

  15. Combined Inter- and Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Processes for Highly Efficient Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Reduced Triplet Exciton Quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang-Ki; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Kaji, Hironori; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2017-05-01

    Inter- and intramolecular charge-transfer processes are combined using an exciplex-forming host and a thermally activated delayed fluorescent dopant, for fabricating efficient fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes along with the reduced efficiency roll-off at high current densities. Extra conversion on the host from triplet exciplexes to singlet exciplexes followed by energy transfer to the dopant reduces population of triplet excitons on dopant molecules, thereby reducing the triplet exciton annihilations at high current densities. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A High-Energy Charge-Separated State of 1.70 eV from a High-Potential Donor-Acceptor Dyad: A Catalyst for Energy-Demanding Photochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gary N; Obondi, Christopher O; D'Souza, Francis

    2016-09-12

    A high potential donor-acceptor dyad composed of zinc porphyrin bearing three meso-pentafluorophenyl substituents covalently linked to C60 , as a novel dyad capable of generating charge-separated states of high energy (potential) has been developed. The calculated energy of the charge-separated state was found to be 1.70 eV, the highest reported for a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad. Intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge-separated states of appreciable lifetimes in polar and nonpolar solvents has been established from studies involving femto- to nanosecond transient absorption techniques. The high energy stored in the form of charge-separated states along with its persistence of about 50-60 ns makes this dyad a potential electron-transporting catalyst to carry out energy-demanding photochemical reactions. This type of high-energy harvesting dyad is expected to open new research in the areas of artificial photosynthesis especially producing energy (potential) demanding light-to-fuel products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Involvement of a cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinase in platelet aggregation induced by tumor cells and their shed membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, P G; Sloane, B F; Bajkowski, A S; Gasic, G J; Gasic, T B; Honn, K V

    1983-01-01

    Murine 15091A mammary adenocarcinoma cells and membrane vesicles spontaneously shed from these tumor cells in culture can induce aggregation of washed human platelets. A spectrum of proteinase inhibitors was tested for their ability to inhibit 15091A induced platelet aggregation. Of the inhibitors tested the most effective were those selective for cysteine proteinases. The effect of the spectrum of proteinase inhibitors on 15091A induced platelet aggregation was compared to the effect on cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinase activity in homogenates of 15091A tumor cells and their spontaneously shed vesicles. The results suggest that there is a correlation between activity of a cathepsin B-like proteinase in 15091A cells and vesicles and the ability of these cells and vesicles to induce aggregation of washed human platelets.

  18. High-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon investigated by spectroscopic femtosecond pump–probe reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yurkevich, Igor V. [Aston University, Nonlinearity and Complexity Research Group, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zakar, Ammar [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kaplan, Andrey, E-mail: a.kaplan.1@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    We report an investigation into the high-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers far from equilibrium with the lattice. The investigated samples consist of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films grown on a thin film of silicon oxide on top of a silicon substrate. For the investigation, we used an optical femtosecond pump–probe setup to measure the reflectance change of a probe beam. The pump beam ranged between 580 and 820 nm, whereas the probe wavelength spanned 770 to 810 nm. The pump fluence was fixed at 0.6 mJ/cm{sup 2}. We show that at a fixed delay time of 300 fs, the conductivity of the excited electron–hole plasma is described well by a classical conductivity model of a hot charge carrier gas found at Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, while Fermi–Dirac statics is not suitable. This is corroborated by values retrieved from pump–probe reflectance measurements of the conductivity and its dependence on the excitation wavelength and carrier temperature. The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the excitation wavelength, as expected for a nondegenerate charge carrier gas. - Highlights: • We study high‐frequency conductivity of excited hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon. • Reflectance change was measured as a function of pump and probe wavelength. • Maxwell–Boltzmann transport theory was used to retrieve the conductivity. • The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the pump wavelength.

