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Sample records for highly aggressive brain

  1. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

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    Andrei G. Vlassenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG, is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF, oxygen (CMRO2 and glucose (CMRGlu metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET.

  3. Aggression after traumatic brain injury: analysing socially desirable responses and the nature of aggressive traits.

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    Dyer, Kevin F W; Bell, Rob; McCann, John; Rauch, Robert

    2006-10-01

    To compare patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with controls on sub-types of aggression and explore the role of social desirability. Quasi-experimental, matched-participants design. Sixty-nine participants were included in the study. The sample comprised a TBI group (n = 24), a spinal cord injury (SCI) group (n = 21) and an uninjured (UI) group of matched healthy volunteers (n = 24). Participants were given self-report measures of aggression, social desirability and impulsivity. Sixty-one independent 'other-raters' were nominated, who rated participant pre-morbid and post-morbid aggression. Using standardized norms, 25-39% of participants with TBI were classified as high average-very high on anger and 35-38% as high average-very high on verbal aggression. Other-raters rated participants with TBI as significantly higher on verbal aggression than SCI and UI participants. There were no differences between the groups on physical aggression. The TBI group also had higher levels of impulsivity than SCI and UI groups. Social desirability was a highly significant predictor of self-reported aggression for the entire sample. Impulsive verbal aggression and anger are the principal aggressive traits after brain injury. Physical aggression may present in extreme cases after TBI, but appears less prominent overall in this population. Social desirability, previously overlooked in research examining TBI aggression, emerged as an influential variable that should be considered in future TBI research.

  4. A non-aggressive, highly efficient, enzymatic method for dissociation of human brain-tumors and brain-tissues to viable single-cells.

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    Volovitz, Ilan; Shapira, Netanel; Ezer, Haim; Gafni, Aviv; Lustgarten, Merav; Alter, Tal; Ben-Horin, Idan; Barzilai, Ori; Shahar, Tal; Kanner, Andrew; Fried, Itzhak; Veshchev, Igor; Grossman, Rachel; Ram, Zvi

    2016-06-01

    Conducting research on the molecular biology, immunology, and physiology of brain tumors (BTs) and primary brain tissues requires the use of viably dissociated single cells. Inadequate methods for tissue dissociation generate considerable loss in the quantity of single cells produced and in the produced cells' viability. Improper dissociation may also demote the quality of data attained in functional and molecular assays due to the presence of large quantities cellular debris containing immune-activatory danger associated molecular patterns, and due to the increased quantities of degraded proteins and RNA. Over 40 resected BTs and non-tumorous brain tissue samples were dissociated into single cells by mechanical dissociation or by mechanical and enzymatic dissociation. The quality of dissociation was compared for all frequently used dissociation enzymes (collagenase, DNase, hyaluronidase, papain, dispase) and for neutral protease (NP) from Clostridium histolyticum. Single-cell-dissociated cell mixtures were evaluated for cellular viability and for the cell-mixture dissociation quality. Dissociation quality was graded by the quantity of subcellular debris, non-dissociated cell clumps, and DNA released from dead cells. Of all enzymes or enzyme combinations examined, NP (an enzyme previously not evaluated on brain tissues) produced dissociated cell mixtures with the highest mean cellular viability: 93 % in gliomas, 85 % in brain metastases, and 89 % in non-tumorous brain tissue. NP also produced cell mixtures with significantly less cellular debris than other enzymes tested. Dissociation using NP was non-aggressive over time-no changes in cell viability or dissociation quality were found when comparing 2-h dissociation at 37 °C to overnight dissociation at ambient temperature. The use of NP allows for the most effective dissociation of viable single cells from human BTs or brain tissue. Its non-aggressive dissociative capacity may enable ambient

  5. High aggression in rats is associated with elevated stress, anxiety-like behavior, and altered catecholamine content in the brain.

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    Patki, Gaurav; Atrooz, Fatin; Alkadhi, Isam; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    The social defeat paradigm involves aggressive encounters between Long-Evans (L-E) (resident) and Sprague-Dawley (S-D) (intruder) rats. Successful application of chronic social defeat stress in S-D rats is dependent upon selection of highly aggressive L-E rats. Half of the L-E rats screened for aggression did not meet the criterion for aggression (L-E rats performing a defeat, characterized by the intruder surrendering or acquiring a supine position for at least 3s). The observation of the differences in the level of aggression between age and weight matched L-E rats was quite compelling which led us to the present study. Herein, we measured behavioral differences between aggressor and non-aggressor L-E rats. We analyzed their anxiety-like behavior using open-field and elevated plus maze tests. We also measured aggression/violence-like behavior using two tests. In one, time taken to defeat the intruder S-D rat was recorded. In the second test, time taken to attack a novel object was compared between the two groups. We observed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in aggressor rats when compared to the non-aggressive group. Furthermore, time taken to defeat the intruder rat and to attack a novel object was significantly lower in aggressive L-E rats. Biochemical data suggests that heightened anxiety-like behavior and aggression is associated with increased plasma levels of corticosterones and elevated oxidative stress. Significant alterations in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) were observed within the hippocampus, amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex, suggesting potential involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in regulation of aggressive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MDMA-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity enhances aggressiveness in low- but not high-aggressive rats.

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    Wallinga, Alinde E; ten Voorde, Anna M; de Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Buwalda, Bauke

    2009-09-15

    Ecstasy or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a frequently (ab)used recreational drug for its acute euphoric effects but on the long-term may cause neurotoxic damage to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) nerve endings in the brain. Since decreased brain 5-HT function has been strongly associated with several impulse control disorders like hostility and violent aggression, ecstasy users might be at risk developing this form of psychopathology. The present study examined the ability of a MDMA administration protocol (3 x 6 mg/kg, with 3h intervals at 25 degrees C ambient temperature), that previously was shown to partially deplete brain serotonin levels, to increase offensive aggressive behavior in male Wild-type Groningen (WTG) rats. This rat strain is known for its broad individual variation in offensive aggression. Resident-intruder aggression was assessed 5 days before and 23 days after MDMA administration. On day 28, MDMA neurotoxicity to 5-HT nerve terminals was assessed by quantification of serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) immuno-positive axons in defined brain regions. Based on their expressed aggression level in the initial aggression test, rats were divided into low (aggression), high (>50% aggression) or medium aggressive (10-50%) groups. The study demonstrated that MDMA treatment increased aggressiveness in only low aggressive rats and not in medium and high aggressive animals. Irrespective of their initial aggressiveness, MDMA significantly reduced the number of SERT-positive axons in all animals. In conclusion, vulnerability for increased aggression long after a single MDMA treatment is dependent on the individual's trait aggressiveness but not on the degree of MDMA-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity.

  7. Predicting physical and verbal aggression on a brain trauma unit.

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    Galski, T; Palasz, J; Bruno, R L; Walker, J E

    1994-04-01

    Brain injury often results in cognitive impairments and neurobehavioral deficits that effect recovery, rehabilitation, and general adjustment. Aggressive behaviors and agitation, well-known consequences of cerebral damage, are the most difficult for caregivers to evaluate and manage and the most stressful for patients and families. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of an observational protocol (Cognitive Behavioral Rating Scale, CBRS) in evaluating cognition and its usefulness with demographic, medical, and psychological information in predicting aggressive behaviors of cerebrally damaged patients. Twenty-eight brain-injured patients consecutively admitted to a brain injury unit were evaluated by nurses who used the CBRS after first establishing interrater reliability in using the instrument. Relationships were determined between results of the CBRS, demographic information, medical and psychological information; the variable in each category that was most highly correlated with aggressive behaviors was then used in a multiple linear regression to predict the frequency of aggressive behaviors. Discussion focused on disorientation to place and time as the most significant predictors of aggressive behaviors, as well as the prescriptive use of antiseizure medications and the number of medical comorbidities.

  8. Clinical correlates of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after brain injury.

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    James, Andrew I W; Young, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationships between verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour following acquired brain injury. Multivariate statistical modelling of observed verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour utilizing demographic, pre-morbid, injury-related and neurocognitive predictors. Clinical records of 152 participants with acquired brain injury were reviewed, providing an important data set as disordered behaviours had been recorded at the time of occurrence with the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) Aggression Rating Scale and complementary measures of inappropriate sexual behaviour. Three behavioural components (verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour) were identified and subjected to separate logistical regression modelling in a sub-set of 77 participants. Successful modelling was achieved for both verbal and physical aggression (correctly classifying 74% and 65% of participants, respectively), with use of psychotropic medication and poorer verbal function increasing the odds of aggression occurring. Pre-morbid history of aggression predicted verbal but not physical aggression. No variables predicted inappropriate sexual behaviour. Verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour following acquired brain injury appear to reflect separate clinical phenomena rather than general behavioural dysregulation. Clinical markers that indicate an increased risk of post-injury aggression were not related to inappropriate sexual behaviour.

  9. Small amygdala-high aggression? The role of the amygdala in modulating aggression in healthy subjects.

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    Matthies, Swantje; Rüsch, Nicolas; Weber, Matthias; Lieb, Klaus; Philipsen, Alexandra; Tuescher, Oliver; Ebert, Dieter; Hennig, Jürgen; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest an association between the amygdala and the modulation of aggressive behaviour. Previous morphometric brain imaging studies have focused on the role of the amygdala in the context of pathologic neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, personality disorders, and dysphoric and aggressive behaviour in epilepsy. In order to better understand the physiological role of the amygdala in modulating aggressive behaviour we investigated the relationship between amygdala volumes and lifetime aggression in healthy subjects. Morphometric brain scans were obtained in 20 healthy volunteers. Amygdala volumes were measured by manually outlining the boundaries of the structure following a well established and validated protocol. Careful psychiatric and psychometric assessment was done to exclude any psychiatric disorder and to assess lifetime aggressiveness with an established and validated psychometric instrument (i.e., Life History of Aggression Assessment (LHA)). All volunteers scored in the normal range of lifetime aggression. Volunteers with higher aggression scores displayed a 16-18% reduction of amygdala volumes. There was a highly significant negative correlation between amygdala volumes and trait aggression. The extent of volumetric differences in this study is remarkable and suggests that amygdala volumes might be a surrogate marker for the personality property of aggressiveness in healthy human beings.

  10. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here

  11. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  13. 5-HT1A receptor gene silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 are differently expressed in the brain of rats with genetically determined high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence.

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    Kondaurova, Elena M; Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S

    2016-09-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is known to play a crucial role in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression. In its turn, 5-HT1A receptor functional state is under control of multiple factors. Among others, transcriptional factors Freud-1 and Freud-2 are known to be involved in the repression of 5-HT1A receptor gene expression. However, implication of these factors in the regulation of behavior is unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of 5-HT1A receptor and silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the brain of rats selectively bred for 85 generations for either high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence. It was shown that Freud-1 and Freud-2 levels were different in aggressive and nonaggressive animals. Freud-1 protein level was decreased in the hippocampus, whereas Freud-2 protein level was increased in the frontal cortex of highly aggressive rats. There no differences in 5-HT1A receptor gene expression were found in the brains of highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats. However, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was decreased in the midbrain and increased in the hippocampus of highly aggressive rats. These data showed the involvement of Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the regulation of genetically defined fear-induced aggression. However, these silencers do not affect transcription of the 5-HT1A receptor gene in the investigated rats. Our data indicate the implication of posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional regulation of 5-HT1A receptor functional state in the mechanisms of genetically determined aggressive behavior. On the other hand, the implication of other transcriptional regulators for 5-HT1A receptor gene in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression could be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tverdal Aage

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain parts and comparing brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs, we studied amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus and parietal cortex, as these tissues are reported to be involved in emotional reactions, including aggression. Based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in 20 brains, obtained from 11 dogs euthanised because of aggressive behaviour and nine non-aggressive dogs, we studied expression of nine genes identified in an initial screening by subtraction hybridisation. Results This study describes differential expression of the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes in brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs. It also reports differential expression for eight of the studied genes across four different brain tissues (amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and parietal cortex. Sex differences in transcription levels were detected for five of the nine studied genes. Conclusions The study showed significant differences in gene expression between brain compartments for most of the investigated genes. Increased expression of two genes was associated with the aggression phenotype. Although the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes have no known function in regulation of aggressive behaviour, this study contributes to preliminary data of differential gene expression in the canine brain and provides new information to be further explored.

  15. Oscillatory brain activity related to control mechanisms during laboratory-induced reactive aggression

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    Ulrike M Krämer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior is a common reaction in humans after an interpersonal provocation, but little is known about the underlying brain mechanisms. The present study analyzed oscillatory brain activity while participants were involved in an aggressive interaction to examine the neural processes subserving the associated decision and evaluation processes. Participants were selected from a larger sample because of their high scores in trait aggressiveness. We used a competitive reaction time task that induces aggressive behavior through provocation. Each trial is separated in a decision phase, during which the punishment for the opponent is set, and an outcome phase, during which the actual punishment is applied or received. We observed provocation-related differences during the decision phase in the theta band which differed depending on participants’ aggressive behavior: High provocation was associated with an increased frontal theta response in participants refraining from retaliation, but with reduced theta power in those who got back to the opponent. Moreover, more aggressive decisions after being punished were associated with a decrease of frontal theta power. Non-aggressive and aggressive participants differed also in their outcome-related response: Being punished led to an increased frontal theta power compared to win trials in the latter only, pointing to differences in evaluation processes associated with their different behavioral reactions. The data thus support previous evidence for a role of prefrontal areas in the control of reactive aggression and extend behavioral studies on associations between aggression or violence and impaired prefrontal functions.

  16. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

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    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    James, Andrew I. W.; Boehnke, Jan Rasmus; Young, Andy; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sam...

  18. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury.

  19. Environmental Influences, the Developing Brain, and Aggressive Behavior

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    Hudley, Cynthia; Novac, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors review research on highly stressful environments that are known to support the development and display of aggressive behavior in childhood, adolescence, and beyond. They also examine some of the mechanisms through which such stressful environments may influence adolescents' aggressive behavior. The review concentrates…

  20. Aggression is associated with aerobic glycolysis in the honey bee brain(1).

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    Chandrasekaran, S; Rittschof, C C; Djukovic, D; Gu, H; Raftery, D; Price, N D; Robinson, G E

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic glycolysis involves increased glycolysis and decreased oxidative catabolism of glucose even in the presence of an ample oxygen supply. Aerobic glycolysis, a common metabolic pattern in cancer cells, was recently discovered in both the healthy and diseased human brain, but its functional significance is not understood. This metabolic pattern in the brain is surprising because it results in decreased efficiency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in a tissue with high energetic demands. We report that highly aggressive honey bees (Apis mellifera) show a brain transcriptomic and metabolic state consistent with aerobic glycolysis, i.e. increased glycolysis in combination with decreased oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, exposure to alarm pheromone, which provokes aggression, causes a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in the bee brain. We hypothesize that this metabolic state, which is associated with altered neurotransmitter levels, increased glycolytically derived ATP and a reduced cellular redox state, may lead to increased neuronal excitability and oxidative stress in the brain. Our analysis provides evidence for a robust, distinct and persistent brain metabolic response to aggression-inducing social cues. This finding for the first time associates aerobic glycolysis with naturally occurring behavioral plasticity, which has important implications for understanding both healthy and diseased brain function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) in genetically defined fear-induced aggression.

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    Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S

    2015-09-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its precursor (proBDNF) and BDNF mRNA levels were studied in the brain of wild rats selectively bred for more than 70 generations for either high level or for the lack of affective aggressiveness towards man. Significant increase of BDNF mRNA level in the frontal cortex and increase of BDNF level in the hippocampus of aggressive rats was revealed. In the midbrain and hippocampus of aggressive rats proBDNF level was increased, whereas BDNF/proBDNF ratio was reduced suggesting the prevalence and increased influence of proBDNF in highly aggressive rats. In the frontal cortex, proBDNF level in aggressive rats was decreased. Thus, considerable structure-specific differences in BDNF and proBDNF levels as well as in BDNF gene expression between highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats were shown. The data suggested the implication of BDNF and its precursor proBDNF in the mechanism of aggressiveness and in the creation of either aggressive or nonaggressive phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Testosterone-Related Structural Brain Phenotype Predicts Aggressive Behavior From Childhood to Adulthood

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    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N.; Hudziak, James J; Ducharme, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone represents a compelling mechanism through which this structural covariance may be developmentally regulated in humans. Although steroid hormone receptors can be found throughout the central nervous system, the amygdala represents a key target for testosterone-specific effects, given its high density of androgen receptors. In addition, testosterone has been found to impact cortical thickness (CTh) across the whole brain, suggesting that it may also regulate the structural relationship, or covariance, between the amygdala and CTh. Here we examined testosterone-related covariance between amygdala volumes and whole-brain CTh, as well as its relationship to aggression levels, in a longitudinal sample of children, adolescents, and young adults 6 to 22 years old. We found: (1) testosterone-specific modulation of the covariance between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); (2) a significant relationship between amygdala-mPFC covariance and levels of aggression; and (3) mediation effects of amygdala-mPFC covariance on the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These effects were independent of sex, age, pubertal stage, estradiol levels and anxious-depressed symptoms. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that testosterone targets the neural circuits regulating affect and impulse regulation, and show, for the first time in humans, how androgen-dependent organizational effects may regulate a very specific, aggression-related structural brain phenotype from childhood to young adulthood. PMID:26431805

  3. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    ... of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using...

  4. Aggressive Students and High School Dropout: An Event History Analysis

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    Orozco, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive students often struggle in multiple domains of their school functioning and are at increased risk for high school dropout. Research has identified a variety of warning flags which are strong predictors of high school dropout. While it is known that aggressive students exhibit many of these warning flags, there is little research which…

  5. Local oxytocin expression and oxytocin receptor binding in the male rat brain is associated with aggressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; de Boer, Sietse F.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated in male wild-type Groningen rats that enhancing brain oxytocin (OXT) levels acutely produces marked pro-social explorative and anti-aggressive effects. Moreover, these pharmacologically-induced changes are moderated by the individual's aggressive phenotype, suggesting an

  6. Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-01-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species...

  7. The role of attractiveness and aggression in high school popularity

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    Borch, C.; Hyde, A.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the

  8. Lack of association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and aggressive behavior in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuan; Dong, Zai-Quan; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Li-Na; Gu, Yan; Hu, Ze-Qing; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-01-30

    We investigated the association of the Val66Met gene polymorphism in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene with aggressive behavior among Southern Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. We used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to determine the genotypes and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) to measure aggressive behavior. No significant differences in genotype or allele distribution of Val66Met were identified between aggressive and non-aggressive schizophrenia patients. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Aggression-related brain function assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Anine P; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Carré, Justin M

    2017-01-01

    significant ventral and dorsal striatal reactivity when participants won a point and removed one from the opponent. Provocations significantly activated the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas. Task-related aggressive behavior was positively correlated with neural reactivity...... to provocations in the insula, the dorsal striatum, and prefrontal areas. Our findings suggest the PSAP within an fMRI environment may be a useful tool for probing aggression-related neural pathways. Activity in the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas during provocations is consistent...

  10. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kenneth Moran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated ‘appetitive’ aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N=50 presented with an imaginative listening task involving a murderer describing a kill. We manipulated motivational context in a between-subjects design to evoke appetitive or reactive aggression, against a neutral control, measuring activity with Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results show differences in left frontal regions in delta (2-5 Hz and alpha band (8-12 Hz for aggressive conditions and right parietal delta activity differentiating appetitive and reactive aggression. These results validate the distinction of reward-driven appetitive aggression from reactive aggression in ordinary populations at the level of functional neural brain circuitry.

  11. Brain metastasis from urachal carcinoma: the importance of locally aggressive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Blais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 52 years old woman who developed multiple brain metastasis after cystectomy with anterior exenteration and chemotherapy. She received whole-brain radiotherapy with 20 gray in 5 sessions. On magnetic resonance imaging 8 weeks after radiotherapy she showed a regression of some lesions while others responded only partially. This case-report and a review of the literature show the importance of aggressive local treatment in patients with brain metastasis from urachal carcinoma.

  12. Dating aggression, sexual coercion, and aggression-supporting attitudes among college men as a function of participation in aggressive high school sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gordon B; Adams-Curtis, Leah E; Pakalka, Alexis H; White, Kay B

    2006-05-01

    Aggressive male sports have been criticized as bastions of sexism and training grounds for aggression against women, but there have been few empirical demonstrations of these alleged relationships. The authors studied self-reported dating aggression and sexual coercion in 147 college men. Men who had participated in aggressive high school sports, as compared with other men, engaged in more psychological aggression, physical aggression, and sexual coercion toward their dating partners, caused their partners more physical injury, were more accepting of violence, had more sexist attitudes and hostility toward women, were more accepting of rape myths, and were less tolerant of homosexuality. Results indicate that participation in aggressive high school sports is one of the multiple developmental pathways leading to relationship violence.

  13. Relationships Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Illicit Drug Use and Their Association With Aggression in Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Ferguson, Pamela L; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extensive interviews of correctional inmates in South Carolina (2009-2010) were conducted under a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant. We evaluated the extent to which early traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent illicit drug abuse may conjointly influence development of aggression, controlling for alcohol use, and whether cognitive or emotional dysregulation mediated this relationship. Early TBI predicted greater severity and earlier onset of drug use, and an earlier age at first use predicted greater aggression regardless of the age of TBI. Emotional dysregulation mediated effects of TBI on aggression. The potential to design more targeted treatments for this susceptible population are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Heightened serotonin influences contest outcome and enhances expression of high-intensity aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubak, Andrew N; Renner, Kenneth J; Swallow, John G

    2014-02-01

    The outcome of behavioral interactions between organisms can have significant fitness implications. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical importance to understand the mechanisms that modify different agonistic behaviors. Changes in central monoamines, such as serotonin (5-HT), contribute to modifying the expression of aggressive encounters in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In several invertebrate groups, neural 5-HT has been linked to heightened aggression and conflict escalation. The male stalk-eyed fly (Teleopsis dalmanni) competes with conspecifics daily over access to resources such as food and mates. Because encounters escalate in a stereotypical manner, stalk-eyed flies provide an excellent model system to study behavioral syndromes. We hypothesized that noninvasive, pharmacological augmentation of brain 5-HT by administration of the precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would increase stereotypic behavioral escalation and the probability of winning a conflict over food. Size-matched male 5-HTP-treated and untreated flies were placed in a forced-fight paradigm and their aggressive behaviors scored. Individuals with higher brain 5-HT levels had a markedly higher probability of winning the contests, displayed greater levels of high-intensity aggressive behaviors and fewer retreats. Pretreatment with 5-HTP did not significantly alter octopamine or tyramine, suggesting that central 5-HT may modulate aggression in these organisms and play a role in determining reproductive success and resource attainment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain Serotonin Receptors and Transporters: Initiation vs. Termination of Escalated Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recent findings have shown a complexly regulated 5-HT system as it is linked to different kinds of aggression. Objective We focus on (1) phasic and tonic changes of 5-HT and (2) state and trait of aggression, and emphasize the different receptor subtypes, their role in specific brain regions, feed-back regulation and modulation by other amines, acids and peptides. Results New pharmacological tools differentiate the first three 5-HT receptor families and their modulation by GABA, glutamate and CRF. Activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A/2C receptors in mesocorticolimbic areas, reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors. In contrast, agonists at 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area can increase aggressive behavior under specific conditions. Activation of serotonin transporters reduce mainly pathological aggression. Genetic analyses of aggressive individuals have identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly (e.g., Neuropeptide Y, αCaMKII, NOS, BDNF). Dysfunction in genes for MAOA escalates pathological aggression in rodents and humans, particularly in interaction with specific experiences. Conclusions Feedback to autoreceptors of the 5-HT1 family and modulation via heteroreceptors are important in the expression of aggressive behavior. Tonic increase of the 5-HT2 family expression may cause escalated aggression, whereas the phasic increase of 5-HT2 receptors inhibits aggressive behaviors. Polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT modulate aggression, often requiring interaction with the rearing environment. PMID:20938650

  16. Aggressiveness and brain amines in pigs fed the ß-adrenoreceptor agonist Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the widely used feed additive Ractopamine (RAC), gender and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen/gender) were fed either control or RAC (5 mg/kg/2 w...

  17. Aggression

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Robert; Brennan, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal's behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects.

  18. Aggressive Antioxidant Reductive Stress Impairs Brain Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis and Blood Brain Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentor, Shireen; Fisher, David

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the brain microvasculature is a common characteristic in models of cerebrovascular disease. Considering the effects of reactive oxygen species activity in vascular-derived insults, it is naturally prudent to hypothesize those interventions inhibiting reactive oxygen species activity, such as antioxidant supplementation, may be beneficial for cerebrovascular disease. Hyper doses of antioxidant supplements, and foods with high antioxidant concentrations, are commonly used as an ongoing remedial and 'over-the-counter' treatments for most seasonal ailments. For the first time, this study reports the adverse effects of excess antioxidants on angiogenic properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which have clinical implications. A medicinal tea, known as Rooibos, commonly used in South Africa and marketed globally, for its prominent antioxidant profile, demonstrated its effects on brain endothelial cellular proliferation, toxicology, mitochondrial activity and permeability. Mouse brain endothelial cells were seeded at cell densities ranging from 103-106 cells/ml and were incubated at pre-determined time intervals of 24 to120 hours. Daily exposure of a selected concentration range of fermented Rooibos tea caused dose-related decreases in cellular proliferation, and unequivocally decreased permeability across our in vitro BBB model. Despite the negative effects on cellular proliferation, no toxicity was observed for all selected fermented Rooibos concentrations. Our data conclusively shows that the use of excess antioxidants perturbs BBB functionality and angiogenic properties, adversely implicating the homeostatic regulation of the brain microenvironment, while suppression in cellular proliferation impacts both the maintenance and repair function of brain capillaries. Our study indicates that excess antioxidants will lead to an impaired response to mechanical-induced injury and pathogenic infection of the BBB, compromising patient recovery. Copyright

  19. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  20. Rapid Effects of an Aggressive Interaction on Dehydroepiandrosterone, Testosterone and Oestradiol Levels in the Male Song Sparrow Brain: a Seasonal Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimovics, S A; Prior, N H; Ma, C; Soma, K K

    2016-02-01

    Across vertebrates, aggression is robustly expressed during the breeding season when circulating testosterone is elevated, and testosterone activates aggression either directly or after aromatisation into 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) in the brain. In some species, such as the song sparrow, aggressive behaviour is also expressed at high levels during the nonbreeding season, when circulating testosterone is non-detectable. At this time, the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is metabolised within the brain into testosterone and/or E2 to promote aggression. In the present study, we used captive male song sparrows to test the hypothesis that an acute agonistic interaction during the nonbreeding season, but not during the breeding season, would alter steroid levels in the brain. Nonbreeding and breeding subjects were exposed to either a laboratory simulated territorial intrusion (L-STI) or an empty cage for only 5 min. Immediately afterwards, the brain was rapidly collected and flash frozen. The Palkovits punch technique was used to microdissect specific brain regions implicated in aggressive behaviour. Solid phase extraction followed by radioimmunoassay was used to quantify DHEA, testosterone and E2 in punches. Overall, levels of DHEA, testosterone and E2 were higher in brain tissue than in plasma. Local testosterone and E2 levels in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus and nucleus taeniae of the amygdala were significantly higher in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season and were not affected by the L-STI. Unexpectedly, subjects that were dominant in the L-STI had lower levels of DHEA in the anterior hypothalamus and medial striatum in both seasons and lower levels of DHEA in the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala in the breeding season only. Taken together, these data suggest that local levels of DHEA in the brain are very rapidly modulated by social interactions in a context and region-specific pattern. © 2015 British Society for

  1. Double dose: High family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents’ aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fikkers, K.M; Piotrowski, J.T; Weeda, W.D; Vossen, H.G.M; Valkenburg, P.M

    2013-01-01

    ...’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families...