  19. Interaction of slow highly charged ions with a metal surface covered with a thin dielectric film. The role of the neutralization energy in the nanostructures formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkić, M. D.; Nedeljković, N. N.; Dojčilović, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the slow highly charged ions impinging upon a metal surface covered with a thin dielectric film, and formation of the surface nanostructures (craters) from the standpoint of the required energy. For the moderate ionic velocities, the size of the surface features depends on the deposited kinetic energy of the projectile and the ionic neutralization energy. The neutralization energy is calculated by employing the recently developed quasi-resonant two-state vector model for the intermediate Rydberg state population and the micro-staircase model for the cascade neutralization. The electron interactions with the ionic core, polarized dielectric and charge induced on the metal surface are modelled by the appropriate asymptotic expressions and the method for calculation of the effective ionic charges in the dielectric is proposed. The results are presented for the interaction of \\text{X}{{\\text{e}}Z+} ions (velocity v=0.25 a.u.; 25) with the metal surface (Co) covered with a thin dielectric film, for model values of dielectric constant inside the interaction region. In the absence of dielectric film, the neutralization energy is lower than the potential (ionization) energy due to the incomplete neutralization. The presence of dielectric film additionally decreases the neutralization energy. We calculate the projectile neutralization energy in the perturbed dielectric (perturbation is caused by the ionic motion and the surface structure formation). We correlate the neutralization energy added to the deposited kinetic energy with the experimentally obtained energy necessary for the formation of the nano-crater of a given depth.

  20. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  1. Charge storage mechanisms of manganese oxide nanosheets and N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Seubsai, Anusorn; Chanlek, Narong; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Sangthong, Winyoo; Maensiri, Santi; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Nilmoung, Sukanya; Pannopard, Panvika; Ittisanronnachai, Somlak; Kongpatpanich, Kanokwan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2016-01-01

    Although manganese oxide- and graphene-based supercapacitors have been widely studied, their charge storage mechanisms are not yet fully investigated. In this work, we have studied the charge storage mechanisms of K-birnassite MnO2 nanosheets and N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOae) using an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and an electrochemical quart crystal microbalance (EQCM). The oxidation number of Mn at the MnO2 electrode is +3.01 at 0 V vs. SCE for the charging process and gets oxidized to +3.12 at +0.8 V vs. SCE and then reduced back to +3.01 at 0 V vs. SCE for the discharging process. The mass change of solvated ions, inserted to the layers of MnO2 during the charging process is 7.4 μg cm−2. Whilst, the mass change of the solvated ions at the N-rGOae electrode is 8.4 μg cm−2. An asymmetric supercapacitor of MnO2//N-rGOae (CR2016) provides a maximum specific capacitance of ca. 467 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, a maximum specific power of 39 kW kg−1 and a specific energy of 40 Wh kg−1 with a wide working potential of 1.6 V and 93.2% capacity retention after 7,500 cycles. The MnO2//N-rGOae supercapacitor may be practically used in high power and energy applications. PMID:27857225

  2. Electroactive and High Dielectric Folic Acid/PVDF Composite Film Rooted Simplistic Organic Photovoltaic Self-Charging Energy Storage Cell with Superior Energy Density and Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swagata; Thakur, Pradip; Hoque, Nur Amin; Bagchi, Biswajoy; Sepay, Nayim; Khatun, Farha; Kool, Arpan; Das, Sukhen