  2. The interacting role of media violence exposure and aggressive-disruptive behavior in adolescent brain activation during an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2011-04-30

    Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in the reduction of chronic traumatic brain injury irritability and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M; Bickett, Allison K; Norton, James H; Pershad, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals may experience chronic problems with irritability or aggression, which may need treatment to minimize the negative impact on their relationships, home life, social interactions, community participation, and employment : To test the a priori hypothesis that amantadine reduces irritability (primary hypothesis) and aggression (secondary hypothesis) among individuals greater than 6 months post-TBI METHODS:: A total of 76 individuals greater than 6 months post-TBI referred for irritability management were enrolled in a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of amantadine (n = 38) versus placebo (n = 38). Study participants were randomly assigned to receive amantadine hydrochloride 100 mg twice daily versus equivalent placebo for 28 days. Symptoms of irritability and aggression were measured before and after treatment using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability (NPI-I) and Aggression (NPI-A) domains, as well as the NPI-Distress for these domains : In the amantadine group, 80.56% improved at least 3 points on the NPI-I, compared with 44.44% in the group that received placebo (P = .0016). Mean change in NPI-I was -4.3 in the amantadine group and -2.6 in the placebo group (P = .0085). When excluding individuals with minimal to no baseline aggression, mean change in NPI-A was -4.56 in the amantadine group and -2.46 in the placebo group (P = .046). Mean changes in NPI-I and NPI-A Distress were not statistically significant between the amantadine and placebo groups. Adverse event occurrence did not differ between the 2 groups : Amantadine 100 mg every morning and at noon appears an effective and safe means of reducing frequency and severity of irritability and aggression among individuals with TBI and sufficient creatinine clearance.

  4. High oxygen consumption rates and scale loss indicate elevated aggressive behaviour at low rearing density, while elevated brain serotonergic activity suggest chronic stress at high rearing densities in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Silva, P.I.M.; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2013-01-01

    of a previous study,where levels of crowding where determined using the spatial distribution of fish in two-tank systems. An un-crowded low density of 25 kg m−3, the highest density accepted by the fish without showing indications of crowding stress of 80 kg m−3 as the intermediate density, and the highest...... density accepted by the fish showing indications of crowding stress of 140 kg m−3 as the high density were investigated. The aimof the present study was to examine the effect of being held at these densities on indicators of welfare. This was achieved through oxygen consumption measurements using...

  5. Physical and relational aggression as predictors of drug use: gender differences among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skara, Silvana; Pokhrel, Pallav; Weiner, Michelle D; Sun, Ping; Dent, Clyde W; Sussman, Steve

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal relationships between physical and relational aggression and later drug use, as moderated by gender. Self-reported data were gathered from 2064 high school students at pretest and 1-year post-test to test the hypotheses that (1) males would engage in more physical aggression than females, whereas females would engage in more relational aggression than males; and (2) physical aggression would be a stronger drug use predictor for males and relational aggression a stronger predictor for females. Results indicated that males reported engaging in more physical aggression than females at baseline; however, females and males reported engaging in similar rates of relational aggression. After controlling for relational aggression, baseline drug use, and demographic variables, physical aggression at baseline was found to predict alcohol use 1-year later for males but not for females. After controlling for physical aggression, baseline drug use, and demographic variables, relational aggression was found to predict cigarette use and marijuana use for females but not for males. However, relational aggression was found to predict later alcohol and hard drug equally across gender. These findings suggest that both physical and relational aggression are predictive of subsequent drug use and have important implications for violence and drug use prevention intervention efforts.

  6. Patterns of violent aggression-induced brain c-fos expression in male mice selected for aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Tóth, M; Halasz, J; De Boer, S F

    2006-06-15

    Mice selected for aggressiveness (long and short attack latency mice; LALs and SALs, respectively) constitute a useful tool in studying the neural background of aggressive behavior, especially so as the SAL strain shows violent forms of aggressiveness that appear abnormal in many respects. By using c-Fos staining as a marker of neuronal activation, we show here that agonistic encounters result in different activation patterns in LAL and SAL mice. In LALs, agonistic encounters activated the lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, anterior hypothalamic nucleus and tuber cinereum area (both being analogous with the rat hypothalamic attack area), dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, and locus coeruleus. This pattern is similar with that seen in the territorial aggression of male mice, rats and hamsters, and non-lactating female mice. SALs showed strong fight-induced activations in the central amygdala and lateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. In this strain, no activation was seen in the lateral septum and the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. This pattern is similar with that seen in other models of violent aggression, e.g., in attacks induced by hypothalamic stimulation in rats, quiet biting in cats, lactating female mice, and hypoarousal-driven abnormal aggression in rats. We suggest here that the excessive activation of the central amygdala and lateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray--accompanied by a smaller activation of the septum and dorsolateral periaqueductal gray--underlay the expression of violent attacks under various circumstances.

  7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast - an aggressive presentation with pulmonary, kidney, and brain metastases: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, Hasnae Alaoui; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Jungels, Christiane; Aftimos, Philippe; Belbaraka, Rhizlane; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine

    2017-10-29

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare malignant neoplasm associated with an excellent prognosis and a very rare occurrence of metastases. We report the case of an aggressive presentation in a 65-year-old woman, of Belgian origin, who was diagnosed as having adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast and developed metastases to her lung, kidney, and brain. We describe similar cases reported in the literature and discuss the molecular characteristics and treatment paradigm of this controversially aggressive disease entity.

  8. Laboratory measurement of aggression in high school age athletes: provocation in a nonsporting context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D B; Cherek, D R; Lane, S D

    1999-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between aggression and type of sports involvement in high school age boys. Athletes (16 boys), ages 15 to 18 years, were separated into two groups, one of 8 athletes who participated in sports with high physical contact, e.g., football and basketball, and the other of 8 athletes who participated in low contact sports, e.g., track and baseball. Students participated in six 25-min. Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm sessions. The paradigm is an established laboratory model of aggression with three response options: (1) a point-maintained response, (2) an aggressive response, and (3) an escape response. Analysis indicated that the only difference between the groups was that individuals who participated in high contact sports emitted significantly more aggressive responses than individuals who participated in low contact sports. Similarly, psychometric measures of aggression indicated that individuals in the former group self-reported more behavioral incidents of aggression than those in the latter group.

  9. Variation and Transgression of Aggressiveness Among Two Gibberella Zeae Crosses Developed from Highly Aggressive Parental Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...

  10. Willingness to favor aggressive care and live with disability following severe traumatic brain injury: a survey of healthy young adults in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Obana, Kyle K

    2014-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem that significantly impacts young adults. Since severe TBI patients lack decision-making capacity, the providers and patient surrogates are often faced with the challenging task of deciding whether to continue with aggressive life-prolonging care or to transition to comfort-focused care with an expected outcome of natural death. The assumption is often made that aggressive care is appropriate for young patients who suffer severe TBI despite the high likelihood of a poor outcome. However, the young community's attitude towards goals of care after severe TBI has not been studied. A questionnaire-based survey study on young healthy adults was conducted to assess their attitude towards aggressive care after a hypothetical case of severe TBI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with the decision to favor aggressive care. Among a total of 120 community-dwelling young adults (mean age: 19 ± 1 years) who were surveyed, 79 (66%) were willing to live with severe motor disability, 78 (65%) were willing to live with expressive aphasia, and 53 (44%) were willing to live with receptive aphasia. Despite being presented with a high likelihood of long-term moderately severe-to-severe disability, 65 of the 115 respondents (57%) favored aggressive care. A willingness to live with receptive aphasia was the only independent factor that predicted aggressive care (OR 2.50, 95% CI: 1.15 to 5.46). Even among the young adults, preference of care was divided between aggressive and conservative approaches when presented with a hypothetical case of severe TBI.

  11. Traumatic brain injury, driver aggression and motor vehicle collisions in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Wickens, Christine M; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the associations between lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI), driver aggression, and motor vehicle collisions among a population sample of adults who reside in the province of Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional sample of 3993 Ontario adults, aged 18-97 were surveyed by telephone in 2011 and 2012 as part of Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Canada. TBI was defined as trauma to the head that resulted in loss of consciousness for at least five minutes or overnight hospitalization. An estimated 91% (95% CI: 90.0, 91.9) of individuals in this sample held a valid Ontario driver's license at the time of testing. Among those, 16.7% reported a history of lifetime TBI and 83.3% reported no TBI. The prevalence of TBI was higher among men than women. Relative to licensed adults without TBI, adults with a history of TBI had significantly higher odds of engaging in serious driver aggression in the past 12 months, such as making threats to hurt another driver, passenger or their vehicle (AOR=4.39). These individuals also reported significantly higher odds (AOR=1.74) of being involved in a motor vehicle collision that resulted in hurting themselves, their passenger(s) or their vehicle. This is the first population-based study to demonstrate a relationship between a history of TBI and higher rates of serious driver aggression and collision involvement. Given the large proportion of adult drivers with a history of TBI, these individuals may account for a disproportion burden of all traffic safety problems. Whether the increased road safety risk of adults with a history of TBI is reflective of neurocognitive deficits or is merely evidence of a cluster of unsafe activities produced by a higher risk lifestyles requires further research attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MDMA-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity enhances aggressiveness in low- but not high-aggressive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Alinde E.; ten Voorde, Anna M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2009-01-01

    Ecstasy or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a frequently (ab)used recreational drug for its acute euphoric effects but on the long-term may cause neurotoxic damage to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) nerve endings in the brain. Since decreased brain 5-HT function has been strongly

  13. Irritability following traumatic brain injury: divergent manifestations of annoyance and verbal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Cheng; Hua, Mau-Sun; Lin, Wei-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate irritability following traumatic brain injury. A prospective study was conducted at a level I trauma centre. One hundred and forty-four participants, which included 80 healthy subjects and 64 patients suffering from TBI, were recruited. Irritability was assessed by the National Taiwan University Irritability Scale (NTUIS) from patients themselves and their families. the results showed 14.8% of patients and 29.4% of their families reported patients' problems of irritability. Meanwhile, both self-reported and family-reported irritability post-injury were significantly higher than those reported by the healthy subjects. When evaluating two sub-components of irritability, respectively, both family- and self-reported post-injury annoyance were significantly higher than the pre-injury one, while the self-reported post-injury verbal aggression was not. TBI patients have remarkable problems of irritability after injuries. Specifically, the results showed that annoyance might be the main characteristic of irritability in TBI patients and patients themselves might be unaware of their verbal aggression post-injury. Hence, it is merited to pay more attention to the annoyance of the patients with TBI and to the reports from significant caregivers when evaluating TBI patients' irritability in clinical settings.

  14. Effects of ractopamine feeding, gender and social rank on aggressiveness and monoamine concentrations in different brain areas of finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the feed additive ractopamine (RAC), gender and social rank on aggressiveness and brain monoamines levels of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), their metabolites, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP) in finishing pigs. Thirty-two pigs (16 barrows/16 gilts) were a...

  15. Aggressiveness and brain amine concentration in dominant and subordinate finishing pigs fed the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, R; Cheng, H W; Meisel, R L; Garner, J P; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N

    2010-09-01

    Under farm conditions, aggression related to the formation of social hierarchy and competition for resources can be a major problem because of associated injuries, social stress, and carcass losses. Any factor that may affect the regulation and amount of aggression within a farmed system, for instance, feeding the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine (RAC), is therefore worthy of investigation. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of the widely used swine feed additive RAC, considering also the effects of sex and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines, neurotransmitters essential for controlling aggression, in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen by sex) were fed either a control diet or a diet with RAC (Paylean, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) added (5 mg/kg for 2 wk, followed by 10 mg/kg for 2 wk). The top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs (16 pigs/sex) in each pen were determined after mixing by a 36-h period of continuous behavioral observation. These pigs were then subjected to resident-intruder tests (maximum 300 s) during the feeding trial to measure aggressiveness. At the end of wk 4, the amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and raphe nuclei were dissected and analyzed for concentrations of dopamine (DA); serotonin (5-HT); their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively; norepinephrine; and epinephrine using HPLC. Ractopamine-fed gilts performed more attacks during the first 30 s of testing than pigs in all other subgroups (P dominant control gilts and barrows, and both dominant and subordinate RAC-fed gilts performed the greatest percentage of attacks (P brain 5-HT synthesis) of dominant gilts (P brain monoamine profiling of a deficient serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei, amygdala, and frontal cortex, and enhanced DA metabolism in the amygdala, brain areas vital for aggression

  16. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  17. Maladaptive Personality and Neuropsychological Features of Highly Relationally Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael; DiBiase, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The maladaptive personality and neuropsychological features of highly relationally aggressive females were examined in a group of 30 grade 6, 7, and 8 girls and group-matched controls. Employing a multistage cluster sampling procedure, a group of highly, yet almost exclusively, relationally aggressive females were identified and matched on a…

  18. Double dose: High family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low

  19. Sex differences in aggression among children of low and high gender inequality backgrounds: a comparison of gender role and sexual selection theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivette, Amy E; Eisner, Manuel; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is well understood in aggression research that males tend to exhibit higher levels of physical aggression than females. Yet there are still a number of gaps in our understanding of variation in sex differences in children's aggression, particularly in contexts outside North America. A key assumption of social role theory is that sex differences vary according to gender polarization, whereas sexual selection theory accords variation to the ecological environment that consequently affects male competition [Archer, J. (2009). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249-311; Kenrick, D., & Griskevicious, V. (2009). More holes in social roles [Comment]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 283-285]. In the present paper, we explore these contradicting theoretical frameworks by examining data from a longitudinal study of a culturally diverse sample of 863 children at ages 7-13 in Zurich, Switzerland. Making use of the large proportion of children from highly diverse immigrant background we compare the size of the sex difference in aggression between children whose parents were born in countries with low and with high levels of gender inequality. The results show that sex differences in aggression are generally larger among children with parents from high gender inequality backgrounds. However, this effect is small in comparison to the direct effect of a child's biological sex. We discuss implications for future research on sex differences in children's aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Misregulated E-cadherin expression associated with an aggressive brain tumor phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Lewis-Tuffin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadherins are essential components of the adherens junction complexes that mediate cell-cell adhesion and regulate cell motility. During tissue morphogenesis, changes in cadherin expression (known as cadherin switching are a common mechanism for altering cell fate. Cadherin switching is also common during epithelial tumor progression, where it is thought to promote tumor invasion and metastasis. E-cadherin is the predominant cadherin expressed in epithelial tissues, but its expression is very limited in normal brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified E-cadherin expression in a retrospective series of glioblastomas exhibiting epithelial or pseudoepithelial differentiation. Unlike in epithelial tissues, E-cadherin expression in gliomas correlated with an unfavorable clinical outcome. Western blotting of two panels of human GBM cell lines propagated either as xenografts in nude mice or grown under conventional cell culture conditions confirmed that E-cadherin expression is rare. However, a small number of xenograft lines did express E-cadherin, its expression correlating with increased invasiveness when the cells were implanted orthotopically in mouse brain. In the conventionally cultured SF767 glioma cell line, E-cadherin expression was localized throughout the plasma membrane rather than being restricted to areas of cell-cell contact. ShRNA knockdown of E-cadherin in these cells resulted in decreased proliferation and migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data shows an unexpected correlation between the abnormal expression of E-cadherin in a subset of GBM tumor cells and the growth and migration of this aggressive brain tumor subtype.

  1. Lack of differential serotonin biosynthesis capacity in genetically selected low and high aggressive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced brain serotonin (5-HT) activity has been linked to impulsive and violent forms of aggression for decades. Despite a vast accumulation of data pertinent to the above observation, information about the possible mechanisms underlying such a decreased 5-HT functioning is virtually absent.

  2. Contributing Factors to Aggressive Behaviors in High School Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Fadime; Bilgin, Hulya; Singer, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    Violence among young people is an important public health topic as a universal problem. One of the recent issues concerning both the media and parents is the aggressive behavior among the high school students in Istanbul and the worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the types and rates of aggressive behavior and the contributing…

  3. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti M. Valkenburg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval. Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on television and in electronic games, family conflict, and aggressive behavior. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between media violence and family conflict. In families with higher conflict, higher media violence exposure was related to increased subsequent aggression. This study is the first to show a double dose effect of media violence and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression. These findings underscore the important role of the family in shaping the effects of adolescents’ media use on their social development.

  4. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

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    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  5. Seizure frequency reduction after posteromedial hypothalamus deep brain stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy associated with intractable aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti-Isaac, Juan C; Torres-Zambrano, Martin; Vargas-Toscano, Andres; Perea-Castro, Esther; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Furlanetti, Luciano L; Reithmeier, Thomas; Tierney, Travis S; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Fonoff, Erich T; Contreras Lopez, William Omar

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posteromedial hypothalamus (pHyp) on seizure frequency in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) associated with intractable aggressive behavior (IAB). Data were collected retrospectively from nine patients, who received bilateral stereotactic pHyp-DBS for the treatment of medically intractable aggressive behavior, focusing on five patients who also had DRE. All patients were treated at the Colombian Center and Foundation of Epilepsy and Neurological Diseases-FIRE (Chapter of the International Bureau for Epilepsy), in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia from 2010 to 2014. Each case was evaluated previously by the institutional ethical committee, assessing the impact of aggressive behavior on the patient's family and social life, the humanitarian aspects of preserving the safety and physical integrity of caregivers, and the need to prevent self-harm. Epilepsy improvement was measured by a monthly seizure reduction percentage, comparing preoperative state and outcome. Additional response to epilepsy was defined by reduction of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Aggressive behavior response was measured using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). All the patients with DRE associated with IAB presented a significant decrease of the rate of epileptic seizures after up to 4 years follow-up, achieving a general 89.6% average seizure reduction from the state before the surgery. Aggressiveness was significantly controlled, with evident improvement in the OAS, enhancing the quality of life of patients and families. In well-selected patients, DBS of the pHyp seems to be a safe and effective procedure for treatment of DRE associated with refractory aggressive behavior. Larger and prospective series are needed to define the pHyp as a target for DRE in different contexts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels...... of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145...... for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well...

  7. MMSET is highly expressed and associated with aggressiveness in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlebusch, Heidi Rye; Skotte, Julie; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Zimling, Zarah Glad; Lees, Michael James; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Rota, Rossella; De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Quarto, Micaela; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Jørgensen, Mette; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Schrøder, Henrik; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Helin, Kristian

    2011-06-15

    MMSET (WHSC1/NSD2) is a SET domain-containing histone lysine methyltransferase the expression of which is deregulated in a subgroup of multiple myelomas with the t(4;14)(p16;q32) translocation associated with poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that MMSET mRNA levels are increased in other tumor types as well. We have carried out immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and found that MMSET protein is frequently and highly expressed in neuroblastoma (MMSET positive in 75% of neuroblastomas, n = 164). The expression level of MMSET in neuroblastomas was significantly associated with poor survival, negative prognostic factors, and metastatic disease. Moreover, a subset of neuroblastomas for which pre- and postchemotherapy biopsies were available displayed a strong decrease in MMSET protein levels after chemotherapy. In agreement with neuroblastomas becoming more differentiated after treatment, we show that retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells in vitro also leads to a strong decrease in MMSET levels. Furthermore, we show that the high levels of MMSET in normal neural progenitor cells are strongly downregulated during differentiation. Importantly, we show that MMSET is required for proliferation of neuroblastoma cells and brain-derived neural stem cells. Taken together, our results suggest that MMSET is implicated in neuroblastomagenesis possibly by supporting proliferation of progenitor cells and negatively regulating their differentiation. In this respect, MMSET might be a strong candidate therapeutic target in a subset of neuroblastomas with unfavorable prognosis.

  8. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Kerr, Geoffrey T.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and nonviolent photos while their brain activity was measured, and then gave an ostensible opponent unpleasant noise blasts. Participants low in previous exposure to video game ...

  9. Is hyper-aggressiveness associated with physiological hypoarousal? A comparative study on mouse lines selected for high and low aggressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caramaschi, Doretta; de Boer, S. F.; Koolhaas, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness is often considered a life-long, persistent personality trait and is therefore expected to have a consistent neurobiological basis. Recent meta-analyses on physiological correlates of aggression and violence suggest that certain aggression-related psychopathologies are associated with

  10. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Vossen, Helen G. M.; Weeda, Wouter D.; Jessica Taylor Piotrowski; Karin M. Fikkers

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls) participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval). Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on telev...

  11. Brain morphology of childhood aggressive behavior: A multi-informant study in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thijssen (Sandra); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); A. Wildeboer (Andrea); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); H. El Marroun (Hanan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Methods:

  12. Inside the wire: Aggression and functional interhemispheric connectivity in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, D.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    An aggressive personality style has been proposed to arise from a cortical asymmetry between the left and right frontal hemispheres. In the present transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, evidence was sought for a link between an aggressive personality style and functional interhemispheric

  13. Gender differences in trajectories of relational aggression perpetration and victimization from middle to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; McNicholas, Caroline; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression refers to harming others through damaging or manipulating peer relationships. In a cohort of students surveyed annually from middle to high school, this study identified groups of adolescents who followed distinct trajectories of perpetration and of victimization of relational aggression, compared the proportion of boys and girls in each trajectory, and examined the overlap between perpetration and victimization trajectories. The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Students completed yearly surveys from Grade 6-12. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify the trajectories. Adolescents followed three developmental trajectories of perpetration and three similar trajectories of victimization: Low (lowest aggression), Moderate, and High Declining (high in middle school, with a steep decline in high school). All trajectories declined from Grade 6-12. The largest groups were the Low perpetration (55%) and Low victimization (48%). Relational aggression trajectories differed by gender: more boys reported perpetration, and more girls reported victimization. For perpetration, slightly more boys than girls were classified in the two trajectories of higher aggression. For victimization, significantly fewer girls than boys were classified in the Low trajectory, and significantly more girls than boys were classified in the Moderate trajectory. There was substantial overlap of the perpetration and victimization trajectories. These findings highlight the importance of implementing programs to reduce relational aggression for boys and for girls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengkun; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (P cancer-related gene networks. One was associated with the highly aggressive cell lines and affiliated with MYC gene, and another was associated with the moderately aggressive cell lines and affiliated with the androgen receptor (AR). Finally, the gene enrichment analysis indicated that the overexpressed 89 genes (out of 109 genes) in highly aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. The cancer-relevant significant gene ontology (GO) terms included Cell cycle, DNA metabolic process, and Programmed cell death. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers while overexpressed AR and 72 gene set represented moderately aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers. Based on our knowledge, the current study is first time to report the potential biomarkers relevant to different aggressive

  15. The Analysis of the Relationship Between Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions and Aggression Responses of High School Students

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    Erol UĞUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to display the relationship between interpersonal cognitive distortions and aggression responses of high school students and to determine if how interpersonal cognitive distortions predict aggression level. The subjects of this study were 843 students who have been studying in 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grads of high schools in Gaziantep. The data were collected by using three instruments, namely, ‘’Demographic Data Form’’, ‘’Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale’’ (Hamamcı ve Büyüköztürk, 2003 and ‘’Aggression Scale’’ (Can, 2002 in this study. According to the results of this study; significant positive correlations were found between interpersonal cognitive distortions and aggression responses. It has been found out that the students having high interpersonal cognitive distortion level has higher points of all subscales of Aggression Responses Scale than students have low interpersonal cognitive distortion level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, it is indicated that all subscales points of interpersonal cognitive distortions were significant predictors for student’s total aggression points

  16. The relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasi, Saeid; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Soroush, Ali; Zakiei, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Aggression is one of the negative components of emotion and it is usually considered to be the outcome of the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS): components which can be considered as predisposing factors for personality differences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among students. The present study has a correlation descriptive design. The research population included all of the Razi University students in the academic year of 2012-2013. The sampling was carried out with a random stratified method and 360 people (308 female and 52 male) were studied according to a table of Morgan. The study instruments were Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, NEO Personality Inventory (Short Form), and Carver and White scale for BAS/BIS. Finally, SPSS20 was utilized to analyze the data using Pearson correlation, regression analysis, and canonical correlation. The data showed a significant positive relationship between the neurosis and agreeableness personality factors with aggression; but there is a significant negative relationship between the extroversion, openness, and conscientiousness personality factors with aggression. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between all the components of brain behavioral systems (impulsivity, novelty seeking, sensitivity, tender) and aggression. The results of regression analysis indicated the personality characteristics and the brain behavioral systems which can predict 29 percent of the changes to aggression, simultaneously. According to a predictable level of aggressiveness by the personality characteristics and brain behavioral systems, it is possible to identify the personality characteristics and template patterns of brain behavioral systems for the students which be presented to them as a necessary training in

  17. Partner Aggression in High-Risk Families From Birth to Age 3: Associations With Harsh Parenting and Child Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed. PMID:22201248

  18. The Impact of Educational Intervention on Aggression Level among High School Students in Ilam-Iran

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    Adel Bahari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundManagement and control of adolescence aggression improves constructive relationships, quality of life, and academic achievement. This research aimed to study the impact of educational intervention on reduction of aggression among male high school students in Ilam city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis quasi-experimental intervention study using the pretest-posttest method was conducted on 70 aggressive male high school students in Ilam who were selected using the convenience sampling method. First, students were asked to fill out the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQand 70 of them with the highest score of aggression were selected as the sample. They received educational intervention for eight 90-minute sessions  during one month. Then post-test data were collected and follow-up at three months after the intervention and statistically analyzed using SPSS-20.ResultsThe mean age of subjects was 15.81±1.24 years old. 83% belonged to the urban community and 12.5% belonged to the rural community. The results showed that the educational intervention was effective in reduction of aggression levels and its four subscales (P

  19. Aggression, alcohol dependency, and self-consciousness among high school students of divorced and nondivorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, M; Beer, J

    1992-08-01

    134 high school students from a small high school in north central Kansas completed the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale, Fenigstein, et al.'s Self-consciousness Scale, and Zaks' Aggression Scale. Analyses of variance showed significant differences between boys and girls but not among grades. On the aggression and alcohol measures boys scored higher than girls, but lower on public self-consciousness. Youth of divorced parents scored significantly higher than those of nondivorced parents on aggression, private self-consciousness, and general self-consciousness. Aggression scores were significantly and positively correlated with those on the alcohol and private self-consciousness scales. When students' alcoholism scores indicate problems with alcohol, their scores on aggression indicate greater aggression and their private self-consciousness scores indicate sensitivity toward events in their environment, then having concerns about inner self can inhibit the action required for change. MacAndrew scores correlated significantly and negatively with scores on social anxiety about self-consciousness. When MacAndrew scores indicated problems with alcohol, the students' scores on social anxiety about self-consciousness suggested confidence in social settings, being at ease interacting with people. The present study involved students from a single rural district so increased understanding will require more extensive research if strategies for prevention and intervention are to be developed and utilized.

  20. Precarious schedules linked with workplace aggression in a high-risk occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, David A; Dumet, Lisset M; Greenspan, Samuel A; Marino, Miguel; Bernard, Kimberly

    2018-02-01

    Night work and prolonged work hours increase the risk for workplace aggression, however, the risk related to precarious schedules remains unknown. Cross-sectional study among Parole Probation Officers (PPOs) (n = 35). A precarious schedules index was created including the following indicators (a) experiencing one or more unexpected shifts during the last 4 weeks; (b) having minimal control over work hours; and (c) shifts notifications of less than a week. Generalized Poisson Regressions estimated the association between precarious schedules and self-reported client-based aggressive incidents (verbal, threating, property, or physical) during the last 12 months. Workplace aggression was highly prevalent (94.3%). PPOs who experienced precarious schedules (74.3% prevalence) had an adjusted rate of workplace aggression 1.55 times greater than PPOs without precarious schedules (IRR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.25, 1.97, P < 0.001). Precarious schedules were associated with workplace aggression. Further research ought to examine whether improving schedule predictability may reduce client-based aggression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait.In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders.These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  2. Peripheral SLC6A4 DNA Methylation Is Associated with In Vivo Measures of Human Brain Serotonin Synthesis and Childhood Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongsha; Szyf, Moshe; Benkelfat, Chawki; Provençal, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo; Caramaschi, Doretta; Côté, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Booij, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge in addressing the role of DNA methylation in human behaviour is the fact that the brain is inaccessible to epigenetic analysis in living humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET) measures of brain serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, we found in a longitudinal sample that adult males with high childhood-limited aggression (C-LHPA) had lower in vivo 5-HT synthesis in the orbitofrontal cortex (OBFC). Here we hypothesized that 5-HT alterations associated with childhood aggression were linked to differential DNA methylation of critical genes in the 5-HT pathway and these changes were also detectable in peripheral white blood cells. Using pyrosequencing, we determined the state of DNA methylation of SLC6A4 promoter in T cells and monocytes isolated from blood of cohort members (N = 25) who underwent a PET scan, and we examined whether methylation status in the blood is associated with in vivo brain 5-HT synthesis. Higher levels of methylation were observed in both T cells and monocytes at specific CpG sites in the C-LHPA group. DNA methylation of SLC6A4 in monocytes appears to be associated more reliably with group membership than T cells. In both cell types the methylation state of these CpGs was associated with lower in vivo measures of brain 5-HT synthesis in the left and right lateral OBFC (N = 20) where lower 5-HT synthesis in C-LHPA group was observed. Furthermore, in vitro methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter in a luciferase reporter construct suppresses its transcriptional activity supporting a functional role of DNA methylation in SLC6A4 promoter regulation. These findings indicate that state of SLC6A4 promoter methylation is altered in peripheral white blood cells of individuals with physical aggression during childhood. This supports the relevance of peripheral DNA methylation for brain function and suggests that peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation could be a marker of central 5-HT function. PMID:22745770

  3. Peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation is associated with in vivo measures of human brain serotonin synthesis and childhood physical aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsha Wang

    Full Text Available The main challenge in addressing the role of DNA methylation in human behaviour is the fact that the brain is inaccessible to epigenetic analysis in living humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET measures of brain serotonin (5-HT synthesis, we found in a longitudinal sample that adult males with high childhood-limited aggression (C-LHPA had lower in vivo 5-HT synthesis in the orbitofrontal cortex (OBFC. Here we hypothesized that 5-HT alterations associated with childhood aggression were linked to differential DNA methylation of critical genes in the 5-HT pathway and these changes were also detectable in peripheral white blood cells. Using pyrosequencing, we determined the state of DNA methylation of SLC6A4 promoter in T cells and monocytes isolated from blood of cohort members (N = 25 who underwent a PET scan, and we examined whether methylation status in the blood is associated with in vivo brain 5-HT synthesis. Higher levels of methylation were observed in both T cells and monocytes at specific CpG sites in the C-LHPA group. DNA methylation of SLC6A4 in monocytes appears to be associated more reliably with group membership than T cells. In both cell types the methylation state of these CpGs was associated with lower in vivo measures of brain 5-HT synthesis in the left and right lateral OBFC (N = 20 where lower 5-HT synthesis in C-LHPA group was observed. Furthermore, in vitro methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter in a luciferase reporter construct suppresses its transcriptional activity supporting a functional role of DNA methylation in SLC6A4 promoter regulation. These findings indicate that state of SLC6A4 promoter methylation is altered in peripheral white blood cells of individuals with physical aggression during childhood. This supports the relevance of peripheral DNA methylation for brain function and suggests that peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation could be a marker of central 5-HT function.

  4. Chronic enhancement of brain oxytocin levels causes enduring anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative behavioral effects in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2014-04-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in the regulation of social behaviors, including intermale offensive aggression. Recently, we showed that acute enhancement of brain OXT levels markedly suppressed offensive aggression and increased social exploration in resident rats confronted with an intruder in their home territory. Moreover, a different responsivity to the exogenous OXTergic manipulation was observed among individuals based on their baseline aggression. In this study we aimed at evaluating the behavioral response to chronically enhancing or attenuating central OXT levels, and at scrutinizing whether the trait-aggression moderates the treatment-induced behavioral changes. To this end, resident male wild-type Groningen rats were continuously (via osmotic minipumps) intracerebroventricularly infused with synthetic OXT or a selective OXT receptor (OXTR) antagonist for 7days. Changes in behavior were assessed performing a resident-intruder test before and at the end of the treatment period, as well as after 7days of withdrawal. Chronic infusion of OXT was found to selectively suppress aggression and enhance social exploration. Chronic blockage of OXTRs instead increased introductory aggressive behavior (i.e. lateral threat), yet without affecting the total duration of the aggression. The magnitude of the anti-aggressive changes correlated positively with the level of baseline aggression. Interestingly, OXT-induced behavioral changes persisted 7days after cessation of the treatment. In conclusion, these findings provide further evidence that enhanced functional activity of the central OXTergic system decreases social offensive aggression while it increases social explorative behavior. The data also indicate that chronically enhancing brain OXT levels may cause enduring anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative behavioral effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M; Chang, Han Yan M

    2016-01-25

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood.

  6. Violent, Delinquent, and Aggressive Behaviors of Rural High School Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J.; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sports participation and self-reported violent, delinquent, and aggressive behaviors in rural high school populations. Three-hundred and thirty-eight athletes and non-athletes from four rural high schools completed the YRBSS and the Conflict Behavior Scale (CBS). The results…

  7. High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamshere, M.L.; Langley, K.; Martin, J.; Agha, S.S.; Stergiakouli, E.; Anney, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.; Faraone, S.V.; Lesch, K.P.; Neale, B.M.; Franke, B.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Asherson, P.; Merwood, A.; Kuntsi, J.; Medland, S.E.; Ripke, S.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Freitag, C.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Romanos, M.; Romanos, J.; Warnke, A.; Meyer, J.; Palmason, H.; Vasquez, A.A.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.; Roeyers, H.; Biederman, J.; Doyle, A.E.; Hakonarson, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Oades, R.D.; McGough, J.J.; Kent, L.; Williams, N.; Owen, M.J.; Holmans, P.; O'Donovan, M.C.; Thapar, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher

  8. Longitudinal Examination of Aggression and Study Skills from Middle to High School: Implications for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…

  9. High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher ge...

  10. A functional SNP in MIR124-1, a brain expressed miRNA gene, is associated with aggressiveness in a Colombian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Giraldo, Y; Camargo, A; López-León, S; Adan, A; Forero, D A

    2015-06-01

    Interpersonal violence and suicide are among the main causes of mortality and morbidity around the world. In several developing countries, such as Colombia, they are among the first five entities of public health concern. Aggressiveness is an important endophenotype for aggression and suicidal behavior, having a heritability of around 50%. Exploration of classical candidate genes, involved in serotoninergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, has identified few consistent risk factors for aggressiveness. miRNAs are a novel class of molecules with a growing role in normal neural function and neuropsychiatric disorders; of special interest, miR-124 is a brain-specific miRNA that is key for neuronal plasticity. We evaluated the hypothesis that a functional polymorphism in MIR124-1 gene might be associated with aggressiveness in a Colombian sample. The Spanish adaptation of the refined version of the Aggression Questionnaire and the abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were applied to 170 young subjects. The functional SNP in MIR124-1 (rs531564) was genotyped by a TaqMan assay. We found a significant association between the MIR124-1 and aggressiveness in our sample, with G/G carriers having lower scores (P=0.01). This association seemed to be specific for aggressiveness, as it was not significant for impulsiveness. We showed for the first time the association of a functional polymorphism in MIR124-1 and aggressiveness. Known targets of miR-124 (such as BDNF and DRD4 genes) could explain the effect of this miRNA on behavior. A future analysis of additional novel functional polymorphisms in other brain expressed miRNAs could be useful for a deeper understanding of aggression in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological study of silver corrosion in highly aggressive sulfur environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    the silicone coating to the interface has resulted in three corrosion types namely: uniform corrosion, conductive anodic filament type of Ag2S growth, and silver migration with subsequent formation of sulfur compounds. Detailed morphological investigation of new and corroded power modules was carried out......A silicone coated power module, having silver conducting lines, showed severe corrosion, after prolonged use as part of an electronic device in a pig farm environment, where sulfur containing corrosive gasses are known to exist in high amounts. Permeation of sulfur gasses and humidity through...

  12. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics and Parenting Practices on Academic Problems and Aggression Outcomes among Moderately to Highly Aggressive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D.; Lochman, John E.; Fite, Paula J.; Wells, Karen C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effects of neighborhood and parenting on 120 at-risk children's academic and aggressive outcomes, concurrently and at two later timepoints during the transition to middle school. Random effects regression models were estimated to examine whether neighborhood characteristics and harsh…

  13. Working memory brain activity and capacity link MAOA polymorphism to aggressive behavior during development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziermans, T; Dumontheil, I; Roggeman, C; Peyrard-Janvid, M; Matsson, H; Kere, J; Klingberg, T

    2012-01-01

    ...) capacity is a risk factor for developing psychopathology. Brain activity represents a promising endophenotype for linking genes to behavior and for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of WM development...

  14. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  15. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  16. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  17. A Novel Lens orientalis Resistance Source to the Recently Evolved Highly Aggressive Australian Ascochyta lentis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama H. R. Dadu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial yield losses and poor seed quality are frequently associated with Ascochyta blight infection of lentil caused by Ascochyta lentis. Recently reported changes in aggressiveness of A. lentis have led to decreased resistance within cultivars, such as Northfield and Nipper in Australia. Furthermore, the narrow genetic base of the current breeding program remains a risk for further selective pathogen evolution to overcome other currently used resistances. Therefore, incorporation of potentially novel and diverse resistance genes into the advanced lines will aid to improve cultivar stability. To identify these, 30 genotypes sourced from five wild species (Lens orientalis, L. odomensis, L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei, including eight previously reported resistance sources, were screened for disease reaction to two recently isolated and highly aggressive isolates. Subsequently, two L. orientalis accessions were found highly resistant and a further six L. nigricans, one L. odomensis, one L. ervoides, one L. lamottei, and one L. orientalis accessions were moderately resistant. Several of these were more resistant than the currently deployed resistance source, ILL 7537. Furthermore, L. orientalis accession ILWL 180 was consistently resistant against other highly aggressive isolates recovered from diverse geographical lentil growing regions and host genotypes, suggesting stability and potential for future use of this accession in the Australian lentil breeding program.

  18. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2010-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male a...

  19. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  20. Aggressive behaviour in the high-secure forensic setting: the perceptions of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, T; McIntosh, W; Bergen, H

    2006-02-01

    Twenty-seven patients undergoing treatment in a high-secure forensic facility participated in focus group interviews to elicit their perceptions of (1) the factors leading to aggressive behaviour; and (2) strategies to reduce the risk of such behaviour. The focus group interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using content analysis. The participants identified that a combination of patient, staff and environmental factors contributed to violence in the study wards. The cause of aggressive behaviour centred around five major themes: the environment; empty days; staff interactions; medication issues; and patient-centred factors. Potential strategies identified by patients to reduce aggressive behaviour included: early intervention; the provision of meaningful activities to reduce boredom; separation of acutely disturbed patients; improved staff attitudes; implementation of effective justice procedures; and a patient advocate to mediate during times of conflict. Findings suggested that social and organizational factors need to be addressed to change the punitive subculture inherent in forensic psychiatric facilities, and to ensure a balance between security and effective therapy.

  1. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  2. Genomic mapping of social behavior traits in a F2 cross derived from mice selectively bred for high aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Wang, Shiliang; Buus, Ryan J; Perkins, James; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid response to selection was previously observed in mice selected for high levels of inter-male aggression based on number of attacks displayed in a novel social interaction test after isolation housing...

  3. With graduation in sight: perceptions of high- and low-aggression students of the journey to high school completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Heidi; Reeves, Patricia M; Corley, Summar; Orpinas, Pamela

    2012-12-01

    This study explores students' perceptions of the paths to high school graduation using an ecological framework. Specifically, it identifies the challenges, influences, and motivations differentiating students who remained in school despite being at high risk for dropping out-defined as consistently high levels of aggression-from students at low risk of high school dropout. We analyzed inductively 16 focus groups conducted in Northeast Georgia with 81 eleventh graders participating in the Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study. Eight focus groups consisted of 11th graders who consistently scored high on aggression from 6th to 10th grade on the Problem Behaviors Frequency Scales (n = 40; 56% boys; 54% Caucasian, 39% African American; 7% Hispanic), and 8 groups consisting of students scoring low in aggression at all time points (n = 41; 40% boys; 45% Caucasian, 50% African American; 3% Hispanic). Findings derived from the constant comparative method revealed 4 distinguishing themes. High aggressive students highlighted a) the salience of structural barriers, b) stress due to external (vs. internal) factors, c) preference for concrete sources of motivation, and d) the strong influence of coaches. At the microsystem level of the ecological model, school psychologists can engage students through cognitive behavioral methods to foster realistic academic goals and to improve management of external sources of stress. At the mesosystem level, school policies can target 9th grade as a critical juncture for academic success. The final finding supports the involvement of adults at the mesosystem level, and coaches in particular, to promote positive social and academic development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Modeling high dimensional multichannel brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Lechuan

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, our goal is to model functional and effective (directional) connectivity in network of multichannel brain physiological signals (e.g., electroencephalograms, local field potentials). The primary challenges here are twofold: first, there are major statistical and computational difficulties for modeling and analyzing high dimensional multichannel brain signals; second, there is no set of universally-agreed measures for characterizing connectivity. To model multichannel brain signals, our approach is to fit a vector autoregressive (VAR) model with sufficiently high order so that complex lead-lag temporal dynamics between the channels can be accurately characterized. However, such a model contains a large number of parameters. Thus, we will estimate the high dimensional VAR parameter space by our proposed hybrid LASSLE method (LASSO+LSE) which is imposes regularization on the first step (to control for sparsity) and constrained least squares estimation on the second step (to improve bias and mean-squared error of the estimator). Then to characterize connectivity between channels in a brain network, we will use various measures but put an emphasis on partial directed coherence (PDC) in order to capture directional connectivity between channels. PDC is a directed frequency-specific measure that explains the extent to which the present oscillatory activity in a sender channel influences the future oscillatory activity in a specific receiver channel relative all possible receivers in the network. Using the proposed modeling approach, we have achieved some insights on learning in a rat engaged in a non-spatial memory task.

  5. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  6. Can Both Low and High Self-Esteem Be Related to Aggression in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Henricsson, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the opposing hypotheses that either low or exaggerated but disputed self-esteem is related to aggression in 652 12-year-old schoolchildren. Children provided peer nominations of social acceptance and of physical aggression, self-ratings of global self-worth and of social satisfaction. Teachers rated aggressive behavior and…

  7. Neurobiology of Escalated Aggression and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and its escalation with greater precision; second, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem structures emerge as pivotal nodes in the limbic circuitry mediating escalated aggressive behavior. The neurochemical and molecular work focuses on the genes that enable invertebrate aggression in males and females and genes that are expressed or suppressed as a result of aggressive experiences in mammals. The fruitless gene, immediate early genes in discrete serotonin neurons, or sex chromosome genes identify sexually differentiated mechanisms for escalated aggression. Male, but not female, fruit flies establish hierarchical relationships in fights and learn from previous fighting experiences. By manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brains of male or female flies, patterns of aggression can be switched with males using female patterns and vice versa. Work with Sts or Sry genes suggests so far that other genes on the X chromosomes may have a more critical role in female mouse aggression. New data from feral rats point to the regulatory influences on mesocortical serotonin circuits in highly aggressive animals via feedback to autoreceptors and via GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Imaging data lead to the hypothesis that antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior may in part be attributable to impairments in some of the brain structures (dorsal and ventral PFC, amygdala, and angular gyrus) subserving moral cognition and emotion. PMID:17978016

  8. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Combat high or traumatic stress: violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not with symptoms of traumatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbach, Anke; Schaal, Susanne; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Former members of armed groups in eastern DR Congo had typically witnessed, experienced, and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high). What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (para)military groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc.) had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars. PMID:25709586

  10. Combat high or traumatic stress: violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not with symptoms of traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eKöbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Former members of armed groups in eastern DRCongo had typically witnessed, experienced and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high. What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (paramilitary groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc. had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars.

  11. Combat high or traumatic stress: violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not with symptoms of traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbach, Anke; Schaal, Susanne; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Former members of armed groups in eastern DR Congo had typically witnessed, experienced, and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high). What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (para)military groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc.) had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars.

  12. Dietary composition modulates brain mass and solubilizable Aβ levels in a mouse model of aggressive Alzheimer's amyloid pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Recently, an increased interest in the role diet plays in the pathology of AD has resulted in a focus on the detrimental effects of diets high in cholesterol and fat and the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. The current study examines how dietary composition modulates cerebral amyloidosis and neuronal integrity in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD. Methods From 4 wks until 18 wks of age, male and female TgCRND8 mice were maintained on one of four diets: (1 reference (regular commercial chow; (2 high fat/low carbohydrate custom chow (60 kcal% fat/30 kcal% protein/10 kcal% carbohydrate; (3 high protein/low carbohydrate custom chow (60 kcal% protein/30 kcal% fat/10 kcal% carbohydrate; or (4 high carbohydrate/low fat custom chow (60 kcal% carbohydrate/30 kcal% protein/10 kcal% fat. At age 18 wks, mice were sacrificed, and brains studied for (a wet weight; (b solubilizable Aβ content by ELISA; (c amyloid plaque burden; (d stereologic analysis of selected hippocampal subregions. Results Animals receiving a high fat diet showed increased brain levels of solubilizable Aβ, although we detected no effect on plaque burden. Unexpectedly, brains of mice fed a high protein/low carbohydrate diet were 5% lower in weight than brains from all other mice. In an effort to identify regions that might link loss of brain mass to cognitive function, we studied neuronal density and volume in hippocampal subregions. Neuronal density and volume in the hippocampal CA3 region of TgCRND8 mice tended to be lower in TgCRND8 mice receiving the high protein/low carbohydrate diet than in those receiving the regular chow. Neuronal density and volume were preserved in CA1 and in the dentate gyrus. Interpretation Dissociation of Aβ changes from brain mass changes raises the possibility that diet plays a role not only in modulating amyloidosis but also in

  13. Modeling High-Dimensional Multichannel Brain Signals

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Lechuan

    2017-12-12

    Our goal is to model and measure functional and effective (directional) connectivity in multichannel brain physiological signals (e.g., electroencephalograms, local field potentials). The difficulties from analyzing these data mainly come from two aspects: first, there are major statistical and computational challenges for modeling and analyzing high-dimensional multichannel brain signals; second, there is no set of universally agreed measures for characterizing connectivity. To model multichannel brain signals, our approach is to fit a vector autoregressive (VAR) model with potentially high lag order so that complex lead-lag temporal dynamics between the channels can be captured. Estimates of the VAR model will be obtained by our proposed hybrid LASSLE (LASSO + LSE) method which combines regularization (to control for sparsity) and least squares estimation (to improve bias and mean-squared error). Then we employ some measures of connectivity but put an emphasis on partial directed coherence (PDC) which can capture the directional connectivity between channels. PDC is a frequency-specific measure that explains the extent to which the present oscillatory activity in a sender channel influences the future oscillatory activity in a specific receiver channel relative to all possible receivers in the network. The proposed modeling approach provided key insights into potential functional relationships among simultaneously recorded sites during performance of a complex memory task. Specifically, this novel method was successful in quantifying patterns of effective connectivity across electrode locations, and in capturing how these patterns varied across trial epochs and trial types.

  14. Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Joseph I; Song, Zhimin; Larkin, Tony E; Hardcastle, Nathan; Norvelle, Alisa; Riaz, Ansa; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-11-15

    There are profound sex differences in the incidence of many psychiatric disorders. Although these disorders are frequently linked to social stress and to deficits in social engagement, little is known about sex differences in the neural mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Phenotypes characterized by dominance, competitive aggression, and active coping strategies appear to be more resilient to psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those characterized by subordinate status and the lack of aggressiveness. Here, we report that serotonin (5-HT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in opposite ways in the hypothalamus to regulate dominance and aggression in females and males. Hypothalamic injection of a 5-HT1a agonist stimulated aggression in female hamsters and inhibited aggression in males, whereas injection of AVP inhibited aggression in females and stimulated aggression in males. Striking sex differences were also identified in the neural mechanisms regulating dominance. Acquisition of dominance was associated with activation of 5-HT neurons within the dorsal raphe in females and activation of hypothalamic AVP neurons in males. These data strongly indicate that there are fundamental sex differences in the neural regulation of dominance and aggression. Further, because systemically administered fluoxetine increased aggression in females and substantially reduced aggression in males, there may be substantial gender differences in the clinical efficacy of commonly prescribed 5-HT-active drugs such as selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. These data suggest that the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as PTSD may be more effective with the use of 5-HT-targeted drugs in females and AVP-targeted drugs in males.

  15. The relationship of outwardly-directed aggression to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts across two high-risk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Marc T; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Conner, Kenneth R

    2014-04-01

    While research has established some relationships between risk factors and specific suicide-related outcomes, in large part the extent to which suicidal ideation and attempts have different risk profiles is unclear. Using two theories of suicidal behavior to guide our hypotheses, we studied the relationship of outwardly-directed aggression to suicidal ideation and attempts in two high-risk samples. Participants in study one were 271 criminal offenders in a pretrial diversion program. Participants in study two were 892 psychiatric inpatients who participated in the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. In both studies, after controlling for relevant covariates, outwardly-directed aggression was associated with suicide attempts, but not ideation. Among psychiatric patients, further analyses revealed that outwardly-directed aggression was associated with planned, but not unplanned, suicide attempts. That aggression is related to suicide attempts and not ideation is consistent with hypotheses based on both Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior and theories based on a diathesis toward behavioral dysregulation (e.g., Mann, 2009). That aggression was associated with planned suicide attempts is consistent with Joiner's theory. Competing explanations for the results include a potential role of proactive aggression in suicide attempts, particularly planned attempts.

  16. Should I Say Something? Dating and Sexual Aggression Bystander Intervention among High School Youth. National Issue Brief Number 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Rodenhizer-Stämpfli , Kara Anne

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 218 high school youth from three high schools in New England (one rural, two urban), this brief discusses dating and sexual aggression bystander intervention among high school youth. Authors Katie Edwards, Robert Eckstein, and Kara Anne Rodenhizer-Stämpfli report that an overwhelming majority (93.6 percent) of high…

  17. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Of the 15 enrolled, 10 completed the protocol. This perspective describes the challenges and lessons learned during this clinical trial and discusses the critical elements that are essential for investigating treatment with a KD. We also reviewed and compared various types of KDs. We believe that the diet selected should be standardized within individual clinical trials, and more importantly, the patients’ blood should be monitored for glucose and ketones twice daily so that the supervising dietitian can work with the patient and their caregivers to make appropriate changes in the diet. Compliance with the diet is best in highly motivated patients who have excellent home support from a family member or a friend who can help to overcome administrative, physical, and cognition deficiencies associated with the disease. Treatment of GBM using a KD represents a reasonable investigative approach. This perspective summarizes the challenges and lessons learned implementing and continuing KD therapy while the patients are concurrently being treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

  18. Relationship Quality and the Mentoring of Aggressive, High-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavell, Timothy A.; Elledge, L. Christian; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Faith, Melissa A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in Grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70)…

  19. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard D Caroline

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus, emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding

  20. Extended extra- and intracerebral ulceration and brain abscess following self-mutilation in an auto-aggressive 51-year-old woman: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesch, K M; Herbst, A; Schoedel, P; Rockmann, F; Brawanski, A

    2010-02-01

    In neurosurgical practice, the operative treatment of deep or infected wounds caused by auto-mutilation is quite rare, especially in the neurocranium. We present an extraordinary case of an auto-aggressive 51-year-old female suffering from a deeply ulcerated wound on the right frontal skull with consecutive brain abscess, caused manually with needles and forceps over a period of 8 months. The clinical course is present ed together with a description of the conservative and surgical regimen and is illustrated with photographs and CT and MRI images.

  1. Flunitrazepam in combination with alcohol engenders high levels of aggression in mice and rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, R. M. M.; Saft, D.M.; Rosa, M.M.; Miczek, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Higher doses of benzodiazepines and alcohol induce sedation and sleep; however, in low to moderate doses these drugs can increase aggressive behavior. Objectives To assess firstly the effects of ethanol, secondly the effects of flunitrazepam, a so-called club drug, and thirdly the effects of flunitrazepam plus alcohol on aggression in mice and rats. Methods Exhaustive behavioral records of confrontations between a male resident and a male intruder were obtained twice a week, using CF-1 mice and Wistar rats. The salient aggressive and non-aggressive elements in the resident´s reperetoire were analyzed. Initially, the effects of ethanol (1.0 g/kg), and secondly flunitrazepam (0; 0.01; 0.1; and 0.3 mg/kg) were determined in all mice and rats; subsequently, flunitrazepam or vehicle, given intraperitoneally (0; 0.01; 0.1; and 0.3 mg/kg) was administered plus ethanol 1.0 g/kg or vehicle via gavage. Results The most significant finding is the escalation of aggression after a moderate dose of ethanol, and a low dose of flunitrazepam. The largest increase in aggressive behaviour occurred after combined flunitrazepam plus ethanol treatment in mice and rats. Conclusions Ethanol can heighten aggressive behavior and flunitrazepam further increases this effect in male mice and rats. PMID:20156476

  2. Identification of markers associated with highly aggressive metastatic phenotypes using quantitative comparative proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Mikkel G; Lund, Rikke R; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to form metastases at distant sites is a complex process that remains poorly defined. Certain tumor cells are more aggressive and thus lead to rapid development of multiple distant metastases. Here, we identify proteins associated with these aggress......The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to form metastases at distant sites is a complex process that remains poorly defined. Certain tumor cells are more aggressive and thus lead to rapid development of multiple distant metastases. Here, we identify proteins associated...