    2017-07-19

    Herein we report a simplistic prototype approach to develop an organic photovoltaic self-charging energy storage cell (OPSESC) rooted with biopolymer folic acid (FA) modified high dielectric and electroactive β crystal enriched poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite (PFA) thin film. Comprehensive and exhaustive characterizations of the synthesized PFA composite films validate the proper formation of β-polymorphs in PVDF. Significant improvements of both β-phase crystallization (F(β) ≈ 71.4%) and dielectric constant (ε ≈ 218 at 20 Hz for PFA of 7.5 mass %) are the twosome realizations of our current study. Enhancement of β-phase nucleation in the composites can be thought as a contribution of the strong interaction of the FA particles with the PVDF chains. Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization approves the establishment of thermally stable high dielectric values measured over a wide temperature spectrum. The optimized high dielectric and electroactive films are further employed as an active energy storage material in designing our device named as OPSESC. Self-charging under visible light irradiation without an external biasing electrical field and simultaneous remarkable self-storage of photogenerated electrical energy are the two foremost aptitudes and the spotlight of our present investigation. Our as fabricated device delivers an impressively high energy density of 7.84 mWh/g and an excellent specific capacitance of 61 F/g which is superior relative to the other photon induced two electrode organic self-charging energy storage devices reported so far. Our device also proves the realistic utility with good recycling capability by facilitating commercially available light emitting diode.

  3. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept)

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, G; Girard, A; Hitz, D

    1999-01-01

    An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An expression is derived for determining the ion temperature from the values of all extracted ion currents. One aim is to study the ion temperature behavior in argon plasmas without and with mixing different gases into the plasma. For that purpose a series of experiments has been performed where systematically one or a few parameters where changed. One conclusion is that the ion temperature indeed is decreasing due to gas mixing. A second conclusion is that the decreasing ion temperature is not a sufficient requirement for the beneficial effect of gas mixing to the production of highest charge states of argon.

  4. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  5. Production of Highly Charged Heavy Ions by means of a Hybrid Source in Dc mode and in Afterglow Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, L.; Andò, L.; Celona, L.; Presti, M.; Manciagli, S.; Picciotto, A.; Mezzasalma, A. M.; Krása, J.; Láska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Parys, P.; Shirkov, G. D.; Hitz, D.

    2005-03-01

    The ECLISSE experiment has been carried out by coupling a Laser Ion Source (based on a Nd:YAG laser (0.9 J / 9 ns, laser power densities metal samples without the use of ovens or sputtering technics were obtained in a variety of experimental conditions. The maximum charge states obtained from the ECRIS were 38+ for Ta and 41+ for Au. The peak current was obtained for 25+ and 29+ respectively and it was in the order of some tens of μA. In this work the analysis of some preliminary results obtained in afterglow mode will be also presented. We employed microwave pulse (length 4 msec) and laser pulse (length 9 nsec) with the same frequency (30 Hz) and variable relative phase. For appropriate phase values, a current enhancement of about one order of magnitude was observed.

  6. Analysis of terpene lactones in a Ginkgo leaf extract by high-performance liquid chromatography using charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Naoki; Icho, Takeshi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2010-01-01

    A new HPLC method using charged aerosol detection was developed for the determination of terpene lactones in a Ginkgo leaf extract. The linearity of the standard curves was excellent (r>0.999). The repeatability of the method was less than 3%, and its reproducibility was less than 5% for each analyte. The limit of detection was between 0.087 and 0.45 microg/ml. The developed method was applied to the analysis of terpene lactones in Ginkgo leaf products distributed in the Japanese market. The results suggest that some health food products contained approximately equivalent amounts of terpene lactones to those in the medical product and that the proportion of terpene lactones varied in each health product.

  7. Understanding Charge Transport and Recombination Losses in High Performance Polymer Solar Cells with Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuning; Zuo, Xiaobing; Xie, Shenkun; Yuan, Jianyu; Zhou, Huiqiong; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-09-07