  3. Romantic Relationship Aggression and Attitudes in High School Students: The Role of Gender, Grade, and Attachment and Emotional Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Deblinger, Esther; Hoch-Espada, Amy; Haworth, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Examined use of aggressive behaviors in adolescent romantic relationships, the endorsement of attitudes that promote such behaviors, and the extent to which attachment and emotional styles are related to these behaviors and styles in 254 high school students. As expected, girls were somewhat more likely to report being the perpetrator of physical…

  4. Standard chemotherapy with or without high-dose chemotherapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma : Randomized phase III EORTC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin-Nelemans, HC; Zagonel, [No Value; Anastasopoulou, A; Bron, D; Roozendaal, KJ; Noordijk, EM; Musson, H; Teodorovic, [No Value; Maes, B; Carbone, A; Carde, P

    2001-01-01

    Background: The long-term outcome for patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is poor. Consequently; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group designed a prospective randomized trial to investigate whether high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous bone

  5. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and fractional ALFF (fALFF to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won’t significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated.

  6. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D; McGough, James J; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O’Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    ...) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity...

  7. High brain serotonin levels in migraine between attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, Marie; Hansen, Hanne D.; Hougaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate brain 5-HT4-receptor binding with positron emission tomography (PET) as a proxy of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels in migraine patients between attacks. Methods Brain 5-HT4-receptor binding, assessed with PET imaging of the specific 5-HT4-receptor radioligand...... episodically high brain 5-HT-level. Our finding is in apparent contrast with the longstanding hypothesis of migraine being a syndrome of chronic low brain 5-HT-levels. We were unable to demonstrate any associations with attack frequency or years with migraine. This suggests that high brain 5-HT-levels may...

  8. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, C.R.; Bartholow, B.D.; Kerr, G.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and

  9. Sexual aggression when power is new: Effects of acute high power on chronically low-power individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa J; Gruenfeld, Deborah H; Guillory, Lucia E

    2017-02-01

    Previous theorists have characterized sexually aggressive behavior as an expression of power, yet evidence that power causes sexual aggression is mixed. We hypothesize that power can indeed create opportunities for sexual aggression-but that it is those who chronically experience low power who will choose to exploit such opportunities. Here, low-power men placed in a high-power role showed the most hostility in response to a denied opportunity with an attractive woman (Studies 1 and 2). Chronically low-power men and women given acute power were the most likely to say they would inappropriately pursue an unrequited workplace attraction (Studies 3 and 4). Finally, having power over an attractive woman increased harassment behavior among men with chronic low, but not high, power (Study 5). People who see themselves as chronically denied power appear to have a stronger desire to feel powerful and are more likely to use sexual aggression toward that end. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Anoxia-induced up-regulation of interleukin-8 in human malignant melanoma. A potential mechanism for high tumor aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M; Hartmann, A; Flory, E; Toksoy, A; Koczan, D; Thiesen, H J; Mukaida, N; Neumann, M; Rapp, U R; Bröcker, E B; Gillitzer, R

    1999-09-01

    Besides its proinflammatory properties, interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been suggested as an important promoter for melanoma growth. To study the role of IL-8 in melanoma biology, we determined the in vivo expression of IL-8 mRNA by in situ hybridization in primary melanoma lesions and metastases. High levels of melanoma cell-associated IL-8-specific transcripts were exclusively detected in close vicinity of necrotic/hypoxic areas of melanoma metastases, whereas both in primary melanomas and in non-necrotic metastases IL-8 expression was low or absent. To analyze further the up-regulation of IL-8 mRNA expression in necrotic/hypoxic tumor areas, human melanoma cell lines of different aggressiveness exposed to severe hypoxic stress (anoxia) were used as an in vitro model. Anoxia induced IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in the highly aggressive/metastatic cell lines MV3 and BLM but not in the low aggressive cell lines IF6 and 530. As shown by IL-8 promoter-dependent reporter gene analysis and mRNA stability assays, elevated mRNA levels in melanoma cells were due to both enhanced transcriptional activation and enhanced IL-8 mRNA stability. Interestingly, transcriptional activation was abolished by mutations in the AP-1 and the NF-kappaB-like binding motifs, indicating that both sites are critical for IL-8 induction. Concomitantly, anoxia induced an enhanced binding activity of AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors only in the highly aggressive cells. From our in vitro and in vivo data we suggest that anoxia-induced regulation of IL-8 might be a characteristic feature of aggressive tumor cells, thus indicating that IL-8 might play a critical role for tumor progression in human malignant melanoma.

  11. [Action of ACTH fragment on the rates aggressive behavior and the distribution of transmitter amino acids in the brain structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasadze, L; Petriashvili, E; Museliani, T; Nikolaishvili, M; Djariashvili, T

    2007-11-01

    Neurochemical experiments revealed that the metabolism of the amino acids in the cerebral hemispheres has a tendency to an increase of the ratio of aspartic acid to taurin and GABA with a simultaneous enhancement of oxidation. It is generally accepted that ACTH fragments activate limbic syctem and regulate instinctive - motivated behavior. The neuroactive properties of short fragments of ACTH (4-7) are considered to be the peptides of memory and behavior. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of ACTH fragments on aggressive behavior of naturally aggressive rats. Two-fold intraperitoneal introduction of ACTH fragments provoke a change in the animals behavior -rats become non-agressive. Neurochemical experiments revealed that the metabolism of the amino acids in the cerebral hemispheres has a tendency of increase the ratio of aspartic acid to taurin and GABA with a simultaneous enhancement of oxidation. The results obtained enable to conclude that fragment 4-7 of ACTH has an influence on aggressive behavior.

  12. Ultrasonographic prediction of highly aggressive telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Ki, Chang-Seok; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Oh, Young Lyun; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Shin, Jung Hee

    2017-08-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations are found in highly aggressive thyroid malignancies. Our aim was to define the ultrasonographic features of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer and to evaluate their predictive performances. Ultrasonographic findings were reviewed for 185 patients with surgically confirmed papillary thyroid cancer between 1994 and 2004. Genomic DNA to identify telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations was extracted from archived surgical specimens. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare clinical factors and ultrasonographic findings between telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated and wild-type papillary thyroid cancers. A telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation was detected in 8.1% (15 of 185) of specimens from papillary thyroid cancer patients with a strong trend toward increasing age. Nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin were independent ultrasonographic findings for predicting telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer in patients over 50 years (odds ratio 5.898, 95% confidence interval 1.092-31.851, P = 0.039 for orientation; odds ratio 5.813, 95% confidence interval 1.320-25.602, P = 0.020 for margin). Prevalence of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations increased to 50.0% in papillary thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years with both ultrasonographic findings and was 0% in patients without either finding. For identifying telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer, ultrasonographic had 64.3% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, 50.0% positive predictive value and 88.4% negative predictive value. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer could be suggested by the ultrasonographic features of nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin in patients older than 50 years. Prebiopsy recognition of this unique

  13. Identification of Markers Associated with Highly Aggressive Metastatic Phenotypes Using Quantitative Comparative Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Mikkel Green; Lund, Rikke Raaen; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to form metastases at distant sites is a complex process that remains poorly defined. Certain tumor cells are more aggressive and thus lead to rapid development of multiple distant metastases. Here we identify proteins associated with these aggressi...... per se. Our study provides novel insights into key proteins associated with the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells and identified LRRC59, CD59 and CSPG4 as candidates that merit further study.......The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to form metastases at distant sites is a complex process that remains poorly defined. Certain tumor cells are more aggressive and thus lead to rapid development of multiple distant metastases. Here we identify proteins associated with these aggressive...... phenotypes. To identify proteins associated with cancer cell aggressiveness, we used comparative quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteome analysis of a unique metastasis model comprised of three isogenic human breast cancer cell lines that are equally tumorigenic...

  14. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Isain; Serpell, James A; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2016-08-08

    aggression traits to single haplotypes at the GNAT3-CD36 and IGSF1 loci. CD36 is widely expressed, but areas of the amygdala and hypothalamus are among the brain regions with highest enrichment; and CD36-knockout mice are known to have significantly increased anxiety and aggression. Both of the other genes have very high tissue-specificity and are very abundantly expressed in brain regions that comprise the core anatomy of fear and aggression - the amygdala to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We propose that reduced-fear variants at these loci may have been involved in the domestication process.

  15. Dominance behaviour in a non-aggressive flatfish, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and brain mRNA abundance of selected transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatsini, Elvira; Rey, Sonia; Ibarra-Zatarain, Zohar; Mackenzie, Simon; Duncan, Neil J

    2017-01-01

    Dominance is defined as the preferential access to limited resources. The present study aimed to characterise dominance in a non-aggressive flatfish species, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) by 1) identifying dominance categories and associated behaviours and 2) linking dominance categories (dominant and subordinate) with the abundance of selected mRNA transcripts in the brain. Early juveniles (n = 74, 37 pairs) were subjected to a dyadic dominance test, related to feeding, and once behavioural phenotypes had been described the abundance of ten selected mRNAs related to dominance and aggressiveness was measured in the brain. Late juveniles were subjected to two dyadic dominance tests (n = 34, 17 pairs), related to feeding and territoriality and one group test (n = 24, 4 groups of 6 fish). Sole feeding first were categorized as dominant and sole feeding second or not feeding as subordinate. Three social behaviours (i. "Resting the head" on another fish, ii. "Approaching" another fish, iii. "Swimming above another" fish) were associated with dominance of feeding. Two other variables (i. Total time occupying the preferred area during the last 2 hours of the 24 h test, ii. Organisms occupying the preferred area when the test ended) were representative of dominance in the place preference test. In all tests, dominant fish compared to subordinate fish displayed a significantly higher number of the behaviours "Rest the head" and "Approaches". Moreover, dominant sole dominated the sand at the end of the test, and in the group test dominated the area close to the feed delivery point before feed was delivered. The mRNA abundance of the selected mRNAs related to neurogenesis (nrd2) and neuroplasticity (c-fos) in dominant sole compared to subordinate were significantly different. This is the first study to characterise dominance categories with associated behaviours and mRNA abundance in Senegalese sole and provides tools to study dominance related problems in feeding

  16. Dominance behaviour in a non-aggressive flatfish, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and brain mRNA abundance of selected transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Fatsini

    Full Text Available Dominance is defined as the preferential access to limited resources. The present study aimed to characterise dominance in a non-aggressive flatfish species, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis by 1 identifying dominance categories and associated behaviours and 2 linking dominance categories (dominant and subordinate with the abundance of selected mRNA transcripts in the brain. Early juveniles (n = 74, 37 pairs were subjected to a dyadic dominance test, related to feeding, and once behavioural phenotypes had been described the abundance of ten selected mRNAs related to dominance and aggressiveness was measured in the brain. Late juveniles were subjected to two dyadic dominance tests (n = 34, 17 pairs, related to feeding and territoriality and one group test (n = 24, 4 groups of 6 fish. Sole feeding first were categorized as dominant and sole feeding second or not feeding as subordinate. Three social behaviours (i. "Resting the head" on another fish, ii. "Approaching" another fish, iii. "Swimming above another" fish were associated with dominance of feeding. Two other variables (i. Total time occupying the preferred area during the last 2 hours of the 24 h test, ii. Organisms occupying the preferred area when the test ended were representative of dominance in the place preference test. In all tests, dominant fish compared to subordinate fish displayed a significantly higher number of the behaviours "Rest the head" and "Approaches". Moreover, dominant sole dominated the sand at the end of the test, and in the group test dominated the area close to the feed delivery point before feed was delivered. The mRNA abundance of the selected mRNAs related to neurogenesis (nrd2 and neuroplasticity (c-fos in dominant sole compared to subordinate were significantly different. This is the first study to characterise dominance categories with associated behaviours and mRNA abundance in Senegalese sole and provides tools to study dominance related problems in

  17. Microvascular brain pathology on high resolution MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veluw, S.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding in the aging human brain and is associated with stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. On autopsy, SVD encompasses pathological processes affecting small arteries and arterioles. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects the consequences of

  18. Relationship quality and the mentoring of aggressive, high-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavell, Timothy A; Elledge, L Christian; Malcolm, Kenya T; Faith, Melissa A; Hughes, Jan N

    2009-03-01

    We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in Grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70) programs. PrimeTime combined community-based mentoring with child-focused skills training and consultation for parents and teachers, and mentors were extensively trained and supervised. Lunch Buddy was a stand-alone, school-based mentoring program that involved lunchtime visits and a different mentor each semester. PrimeTime children rated their mentors as more supportive than did Lunch Buddy children. Relationship conflict predicted changes in teacher-rated externalizing problems. Ratings of relationship quality interacted with treatment in predicting changes in parent-rated externalizing behavior for PrimeTime children only.

  19. Pathogenicity of the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and its geographic dissemination and role in aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Haubek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis in adolescents. In the middle of the 1990s, a specific JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans, belonging to the cluster of serotype b strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans and having a number of other characteristics, was found to be strongly associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis, particularly in North Africa. Although several longitudinal studies still point to the bacterial species, A. actinomycetemcomitans as a risk factor of aggressive periodontitis, it is now also widely accepted that the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans is implicated in rapidly progressing forms of aggressive periodontitis. The JP2 clone strains are highly prevalent in human populations living in Northern and Western parts of Africa. These strains are also prevalent in geographically widespread populations that have originated from the Northwest Africa. Only sporadic signs of a dissemination of the JP2 clone strains to non-African populations have been found despite Africans living geographically widespread for hundreds of years. It remains an unanswered question if a particular host tropism exists as a possible explanation for the frequent colonization of the Northwest African population with the JP2 clone. Two exotoxins of A. actinomycetemcomitans are known, leukotoxin (LtxA and cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt. LtxA is able to kill human immune cells, and Cdt can block cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells and thus induce cell cycle arrest. Whereas the leukotoxin production is enhanced in JP2 clone strains thus increasing the virulence potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans, it has not been possible so far to demonstrate such a role for Cdt. Lines of evidence have led to the understanding of the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans as an aetiological factor of aggressive periodontitis. Patients, who are

  20. Pathogenicity of the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and its geographic dissemination and role in aggressive periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubek, Dorte; Johansson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis in adolescents. In the middle of the 1990s, a specific JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans, belonging to the cluster of serotype b strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans and having a number of other characteristics, was found to be strongly associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis, particularly in North Africa. Although several longitudinal studies still point to the bacterial species, A. actinomycetemcomitans as a risk factor of aggressive periodontitis, it is now also widely accepted that the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans is implicated in rapidly progressing forms of aggressive periodontitis. The JP2 clone strains are highly prevalent in human populations living in Northern and Western parts of Africa. These strains are also prevalent in geographically widespread populations that have originated from the Northwest Africa. Only sporadic signs of a dissemination of the JP2 clone strains to non-African populations have been found despite Africans living geographically widespread for hundreds of years. It remains an unanswered question if a particular host tropism exists as a possible explanation for the frequent colonization of the Northwest African population with the JP2 clone. Two exotoxins of A. actinomycetemcomitans are known, leukotoxin (LtxA) and cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt). LtxA is able to kill human immune cells, and Cdt can block cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells and thus induce cell cycle arrest. Whereas the leukotoxin production is enhanced in JP2 clone strains thus increasing the virulence potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans, it has not been possible so far to demonstrate such a role for Cdt. Lines of evidence have led to the understanding of the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans as an aetiological factor of aggressive periodontitis. Patients, who are colonized with the JP2

  1. Anger under control: neural correlates of frustration as a function of trait aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Pawliczek

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21 and one reporting low (n=18 trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression.

  2. Role of Serotonin and Dopamine System Interactions in the Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression and its Comorbidity with other Clinical Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dongju; Patrick,Christopher J.; Kennealy, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Impulsive aggression is characterized by an inability to regulate affect as well as aggressive impulses, and is highly comorbid with other mental disorders including depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse. In an effort to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsive aggression and to help account for its connections with these other disorders, this paper reviews relevant biochemical, brain imaging, and genetic studies. The review suggests that dysfunctional interaction...

  3. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  4. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between the emotional intelligence, social competence and the level of aggression among junior high students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łagocka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The research on the junior high was conducted in 2008. I tested 44 girls and 47 boys from first and third grades. In my research I used the following methods: questionnaires KAM-RE, INTE, KKS. I made six hypothesis, three of which were confirmed. There appeared new phenomena such as the increase in aggression among girls proportional to their getting older. For the young people who in a couple of weeks are bound to graduate from the junior high and continue education in a high school, they are prepared neither to engage in a social life nor to to take up new demanding social roles. The group of the tested girls present themselves as being aggressive on an average level, but having lower than average in the population level of emotional intelligence and lower than average social competences. The outcome of my research was inadequate level of emotional intelligence and social competences among the students questioned which indicates the deficiencies of socialising process and certain negligence in this area.

  6. Short-day aggression is independent of changes in cortisol or glucocorticoid receptors in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Rendon, Nikki M; Greives, Timothy J; Romeo, Russell D; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Testosterone mediates aggression in many vertebrates. In some species, aggression remains high during the non-breeding season (e.g., winter), when testosterone levels are low. In Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we have demonstrated photoperiodic changes in aggression with hamsters housed in short, "winter-like" days displaying significantly more territorial aggression than long-day animals, despite low levels of testosterone. The mechanisms by which photoperiod regulates aggression, however, remain largely unknown. Adrenocortical hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids) have been implicated in mediating seasonal aggression; circulating concentrations of these hormones have been correlated with aggression in some species. The goal of this study was to examine the role of cortisol and glucocorticoid receptors in mediating photoperiodic changes in aggression in male Siberian hamsters. Males were housed in long or short days and treated with either exogenous cortisol or vehicle. Circulating levels of cortisol, adrenal cortisol content, and aggression were quantified. Lastly, photoperiodic effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels were quantified in limbic brain regions associated with aggression, including medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Short-day hamsters were more aggressive than long-day hamsters, however cortisol treatment did not affect aggression. Photoperiod had no effect on serum or adrenal cortisol or GR levels in the brain regions examined. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in cortisol levels do not cause increases associated with short-day aggression, and further that GR protein levels are not associated with photoperiodic changes in aggression. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role of adrenocortical steroids in mediating seasonal aggression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comprehensive brain MRI segmentation in high risk preterm newborns.

    OpenAIRE

    Xintian Yu; Yanjie Zhang; Robert E Lasky; Sushmita Datta; Nehal A Parikh; Ponnada A Narayana

    2010-01-01

    Most extremely preterm newborns exhibit cerebral atrophy/growth disturbances and white matter signal abnormalities on MRI at term-equivalent age. MRI brain volumes could serve as biomarkers for evaluating the effects of neonatal intensive care and predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. This requires detailed, accurate, and reliable brain MRI segmentation methods. We describe our efforts to develop such methods in high risk newborns using a combination of manual and automated segmentation too...

  8. Aggressive periodontitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L Virginia Powell

    2013-01-01

    ...) therapy as an adjunct to full-mouth scaling and root planning (FMSRP) when compared with those of FMSRP alone in the treatment of adult patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP...

  9. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in trajectories of aggression in a longitudinal sample of high-risk, urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Jennings, Wesley G; Komro, Kelli A

    2012-07-01

    To estimate trajectories of aggression among African Americans and Hispanics using a longitudinal sample of urban adolescents, and test multiple domains of risk factors to differentiate profiles of aggression. Participants included 3,038 adolescents followed from sixth to eighth grade. Trajectories of aggression were estimated for African Americans and Hispanics separately, and multinomial regression procedures were used to evaluate the effect of multiple domains of risk and protective factors. Mediation analyses were conducted to evaluate the indirect effects of contextual variables on aggression. Four profiles of aggression were identified. Among Hispanics, groups included: (1) low-aggression, (2) desistors, (3) escalators, and (4) consistent aggression; among African Americans: (1) low-aggression, (2) escalators, (3) moderate-consistent aggression, and (4) consistent aggression. Differences in the multiple domains of risk factors emerged between racial/ethnic groups. Contextual variables (peer alcohol use, adult alcohol consumption, and access to alcohol at home) increased risk for aggression differentially by racial/ethnic group. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early experience: high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment for intra-abdominal aggressive fibromatosis of failure in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Han, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Xiang; Liang, Ping

    2016-06-01

    The study was conducted to describe ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation in the treatment of intra-abdominal aggressive fibromatosis in seven patients who had failed surgery. We retrospectively investigated seven patients with pathologically proven intra-abdominal aggressive fibromatosis and surgical failure, who were treated with USgHIFU between June 2013 and February 2015. The main causes for surgical failure were a large tumour size or adjacent tissue invasion by the tumour. All of the patients were treated with palliative intent, to reduce symptoms of the diseases. The medical records were reviewed during the follow-up period, and the patients were asked to compare the symptoms of their disease as improved, unchanged or worsened, based on their levels before treatment. In addition, contrast-enhanced MRI was conducted to follow the size of the tumours before and after therapy. The procedure was successfully accomplished in all of the patients without severe side effects. The median diameter of the tumours was 10.3 cm (range, 7.6-13.6 cm) and the mean ablation rate (the percentage rate of the non-perfused volume compared with the tumour volume on enhanced MRI after treatment) was 92.5 ± 3.7% (range, 86.5-96.8%). One patient underwent two treatments for a large tumour size, and other patients received single-visit therapy. All of the patient clinical symptoms remitted significantly after 6 months. The regression rates of the tumours were 34.8 ± 8.2% (range, 22.4-46.1%) and 58.2 ± 12.7% (range, 43.8-70.3%), respectively, at 6 and 12 months after treatment. USgHIFU ablation could be an effective alternative minimally invasive therapy for the achievement of local control of intra-abdominal aggressive fibromatosis. The conclusions indicate that USgHIFU ablation could be a promising alternative treatment for the achievement of local control of intra-abdominal aggressive fibromatosis.

  12. Aggressive behavior prevention in a dance duet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Gant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of aggression and the main directions of prevention of aggressive forms of behavior, among athletes engaged in sports dancing in the preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, "Personal aggressiveness and conflictness". Results: a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggressive behavior in sports dance duets. Level of aggressiveness of athletes of sports dances at the stage of preliminary basic training is determined. Reasons for the formation of aggressive behavior among young athletes are revealed. Areas of preventive and psychocorrectional work with aggressive athletes are singled out. Conclusion: a high level of aggression was detected in 19 (31,67% of the study participants. Determinants of aggressive behavior in sport ballroom pair appear particularly family upbringing style and pedagogical activity of the trainer. Correction of aggressive behavior of young athletes should have a complex systemic character and take into account the main characterological features of aggressive athletes.

  13. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  14. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-12-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs non-provoking condition with a variant of the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) allowing to differentiate between reactive (provoked) and proactive (unprovoked) aggression. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design with moderate alcohol intoxication (~0.6 g/kg), 35 young healthy adults performed the TAP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses revealed that provoking vs non-provoking conditions and alcohol vs placebo increased aggression and decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex/dorso-medial PFC (provokingalcoholalcohol specifically increased proactive (unprovoked) but not reactive (provoked) aggression (alcohol × provocation interaction). However, investigation of inter-individual differences revealed (1) that pronounced alcohol-induced proactive aggression was linked to higher levels of aggression under placebo, and (2) that pronounced alcohol-induced reactive aggression was related to increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity under alcohol, providing evidence for their role in human alcohol-induced reactive aggression. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults a liability for alcohol-induced aggression in a non-provoking context might depend on overall high levels of aggression, but on alcohol-induced increased striatal and amygdala reactivity when triggered by provocation.

  15. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs non-provoking condition with a variant of the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) allowing to differentiate between reactive (provoked) and proactive (unprovoked) aggression. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design with moderate alcohol intoxication (~0.6 g/kg), 35 young healthy adults performed the TAP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses revealed that provoking vs non-provoking conditions and alcohol vs placebo increased aggression and decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex/dorso-medial PFC (provokingalcoholalcohol specifically increased proactive (unprovoked) but not reactive (provoked) aggression (alcohol × provocation interaction). However, investigation of inter-individual differences revealed (1) that pronounced alcohol-induced proactive aggression was linked to higher levels of aggression under placebo, and (2) that pronounced alcohol-induced reactive aggression was related to increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity under alcohol, providing evidence for their role in human alcohol-induced reactive aggression. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults a liability for alcohol-induced aggression in a non-provoking context might depend on overall high levels of aggression, but on alcohol-induced increased striatal and amygdala reactivity when triggered by provocation. PMID:25971590

  16. The highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: evolutionary aspects, epidemiology and etiological role in aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubek, Dorte

    2010-09-01

    For many years, attention has been given to the oral bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, as a species possibly implicated in the etiology of aggressive periodontitis in adolescents. One of the major virulence factors of A. actinomycetemcomitans is the leukotoxin which is able to kill important cells of the immune system. As demonstrated in population genetic analyses, the population structure of A. actinomycetemcomitans is mainly clonal with evolutionary lineages corresponding to the serotypes. A particular highly leukotoxic clone (JP2) of serotype b has been discovered. The JP2 clone, with an estimated origin some 2400 years ago, is found to be highly conserved, based on analyses of a collection of JP2 clone strains collected through more than 20 years from individuals of diverse origin and living geographically widespread. Despite demonstration of minor evolutionary changes within the genome of JP2 clone strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, the JP2 clone strains constitute a unique clonal type, the characteristics of which include a 530 basepair deletion in the leukotoxin operon implicated in the enhanced leukotoxic activity of the clone. Mapping of the geographic occurrence of the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans has revealed that its colonization is largely restricted to individuals of African descent. Characteristic mutations, which allow JP2 clone isolates from the Mediterranean region to be distinguished from isolates from West Africa, including the Cape Verde islands, suggest that the JP2 clone initially emerged as a distinct genotype in the Mediterranean region of Africa and subsequently spread to West Africa, from where it might have been transferred to the American continent during the transatlantic slave trade. The finding of a sustained selective colonization of individuals of African descent, despite geographical separation from the African continent for centuries, suggests that the JP2 clone might have a distinct host tropism

  17. Brain inspired high performance electronics on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-06-01

    Brain\\'s stunning speed, energy efficiency and massive parallelism makes it the role model for upcoming high performance computation systems. Although human brain components are a million times slower than state of the art silicon industry components [1], they can perform 1016 operations per second while consuming less power than an electrical light bulb. In order to perform the same amount of computation with today\\'s most advanced computers, the output of an entire power station would be needed. In that sense, to obtain brain like computation, ultra-fast devices with ultra-low power consumption will have to be integrated in extremely reduced areas, achievable only if brain folded structure is mimicked. Therefore, to allow brain-inspired computation, flexible and transparent platform will be needed to achieve foldable structures and their integration on asymmetric surfaces. In this work, we show a new method to fabricate 3D and planar FET architectures in flexible and semitransparent silicon fabric without comprising performance and maintaining cost/yield advantage offered by silicon-based electronics.