    The photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells can be enhanced by achieving a fundamental understanding of the key processes that govern the device behaviour. In this work, we comprehensively investigate temperature (T)-dependent charge transport, non-geminate recombination losses and intermolecular stacking based on three representative organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells comprising the polymeric donor of PBDB-T blended with non-fullerene small molecule ITIC and polymeric P(NDI2OD-T2) alongside PC71BM acceptors. Surprisingly, the champion solar cell based on PBDB-T: ITIC, even though exhibiting the most imbalanced transport, produces the highest PCE approaching 10%. We find that such an imbalance is in association with the decrease in the recombination reduction factor with respect to the Langevin rate constant. This beneficially leads to mitigated non-geminate recombination and gains in photoconductivity. In contrast, the all-polymer solar cell using the P(NDI2OD-T2) acceptor displays an excellent balance in mobility while suffering from a more substantial recombination, which causes severe carrier losses and reduced photocurrent. T-dependent mobility measurements indicate that the activation energy for the transport in these BHJ films is low (50-150 meV) which is rationalized by the preferential out-of-plane intermolecular pi-pi stacking mainly adopted by the donor molecules. The combined results point to an indication that the electron mobility in non-fullerene acceptors may not be a severe restraint while charge recombination losses play a critical role in ultimate photovoltaic characteristics based on these emerging materials

  8. Spacecraft Surface Charging Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Location High potential si&e of C Pulser output Wires on drive pU~ Sensor Woih-voltuge Probe Cuwaln prole Current protw Connection tard ...477, 1982. 316 Gabriel , S. B. and Garrett, H. B.. "An Overview of Charging Environments," Space Environmental Effects on Materials Workshop, p. 495

  9. Interaction of slow, highly charged ions with the surface of ionic crystals; Wechselwirkung langsamer hochgeladener Ionen mit der Oberflaeche von Ionenkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Rene

    2009-08-15

    In this thesis the creation of permanent nanostructures induced by the impact of very slow (v{<=}5 x 10{sup 5} m/s) highly charged (q{<=}40) ions on the ionic crystal surfaces of CaF{sub 2} and KBr is investigated. The systematic analysis of the samples surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy supplies information on the influence of the potential as well as the kinetic projectile energy on the process of structure creation. The individual impact of highly charged ions on the KBr(001) surface can initiate the creation of mono-atomic deep pit-like structures -nanopits- with a lateral size of a few 10 nm. The volume of these pits and the corresponding number of sputtered secondary particles show a linear dependence on the projectiles potential energy. For the onset of pit formation a kinetic energy dependent threshold in the potential energy E{sup grenz}{sub pot}(E{sub kin}) could be identified. Based on the defect-mediated desorption by electrons and by including effects of defect agglomeration a consistent model for the process of pit formation was drawn. In this work the recently discovered creation of hillock-like structures by impact of highly charged ions on CaF{sub 2}(111) surfaces could be verified for lowest kinetic energies (E{sub kin}{<=}150 eV x q). For the first time the potential energy of impinging projectiles could be identified to be exclusively responsible for the creation of nanostructures. Furthermore, a shift of potential energy threshold for hillock formation was observed for very small projectile velocities. Within the framework of cooperation with the Vienna University of Technology simulations based on the inelastic thermal spike model were performed, which allowed to interlink the individual hillock formation with a local melting of the ionic lattice. The essential influence of electron emission during the interaction of the highly charged ions with the surface on the process of nanostructuring was taken into consideration by

  10. Model for the high-temperature oxygen-ordering thermodynamics in YBa2Cu3O6+x - inclusion of electron spin and charge degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleger, P.; Hardy, W.N.; Casalta, H.

    1994-01-01

    A lattice-gas model for the high temperature oxygen-ordering thermodynamics in YBa2Cu3O6+x is presented, which assumes constant effective pair interactions between oxygen atoms and includes in a simple fashion the effect of the electron spin and charge degrees of freedom. This is done using...... a commonly utilized picture relating the creation of mobile electron holes and unpaired spins to the insertion of oxygen into the basal plane. The model is solved using the nearest-neighbor square approximation of the cluster-variation method. In addition, preliminary Monte Carlo results using next...

  11. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar

    2010-06-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  12. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  13. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  14. Preliminary Study on Function of Calcineurin B-Like Protein Gene OsCBL8 in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-jun MA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The homozygous T3 transgenic lines with sense OsCBL8 gene and antisense OsCBL8 gene obtained by agro-transformation were used to investigate the function of OsCBL8 in rice. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of OsCBL8 extremely increased in sense transgenic lines, and decreased to some extents in antisense transgenic lines. Such up- and down-regulation of the OsCBL8 gene in these transgenic lines had little effects on main agronomic traits, but significantly decreased the number of filled grains per panicle and seed setting rate in some of transgenic lines. By evaluation of the tolerance to 150 mmol/L NaCl, 20% PEG6000 and low temperature treatments, and relevant physiological indices, 8F12, a sense transgenic line with high salt tolerance, and 8R14, an antisense transgenic line with high drought tolerance, were obtained, which suggests that the OsCBL8 gene is involved in the response of rice to abiotic stresses.

  15. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  16. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  17. Charge-density analysis of an iron-sulfur protein at an ultra-high resolution of 0.48 Å.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yu; Takeda, Kazuki; Miki, Kunio

    2016-06-09

    The fine structures of proteins, such as the positions of hydrogen atoms, distributions of valence electrons and orientations of bound waters, are critical factors for determining the dynamic and chemical properties of proteins. Such information cannot be obtained by conventional protein X-ray analyses at 3.0-1.5 Å resolution, in which amino acids are fitted into atomically unresolved electron-density maps and refinement calculations are performed under strong restraints. Therefore, we usually supplement the information on hydrogen atoms and valence electrons in proteins with pre-existing common knowledge obtained by chemistry in small molecules. However, even now, computational calculation of such information with quantum chemistry also tends to be difficult, especially for polynuclear metalloproteins. Here we report a charge-density analysis of the high-potential iron-sulfur protein from the thermophilic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum using X-ray data at an ultra-high resolution of 0.48 Å. Residual electron densities in the conventional refinement are assigned as valence electrons in the multipolar refinement. Iron 3d and sulfur 3p electron densities of the Fe4S4 cluster are visualized around the atoms. Such information provides the most detailed view of the valence electrons of the metal complex in the protein. The asymmetry of the iron-sulfur cluster and the protein environment suggests the structural basis of charge storing on electron transfer. Our charge-density analysis reveals many fine features around the metal complex for the first time, and will enable further theoretical and experimental studies of metalloproteins.

  18. Fatty acid composition analysis in polysorbate 80 with high performance liquid chromatography coupled to charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilko, David; Braun, Alexandra; Germershaus, Oliver; Meinel, Lorenz; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of polysorbate 80 (PS80), a sorbitan oleic acid ester copolymerized with about 20mole of ethylene oxide, is typically characterized by gas chromatography. Here, an alternative method was developed. After saponification with potassium hydroxide the FA fraction was collected with liquid-liquid extraction using methyl-tert-butyl ether. HPLC in combination with a Corona® charged aerosol detector (CAD) was applied for the separation and detection. The method was fully validated in terms of specificity, repeatability, limits of quantification, linearity, range, accuracy and robustness. The characterization of 16 different PS80 batches demonstrated variability regarding their FA composition, with e.g. the amount of oleic acid ranging from 67.8±0.7% to 96.6±1.4%. Furthermore, we identified petroselinic acid, a double-bond positional isomer to oleic acid in all batches, an FA not known to pharmacopoeias at present. In addition, 11-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, an oxidation product of oleic acid was identified. Structure elucidation was performed by means of HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, the method was expanded to the evaluation of the free FAs. Having determined the entire FA composition, the acid value according to EP and USP can be calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of high-Q^2 charged current cross sections in e^+p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bodmann, B; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, A A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav--, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kram, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stoesslein, U; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E