  18. Psychopharmacologic treatment of pathologic aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, M

    1997-06-01

    Several drugs are apparently effective in treating pathologic anger and aggression. Because many of the studies on aggressive populations allowed the use of concomitant medications, it is unclear whether the efficacy of each drug in a particular population is dependent on the presence of other medications, such as antipsychotic agents. Finally, one needs to be circumspect in inferring efficacy of a particular drug in aggressive patients with neuropsychiatric conditions other than the ones in which some efficacy has been established. Lithium appears to be an effective treatment of aggression among nonepileptic prison inmates, mentally retarded and handicapped patients, and among conduct-disordered children with explosive behavior. Certainly, lithium would be the treatment of choice in bipolar patients with excessive irritability and anger outbursts, and it has been shown to be effective in this population. Anticonvulsant medications are the treatment of choice for patients with outbursts of rage and abnormal EEG findings. The efficacy of these drugs in patients without a seizure disorder, however, remains to be established, with the exception perhaps of valproate and carbamazepine. In fact, dyphenylhydantoin did not appear to be effective in treating aggressive behavior in children with temper tantrums and was found to be effective in only a prison population. There is some evidence for the efficacy of carbamazepine and valproate in treating pathologic aggression in patients with dementia, organic brain syndrome, psychosis, and personality disorders. As Yudofsky et al point out in their review of the literature, although traditional antipsychotic drugs have been used widely to treat aggression, there is little evidence for their effectiveness in treating aggression beyond their sedative effect in agitated patients or their antiaggressive effect among patients whose aggression is related to active psychosis. Antipsychotic agents appear to be effective in treating

  19. Characterisation of aggression in Huntington's disease: rates, types and antecedents in an inpatient rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anahita; Sewell, Katherine; Fisher, Caroline A

    2017-10-01

    To systematically review aggression in an inpatient Huntington's cohort examining rates, types and antecedents. Although the prevalence of aggression in Huntington's disease is high, research into this problematic behaviour has been limited. Few studies have investigated the nature of aggressive behaviour in Huntington's disease or antecedents that contribute to its occurrence. A systematic, double-coded, electronic medical file audit. The electronic hospital medical records of 10 people with Huntington's disease admitted to a brain disorders unit were audited for a 90-day period using the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified for Neurorehabilitation framework, yielding 900 days of clinical data. Nine of 10 clients exhibited aggression during the audit period. Both verbal (37·1%) aggression and physical aggression were common (33·8%), along with episodes of mixed verbal and physical aggression (15·2%), while aggression to objects/furniture was less prevalent (5·5%). The most common antecedent was physical guidance with personal care, far exceeding any other documented antecedents, and acting as the most common trigger for four of the nine clients who exhibited aggression. For the remaining five clients, there was intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents. In Huntington's sufferers at mid- to late stages following disease onset, particular care should be made with personal care assistance due to the propensity for these procedures to elicit an episode of aggression. However, given the degree of intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents observed in the present study, individualised behaviour support plans and sensory modulation interventions may be the most useful in identifying triggers and managing aggressive episodes. Rates of aggression in Huntington's disease inpatients can be high. Knowledge of potential triggers, such as personal care, is important for nursing and care staff, so that attempts can be

  20. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  1. A High Rate Tension Device for Characterizing Brain Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1177/1754337112436900

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical characterization of brain tissue at high loading velocities is vital for understanding and modeling Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The most severe form of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI) which involves damage to individual nerve cells (neurons). DAI in animals and humans occurs at strains > 10% and strain rates > 10/s. The mechanical properties of brain tissues at these strains and strain rates are of particular significance, as they can be used in finite element human head models to accurately predict brain injuries under different impact conditions. Existing conventional tensile testing machines can only achieve maximum loading velocities of 500 mm/min, whereas the Kolsky bar apparatus is more suitable for strain rates > 100/s. In this study, a custom-designed high rate tension device is developed and calibrated to estimate the mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension at strain rates < 90/s, while maintaining a uniform velocity. The range of strain can also be extended to 100% de...

  2. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure home life with firm, loving discipline and full-time supervision ... and your pediatrician will advise appropriate mental health intervention. ... both you and your child and may observe your child in different situations ( ...

  3. The relationship betweenthe emotional intelligence, social competence and the level of aggression among junior high students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katarzyna Łagocka

    2011-01-01

    .... For the young people who in a couple of weeks are bound to graduate from the junior high and continue education in a high school, they are prepared neither to engage in a social life nor to to take...

  4. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual

  5. Genetic dissection of intermale aggressive behavior in BALB/cJ and A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, H C; Kreibich, A S; Kaercher, K A; Sankoorikal, G M V; Pauley, E D; Lohoff, F W; Ferraro, T N; Li, H; Brodkin, E S

    2011-02-01

    Aggressive behaviors are disabling, treatment refractory, and sometimes lethal symptoms of several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, currently available treatments for patients are inadequate, and the underlying genetics and neurobiology of aggression is only beginning to be elucidated. Inbred mouse strains are useful for identifying genomic regions, and ultimately the relevant gene variants (alleles) in these regions, that affect mammalian aggressive behaviors, which, in turn, may help to identify neurobiological pathways that mediate aggression. The BALB/cJ inbred mouse strain exhibits relatively high levels of intermale aggressive behaviors and shows multiple brain and behavioral phenotypes relevant to neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with aggression. The A/J strain shows very low levels of aggression. We hypothesized that a cross between BALB/cJ and A/J inbred strains would reveal genomic loci that influence the tendency to initiate intermale aggressive behavior. To identify such loci, we conducted a genomewide scan in an F2 population of 660 male mice bred from BALB/cJ and A/J inbred mouse strains. Three significant loci on chromosomes 5, 10 and 15 that influence aggression were identified. The chromosome 5 and 15 loci are completely novel, and the chromosome 10 locus overlaps an aggression locus mapped in our previous study that used NZB/B1NJ and A/J as progenitor strains. Haplotype analysis of BALB/cJ, NZB/B1NJ and A/J strains showed three positional candidate genes in the chromosome 10 locus. Future studies involving fine genetic mapping of these loci as well as additional candidate gene analysis may lead to an improved biological understanding of mammalian aggressive behaviors. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Segmentation of Striatal Brain Structures from High Resolution PET Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. P. C. Farinha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and evaluate an automatic segmentation method for extracting striatal brain structures (caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum from parametric C11-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET brain images. We focus on the images acquired using a novel brain dedicated high-resolution (HRRT PET scanner. The segmentation method first extracts the striatum using a deformable surface model and then divides the striatum into its substructures based on a graph partitioning algorithm. The weighted kernel k-means algorithm is used to partition the graph describing the voxel affinities within the striatum into the desired number of clusters. The method was experimentally validated with synthetic and real image data. The experiments showed that our method was able to automatically extract caudate, ventral striatum, and putamen from the images. Moreover, the putamen could be subdivided into anterior and posterior parts. An automatic method for the extraction of striatal structures from high-resolution PET images allows for inexpensive and reproducible extraction of the quantitative information from these images necessary in brain research and drug development.

  7. Increased ratio of high sensitivity C-reactive protein to interleukin-10 as a potential peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinting; Hong, Wu; Li, Haozhe; Peng, Fanglan; Wang, Fan; Li, Ningning; Xiang, Hui; Zhang, Zongfeng; Su, Yousong; Huang, Yueqi; Zhang, Shengyu; Zhao, Guoqin; Zhou, Rubai; Mao, Ling; Lin, Zhiguang; Cai, Weixiong; Fang, Yiru; Xie, Bin; Zhao, Min

    2017-04-01

    Many studies have indicated that immune dysfunction might be involved in the physiopathology of schizophrenia and aggression. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-10 and clinical characteristics, especially aggression, and to explore the potential role of hsCRP and IL-10 as plasma biomarkers of schizophrenia. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and forty healthy individuals were enrolled. Psychopathological severity and aggression were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Plasma concentrations of hsCRP and IL-10 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (1) Higher levels of hsCRP (pschizophrenia, compared to healthy controls; (2) ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis revealed that ratio of hsCRP/IL-10 (predictive value: 0.783, pschizophrenia from the control group than hsCRP and IL-10 alone (predictive value: 0.718, pschizophrenia and the possible value of hsCRP/IL-10 as a potential peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia. This finding also suggests a relationship between hsCRP, IL-10 and their ratio with aggression in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Observer Ratings of Interpersonal Behavior as Predictors of Aggression and Self-Harm in a High-Security Sample of Male Forensic Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernham, Zarah; Tapp, James; Moore, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Incidents of aggression and self-harm in forensic mental health inpatient settings present a significant challenge to practitioners in terms of safely managing and reducing the harm they cause. Research has been conducted to explore the possible predictors of these incidents and has identified a range of environmental, situational, and individual risk factors. However, despite the often interpersonal nature of the majority of aggressive incidents, few studies have investigated forensic inpatient interpersonal styles as predictors of aggression and even fewer have explored the potential interpersonal function of self-harming behaviors. The current study investigated the predictive validity of the Chart of Interpersonal Reactions in Closed Living Environments (CIRCLE) for incidents of verbal and physical aggression, and self-harm recorded from 204 high-secure forensic inpatients. Means comparisons, correlations, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were conducted on recorded incident data at 12, 24, and 48 months following baseline assessment using the CIRCLE. Dominant and coercive interpersonal styles were significant predictors of aggression, and a coercive interpersonal style was a significant predictor of self-harm, over the recorded time periods. When categorizing the inpatients on the basis of short- and long-term admissions, these findings were only replicated for inpatients with shorter lengths of stay. The findings support previous research which has demonstrated the benefits of assessing interpersonal style for the purposes of risk planning and management of forensic inpatients. The predictive value may be time-limited in terms of stage of admission. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106

  10. High levels of EGFR expression in tumor stroma are associated with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Dan; Sun, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressed in tumor stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer. Immunohistological staining of EGFR was evaluated in 242 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The correlations of EGFR expression in tumor stroma with clinicopathological features and with the expression level of Ki-67 were analyzed by SPSS software. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze the effect of EGFR expression in tumor stroma on the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Meanwhile, the activities of proliferation and migration of tumor cells were detected when EGFR overexpressed in stroma cells. EGFR expression in tumor stroma correlated significantly with clinical stage (χ (2)=7.002, P=0.008) and distant metastases (χ (2)=16.59, Pstroma and the level of Ki-67 expressed in tumor cells (χ (2)=6.120, P=0.013). Patients with high EGFR expression level in tumor stroma showed poor survival (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of EGFR in tumor stroma was an independent predictor for epithelial ovarian cancer patients (hazard ratio =1.703; 95% confidence interval 1.125-2.578, P=0.012). Furthermore, stroma cells overexpressing EGFR could promote the proliferation and migration of adjacent tumor cells. High expression of EGFR in tumor stroma correlates with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer, and is an independent prognostic factor.

  11. Media violence exposure and frontal lobe activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in aggressive and nonaggressive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Vincent P; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Lurito, Joseph T; Lowe, Mark J; Dunn, David W

    2005-01-01

    To understand better the relation between media violence exposure, brain functioning, and trait aggression, this study investigated the association between media violence exposure and brain activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in groups of normal adolescents and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggressive features. Seventy-one participants underwent neuropsychologic evaluation and assessment of exposure to violent media. Subjects also were evaluated with fMRI while performing a counting Stroop (CS) task. Frontal lobe activation was reduced in aggressive subjects compared with control subjects. In addition, differences in frontal lobe activation were associated with differences in media violence exposure. Specifically, activation during performance of the CS in control subjects with high media violence exposure resembled that seen in DBD subjects. Our findings suggest that media violence exposure may be associated with alterations in brain functioning whether or not trait aggression is present.

  12. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  13. Ash deposition and high temperature corrosion at combustion of aggressive fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O. [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Henriksen, N. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission, ELSAM is investigating the possibilities of using biomass - mainly straw - for combustion in high efficiency power plants. As straw has very high contents of chlorine and potassium, a fuel with high corrosion and ash deposition propensities has been introduced. ELSAM has investigated 3 ultra supercritical boiler concepts for combustion of straw alone or together with coal: (1) PF boilers with a relatively low share of straw, (2) CFB boilers with low to high share of straw and (3) vibrating grate boilers with 100% straw. These investigations has mainly been full-scale tests with straw fed into existing boilers. Corrosion tests have been performed in these boilers using temperature regulated probes and in-plant test tubes in existing superheaters. The corrosion has been determined by detailed measurements of wall thickness reduction and light optical microscopic measurements of the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion. Corrosion mechanisms have been evaluated using SEM/EDX together with thermodynamical considerations based on measurements of the chemical environment in the flue gas. Ash deposition is problematic in CFB boilers and in straw fired boilers, especially in years with high potassium and chlorine content of the straw. This ash deposition also is related to condensation of KCl and can probably only be handled by improved cleaning devices. (EG)

  14. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support in first-line treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma - Results of a comprehensive meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greb, Alexander; Bohlius, Julia; Trelle, Sven; Schiefer, Daniel; De Souza, Carmino A.; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Lntragumtornchai, Tanin; Kaiser, Ulrich; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Martelli, Maurizio; Milpied, Noel Jean; Santini, Gino; Verdonck, Leo F.; Vitolo, Umberto; Schwarzer, Guido; Engert, Andreas

    Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported conflicting results on the impact of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation in the first-tine treatment of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Methods: We performed a systematic meta-analysis to

  15. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  16. Early highly aggressive MS successfully treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagius, J.; Lundgren, J.; Oberg, G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last 15 years, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has globally been performed for severe multiple sclerosis (MS). Most patients have been in progressive phase with long disease duration. As a rule, treatment effect has been...

  17. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intak...

  18. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of genes and gene networks involved in aggressive behavior in mouse and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Du Rietz, Ebba; Crusio, Wim E; Pain, Oliver; Paya-Cano, Jose; Karadaghi, Rezhaw L; Sluyter, Frans; de Boer, Sietse F; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Asherson, Philip; Tosto, Maria Grazia

    2016-09-01

    Despite moderate heritability estimates, the molecular architecture of aggressive behavior remains poorly characterized. This study compared gene expression profiles from a genetic mouse model of aggression with zebrafish, an animal model traditionally used to study aggression. A meta-analytic, cross-species approach was used to identify genomic variants associated with aggressive behavior. The Rankprod algorithm was used to evaluated mRNA differences from prefrontal cortex tissues of three sets of mouse lines (N = 18) selectively bred for low and high aggressive behavior (SAL/LAL, TA/TNA, and NC900/NC100). The same approach was used to evaluate mRNA differences in zebrafish (N = 12) exposed to aggressive or non-aggressive social encounters. Results were compared to uncover genes consistently implicated in aggression across both studies. Seventy-six genes were differentially expressed (PFP aggressive compared to non-aggressive mice. Seventy genes were differentially expressed in zebrafish exposed to a fight encounter compared to isolated zebrafish. Seven genes (Fos, Dusp1, Hdac4, Ier2, Bdnf, Btg2, and Nr4a1) were differentially expressed across both species 5 of which belonging to a gene-network centred on the c-Fos gene hub. Network analysis revealed an association with the MAPK signaling cascade. In human studies HDAC4 haploinsufficiency is a key genetic mechanism associated with brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR), which is associated with aggressive behaviors. Moreover, the HDAC4 receptor is a drug target for valproic acid, which is being employed as an effective pharmacological treatment for aggressive behavior in geriatric, psychiatric, and brain-injury patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Multi-targeted and aggressive treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, P; Pedersen, O

    2005-01-01

    addressing additional cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, sedentary behaviour, smoking and dietary habits causing insulin resistance and pro-inflammation. This type of integrated therapy applied for almost 8 years to high-risk type 2 diabetic patients has cut the relative risk...... trials to the community level. To facilitate this process it is of crucial importance to offer not only postgraduate training of diabetes care providers but also to identify and eliminate treatment barriers....

  1. Aggression in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Edward A; Huber, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Invertebrates are outstanding model systems for the study of aggression. Recent advances and promising new research approaches are bringing investigators closer to the goal of integrating behavioral findings with those from other disciplines of the neurosciences. The presence of highly structured, easily evoked behavioral systems offer unique opportunities to quantify the aggressive state of individuals, to explore the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of dominance relationships, to investigate the dynamic properties of hierarchy formation, and to explore the significance of neural, neurochemical and genetic mechanisms in these behavioral phenomena.

  2. The advantage of high relaxivity contrast agents in brain perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, F. [MRI Center, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); CREATIS, INSA-502, Villeurbanne (France); Lab. d' Anatomie, UFR Laennec, Lyon (France); Hermier, M. [CREATIS, INSA-502, Villeurbanne (France); MRI Center, Neurologic Hospital, Lyon (France)

    2006-01-10

    Accurate MRI characterization of brain lesions is critical for planning therapeutic strategy, assessing prognosis and monitoring response to therapy. Conventional MRI with gadolinium-based contrast agents is useful for the evaluation of brain lesions, but this approach primarily depicts areas of disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) rather than tissue perfusion. Advanced MR imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast agent-enhanced perfusion MRI provide physiological information that complements the anatomic data available from conventional MRI. We evaluated brain perfusion imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy). The contrast-enhanced perfusion technique was performed on a Philips Intera 1.5-T MR system. The technique used to obtain perfusion images was dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, which is highly sensitive to T2* changes. Combined with PRESTO perfusion imaging, SENSE is applied to double the temporal resolution, thereby improving the signal intensity curve fit and, accordingly, the accuracy of the derived parametric images. MultiHance is the first gadolinium MR contrast agent with significantly higher T1 and T2 relaxivities than conventional MR contrast agents. The higher T1 relaxivity, and therefore better contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, leads to significantly improved detection of BBB breakdown and hence improved brain tumor conspicuity and delineation. The higher T2 relaxivity allows high-quality T2*-weighted perfusion MRI and the derivation of good quality relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps. We determined the value of MultiHance for enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion imaging of histologically proven (by surgery or stereotaxic biopsy) intraaxial brain tumors (n=80), multiple sclerosis lesions (n=10), abscesses (n=4), neurolupus (n=15) and stroke (n=16). All the procedures carried out were safe and no adverse events occurred. The acquired perfusion images were of good quality in

  3. Highly scalable multichannel mesh electronics for stable chronic brain electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian-Ming; Hong, Guosong; Viveros, Robert D.; Zhou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Implantable electrical probes have led to advances in neuroscience, brain−machine interfaces, and treatment of neurological diseases, yet they remain limited in several key aspects. Ideally, an electrical probe should be capable of recording from large numbers of neurons across multiple local circuits and, importantly, allow stable tracking of the evolution of these neurons over the entire course of study. Silicon probes based on microfabrication can yield large-scale, high-density recording but face challenges of chronic gliosis and instability due to mechanical and structural mismatch with the brain. Ultraflexible mesh electronics, on the other hand, have demonstrated negligible chronic immune response and stable long-term brain monitoring at single-neuron level, although, to date, it has been limited to 16 channels. Here, we present a scalable scheme for highly multiplexed mesh electronics probes to bridge the gap between scalability and flexibility, where 32 to 128 channels per probe were implemented while the crucial brain-like structure and mechanics were maintained. Combining this mesh design with multisite injection, we demonstrate stable 128-channel local field potential and single-unit recordings from multiple brain regions in awake restrained mice over 4 mo. In addition, the newly integrated mesh is used to validate stable chronic recordings in freely behaving mice. This scalable scheme for mesh electronics together with demonstrated long-term stability represent important progress toward the realization of ideal implantable electrical probes allowing for mapping and tracking single-neuron level circuit changes associated with learning, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29109247

  4. Comprehensive brain MRI segmentation in high risk preterm newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Yu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Most extremely preterm newborns exhibit cerebral atrophy/growth disturbances and white matter signal abnormalities on MRI at term-equivalent age. MRI brain volumes could serve as biomarkers for evaluating the effects of neonatal intensive care and predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. This requires detailed, accurate, and reliable brain MRI segmentation methods. We describe our efforts to develop such methods in high risk newborns using a combination of manual and automated segmentation tools. After intensive efforts to accurately define structural boundaries, two trained raters independently performed manual segmentation of nine subcortical structures using axial T2-weighted MRI scans from 20 randomly selected extremely preterm infants. All scans were re-segmented by both raters to assess reliability. High intra-rater reliability was achieved, as assessed by repeatability and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC range: 0.97 to 0.99 for all manually segmented regions. Inter-rater reliability was slightly lower (ICC range: 0.93 to 0.99. A semi-automated segmentation approach was developed that combined the parametric strengths of the Hidden Markov Random Field Expectation Maximization algorithm with non-parametric Parzen window classifier resulting in accurate white matter, gray matter, and CSF segmentation. Final manual correction of misclassification errors improved accuracy (similarity index range: 0.87 to 0.89 and facilitated objective quantification of white matter signal abnormalities. The semi-automated and manual methods were seamlessly integrated to generate full brain segmentation within two hours. This comprehensive approach can facilitate the evaluation of large cohorts to rigorously evaluate the utility of regional brain volumes as biomarkers of neonatal care and surrogate endpoints for neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  5. High-resolution digital brain atlases: a Hubble telescope for the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward G; Stone, James M; Karten, Harvey J

    2011-05-01

    We describe implementation of a method for digitizing at microscopic resolution brain tissue sections containing normal and experimental data and for making the content readily accessible online. Web-accessible brain atlases and virtual microscopes for online examination can be developed using existing computer and internet technologies. Resulting databases, made up of hierarchically organized, multiresolution images, enable rapid, seamless navigation through the vast image datasets generated by high-resolution scanning. Tools for visualization and annotation of virtual microscope slides enable remote and universal data sharing. Interactive visualization of a complete series of brain sections digitized at subneuronal levels of resolution offers fine grain and large-scale localization and quantification of many aspects of neural organization and structure. The method is straightforward and replicable; it can increase accessibility and facilitate sharing of neuroanatomical data. It provides an opportunity for capturing and preserving irreplaceable, archival neurohistological collections and making them available to all scientists in perpetuity, if resources could be obtained from hitherto uninterested agencies of scientific support. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Aggressive transition between alternative male social tactics in a long-lived Australian dragon (Physignathus lesueurii living at high density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A Baird

    Full Text Available Theory predicts the evolution of alternative male social tactics when intense competition coupled with the superior competitive ability of some individuals limits access to reproductive opportunities by others. How selection has shaped alternative social tactics may be especially interesting in long-lived species where size among sexually mature males varies markedly. We conducted experimental studies on long-lived eastern Australian water dragons living where competition was intense to test the hypotheses that mature males adopt alternative social tactics that are plastic, and that large size and body condition determine resource-holding potential. Approximately one-half of mature males (N = 14 defended territories using high rates of patrol and advertisement display, whereas 16 smaller mature males having lower body condition indices utilized non-territorial social tactics. Although territorial males were larger in absolute size and head dimensions, their heads were not allometrically larger. Territorial males advertised very frequently using displays involving stereotypical movements of the head and dewlap. More aggressive displays were given infrequently during baseline social conditions, but increased during periods of social instability. Female home ranges overlapped those of several territorial and non-territorial males, but females interacted more frequently with territorial males. The extreme plasticity of social tactics in this species that are dependent on body size was confirmed by two instances when relatively large non-territorial males spontaneously evicted territory owners, and by marked shifts in tactics by non-territorial males in response to temporary experimental removals of territory owners, followed (usually by their expulsion when original owners were reinstated. The high level of social plasticity in this population where same-sex competitors are densely concentrated in preferred habitat suggests that chronic high

  7. High levels of EGFR expression in tumor stroma are associated with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ke Wang, Dan Li, Lu Sun Department of Gynecologic Cancer, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expressed in tumor stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistological staining of EGFR was evaluated in 242 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The correlations of EGFR expression in tumor stroma with clinicopathological features and with the expression level of Ki-67 were analyzed by SPSS software. Kaplan–Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze the effect of EGFR expression in tumor stroma on the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Meanwhile, the activities of proliferation and migration of tumor cells were detected when EGFR overexpressed in stroma cells. Results: EGFR expression in tumor stroma correlated significantly with clinical stage (χ2=7.002, P=0.008 and distant metastases (χ2=16.59, P<0.001. Furthermore, there was a significantly positive correlation between the level of EGFR expressed in tumor stroma and the level of Ki-67 expressed in tumor cells (χ2=6.120, P=0.013. Patients with high EGFR expression level in tumor stroma showed poor survival (P=0.002. Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of EGFR in tumor stroma was an independent predictor for epithelial ovarian cancer patients (hazard ratio =1.703; 95% confidence interval 1.125–2.578, P=0.012. Furthermore, stroma cells overexpressing EGFR could promote the proliferation and migration of adjacent tumor cells. Conclusion: High expression of EGFR in tumor stroma correlates with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer, and is an independent prognostic factor. Keywords: EGFR, epithelial

  8. High-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Kahn, René S; Goñi, Joaquín; Sporns, Olaf

    2012-07-10

    Network studies of human brain structural connectivity have identified a specific set of brain regions that are both highly connected and highly central. Recent analyses have shown that these putative hub regions are mutually and densely interconnected, forming a "rich club" within the human brain. Here we show that the set of pathways linking rich club regions forms a central high-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of two sets of 40 healthy subjects were used to map structural brain networks. The contributions to network cost and communication capacity of global cortico-cortical connections were assessed through measures of their topology and spatial embedding. Rich club connections were found to be more costly than predicted by their density alone and accounted for 40% of the total communication cost. Furthermore, 69% of all minimally short paths between node pairs were found to travel through the rich club and a large proportion of these communication paths consisted of ordered sequences of edges ("path motifs") that first fed into, then traversed, and finally exited the rich club, while passing through nodes of increasing and then decreasing degree. The prevalence of short paths that follow such ordered degree sequences suggests that neural communication might take advantage of strategies for dynamic routing of information between brain regions, with an important role for a highly central rich club. Taken together, our results show that rich club connections make an important contribution to interregional signal traffic, forming a central high-cost, high-capacity backbone for global brain communication.