    2003-01-01

    Cross sections for e^+p charged current deep inelastic scattering at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV have been determined with an integrated luminosity of 60.9pb^-1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The differential cross sections dsigma/dQ^2, dsigma/dx and dsigma/dy for Q^2>200 GeV^2 are presented. In addition, d^2sigma/dxdQ^2 has been measured in the kinematic range 280 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 17000 GeV^2 and 0.008 < x < 0.42. The predictions of the Standard Model agree well with the measured cross sections. The mass of the W boson propagator is determined to be M_W=78.9 +/- 2.0 (stat.) +/- 1.8 (syst.) +2.0 -1.8 (PDF) GeV from a fit to dsigma/dQ^2. The chiral structure of the Standard Model is also investigated in terms of the (1-y)^2 dependence of the the double-differential cross section. The structure-function F_2^CC has been extracted by combining the measurements presented here with previous ZEUS results from e^-p scattering, extending the measurement obtained in a neutrino-nucleus scatter...

  20. Molecular characterization of a KIF3B-like kinesin gene in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei (Cephalopoda, Octopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ran; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Tan, Fu-Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    KIF3B is known for maintaining and assembling cilia and flagellum. To date, the function of KIF3B and its relationship with KIF3A during spermiogenesis in the cephalopod Octopus tankahkeei remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized a gene encoding a homologue of rat KIF3B in the O. tankahkeei testis and examined its temporal and spatial expression pattern during spermiogenesis. The cDNA of KIF3B was obtained with degenerate and RACE PCR and the distribution pattern of ot-kif3b were observed with RT-PCR. The morphological development during spermiogenesis was illustrated by histological and transmission electron microscopy and mRNA expression of ot-kif3b was observed by in situ hybridization. The 2,365 nucleotides cDNA consisted of a 102 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 2,208 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 736 amino acids, and a 55 bp 3' UTR. Multiple alignments revealed that the putative Ot-KIF3B shared 68, 68, 69, 68, and 67% identity with that of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio, and Xenopus laevis, respectively, along with high identities with Ot-KIF3A in fundamental structures. Ot-kif3b transcripts appeared gradually in early spermatids, increased in intermediate spermatids and maximized in drastically remodeled and final spermatids. The kif3b gene is identified and its expression pattern is demonstrated for the first time in O. tankahkeei. Compared to ot-kif3a reported by our laboratory before, our data suggested that the putative heterodimeric motor proteins Ot-KIF3A/B may be involved in intraspermatic transport and might contribute to structural changes during spermiogenesis.

  1. Highly efficient tandem OLED based on C60/rubrene: MoO3 as charge generation layer and LiF/Al as electron injection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zhihui; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Rui, Hongsong; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Yulin; Yin, Shougen

    2017-08-01

    Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received much attention in solid-state lighting due to their high current efficiency, long lifetime and excellent stability. The highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs based on the charge generation layer (CGL) of C60/rubrene: MoO3 and the electron injection layer (EIL) of LiF/Al were fabricated. The ultra-thin Al layer in EIL was introduced to further increase electron injection from CGL to the emission unit. We found that the maximal current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem device can reach to 43.1 cd/A and 15.1 lm/W, respectively, which are approximately 2.8 and 1.9 times compared with those of single-emissive-unit device. Moreover, compared with the traditional tandem device, the driving voltage of the optimal device is reduced by 6 V, and the turn-on voltage is reduced by 2.4 V. We analyzed the mechanism and characterization of these tandem devices. The effective charge separation and transport of C60/rubrene: MoO3, and excellent electron injection ability of ultra-thin Al layer are the main factors for the remarkable enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency of tandem OLEDs.

  2. CD and NMR investigation of collagen peptides mimicking a pathological Gly-Ser mutation and a natural interruption in a similar highly charged sequence context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxia; Liu, Songqing; Yu, Wenyuan; Wang, Shaoru; Xiao, Jianxi

    2016-02-01

    Even a single Gly substitution in the triple helix domain of collagen leads to pathological conditions while natural interruptions are suggested to play important functional roles. Two peptides-one mimicking a pathological Gly-Ser substitution (ERSEQ) and the other one modeling a similar natural interruption sequence (DRSER)-are designed to facilitate the comparison for elucidating the molecular basis of their different biological roles. CD and NMR investigation of peptide ERSEQ indicates a reduction of the thermal stability and disruption of hydrogen bonding at the Ser mutation site, providing a structural basis of the OI disease resulting from the Gly-Ser mutation in the highly charged RGE environment. Both CD and NMR real-time folding results indicate that peptide ERSEQ displays a comparatively slower folding rate than peptide DRSER, suggesting that the Gly-Ser mutation may lead to a larger interference in folding than the natural interruption in a similar RSE context. Our studies suggest that unlike the rigid GPO environment, the abundant R(K)GE(D) motif may provide a more flexible sequence environment that better accommodates mutations as well as interruptions, while the electrostatic interactions contribute to its stability. These results shed insight into the molecular features of the highly charged motif and may aid the design of collagen biomimetic peptides containing important biological sites. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  3. Understanding the Linkage between Charging Network Coverage and Charging Opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Kontou, Eleftheria [University of Florida, Gainesville; Wu, Xing [Lamar University

    2016-01-01

    Using GPS-based travel survey data, this paper estimates the relationship between public charging network coverage and charging opportunity, defined as the probability of being able to access public charging for a driver at one of his/her stops or at one travel day. Understanding this relationship is of important interests to the electric vehicle industry and government in determining appropriate charging infrastructure deployment level and estimating the impact of public charging on market adoption of electric vehicles. The analysis finds that drivers trip destinations concentrate on a few popular places. If top 1% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, on average, drivers will be able to access public charging at 20% of all their stops and 1/3 of their travel days; If 20% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, drivers will be able to access public charging at 89% of all their stops and 94% of their travel days. These findings are encouraging, implying charging network can be efficiently designed by concentrating at a few popular places while still providing a high level of charging opportunity.

  4. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  5. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  6. Measurement of the nuclear modification factor for high-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ charged hadrons in p+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Balek, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The charged hadron spectra in p+Pb and pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$TeV are measured with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The measurements are performed with p+Pb data recorded in 2013 with an integrated luminosity of 25nb${}^{-1}$ and pp data recorded in 2015 with an integrated luminosity of 28pb${}^{-1}$. The p+Pb results are directly compared to pp spectra, as a ratio scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, the nuclear modification factor $R_\\mathrm{pPb}$. The study of $R_\\mathrm{pPb}$ allows a detailed comparison of the collision systems in different centrality intervals and up to high transverse momentum. It is shown that the nuclear modification factor does not have any significant deviation from unity in the high transverse momentum region.

  7. Measurement of azimuthal flow of soft and high-$p_{T}$ charged particles in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Burka, Klaudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The experimental data collected by the ATLAS experiment during the 2015 heavy ion LHC run offers new opportunities to study properties of Quark-Gluon Plasma at unprecedented high temperatures and densities. Study of the azimuthal anisotropy of produced particles not only constrains our understanding of initial conditions of nuclear collisions and soft particle collective dynamics, but also sheds light on jet-quenching phenomena via measurement of flow harmonics at high transverse momenta. A new ATLAS measurement of elliptic flow and higher-order Fourier harmonics of charged particles in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV in a wide range of transverse momenta, pseudorapidity (|$\\eta$|< 2.5) and collision centrality is presented. These measurements are based on the Scalar Product and Two Particle Correlation methods. The results obtained are compared with experimental results at lower collision energies.