  9. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  10. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teughels, Wim; Dhondt, Rutger; Dekeyser, Christel; Quirynen, Marc

    2014-06-01

    regenerative techniques have shown good results in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Once good periodontal health has been obtained, patients must be enrolled in a strict maintenance program that is directed toward controlling risk factors for disease recurrence and tooth loss. The most significant risk factors are noncompliance with regular maintenance care, smoking, high gingival bleeding index and poor plaque control. There is no evidence to suggest that daily use of antiseptic agents should be part of the supportive periodontal therapy for aggressive periodontitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Convergent evolution of complex brains and high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard

    2015-12-19

    Within the animal kingdom, complex brains and high intelligence have evolved several to many times independently, e.g. among ecdysozoans in some groups of insects (e.g. blattoid, dipteran, hymenopteran taxa), among lophotrochozoans in octopodid molluscs, among vertebrates in teleosts (e.g. cichlids), corvid and psittacid birds, and cetaceans, elephants and primates. High levels of intelligence are invariantly bound to multimodal centres such as the mushroom bodies in insects, the vertical lobe in octopodids, the pallium in birds and the cerebral cortex in primates, all of which contain highly ordered associative neuronal networks. The driving forces for high intelligence may vary among the mentioned taxa, e.g. needs for spatial learning and foraging strategies in insects and cephalopods, for social learning in cichlids, instrumental learning and spatial orientation in birds and social as well as instrumental learning in primates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888

  13. Variance components of aggressive behavior in genetically highly connected Pietrain populations kept under two different housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Anne K; Voß, Barbara; Tönepöhl, Björn; König von Borstel, Uta; Gauly, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is a standard management procedure in commercial pig production and is often associated with a period of intense and physically damaging aggression. Aggression is considered a problem for animal welfare and production. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the genetic background of aggressive behavior traits at mixing of unfamiliar gilts under 2 different housing conditions. Therefore, a total of 543 purebred Pietrain gilts, from 2 nucleus farms (farm A: n = 302; farm B: n = 241) of 1 breeding company, were tested at an average age of 214 d (SD 12.2 d) for aggressive behavior by 1 observer. Observations included the frequencies of aggressive attack and reciprocal fighting during mixing with unfamiliar gilts. On farm A 41% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, whereas 59% were purebred Landrace or Duroc gilts. On the farm B 42% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, and 58% purebred Large White gilts. The average size of the newly mixed groups of gilts was 28 animals on farm A and 18 animals on farm B. The Pietrain gilts from the 2 herds were genetically closely linked. They were the offspring of 96 sires, with 64% of these sires having tested progeny in both farms. There were clear differences in the housing of the animals between the 2 farms. The test pen on farm A had a solid concrete floor littered with wooden shavings and was equipped with a dry feeder. On farm B there was a partly slatted floor, and the gilts were fed by an electronic sow feeder. Mean space allowance was 2.6 m(2)/gilt on farm A and 3.9 m(2)/gilt on farm B. Although large interindividual differences existed, gilts from farm B performed numerically more aggressive attack (mean 1.12, SD 1.42 vs. mean 0.71, SD 1.20) and reciprocal fighting (mean 0.78, SD 0.98 vs. mean 0.44, SD 0.82) when compared with gilts from farm A. The heritabilities and additive genetic variances for behavioral traits were estimated with a linear animal model and were on a low level

  14. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, L; Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  15. High expression of transcriptional coactivator p300 correlates with aggressive features and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that p300 participates in the regulation of a wide range of cell biological processes and mutation of p300 has been identified in certain types of human cancers. However, the expression dynamics of p300 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and its clinical/prognostic significance are unclear. Methods In this study, the methods of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC were utilized to investigate protein/mRNA expression of p300 in HCCs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, spearman's rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to analyze the data. Results Up-regulated expression of p300 mRNA and protein was observed in the majority of HCCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting, when compared with their adjacent non-malignant liver tissues. According to the ROC curves, the cutoff score for p300 high expression was defined when more than 60% of the tumor cells were positively stained. High expression of p300 was examined in 60/123 (48.8% of HCCs and in 8/123 (6.5% of adjacent non-malignant liver tissues. High expression of p300 was correlated with higher AFP level, larger tumor size, multiplicity, poorer differentiation and later stage (P P = 0.001. In different subsets of HCC patients, p300 expression was also a prognostic indicator in patients with stage II (P = 0.007 and stage III (P = 0.011. Importantly, p300 expression was evaluated as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P = 0.021. Consequently, a new clinicopathologic prognostic model with three poor prognostic factors (p300 expression, AFP level and vascular invasion was constructed. The model could significantly stratify risk (low, intermediate and high for overall survival (P Conclusions Our findings provide a basis for the concept that high expression of p300 in HCC may be important in the acquisition of

  16. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  17. Detection of a highly toxic clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (JP2) in a Moroccan immigrant family with multiple cases of localized aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubek, D; Westergaard, J

    2004-01-01

    The JP2 clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a high-leukotoxin-producing strain, characterized by a 530-basepair (bp) deletion in the promoter region of the leukotoxin gene operon and mainly found among individuals with African origin, is associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The objective of the study was to examine the occurrence of periodontal disease in a Moroccan immigrant family living in Denmark in which the oldest son (14 year) was referred and treated for localized aggressive periodontitis. Further, the potential occurrence of the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the family was examined. Here we present the clinical, radiographic, and microbiological findings from the family. Clinical and radiographic examination of the other family members revealed that 3 of 5 younger siblings had localized aggressive periodontitis, one had gingivitis and the mother had chronic periodontitis. Despite scaling followed by intensive maintenance therapy several family members, including the sibling with gingivitis, had further attachment loss at the 1-year examination. The JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans was isolated from subgingival plaque samples from 4 children with periodontitis. In contrast, it was not detected in plaque from the oldest boy, who had been treated for localized aggressive periodontitis by surgery combined with antibiotic therapy. The 4 children with periodontitis and colonized with the JP2 clone were treated by scaling and antibiotic administration. One month later the JP2 clone could still be detected in plaque samples. In conclusion, it is confirmed that members of immigrant families with African origin are potential carriers of the JP2 clone and that those families often have multiple family members with localized aggressive periodontitis. It is proposed that those families are given periodontal examination frequently to benefit from early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  18. Assessing fibrinogen extravasation into Alzheimer's disease brain using high-content screening of brain tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pritika J; Kim, Sue-Ling; Lill, Claire; Feng, Sheryl; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Michael

    2015-05-30

    Tissue microarrays are commonly used to evaluate disease pathology however methods to automate and quantify pathological changes are limited. This article demonstrates the utility of the VSlide scanner (MetaSystems) for automated image acquisition from immunolabelled tissue microarray slides, and subsequent automated image analysis with MetaXpress (Molecular Devices) software to obtain objective, efficient and reproducible data from immunolabelled tissue microarray sections. Significant increases in fibrinogen immunolabelling were observed in 29 Alzheimer's disease cases compared to 28 control cases analysed from a single tissue microarray slide. Western blot analysis also demonstrated significant increases in fibrinogen immunolabelling in 6 Alzheimer's cases compared to 6 control cases. The observed changes were also validated with gold standard blinded manual H-scoring. VSlide Metafer software offers a 'tissue microarray acquisition' plugin for easy mapping of tissue cores with their original position on the tissue microarray map. High resolution VSlide images are compatible with MetaXpress image analysis software. This article details the coupling of these two technologies to accurately and reproducibly analyse immunolabelled tissue microarrays within minutes, compared to the gold standard method of manual counting using H-scores which is significantly slower and prone to inter-observer variation. Here, we couple brain tissue microarray technology with high-content screening and automated image analysis as a powerful way to address bottle necks in data generation and improve throughput, as well as sensitivity to study biological/pathological changes in brain disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn G Marsden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation in the bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during

  20. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  1. Violence among peoples in the light of human frustration and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2005-01-01

    This article sets out to provide a general background to the study of aggression in the social sciences, with a particular focus on its link to collective violence. While the study of what happens in the human brain appears to be already highly complex, analysis of violent behavior appears to be

  2. Biological Clocks and Rhythms of Anger and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Suzanne; Amir, Shimon

    2018-01-01

    The body's internal timekeeping system is an under-recognized but highly influential force in behaviors and emotions including anger and reactive aggression. Predictable cycles or rhythms in behavior are expressed on several different time scales such as circadian ( circa diem , or approximately 24-h rhythms) and infradian (exceeding 24 h, such as monthly or seasonal cycles). The circadian timekeeping system underlying rhythmic behaviors in mammals is constituted by a network of clocks distributed throughout the brain and body, the activity of which synchronizes to a central pacemaker, or master clock. Our daily experiences with the external environment including social activity strongly influence the exact timing of this network. In the present review, we examine evidence from a number of species and propose that anger and reactive aggression interact in multiple ways with circadian clocks. Specifically, we argue that: (i) there are predictable rhythms in the expression of aggression and anger; (ii) disruptions of the normal functioning of the circadian system increase the likelihood of aggressive behaviors; and (iii) conversely, chronic expression of anger can disrupt normal rhythmic cycles of physiological activities and create conditions for pathologies such as cardiovascular disease to develop. Taken together, these observations suggest that a comprehensive perspective on anger and reactive aggression must incorporate an understanding of the role of the circadian timing system in these intense affective states.

  3. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  4. Effects of alcohol intoxication and aggressivity on aggressive verbalizations during anger arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Christopher I; Crane, Cory

    2008-01-01

    We examined the moderating effect of dispositional aggressivity on the relationship between alcohol intoxication and aggressive verbalizations. Using a laboratory anger-induction task that simulated an interpersonal conflict as a method to assess aggressive verbalizations (the articulated thoughts in simulated situations paradigm), 70 participants (33 women, 37 men) consumed either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, and then imagined a series of audiorecorded interpersonal scenarios. Two blind-to-condition raters assessed the frequency of participants' aggressive verbalizations (insults, aggressive threats, belligerent provocations) articulated during anger arousal. Aggressivity was assessed using a standard measure of dispositional aggression. Results supported the aggressivity moderation hypothesis: intoxicated participants high in aggressivity responded with significantly more aggressive verbalizations relative to low-aggressivity participants regardless of beverage condition, and three times more aggressive verbalizations relative to the high-aggressivity/placebo group. There were no gender effects. These data support the hypothesis that alcohol potentiates aggression primarily among individuals at dispositional risk for engaging in such a behavior. Aggr. Behav. 34:428-436, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  6. Quantitative discrimination of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans highly leukotoxic JP2 clone from non-JP2 clones in diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Ennibi, Oum-Keltoum; Miyazaki, Hideo; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hayashida, Hideaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Awano, Shuji; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2012-10-11

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the etiological agent of periodontitis, and there is a strong association between clone JP2 and aggressive periodontitis in adolescents of African descent. The JP2 clone has an approximately 530-bp deletion (∆530) in the promoter region of the lkt/ltx gene, which encodes leukotoxin, and this clone has high leukotoxic activity. Therefore, this clone is very important in aggressive periodontitis. To diagnose this disease, culture methods and conventional PCR techniques are used. However, quantitative detection based on qPCR for the JP2 clone has not been developed due to genetic difficulties. In this study, we developed a qPCR-based quantification method specific to the JP2 clone. Based on our analysis of the DNA sequence of the lkt/ltx gene and its flanking region, we designed a reverse primer specific for the ∆530 deletion border sequence and developed a JP2-specific PCR-based quantification method using this primer. We also analyzed the DNA sequence of the ∆530 locus and found it to be highly conserved (97-100%) among 17 non-JP2 strains. Using the ∆530 locus, we designed a qPCR primer-probe set specific to non-JP2 clones. Next, we determined the numbers of JP2 and non-JP2 clone cells in the periodontal pockets of patients with aggressive periodontitis. The JP2-specific primers specifically amplified the genomic DNA of the A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 clone and did not react with other bacterial DNA, whereas the non-JP2 specific primers reacted only with A. actinomycetemcomitans non-JP2 clones. Samples from the 88 periodontal sites in the 11 patients with aggressive periodontitis were analyzed. The bacterial cell numbers in 88 periodontal sites ranged from 0 to 4.8 × 10(8) (mean 1.28 × 10(7)) for JP2 clones and from 0 to 1.6 × 10(6) for non-JP2 clones (mean 1.84 × 10(5)). There were significant differences in the JP2 cell number between a clinical attachment level (CAL) ≤6 mm and a level ≥7 mm (p aggressive

  7. Role of Serotonin and Dopamine System Interactions in the Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression and its Comorbidity with other Clinical Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongju; Patrick, Christopher J; Kennealy, Patrick J

    2008-10-01

    Impulsive aggression is characterized by an inability to regulate affect as well as aggressive impulses, and is highly comorbid with other mental disorders including depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse. In an effort to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsive aggression and to help account for its connections with these other disorders, this paper reviews relevant biochemical, brain imaging, and genetic studies. The review suggests that dysfunctional interactions between serotonin and dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex may be an important mechanism underlying the link between impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders. Specifically, serotonin hypofunction may represent a biochemical trait that predisposes individuals to impulsive aggression, with dopamine hyperfunction contributing in an additive fashion to the serotonergic deficit. The current paper proposes a modified diathesis-stress model of impulsive aggression in which the underlying biological diathesis may be deficient serotonergic function in the ventral prefrontal cortex. This underlying disposition can be manifested behaviorally as impulsive aggression towards oneself and others, and as depression under precipitating life stressors. Substance abuse associated with impulsive aggression is understood in the context of dopamine dysregulation resulting from serotonergic deficiency. Also discussed are future research directions in the neurobiology of impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders.

  8. Ventromedial Hypothalamus and the Generation of Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Hashikawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggression is a costly behavior, sometimes with severe consequences including death. Yet aggression is prevalent across animal species ranging from insects to humans, demonstrating its essential role in the survival of individuals and groups. The question of how the brain decides when to generate this costly behavior has intrigued neuroscientists for over a century and has led to the identification of relevant neural substrates. Various lesion and electric stimulation experiments have revealed that the hypothalamus, an ancient structure situated deep in the brain, is essential for expressing aggressive behaviors. More recently, studies using precise circuit manipulation tools have identified a small subnucleus in the medial hypothalamus, the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl, as a key structure for driving both aggression and aggression-seeking behaviors. Here, we provide an updated summary of the evidence that supports a role of the VMHvl in aggressive behaviors. We will consider our recent findings detailing the physiological response properties of populations of VMHvl cells during aggressive behaviors and provide new understanding regarding the role of the VMHvl embedded within the larger whole-brain circuit for social sensation and action.

  9. Health Care Workers' Experiences of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, paggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, pverbal aggression (r=0.286, paggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, paggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  11. [Functional neuroimaging in the study of aggressive behaviour in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciá-Martí, Gracián; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Alberich-Bayarri, Ángel; Bonmatí, Ana; Sanjuán, Julio

    2013-02-16

    Although aggressive behaviours are not always very highly prevalent in schizophrenia, their occurrence does represent a significant problem for patients and those around them. Although neuroimaging studies have made it possible to further our knowledge of the biology of these behaviours, there is still a notable degree of clinical heterogeneity in the study samples that makes it difficult to obtain conclusive results that can be compared with each other. To determine whether there are variations in the brain activity, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, of a homogenous group of patients with schizophrenia and aggressive behaviour. The sample consisted of 32 patients with refractory schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations selected for the study. The subjects were submitted to a functional magnetic resonance imaging examination using an auditory paradigm with emotional stimulation, while the degree of aggressiveness was measured by means of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Significant correlations were found between functional activation and the degree of aggressiveness, which show focal hyperactivations in patients with a greater association to violent behaviours. The areas identified were located in the left hippocampus (p aggressiveness and certain regions in the brain that are responsible for cognitive and emotional processing in a phenotypically very homogenous group of patients with chronic auditory hallucinations and schizophrenia. This alteration of the neuronal circuits can favour loss in the processes involved in empathy and sensitivity, thus favouring the appearance of aggressive behaviours.

  12. Oxytocin microinjected into the central amygdaloid nuclei exerts anti-aggressive effects in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Stubbendorff, Christine; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2015-03-01

    We recently demonstrated that acute and chronic intracerebroventricular enhancement of brain OXT levels induces potent anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects during social challenges. However, the exact anatomical location in the brain where OXT exerts its action is still elusive. In the present study, we targeted two critical brain areas, i.e. the central amygdala (CeA) and the dorsal raphe (DR), both containing high levels of OXT receptors (OXTRs) and constituting important nodes of the neural circuitry related to aggression. Behavioral effects of local micro-infusion of OXT and OXTR antagonist, L368.899, (alone and combined) were evaluated in resident male rats during confrontations with an unfamiliar male intruder. Our results show that OXT microinjected into the CeA markedly reduced resident's offensive behavior and facilitated social exploration, without affecting other non-aggressive behaviors. The receptor specificity of the behavioral effects was verified when a micro-infusion of a selective OXTR antagonist nullified the changes. Pharmacological blockade of CeA OXTRs per se was without clear behavioral effects suggesting that endogenous OXT within the CeA does not play a major inhibitory role on offensiveness. Anatomical specificity was also supported by the absence of relevant behavioral effects when OXT was microinjected into more medial sub-regions of the amygdala. Likewise, within the DR neither OXT nor OXTR exerted significant effects on offensive aggression, while microinjection of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist in this region significantly suppressed aggression. In conclusion, our results point at the CeA as an important brain site of action for the anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects induced by exogenous enhancement of brain OXT levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From nightmares to sweet dreams: inspection of aggressive OPC on 14nm reticles (and beyond) using a novel high-NA and low-NA dual method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Karen D.; Hibbs, Michael; Seki, Kazunori; Broadbent, William; Hutchinson, Trent; Redding, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    To prevent catastrophic failures in wafer manufacturing lines from reticle defects, mask manufacturers employ sophisticated reticle inspection systems to examine every shape on every reticle for defects. The predominant inspection systems in use today compare the reticle directly with the design database using high-NA optics (typically 3x higher resolution at the reticle plane than advanced wafer scanners). High-NA optical inspection with its high signal to noise ratio (SNR) can readily detect small defects before they have lithographic impact, thus ensuring reticle quality. However, when inspecting certain aggressive OPC, high-NA inspection can overload on small OPC defects which do not have lithographic impact and thus, should generally be ignored. Whereas, inspecting a reticle as imaged in the wafer plane (low-NA in the reticle plane) will generally ignore such small OPC defects; however, the SNR is often too low for certain defect types to provide the needed defect detection sensitivity to ensure reticle quality. This paper discusses the design and performance of a novel reticle inspection method using high-NA and low-NA dual optical imaging and processing. This method offers the high defect sensitivity of high-NA inspection with the OPC tolerance of low-NA inspection. These two imaging methods are blended together into a seamless inspection mode suitable for aggressive OPC of the 14nm generation and beyond. The test reticles include 14nm logic designs containing aggressive OPC and native defects, as well as a 14 nm test reticle containing relevant programmed defects. Defect lithographic significance is judged using a Zeiss AIMS™ system.

  14. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  16. Adolescents, alcohol and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, G G

    1993-09-01

    Research findings demonstrate that the majority of young adults consume alcohol and that males drink more and more often than females. A significant number of high school seniors and college students have consumed five or more drinks in a row during a 2-week period. High-risk reasons for consumption include: to become intoxicated, to cope with a problem, because of anger and frustration. Social and behavioral consequences of alcohol use affect a number of young adults. Medium to heavy drinkers expect to experience more aggressiveness after drinking. Common risk factors for serious chronic delinquents and frequent users of drugs include psychological and personality factors as well as family conflict, peer factors and school failure. Although research has not determined that alcohol/drugs cause crime or produce the motivation to commit crimes, a relationship between alcohol/drug use and aggressive behavior is apparent. Alcohol plays a significant role in adolescent deaths due to accidents, homicides and suicides, acts of sexual aggression, and criminality. Implications of the research findings are that programs need to be designed with a clear philosophy and realistic goals and they need to target at-risk adolescents. Implementation of promising prevention strategies should take place in the home, school and community, incorporating the influence of parents and peers.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling pathway contributes to the aggressive behavior of lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keigo; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Hideya; Nakamura, Katsuya; Motoshita, Junichi; Kato, Masato; Nakanishi, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-11-01

    The tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family consists of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC, which play essential roles in tumor progression and/or suppression in various cancers. Little is known about the biological significance of the Trk family in human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here we investigated the clinical significance of the protein expression of Trk family members in samples from 99 SCC patients, and we explored the relationship between invasion/proliferation activities and Trk expression using lung SCC cell lines to clarify the biological significance of the Trk family in lung SCC. Immunohistochemical high expression of TrkB was significantly correlated with vascular invasion (P=0.004), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), and advanced stage (P=0.0015). The overall survival of the patients with TrkB-high expression was significantly shorter than those with TrkB-low expression (P=0.0110). TrkA/TrkC expressions were not predictors of poor prognosis. An in vitro assay demonstrated that the inhibition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (a TrkB ligand) and TrkB by K252a (a Trk inhibitor) or siRNA (BDNF-siRNA, TrkB-siRNA) suppressed the invasion, migration, and proliferative activities of lung SCC cells. The administration of recombinant human BDNF (rhBDNF) enhanced the invasion, migration, and proliferation activities, which were abrogated by K252a. TrkB-siRNA transfection increased the protein expression of E-cadherin and decreased vimentin expressions in lung SCC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-mediated gelatin degradations were decreased in lung SCC cells transfected with TrkB-siRNA. Thus, TrkB-high expression is an indicator of poor prognosis in lung SCC, probably due to invasion/proliferation activities promoted by the BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway, which could become a therapeutic target for lung SCC.

  18. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression.\\ud Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video\\ud games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible\\ud associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending\\ud specialist outpatient child and adolescent ...

  19. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...

  20. Physical Aggression and Facial Expression Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisdair James Gordon Taylor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social information processing theories suggest that aggressive individuals may exhibit hostile perceptual biases when interpreting other’s behaviour. This hypothesis was tested in the present study which investigated the effects of physical aggression on facial expression identification in a sample of healthy participants. Participants were asked to judge the expressions of faces presented to them and to complete a self-report measure of aggression. Relative to low physically aggressive participants, high physically aggressive participants were more likely to mistake non-angry facial expressions as being angry facial expressions (misattribution errors, supporting the idea of a hostile predisposition. These differences were not explained by gender, or response times. There were no differences in identifying angry expressions in general between aggression groups (misperceived errors. These findings add support to the idea that aggressive individuals exhibit hostile perceptual biases when interpreting facial expressions.

  1. Aggression in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Látalová, K; Prasko, J

    2010-09-01

    This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with substance use disorders, Bipolar Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder; these conditions further elevate the risk for violence. Treatment of BDP includes psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, schema therapy, dialectic behavioral, group and pharmacological interventions. Recent studies indicate that many medications, particularly atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants, may reduce impulsivity, affective lability as well as irritability and aggressive behavior. But there is still a lack of large, double blind, placebo controlled studies in this area.

  2. 'His brain is totally different': an analysis of care-staff explanations of aggressive challenging behaviour and the impact of gendered discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Esther; Finlay, W M; Edmonds, Jane

    2006-03-01

    Using a discourse analysis on the texts of 10 interviews with care staff, this research explored the discourses used by care staff in constructing the aggressive challenging behaviours of men and women with learning disabilities. The research also explored discourses used differentially to understand the aggressive challenging behaviour of one gender. The analysis demonstrated the use of two main discourses, an individual pathology discourse which constructed the behaviour as originating in factors stable and internal to the client, and a context discourse which constructed the behaviour as a response to the client's circumstances. Participants used these accounts flexibly within their talk, and also used a mixed discourse which constructed the behaviour as due to both individual pathology and context. Despite the staff presenting their understandings as not being affected by the client's gender, the presence of two gendered individualizing discourses within the interviews was also demonstrated. Women's behaviour, unlike men's, was constructed with the use of discourses about their menstrual cycle or character flaws. The consequences of the use of these different discourses are discussed, as are the subject positions which they afford for both staff and clients. It is argued that clients are disempowered by the individual pathology discourse; that consideration of the broad contexts within which care-staff actions are situated may allow them to manage blame whilst reflecting on their practice, and that the impact of gender stereotypes on the understandings staff have of a client's behaviour should be a legitimate area for consideration in clinical practice.

  3. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA...

  4. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  5. Clinical and psychological factors for criminal aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates approach to the study of crime of aggression, taking into account the analysis of the behavior principles of interaction of personal and situational factors; interaction of aggressive and antiaggressive personal factors. Three-dimensional typology of crime of aggression formed three axles: high – low aggressiveness; formation – aborted personal aggression inhibitors; neutral – a legally significant traumatic situation. This typology has been verified on the basis of empirical material, including 329 people (257 males and 72 women aged 18 to 70 years charged with violent crimes. All of the defendants (33 % mental health 67 % – with a variety of mental disorders not excluding sanity were examined in the production of a comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination. A cluster analysis of the subjects (Ward's method showed the validity of the choice of three bases of a typology of criminal aggression. The most powerful discriminator of types of aggression were personal inhibitors of aggression, less severe factors of high aggressiveness and characteristics of the situation. Identified correlations between various mental disorders and types of aggression.

  6. Anger, hostility, verbal aggression and physical aggression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They always lead to antagonistic responses and aggressive behaviours in sporting activities. The study examined whether a combination of anger, hostility, and verbal utterances would predict physical aggressive behaviour among student-athletes in South African universities. A cross-sectional study of 300 student-athletes ...

  7. Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie

  8. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...

  9. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Smith, Georgia; Burn, Michele; Litherland, Steven; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of barroom aggression with both general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies. The present study investigated these associations in a rarely studied and high-risk population: construction tradespeople. Male construction tradespeople (n = 211) aged 18-35 years (M = 21.91, SD = 4.08 years) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire assessing general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies and perpetration of physical and verbal barroom aggression as well as control variables, age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. Sequential logistic regression analyses revealed that general alcohol-aggression expectancies of courage or dominance were not predictive of either verbal or physical barroom aggression after controlling for age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. However, barroom-specific alcohol expectancies were associated with both verbal and physical barroom aggression, with positive associations found for expected hyper-emotionality and protective effects for expected cognitive impairment. In a population where rates of risky drinking and barroom aggression are high, specific expectations about the effects of drinking in bars may influence subsequent aggressive behaviour in bars. [Zinkiewicz L, Smith G, Burn M, Litherland S, Wells S, Graham K, Miller P. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:549-556]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Acquistion of High Resolution Electroencephalogram Systems for Advancing Brain-Machine Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    a strong research and education center on brain machine interaction (BMI) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). By acquiring this system...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquistion of High Resolution Electroencephalogram Systems for Advancing Brain - Machine ...ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 electroencephalogram (EEG), brain -computer interface (BCI

  11. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    .... Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high...

  13. High-resolution whole-brain DCE-MRI using constrained reconstruction: Prospective clinical evaluation in brain tumor patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi, E-mail: yiguo@usc.edu; Zhu, Yinghua; Lingala, Sajan Goud; Nayak, Krishna [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Lebel, R. Marc [GE Healthcare, Calgary, Alberta AB T2P 1G1 (Canada); Shiroishi, Mark S.; Law, Meng [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To clinically evaluate a highly accelerated T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI technique that provides high spatial resolution and whole-brain coverage via undersampling and constrained reconstruction with multiple sparsity constraints. Methods: Conventional (rate-2 SENSE) and experimental DCE-MRI (rate-30) scans were performed 20 minutes apart in 15 brain tumor patients. The conventional clinical DCE-MRI had voxel dimensions 0.9 × 1.3 × 7.0 mm{sup 3}, FOV 22 × 22 × 4.2 cm{sup 3}, and the experimental DCE-MRI had voxel dimensions 0.9 × 0.9 × 1.9 mm{sup 3}, and broader coverage 22 × 22 × 19 cm{sup 3}. Temporal resolution was 5 s for both protocols. Time-resolved images and blood–brain barrier permeability maps were qualitatively evaluated by two radiologists. Results: The experimental DCE-MRI scans showed no loss of qualitative information in any of the cases, while achieving substantially higher spatial resolution and whole-brain spatial coverage. Average qualitative scores (from 0 to 3) were 2.1 for the experimental scans and 1.1 for the conventional clinical scans. Conclusions: The proposed DCE-MRI approach provides clinically superior image quality with higher spatial resolution and coverage than currently available approaches. These advantages may allow comprehensive permeability mapping in the brain, which is especially valuable in the setting of large lesions or multiple lesions spread throughout the brain.

  14. Short-term aggressive behavior in scleractinian corals from La Blanquilla reef, Veracruz Reef System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriz-Domínguez, N; Horta-Puga, G

    2001-03-01

    The short-term aggressive behavior of scleractinian corals from La Blanquilla Reef, Veracruz Reef System, Gulf of Mexico was determined. Unilateral aggression, bilateral aggression and indifference were observed through experimental interspecific encounters in situ, in aquarium conditions and through direct observation of natural encounters on the reef. Species were characterized as highly aggressive, moderately aggressive and not very aggressive establishing a hierarchy with two competitive rings representing similar aggressive abilities among some species. Most observations of aggression were of extracoelenteric digestion. Mussa angulosa was the most aggressive species and Oculina diffusa the least. Apparently there is a direct relationship among aggressiveness and relative coverage as three of the most abundant corals at depths of 4-9 m Montastraea cavernosa, Colpophyllia natans and Montastraea annularis, are all highly aggressive, have massive growth and have a high relative coverage. Siderastrea siderea is the only dominant species that was not ranked as highly aggressive; its high coverage is due to other reasons.

  15. Psychopharmacology of Persistent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jonathan M; Cummings, Michael A; Proctor, George; Stahl, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    Persistent violence not due to acute psychosis or mania can be managed only after appropriate characterization of the aggressive episodes (psychotic, impulsive, or predatory/planned/instrumental). The type of violence combined with the psychiatric diagnosis dictates the evidence-based pharmacologic approaches for psychotically motivated and impulsive aggression, whereas instrumental violence mandates forensic/behavioral strategies. For nonacute inpatients, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, traumatic brain injury, and dementia comprise the majority of individuals who are persistently aggressive, with impulsive actions the most common form of violence across all diagnoses. Neurobiological considerations combined with empirical data provide a comprehensive framework for systematic medication trials to manage persistently aggressive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protection of Conductive and Non-conductive Advanced Polymer-based Paints from Highly Aggressive Oxidative Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimenko, Y.; Ng, R.; Iskanderova, Z.; Kleiman, J.; Grigorevsky, A.; Kiseleva, L.; Finckenor, M.; Edwards, D.

    2005-01-01

    Research has been continued to further improve the space durability of conductive and non-conductive polymer-based paints and of conductive thermal control paints for space applications. Efforts have been made to enhance the space durability and stability of functional Characteristics in ground-based space environment imitating conditions, using specially developed surface modification treatment. The results of surface modification of new conductive paints, including the ground-based testing in aggressive oxidative environments, such as atomic oxygen/UV and oxygen plasma, and performance evaluation are presented. Functional properties and performance characteristics, such as thermal optical properties (differential solar absorptance and thermal emittance representing the thermal optical performance of thermal control paints) and surface resistivity characteristics of pristine, surface modified, and tested materials were verified. Extensive surface analysis studies have been performed using complementary surface analyses including SEM/EDS and XPS. Test results revealed that the successfully treated materials exhibit reduced mass loss and no surface morphology change, thus indicating good protection from the severe oxidative environment. It was demonstrated that the developed surface modification treatment could be applied successfully to charge dissipative and conductive paints.

  17. Ultra High Field MRI-Guided Deep Brain Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, Birte U; Isaacs, Bethany R; Temel, Yasin

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical treatment for neurological disorders often planned with 1.5-T or 3-T MRI. The clinical efficacy of DBS can be improved using ultrahigh-field (UHF) MRI for planning by increasing the level of precision required for an individualized approach.

  18. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Montejo Hernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory were examined in a sample of 373 students of Medicine and Psychology in the city of Tunja in Colombia. In the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory, most common aggressive behaviors were verbal aggression and attitudes or rage gestures, with physical aggression, verbal aggression and threatening showing the highest correlations; most common situation were study problems, family and interpersonalrelations, and familiar or personal economy, no high correlationswere found among situations or situations with behaviors. In the Motives for Aggression Inventory, most common motives were rage, emotional discomfort, self-defense and defending values. A ronbach´s Alpha of 0.91 was obtained. Both of the questionnaires showed a single dimension (construct validity and satisfactory divergent validity, with the Psychopathy subscale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire by Krug (1987, and convergent validity, with the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992. Homogeneity coefficients were appropriated. Motives in the IMA, specially the pleasure of being aggressive, getting what you want, somethingmakes you feel bad, and valuing aggressive persons, were predictors of the behaviors in the ISCA.

  20. Image derived input functions for dynamic High Resolution Research Tomograph PET brain studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, J.E.M.; van Velden, F.H.P.; Lubberink, J.M.; Kloet, R.W.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Boellaard, R.

    2008-01-01

    The High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated human brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of image derived input functions (IDIF) as an alternative for arterial sampling for HRRT human brain studies. To this end, IDIFs

  1. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis Craig Randy W. Overbeek Miles V. Condon Shannon B. Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    .... The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the National Football League (NFL). Methods...

  2. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT: effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trynke R de Jong

    Full Text Available The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT. We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB or low-anxiety (LAB rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  3. Metabolic advantages and vulnerabilities in brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminera, Alexandra K; Jandial, Rahul; Termini, John

    2017-10-23

    Metabolic adaptations permit tumor cells to metastasize to and thrive in the brain. Brain metastases continue to present clinical challenges due to rising incidence and resistance to current treatments. Therefore, elucidating altered metabolic pathways in brain metastases may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of aggressive disease. Due to the high demand for glucose in the brain, increased glycolytic activity is favored for energy production. Primary tumors that undergo Warburg-like metabolic reprogramming become suited to growth in the brain microenvironment. Indeed, elevated metabolism is a predictor of metastasis in many cancer subtypes. Specifically, metabolic alterations are seen in primary tumors that are associated with the formation of brain metastases, namely breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. Because of this selective pressure, inhibitors of key metabolic factors may reduce tumor cell viability, thus exploiting metabolic pathways for cancer therapeutics. This review summarizes the metabolic advantages and vulnerabilities of brain metastases.

  4. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  5. Patient Aggression in Real Time on Geriatric Inpatient Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on verbal and physical aggression against nursing staff, in real time, by elderly patients. The aggressive incidents were recorded at the end of each shift when they were more likely to be accurately remembered. Before beginning the study, nursing staff were taught how to use the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) to identify aggressive acts. High rates of verbal and physical aggression among the elderly were observed by nurses, and data show that 75% of nursing staff experienced aggression on their shift. They either experienced aggression themselves or observed aggression on every single shift; that is at least five violent incidents in a work-week. Even if one is not the target of aggression, such observation is associated with elevated levels of stress.

  6. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  7. Aggression in Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Volavka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals diagnosed with a mental illness are not violent, but some mentally ill patients commit violent acts. PubMed database was searched for articles published between 1980 and November 2013 using the combination of key words “schizophrenia” or “bipolar disorder” with “aggression” or “violence.” In comparison with the general population, there is approximately a twofold increase of risk of violence in schizophrenia without substance abuse comorbidity and ninefold with such comorbidity. The risk in bipolar disorder is at least as high as in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow two distinct pathways: one associated with antisocial conduct and another associated with the acute psychopathology, particularly anger and delusions. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second most effective treatment. Treatment nonadherence greatly increases the risk of violent behavior, and poor insight as well as hostility is associated with nonadherence. Nonpharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone is not sufficient.

  8. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  9. Simulating Radiotherapy Effect in High-Grade Glioma by Using Diffusive Modeling and Brain Atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Roniotis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying diffusive models for simulating the spatiotemporal change of concentration of tumour cells is a modern application of predictive oncology. Diffusive models are used for modelling glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of glioma. This paper presents the results of applying a linear quadratic model for simulating the effects of radiotherapy on an advanced diffusive glioma model. This diffusive model takes into consideration the heterogeneous velocity of glioma in gray and white matter and the anisotropic migration of tumor cells, which is facilitated along white fibers. This work uses normal brain atlases for extracting the proportions of white and gray matter and the diffusion tensors used for anisotropy. The paper also presents the results of applying this glioma model on real clinical datasets.

  10. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality. PMID:19968409

  11. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  12. Concurrent administration of high-dose rituximab before and after autologous stem-cell transplantation for relapsed aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Issa F; Saliba, Rima M; Hosing, Chitra; Okoroji, Grace-Julia; Acholonu, Sandra; Anderlini, Paolo; Couriel, Daniel; De Lima, Marcos; Donato, Michele L; Fayad, Luis; Giralt, Segio; Jones, Roy; Korbling, Martin; Maadani, Farzaneh; Manning, John T; Pro, Barbara; Shpall, Elizabeth; Younes, Anas; McLaughlin, Peter; Champlin, Richard E

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of administering high-dose rituximab (HD-R) in combination with high-dose carmustine, cytarabine, etoposide, and melphalan chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with recurrent B-cell aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Sixty-seven consecutive patients were treated. Rituximab was administered during stem-cell mobilization (1 day before chemotherapy at 375 mg/m(2) and 7 days after chemotherapy at 1,000 mg/m(2)), together with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 10 mug/kg and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor 250 microg/m(2) administered subcutaneously daily. HD-R of 1,000 mg/m(2) was administered again days 1 and 8 after transplantation. The results of this treatment were retrospectively compared with those of a historical control group receiving the same preparative regimen without rituximab. With a median follow-up time for the study group of 20 months, the overall survival rate at 2-years was 80% (95% CI, 65% to 89%) for the study group and 53% (95% CI, 34% to 69%) for the control group (P = .002). Disease-free survival was 67% (95% CI, 51% to 79%) for the study group and 43% (95% CI, 26% to 60%) for the control group (P = .004). The median time to recovery of absolute neutrophil count to >/= 500 cells/microL was 11 days (range, 8 to 37 days) for the rituximab group and 10 days (range, 8 to 17 days) for the matched control group (P = .001). However, infections were not significantly increased in patients treated with rituximab. The results of this study suggest that using HD-R and autologous SCT is a feasible and promising treatment for patients with B-cell aggressive NHL.

  13. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Image Dept.], e-mail: jrl.ferraz@terra.com.br; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Radiology Dept.; Sanches, Rafael Angelo [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2009-06-15

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  15. The aggression paradox: understanding links among aggression, sensation seeking, and the consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joireman, Jeff; Anderson, Jonathan; Strathman, Alan

    2003-06-01

    Four studies involving 573 female and 272 male college students demonstrated that multiple forms and measures of aggression were associated with high levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and a focus on the immediate consequences of behavior. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models supported a theoretical model based on the general aggression model (C.A. Anderson & B.J. Bushman. 2002), positing that hostile cognition and negative affect mediate the relationships between the aforementioned individual differences and aggression. Sensation seeking also predicted a desire to engage in physical and verbal aggression. The final study demonstrated that relative to those scoring low, individuals scoring high on the consideration of future consequences are only less aggressive when aggression is likely to carry future costs.

  16. Aggression in Replacement Grower and Finisher Gilts fed a High-Tryptophan Diet and the Effect of Long-term Human-Animal Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggression is a major problem for swine production as it negatively impacts the pigs’ health and welfare. Dietary approaches such as increasing tryptophan (TRP) ingestion to raise cerebral serotonin (5-HT) – a key neurotransmitter for aggression control, and long-term positive social handling have b...

  17. Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Heather Cody; Gu, Hongbin; Munsell, Brent C; Kim, Sun Hyung; Styner, Martin; Wolff, Jason J; Elison, Jed T; Swanson, Meghan R; Zhu, Hongtu; Botteron, Kelly N; Collins, D Louis; Constantino, John N; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Evans, Alan C; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gerig, Guido; Kostopoulos, Penelope; McKinstry, Robert C; Pandey, Juhi; Paterson, Sarah; Pruett, John R; Schultz, Robert T; Shaw, Dennis W; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2017-02-15

    Brain enlargement has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon, and the relationship between ASD and the appearance of behavioural symptoms, are unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of two-year olds followed up at four years of age have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development. Studies of infants at high familial risk of autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have shown that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life. These observations suggest that prospective brain-imaging studies of infants at high familial risk of ASD might identify early postnatal changes in brain volume that occur before an ASD diagnosis. In this prospective neuroimaging study of 106 infants at high familial risk of ASD and 42 low-risk infants, we show that hyperexpansion of the cortical surface area between 6 and 12 months of age precedes brain volume overgrowth observed between 12 and 24 months in 15 high-risk infants who were diagnosed with autism at 24 months. Brain volume overgrowth was linked to the emergence and severity of autistic social deficits. A deep-learning algorithm that primarily uses surface area information from magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of 6-12-month-old individuals predicted the diagnosis of autism in individual high-risk children at 24 months (with a positive predictive value of 81% and a sensitivity of 88%). These findings demonstrate that early brain changes occur during the period in which autistic behaviours are first emerging.

  18. Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Heather Cody; Gu, Hongbin; Munsell, Brent C.; Kim, Sun Hyung; Styner, Martin; Wolff, Jason J.; Elison, Jed T.; Swanson, Meghan R.; Zhu, Hongtu; Botteron, Kelly N.; Collins, D. Louis; Constantino, John N.; Dager, Stephen R.; Estes, Annette M.; Evans, Alan C.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Gerig, Guido; Kostopoulos, Penelope; McKinstry, Robert C.; Pandey, Juhi; Paterson, Sarah; Pruett, John R.; Schultz, Robert T.; Shaw, Dennis W.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Summary Brain enlargement has been observed in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon and its relationship to the appearance of behavioral symptoms is unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of 2 year olds followed up at age 4 years, have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development.1, 2 Studies of infants at high familial risk for autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have found that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life3,4. These observations suggest that prospective brain imaging studies of infants at high familial risk for ASD might identify early post-natal changes in brain volume occurring before the emergence of an ASD diagnosis. In this prospective neuroimaging study of 106 infants at high familial risk of ASD and 42 low-risk infants, we show that cortical surface area hyper-expansion between 6-12 months of age precedes brain volume overgrowth observed between 12-24 months in the 15 high-risk infants diagnosed with autism at 24 months. Brain volume overgrowth was linked to the emergence and severity of autistic social deficits. A deep learning algorithm primarily using surface area information from brain MRI at 6 and 12 months of age predicted the diagnosis of autism in individual high-risk children at 24 months (with a positive predictive value of 81%, sensitivity of 88%). These findings demonstrate that early brain changes unfold during the period in which autistic behaviors are first emerging. PMID:28202961

  19. Genetic mapping of escalated aggression in wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms: association with serotonin-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki eTakahashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms (MSM retains a wide range of traits related to behavioral wildness, including high levels of emotionality and avoidance of humans. In this study, we observed that MSM showed a markedly higher level of aggression than the standard laboratory strain C57BL/6J. Whereas almost all MSM males showed high frequencies of attack bites and pursuit in the resident-intruder test, only a few C57BL/6J males showed aggressive behaviors, with these behaviors observed at only a low frequency. Sexually mature MSM males in their home cages killed their littermates, or sometimes female pair-mates. To study the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the escalated aggression observed in MSM mice, we analyzed reciprocal F1 crosses and five consomic strains of MSM (Chr 4, 13, 15, X and Y against the background of C57BL/6J. We identified two chromosomes, Chr 4 and Chr 15, which were involved in the heightened aggression observed in MSM. These chromosomes had different effects on aggression: whereas MSM Chr 15 increased agitation and initiation of aggressive events, MSM Chr 4 induced a maladaptive level of aggressive behavior. Expression analysis of mRNAs of serotonin receptors, serotonin transporter and Tph2, an enzyme involved in serotonin synthesis in seven brain areas, indicated several differences among MSM, C57BL/6J, and their consomic strains. We found that Tph2 expression in the midbrain was increased in the Chr 4 consomic strain, as well as in MSM, and that there was a strong positive genetic correlation between aggressive behavior and Tph2 expression at the mRNA level. Therefore, it is possible that increased expression of the Tph2 gene is related to escalated aggression observed in MSM.

  20. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores.

  1. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression. PMID:24701010

  2. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of aggression among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.

  3. A high-performance brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Gopal; Ryu, Stephen I.; Yu, Byron M.; Afshar, Afsheen; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2006-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that monkeys and humans can use signals from the brain to guide computer cursors. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) may one day assist patients suffering from neurological injury or disease, but relatively low system performance remains a major obstacle. In fact, the speed and accuracy with which keys can be selected using BCIs is still far lower than for systems relying on eye movements. This is true whether BCIs use recordings from populations of individual neurons using invasive electrode techniques or electroencephalogram recordings using less- or non-invasive techniques. Here we present the design and demonstration, using electrode arrays implanted in monkey dorsal premotor cortex, of a manyfold higher performance BCI than previously reported. These results indicate that a fast and accurate key selection system, capable of operating with a range of keyboard sizes, is possible (up to 6.5 bits per second, or ~15wordsperminute, with 96 electrodes). The highest information throughput is achieved with unprecedentedly brief neural recordings, even as recording quality degrades over time. These performance results and their implications for system design should substantially increase the clinical viability of BCIs in humans.

  4. Low levels of caries in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulugodu Ramachandra, Srinivas

    2014-04-01

    This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down's syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.

  5. "Blurred lines?" Sexual aggression and barroom culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better

  6. Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, Jan G.; Coolen, LM; de Jong, TR; Joosten, Henk W.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Olivier, B; Coolen, Lique M.; Boer, Sietze F. de

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared

  7. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-02

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence.

  8. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hayes, M.M. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, P.W. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Surgery, Radiation Oncology and Developmental Radiotherapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  9. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-11-18

    Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children's aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7-11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children's lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.

  10. Highly potent soluble amyloid-β seeds in human Alzheimer brain but not cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Sarah K; Langer, Franziska; Kaeser, Stephan A; Maia, Luis F; Portelius, Erik; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Kaminski, Clemens F; Winkler, David T; Maetzler, Walter; Keyvani, Kathy; Spitzer, Philipp; Wiltfang, Jens; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S; Zetterberg, Henrik; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Jucker, Mathias

    2014-11-01

    The soluble fraction of brain samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease contains highly biologically active amyloid-β seeds. In this study, we sought to assess the potency of soluble amyloid-β seeds derived from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Soluble Alzheimer's disease brain extracts were serially diluted and then injected into the hippocampus of young, APP transgenic mice. Eight months later, seeded amyloid-β deposition was evident even when the hippocampus received subattomole amounts of brain-derived amyloid-β. In contrast, cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer's disease, which contained more than 10-fold higher levels of amyloid-β peptide than the most concentrated soluble brain extracts, did not induce detectable seeding activity in vivo. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid from aged APP-transgenic donor mice failed to induce cerebral amyloid-β deposition. In comparison to the soluble brain fraction, cerebrospinal fluid largely lacked N-terminally truncated amyloid-β species and exhibited smaller amyloid-β-positive particles, features that may contribute to the lack of in vivo seeding by cerebrospinal fluid. Interestingly, the same cerebrospinal fluid showed at least some seeding activity in an in vitro assay. The present results indicate that the biological seeding activity of soluble amyloid-β species is orders of magnitude greater in brain extracts than in the cerebrospinal fluid. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases.

  12. Amygdala reactivity to fearful faces correlates positively with impulsive aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Fisher, Patrick M; Hjordt, Liv V

    2018-01-01

    Facial expressions robustly activate the amygdala, a brain structure playing a critical role in aggression. Whereas previous studies suggest that amygdala reactivity is related to various measures of impulsive aggression, we here estimate a composite measure of impulsive aggression and evaluate...... whether it is associated with amygdala reactivity to angry and fearful faces. We estimated amygdala reactivity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 47 men with varying degree of aggressive traits (19 incarcerated violent offenders and 28 healthy controls). We modeled a composite "impulsive...... aggression" trait construct (LVagg) using a linear structural equation model, with a single latent variable capturing the shared correlation between five self-report measures of trait aggression, anger and impulsivity. We tested for associations between amygdala reactivity and the LVagg, adjusting for age...

  13. Short-term aggressive behavior in scleractinian corals from La Blanquilla reef, Veracruz Reef System

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Ferriz-Domínguez; Guillermo Horta-Puga

    2001-01-01

    The short-term aggressive behavior of scleractinian corals from La Blanquilla Reef, Veracruz Reef System, Gulf of Mexico was determined. Unilateral aggression, bilateral aggression and indifference were observed through experimental interspecific encounters in situ, in aquarium conditions and through direct observation of natural encounters on the reef. Species were characterized as highly aggressive, moderately aggressive and not very aggressive establishing a hierarchy with two competitive ...

  14. Short-term aggressive behavior in scleractinian corals from La Blanquilla reef, Veracruz Reef System

    OpenAIRE

    Ferriz-Domínguez, Norma; Horta-Puga, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The short-term aggressive behavior of scleractinian corals from La Blanquilla Reef, Veracruz Reef System, Gulf of Mexico was determined. Unilateral aggression, bilateral aggression and indifference were observed through experimental interspecific encounters in situ, in aquarium conditions and through direct observation of natural encounters on the reef. Species were characterized as highly aggressive, moderately aggressive and not very aggressive establishing a hierarchy with two competitive ...

  15. Psychiatric diagnosis and aggression before acute hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, A; Natoli, A; Moliterno, D; Rossattini, M; De Gaspari, I F; Mauri, M C

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of aggressive behaviours occurring before acute hospitalisation. We analysed 350 acute admissions to a psychiatric ward during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were formulated according to the DSM IV axis I and II criteria. Aggressive behaviours occurring in the week before admission were retrospectively assessed using the modified overt aggression scale. The patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables, concurrent drug or alcohol abuse, and admission status were recorded at the time of admission. Aggressive and violent behaviours were highly prevalent, respectively, in 45% and 33% of the cases. Violence before admission was independently associated with drug abuse, involuntary admission status, and severe psychopathology. A diagnosis of a psychotic disorder did not increase the risk of aggression or violence, compared to the other psychiatric diagnoses. Personality disorders were significantly more associated to aggressive behaviours than psychotic disorders. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder is a poor predictor of aggression in a sample of psychiatric patients. Other clinical and non-clinical variables are associated to aggression before hospitalisation: they include drug abuse, involuntary admission status, general severity of symptoms, and diagnosis of personality disorder.

  16. Violence among peoples in the light of human frustration and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaay Fortman, Bas

    2005-12-05

    This article sets out to provide a general background to the study of aggression in the social sciences, with a particular focus on its link to collective violence. While the study of what happens in the human brain appears to be already highly complex, analysis of violent behavior appears to be even more intricate. A deductive system in the sense of a general and clear system of propositions logically connected to one another is not feasible, principally because contrary to the natural sciences there are no verities but merely "stylized facts." One of these concerns the setting of human aggression in the light of frustration, as argued in the frustration-aggression hypothesis developed by Dollard et al. in 1939. Apart from conceiving of aggression as a pure human instinct, it may also be seen as externally driven, while a third possibility concerns culturally "learned" aggression. Proof of the latter is that the strongest correlation appears to be that between current violence and previous manifestations thereof. Attention is paid to the way in which Gurr has rooted his relative deprivation theory on causes of collective violence among peoples in mechanisms of frustration and aggression. That theory is taken a bit further in terms of "perceived acquirement failure," which appears to be highly connected to the role of the state. Based on certain observations by Hannah Arendt, the argument then proceeds to violence as a manifestation of powerlessness. Finally, this leads to a discussion of justice as a crucial factor in what Durkheim used to call a "right to conflict." In this way, human aggression is placed in a broad socio-economic context.

  17. Aggression and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Dodig, G.; Glavina, T.; Janović, Š.; Romac, D.; Uglešić, B.

    2001-01-01

    Alcoholism is today the greatest medical and social problem. Due to the fact that it is frequently connected with aggressiveness, it can also be defined as a great and frequent forensic problem. The authors investigate the issue to what extent aggressiveness is medically justified. They offer guidelines regarding this problem in accordance with their everyday experience and medical criteria.

  18. Aggression and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig, G; Glavina, T; Janović, S; Romac, D; Uglesić, B

    2001-06-01

    Alcoholism is today the greatest medical and social problem. Due to the fact that it is frequently connected with aggressiveness, it can also be defined as a great and frequent forensic problem. The authors investigate the issue to what extent aggressiveness is medically justified. They offer guidelines regarding this problem in accordance with their everyday experience and medical criteria.

  19. The perception of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P

    1997-01-01

    Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey

  20. Affect, Aggression, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.; Siebel, Claudia E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of thinking happy, sad, or angry thoughts on aggression and altruism were investigated with third graders. None of the treatments had any effect on altruistic behaviors, but all three increased aggressive behaviors in boys and decreased them in girls.

  1. [Aggression and acoustic startle response in adult and infant rats with genetically defined aggression towards man and its absence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, V S; Kozhemiakina, R V; Pliusnina, I Z; Popova, N K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between expression of acoustic startle response and fear-induced aggression. The intensity of aggressive response towards man and acoustic startle response in adult and 15-day old Norway rats selectively bred for 70 generation for high level or the lack of fear-induced aggression was studied. Adult rats of aggressive strain demonstrated high aggression and increased amplitude of acoustic startle response compared to rats selectively bred for the lack of fear-induced aggression. It was found that, in contrast to infant rats of tame strain, 15-day old rat pups of aggressive strain demonstrated distinct aggressive response towards man, although this response was not as intensive as in adult rats of this strain. There was no considerable difference between aggressive and tame infants in amplitude of acoustic startle response. Significant habituation of startle response was shown in adult rats of aggressive strain, whereas in 15-day old rat pups of aggressive rat strain amplitude of startle response remained unaltered. Both adult and infant rats of tame strain demonstrated considerable habituation of startle response. Thus, defensive aggression in rats with genetic predisposition to fear-induced aggression appears quite early--at eyes opening they demonstrate a pronounced aggressive response toward man. The acoustic startle reflex is one of the elements of complex behavior--fear-induced aggression, and this element is involved in the enhancement of aggressive response towards man in adult rats but does not play any essential role in infant aggressiveness.

  2. Personality traits as predictors of inpatient aggression in a high-security forensic psychiatric setting: prospective evaluation of the PCL-R and IPDE dimension ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Calvin M; Hogue, Todd E; Daffern, Michael; Mannion, Aisling; Howells, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    The Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) initiative in England and Wales provides specialized care to high-risk offenders with mental disorders. This study investigated the predictive utility of personality traits, assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the International Personality Disorder Examination, with 44 consecutive admissions to the DSPD unit at a high-security forensic psychiatric hospital. Incidents of interpersonal physical aggression (IPA) were observed for 39% of the sample over an average 1.5-year period following admission. Histrionic personality disorder (PD) predicted IPA, and Histrionic, Borderline, and Antisocial PDs all predicted repetitive (2+ incidents of) IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Facets 1 and 2 were also significant predictors of IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Histrionic PD scores were significantly associated with imminence of IPA. Results were discussed in terms of the utility of personality traits in risk assessment and treatment of specially selected high-risk forensic psychiatric patients in secure settings.