  8. Measurement of azimuthal flow of soft and high-pT charged particles in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burka, Klaudia; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    The experimental data collected by the ATLAS experiment during the 2015 heavy ion LHC run offers new opportunities to study properties of Quark-Gluon Plasma at unprecedented high temperatures and densities. Study of the azimuthal anisotropy of produced particles not only constrains our understanding of initial conditions of nuclear collisions and soft particle collective dynamics, but also sheds light on jet-quenching phenomena via measurement of flow harmonics at high transverse momenta. A new ATLAS measurement of elliptic flow and higher-order Fourier harmonics of charged particles in Pb+Pb collisions at √{sNN } = 5.02 TeV in a wide range of transverse momenta, pseudorapidity (| η | < 2.5) and collision centrality is presented. These measurements are based on the Scalar Product and Two Particle Correlation methods. The results obtained are compared with experimental results at lower collision energies.

  9. PURIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND CLONING OF A RICIN B-LIKE LECTIN FROM MUSHROOM Clitocybe nebularis WITH ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY AGAINST HUMAN LEUKEMIC T CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohleven, Jure; Obermajer, Nataša; Sabotič, Jerica; Anžlovar, Sabina; Sepčić, Kristina; Kos, Janko; Kralj, Bogdan; Štrukelj, Borut; Brzin, Jože

    2009-01-01

    Background Lectins are a diverse group of carbohydrate-binding proteins exhibiting numerous biological activities and functions. Methods Two-step serial carbohydrate affinity chromatography was used to isolate a lectin from the edible mushroom clouded agaric (Clitocybe nebularis). It was characterized biochemically, its gene and cDNA cloned and the deduced amino acid sequence analyzed. Its activity was tested by hemagglutination assay and carbohydrate-binding specificity determined by glycan microarray analysis. Its effect on proliferation of several human cell lines was determined by MTS assay. Results A homodimeric lectin with 15.9-kDa subunits agglutinates human group A, followed by B, O, and bovine erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was inhibited by glycoprotein asialofetuin and lactose. Glycan microarray analysis revealed that the lectin recognizes human blood group A determinant GalNAcα1–3(Fucα1–2)Galβ-containing carbohydrates, and GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc (N,N’-diacetyllactosediamine). The lectin exerts antiproliferative activity specific to human leukemic T cells. Conclusions The protein belongs to the ricin B-like lectin superfamily, and has been designated as Clitocybe nebularis lectin (CNL). Its antiproliferative effect appears to be elicited by binding to carbohydrate receptors on human leukemic T cells. General Significance CNL is one of the few mushroom ricin B-like lectins that have been identified and the only one so far shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. PMID:19100814

  10. Differential top-quark-pair cross sections in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV with CMS and charge multiplication in highly irradiated silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Joern

    2013-09-15

    Modern particle-physics experiments like the ones at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are global and interdisciplinary endeavours comprising a variety of different fields. In this work, two different aspects are dealt with: on the one hand a top-quark physics analysis and on the other hand research and development towards radiation-hard silicon tracking detectors. The high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity at the LHC allow for a detailed investigation of top-quark-pair (t anti t) pro duction properties. Normalised differential t anti t cross sections (1)/({sigma}) (d{sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t})/(dX) are measured as a function of nine different kinematic variables X of the t anti t system, the top quarks and their decay products (b jets and leptons). The analysis is performed using data of proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment in 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb{sup -1}. A high-purity sample of t anti t events is selected according to the topology of the lepton+jets decay channel. Lepton-selection and trigger efficiencies are determined with data-driven methods. The top-quark four-vectors are reconstructed using a constrained kinematic fit. The reconstructed distributions are corrected for background and detector effects using a regularised unfolding technique. By normalising the differential cross sections with the in-situ measured total cross section, correlated systematic uncertainties are reduced, achieving a precision of typically 4-11%. The results are compared to standard-model predictions from Monte-Carlo event generators and approximate next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) perturbative QCD calculations. A good agreement is observed. A high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) is envisaged for 2022, which implies increased radiation levels for the silicon tracking detectors. The innermost pixel layer is expected to be exposed to a 1-MeV-neutron-equivalent fluence in the order of 10

  11. Azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles at high transverse momenta in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cerny, Karel; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Fischer, David; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Krajczar, Krisztian; Radics, Balint; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Me