  3. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  4. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  5. Executive functioning: a conceptual framework for alcohol-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancola, P R

    2000-11-01

    The causal mechanisms underlying alcohol-related aggression are not well understood. This article presents a conceptual framework designed to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. According to the framework, executive functioning is both a mediator and a moderator of intoxicated aggression. Literatures describing associations between alcohol and aggression, executive functioning and aggression, and the acute effects of alcohol on executive functioning are reviewed. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that (a) executive functioning mediates the alcohol-aggression relation in that acute alcohol intoxication disrupts executive functioning, which then heightens the probability of aggression, and (b) executive functioning moderates the alcohol-aggression relation in that acute alcohol consumption is more likely to facilitate aggressive behavior in persons with low, rather than high, executive functioning.

  6. Influence of high deformation rate, brain region, transverse compression, and specimen size on rat brain shear stress morphology and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslach, Henry W; Gipple, Jenna M; Leahy, Lauren N

    2017-04-01

    An external mechanical insult to the brain, such as a blast, may create internal stress and deformation waves, which have shear and longitudinal components that can induce combined shear and compression of the brain tissue. To isolate the consequences of such interactions for the shear stress and to investigate the role of the extracellular fluid in the mechanical response, translational shear stretch at 10/s, 60/s, and 100/s translational shear rates under either 0% or 33% fixed transverse compression is applied without preconditioning to rat brain specimens. The specimens from the cerebrum, the cerebellum grey matter, and the brainstem white matter are nearly the full length of their respective regions. The translational shear stress response to translational shear deformation is characterized by the effect that each of four factors, high deformation rate, brain region, transverse compression, and specimen size, have on the shear stress magnitude averaged over ten specimens for each combination of factors. Increasing the deformation rate increases the magnitude of the shear stress at a given translational shear stretch, and as tested by ANOVAs so does applying transverse fixed compression of 33% of the thickness. The stress magnitude differs by the region that is the specimen source: cerebrum, cerebellum or brainstem. The magnitude of the shear stress response at a given deformation rate and stretch depends on the specimen length, called a specimen size effect. Surprisingly, under no compression a shorter length specimen requires more shear stress, but under 33% compression a shorter length specimen requires less shear stress, to meet a required shear deformation rate. The shear specimen size effect calls into question the applicability of the classical shear stress definition to hydrated soft biological tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aggressiveness in sport - measurement method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryszard Makarowski

    2013-01-01

      Aggression is a process, and aggressiveness is a feature of character. This article contains comprehensive data about Aggressiveness in Sport Questionnaire, that comprises three scales: 1. "Go-ahead", i.e...

  8. A competitively designed version of the point subtraction aggression paradigm is related to proactive aggressive and psychopathic traits in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Thorben; Schliwa, Evita S; May, Valerie D; Lammertz, Sarah E; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2017-10-01

    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) is a well-validated and frequently applied behavioral paradigm for provocation and quantification of reactive aggressive behavior in laboratory settings. Here, we design and test a newly developed PSAP version in its ability to quantify proactive aggressive behavior. A group of 119 male volunteers was allocated to the conventional PSAP and two other variants of the PSAP. The first PSAP adaptation intended to abet proactive aggression by monetary reward for aggressive actions. In the second variant, a highly competitive situation was created. In addition, two sets of aggression questionnaires, related to proactive and reactive aggressive and psychopathic traits, were used (Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R)). Our results showed strong positive correlations among RPQ/PPI-R and aggressive behavior only for the new competitive version of the PSAP. In contrast, the scores of these scales showed weak and non-significant correlations with observed aggression in the two PSAP variants. The scores for reactive aggression were not significantly associated with any of the PSAP versions. These data indicate that aggression on the newly developed competitive PSAP design is mainly driven by proactive aggressive mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  10. Fluorescent-protein stabilization and high-resolution imaging of cleared, intact mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Schwarz

    Full Text Available In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium. Successful clearing is enabled through the use of either 1-propanol or tert-butanol during dehydration whilst maintaining a basic pH. We show that high-resolution fluorescence imaging of entire, structurally intact juvenile and adult mouse brains is possible at subcellular resolution, even following many months in clearing solution. We also show that axonal long-range projections that are EGFP-labelled by modified Rabies virus can be imaged throughout the brain using a purpose-built light-sheet fluorescence microscope. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, we determined a detailed map of the monosynaptic projections onto a target cell population in the lateral entorhinal cortex. This example demonstrates that our method permits the quantification of whole-brain connectivity patterns at the subcellular level in the uncut brain.

  11. Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9−10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical situations corresponded with children's tendencies to propose aggressive but not assertive solutions. In a 3-way interaction, fathers’ aggressive solutions to peer scenarios and marital aggression, combined, exacerbated girls’ aggressive problem solving, but had the opposite effect for boys. Discussion addresses the complexity, particularly with respect to parent and child gender combinations, in understanding parents’ aggressive influences on children's peer relationships. PMID:17206880

  12. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  13. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghi Kim

    2015-01-01

    The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  14. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  15. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Aggression and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  17. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Feng, Ling; Ozenne, Brice; Højgaard, Liselotte; Fisher, Patrick M; Svarer, Claus; Greve, Douglas N; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-04

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system of the human brain. We present a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET)- and magnetic resonance imaging-based human brain atlas of important serotonin receptors and the transporter. The regional PET-derived binding measures correlate strongly with the corresponding autoradiography protein levels. The strong correlation enables the transformation of the PET-derived human brain atlas into a protein density map of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Next, we compared the regional receptor/transporter protein densities with mRNA levels and uncovered unique associations between protein expression and density at high detail. This new in vivo neuroimaging atlas of the 5-HT system not only provides insight in the human brain's regional protein synthesis

  18. Real-time brain activity measurement and signal processing system using highly sensitive MI sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs are the most used sensor to detect the extremely weak magnetic field of brain. However, the sensor heads need to be kept at very low temperature to maintain superconductivity, and that makes the devices large-scale and inconvenient. In order to measure brain activity in normal environment, we had constructed a measurement system based on highly sensitive Magneto-Impedance (MI sensor, and reported the study of measuring Auditory Evoked Field (AEF brain waves. In this study, the system was improved, and the sensor signals can be processed in real-time to monitor brain activity. We use this system to measure the alpha rhythm in the occipital region and the Event-Related Field (ERF P300 in the frontal, the parietal and both the temporal regions.

  19. Real-time brain activity measurement and signal processing system using highly sensitive MI sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kewang; Cai, Changmei; Yamamoto, Michiharu; Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2017-05-01

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are the most used sensor to detect the extremely weak magnetic field of brain. However, the sensor heads need to be kept at very low temperature to maintain superconductivity, and that makes the devices large-scale and inconvenient. In order to measure brain activity in normal environment, we had constructed a measurement system based on highly sensitive Magneto-Impedance (MI) sensor, and reported the study of measuring Auditory Evoked Field (AEF) brain waves. In this study, the system was improved, and the sensor signals can be processed in real-time to monitor brain activity. We use this system to measure the alpha rhythm in the occipital region and the Event-Related Field (ERF) P300 in the frontal, the parietal and both the temporal regions.

  20. Digital atlas of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) brain: a high-resolution photo atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, Harvey J; Brzozowska-Prechtl, Agnieszka; Lovell, Peter V; Tang, Daniel D; Mello, Claudio V; Wang, Haibin; Mitra, Partha P

    2013-11-01

    We describe a set of new comprehensive, high-quality, high-resolution digital images of histological sections from the brain of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and make them publicly available through an interactive website (http://zebrafinch.brainarchitecture.org/). These images provide a basis for the production of a dimensionally accurate and detailed digital nonstereotaxic atlas. Nissl- and myelin-stained brain sections are provided in the transverse, sagittal, and horizontal planes, with the transverse plane approximating the more traditional Frankfurt plane. In addition, a separate set of brain sections in this same plane is stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, revealing the distribution of catecholaminergic neurons (dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and adrenergic) in the songbird brain. For a subset of sagittal sections we also prepared a corresponding set of drawings, defining and annotating various nuclei, fields, and fiber tracts that are visible under Nissl and myelin staining. This atlas of the zebra finch brain is expected to become an important tool for birdsong research and comparative studies of brain organization and evolution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Trait aggressiveness modulates neurophysiological correlates of laboratory-induced reactive aggression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Ulrike M; Büttner, Sarah; Roth, Gerhard; Münte, Thomas F

    2008-08-01

    Reactive aggression following provocation is a frequent form of human social behavior. The neural basis of reactive aggression, especially its control, remains poorly understood, however. We conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study using a competitive reaction time task that elicits aggression through provocation. Participants were selected from a larger sample because of extreme scores in trait aggressiveness, yielding high and low trait aggressive groups. As each trial in the task is separated into a decision phase, during which the punishment level for the opponent is set, and an outcome phase, during which the punishment is applied or received, we were able to disentangle provocation-related and evaluation-related modulations of the ERPs during the aggressive interaction. Specifically, we observed an enhanced frontal negativity during the decision phase under high provocation that was positively correlated with the participants' ability to refrain from retaliation. This held true for high trait aggressive participants only, pointing to a higher need for inhibitory and control processes in these people when provoked. During the outcome phase, we detected a mediofrontal negativity in loss compared to win trials, resembling previous ERP findings to negative feedback stimuli, which have been linked to the evaluation of an outcome's valence. This mediofrontal negativity was differentially pronounced in aggressive and nonaggressive participants: Nonaggressive participants showed only a slightly smaller mediofrontal negativity in win than in loss trials, suggesting that for them punishing the opponent had a similar negative valence as being punished.

  2. High expression of hexokinase domain containing 1 is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype in hepatocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zijian; Huang, Shanzhou [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Wang, Huanyu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Nanshan District People’s Hospital, Shenzhen, 518000 (China); Wu, Jian [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Chen, Dong [Department of Biliopancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Peng, Baogang [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Zhou, Qi, E-mail: hnzhouqi@163.com [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Rapid progress and metastasis remain the major treatment failure modes of hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatoma cell proliferation and migration are poorly understood. Metabolic abnormalities play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. However, the functions and mechanisms of HKDC1 in cancer remain unknown. In this study, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to detect the HKDC1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines. The Oncomine™ Cancer Microarray Database was applied to analysis the correlations between HKDC1 expression and HCC clinical characteristics. MTT and Transwell migration assays were performed to determine the functions of HKDC1 in HCC cells. The effect of HKDC1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using Western blotting assay. In this study, we found that HKDC1 expression levels were elevated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. HCC patients with high expression levels of HKDC1 had poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, higher HKDC1 levels also predicted a worse OS of patients within solitary, elevated pre-operated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level and higher tumor diameter. Moreover, silencing HKDC1 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration in vitro. Downregulated HKDC1 expression repressed β-Catenin and c-Myc expression, which indicates that silencing HKDC1 may reduce proliferation and migration via inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCC. In summary, HKDC1 provides further insight into HCC tumor progression and may provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. -- Highlights: •HKDC1 is upregulated in HCC. •Patients with high HKDC1 expressions perform worse OS. •Silencing HKDC1 suppresses proliferation and migration. •Silencing HKDC1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  3. Pir51, a Rad51-interacting protein with high expression in aggressive lymphoma, controls mitomycin C sensitivity and prevents chromosomal breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Sarah E. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsai, Shih-Chang [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Malone, Cindy Sue [Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Soghomonian, Shahe V. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ouyang, Yan [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wall, Randolph [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Marahrens, York [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) and Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: YMarahrens@mednet.ucla.edu; Teitell, Michael A. [Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, California NanoSystems Institute, and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: mteitell@ucla.edu

    2006-10-10

    Pir51, a protein of unknown function that interacts with Rad51, was identified in a screen for genes that were highly expressed in aggressive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) versus indolent small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patient samples. We show that Pir51 is a nuclear protein expressed in a variety of cell types and that its expression is regulated during the cell cycle in a pattern nearly identical to Rad51. Also similar to Rad51, Pir51 levels did not change in response to a variety of DNA damaging agents. siRNA depletion of Pir51 did not reduce homologous recombination repair (HRR), but sensitized cells to mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA crosslinking and resulted in elevated levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in metaphase chromosome spreads and reduced colony formation. Therefore, Pir51 maintains genomic integrity and potentially connects the early response to DNA crosslinks, orchestrated by the ATR kinase and Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins, to later stages of Rad51-dependent repair. Our results provide the first example of a Rad51-binding protein that influences DNA crosslink repair without affecting homologous recombination repair.

  4. Social isolation stress-induced aggression in mice: a model to study the pharmacology of neurosteroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kinzo; Pinna, Graziano; Puia, Giuli; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2005-06-01

    Long-term social isolation of laboratory animals is a model to study the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of the absence of social interaction in rodents. Many of the symptoms induced by isolation resemble depression and anxiety disorder symptomatology. Our studies have revealed that male mice socially isolated for more than 4 weeks, exhibit increased aggressiveness, a reduced responsiveness to GABA(A) receptor acting drugs, and a downregulation of brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (allopregnanolone: 3alpha,5alpha-THP), a neurosteroid endowed with potent positive allosteric modulatory activity of the action of GABA at various GABA(A) receptor subtypes. This downregulation of 3alpha,5alpha-THP appeared to be associated with the reduction of brain type I 5alpha-reductase mRNA and protein expression. Systemic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine normalized brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP content and reduced responsiveness to GABA(A) mimetic drugs in a stereospecific manner. These drugs in nanomolar doses also reduced social isolation-induced aggressiveness with the same stereospecificity as detected in their action on 3alpha,5alpha-THP brain content, while their ex vivo inhibition of serotonin reuptake occurred at high micromolar doses and lacked stereospecificity. From these results we infer that the brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP content physiologically upregulates GABA(A) receptor responsiveness to GABA and that social isolation induces a reduction of brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP content that is probably causally related to the onset of aggression.

  5. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  6. Linkages between Aggression and Children's Legitimacy of Aggression Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdley, Cynthia A.; Asher, Steven R.

    To determine whether Slaby and Guerra's (1988) measure of aggression would reliably assess younger children's belief about aggression and whether children's belief about the legitimacy of aggression relates to their self-reports of it and to their levels of aggression as evaluated by peers, 781 fourth and fifth graders were asked to complete an…

  7. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  8. Aggression Against Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andriy Tyushka

    2017-01-01

    Review Essay: Of Thomas D. Grant. Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xxx, 283 pp. Treaties and Other International Texts. Cases. Municipal Instruments and Other State Documents. Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $105.50, cloth.

  9. Aggressive periodontitis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to highlight the current etiological and therapeutic concepts of aggressive periodontitis which is rapidly progressing and aggressive in nature. It leads to destruction of periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. We need advanced diagnostic techniques to learn about current disease activity and rate of progression. We also require strategies to keep the disease under control with proper maintenance regime and prevent tooth loss, because it can result into complicated prosthetic rehabilitation in a very young patient. The evidence suggests that aggressive periodontitis is influenced by microbiological, genetic, and host factors. This paper reviews clinical, microbiological, immunological, and genetic aspects of pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as well as diagnostic criteria of the disease and appropriate nonsurgical and surgical treatment options.

  10. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  11. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darja Škrila

    2005-01-01

    Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only...

  12. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  13. Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Human high intelligence is involved in spectral redshift of biophotonic activities in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Niting; Li, Zehua; Xiao, Fangyan; Dai, Jiapei

    2016-08-02

    Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain. This brain property may be a key biophysical basis for explaining high intelligence in humans because biophoton spectral redshift could be a more economical and effective measure of biophotonic signal communications and information processing in the human brain.

  15. High-Density Electroencephalographic Recordings During Sleep in Children and Adolescents With Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Anne-Laure; Meyer-Heim, Andreas; Kurth, Salome; Ringli, Maya; Pugin, Fiona; van Hedel, Hubertus J A; Huber, Reto

    2017-05-01

    Acquired brain injuries (ABI) such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) or stroke can result in motor, language, or cognitive impairments. Although a considerable number of studies have investigated functional recovery, underlying brain reorganization remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that plastic processes in the brain are linked to changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during deep sleep (EEG spectral power 1-4.5 Hz). We investigated sleep SWA in children and adolescents with ABI. We used high-density EEG (128 electrodes) to record sleep in 22 young patients with ABI (age range = 4-16 years). We compared patients to 52 previously measured typically developing children and adolescents (age range = 4-16 years). The pattern of alterations in SWA differed between particular patient groups. In patients with bilateral stroke, SWA was globally reduced across the entire scalp. Patients with unilateral stroke showed a local reduction in SWA over lesion areas and an increase over perilesional and contralateral brain areas. In patients with severe TBI, we found a reduction in SWA over the midline and an increase over lateral brain areas. We found no consistent pattern in patients with mild to moderate TBI. Sleep SWA seems to be a sensitive measure to assess individual alterations in neural activity after ABI. Deviations from age norms might indirectly indicate plastic processes that have occurred since injury. Improving our understanding of neural activity after ABI could optimize clinical prognosis and guide the development of novel therapeutic interventions.

  16. Neural correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Baker, Laura A

    2017-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i.e., proactive and reactive aggression) and whether they differ between males and females. Using a sample of 106 14-year-old adolescent twins, this study found that striatal enlargement was associated with both proactive and reactive aggression. We also found that volumetric alterations in several frontal regions including smaller middle frontal and larger orbitofrontal cortex were correlated with higher levels of aggression in adolescent twins. In addition, cortical thickness analysis showed that thickness alterations in many overlapping regions including middle frontal, superior frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex and temporal regions were associated with aggression in adolescent twins. Results support the involvement of fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in the etiology of aggression during adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 43:230-240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging.

  18. Compulsive Addiction-like Aggressive Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sam A; Heins, Conor; Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Zhang, Michelle; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-08-15

    Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice. We then tested them for relapse to aggression seeking after forced abstinence or punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. In experiment 3, we trained a large cohort of CD-1 mice and tested them for choice-based voluntary suppression of aggression seeking, relapse to aggression seeking, progressive ratio responding, and punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. We then used cluster analysis to identify patterns of individual differences in compulsive "addiction-like" aggressive behavior. In experiments 1 and 2, we observed strong motivation to acquire operant self-administration of opportunities to aggress and relapse vulnerability during abstinence. In experiment 3, cluster analysis of the aggression-related measures identified a subset of "addicted" mice (∼19%) that exhibited intense operant-reinforced attack behavior, decreased likelihood to select an alternative reinforcer over aggression, heightened relapse vulnerability and progressive ratio responding, and resilience to punishment-induced suppression of aggressive behavior. Using procedures established to model drug addiction, we showed that a subpopulation of CD-1 mice demonstrate "addiction-like" aggressive behavior, suggesting an evolutionary origin for compulsive aggression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Inhibitory control and trait aggression: neural and behavioral insights using the emotional stop signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawliczek, Christina M; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Kohn, Nils; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute

    2013-10-01

    Deficits in response inhibition and heightened impulsivity have been linked to psychiatric disorders and aggression. They have been investigated in clinical groups as well as individuals with trait characteristics, yielding insights into the underlying neural and behavioral mechanisms of response inhibition and impulsivity. The motor inhibition tasks employed in most studies, however, have lacked an emotional component, which is crucial given that both response inhibition and impulsivity attain salience within a socio-emotional context. For this fMRI study, we selected a group with high trait aggression (HA, n=17) and one with low trait aggression (LA, n=16) from 550 males who had completed an Aggression Questionnaire. Neural activation was compared to an emotional version (including angry and neutral faces) of the stop signal task. Behavioral results revealed impaired response inhibition in HA, associated with higher motor impulsivity. This was accompanied by attenuated activation in brain regions involved in response inhibition, including the pre-supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor cortex. Together, these findings offer evidence that a reduced inhibition capacity is present in HA. Notably, response inhibition improved during anger trials in both groups, suggesting a facilitation effect through heightened activation in the related brain regions. In both groups, inclusion of the anger stimuli enhanced the activation of the motor and somatosensory areas, which modulate executive control, and of limbic regions including the amygdala. In summary, the investigation of response inhibition in individuals with high and low trait characteristics affords useful insights into the underlying distinct processing mechanisms. It can contribute to the investigation of trait markers in a clinical context without having to deal with the complex mechanisms of a clinical disorder itself. In contrast, the mechanisms of emotional response inhibition did not differ between groups

  20. Aggression and Sport: Two Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, Ruth E.; Laflin, Joyce

    1973-01-01

    The first theory is that aggression is instinctive, that our society is predisposed to aggressive behavior, and that sports can serve as a catharsis. The second theory is that aggression is learned behavior, that sports teaches aggression and thus contributes to competitiveness and violence in our society. (JA)

  1. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  2. Narcissism, Perceived Social Status, and Social Cognition and Their Influence on Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, Thomas P.; Wiesenthal, Vered; Söderberg, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    This study had three primary goals: to explore the relationship between narcissism, participant roles, and aggression; to examine the role of gender as a moderating influence on narcissism-based aggression; and to examine how these variables work together to influence aggressive outcomes in a sample of aggressive middle and high school students.…

  3. Maternal high-fat diet influences outcomes after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, John D; Liu, Yiqing; Shangguan, Yu; Djuric, Zora; Ren, Jianwei; Silverstein, Faye S

    2017-01-01

    The typical US diet has >30% calories from fat; yet, typical laboratory diets contain 17% calories from fat. This disparity could confound the clinical relevance of findings in cerebral ischemia models. We compared outcomes after neonatal brain injury in offspring of rat dams fed standard low-fat chow (17% fat calories) or a higher fat diet (34% fat calories) from day 7 of pregnancy. On postnatal day 7, hypoxic-ischemic injury was induced by right carotid ligation, followed by 60, 75 or 90 min 8% oxygen exposure. Sensorimotor function, brain damage, and serum and brain fatty acid content were compared 1 to 4 weeks later. All lesioned animals developed left forepaw placing deficits; scores were worse in the high-fat groups (p diet groups. Serum and brain docosahexaenoic acid fatty acid fractions were lower in high-fat progeny (p diet disrupted docosahexaenoic acid-dependent recovery mechanisms. These findings have significant implications both for refinement of neonatal brain injury models and for understanding the impact of maternal diet on neonatal neuroplasticity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Acute and chronic glue sniffing effects and consequences of withdrawal on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchatta, Otmane; Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Kerekes, Nóra; Bennis, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse act on brain mechanisms that cause a high-risk individual to engage in aggressive and violent behavior. While a drug-violence relationship exists, the nature of this relationship is often complex, with intoxication, neurotoxic, and withdrawal effects often being confused and/or confounded. Glue sniffing is often a springboard to the abuse of more addictive drugs. Despite its high prevalence and serious consequences, we know relatively little about the aggressive behavioral effects of volatile inhalants abuse, especially glue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the duration of glue exposure, a common substance abuse problem in Morocco, and the level of aggressive behavior during withdrawal. For this we used the isolation-induced aggression model "residents" in three groups of mice. The first group served as control resident animals (n=10, without exposure); the second group as experimental resident mice (n=10) tested before and after acute (first day) and chronic exposure to the glue, and at 1 and 2weeks of withdrawal; and the third group of 10 intruder animals. The results showed that the number of attacks decreased (halved) and the latency of the first attack increased (doubled) following acute glue sniffing. However, the effects of chronic exposure and of 1week of withdrawal led to an increase in the intensity of agonistic encounters. After 2weeks of withdrawal, the intensity of aggressive behavior decreased again. These results indicated that chronic glue exposure and the first week of withdrawal are associated with increased aggression in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  6. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  7. Concurrent thermochemoradiotherapy for brain high-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabova, A. I., E-mail: ranigor@mail.ru; Novikov, V. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Bober, E. E.; Frolova, I. G. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Choinzonov, E. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gribova, O. V. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Baranova, A. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Despite the achievements in the current strategies for treatment, the prognosis in malignant glioma patients remains unsatisfactory. Hyperthermia is currently considered to be the most effective and universal modifier of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preliminary treatment outcomes for 28 patients with newly diagnosed (23) and recurrent (5) high-grade gliomas were presented. All the patients received multimodality treatment including surgery, thermoche-moradiotherapy followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients endured thermochemoradiotherapy well. A complication, limited skin burn (II stage), was diagnosed in two cases and treated conservatively without treatment interruption. A month after thermochemoradiotherapy the results were as follows: complete regression was achieved in 4 cases, partial regression in 4 cases, stable disease in 14 cases and disease progression in 6 cases (one of them is pseudo-progression). After completing the adjuvant chemotherapy 2 more patients demonstrated complete response and 1 patient had disease progression. Introduction of local hyperthermia in multimodal therapy of malignant glioma does not impair the combined modality treatment tolerability of patients with malignant gliomas. A small number of studied patients and short follow-up time do not allow making reliable conclusions about the impact of local hyperthermia on the treatment outcomes; however, there is a tendency towards the increase in disease-free survival in the patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

  8. Brain development in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis : Longitudinal changes related to resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Sanne; Wierenga, Lara M; Oranje, Bob; Ziermans, Tim B; Schothorst, Patricia F; van Engeland, Herman; Kahn, René S; Durston, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main focus of studies of individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) has been on identifying brain changes in those individuals who will develop psychosis. However, longitudinal studies have shown that up to half of UHR individuals are resilient, with symptomatic remission and

  9. Physical exercise and brain responses to images of high-calorie food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Preer, Lily; Gogel, Hannah; Bark, John S; Mundy, Elizabeth A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-04

    Physical exercise has many health benefits, including improved cardiovascular fitness, lean muscle development, increased metabolism, and weight loss, as well as positive effects on brain functioning and cognition. Recent evidence suggests that regular physical exercise may also affect the responsiveness of reward regions of the brain to food stimuli. We examined whether the total number of minutes of self-reported weekly physical exercise was related to the responsiveness of appetite and food reward-related brain regions to visual presentations of high-calorie and low-calorie food images during functional MRI. Second, we examined whether such responses would correlate with self-reported food preferences. While undergoing scanning, 37 healthy adults (22 men) viewed images of high-calorie and low-calorie foods and provided desirability ratings for each food image. The correlation between exercise minutes per week and brain responses to the primary condition contrast (high-calorie>low-calorie) was evaluated within the amygdala, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, brain regions previously implicated in responses to food images. Higher levels of exercise were significantly correlated with lower responsiveness within the medial orbitofrontal cortex and left insula to high-calorie foods. Furthermore, activation of these regions was positively correlated with preference ratings for high-calorie foods, particularly those with a savory flavor. These findings suggest that physical exercise may be associated with reduced activation in food-responsive reward regions, which are in turn associated with reduced preferences for unhealthy high-calorie foods. Physical exercise may confer secondary health benefits beyond its primary effects on cardiovascular fitness and energy expenditure.

  10. Maternal Attachment Buffers the Association Between Exposure to Violence and Youth Attitudes About Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jessica; Grych, John

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative and cumulative predictive power of parent-child, interparental, and community aggression on youths' perceptions of the acceptability of aggression between peers and siblings. The potential for mother-child attachment to buffer the effects of violence on aggressive attitudes was tested, as well as the link between aggressive attitudes and aggressive behaviors. A diverse sample of 148 children (ages 9-14) completed measures of interparental, parent-child, and community aggression; a measure of mother-child attachment quality; and a measure of aggressive behaviors. Participants also rated the acceptability of aggressive interactions between two peers and two siblings in written vignettes. Mothers completed a measure of their child's aggressive behaviors. Youths' violence exposure was related to perceptions of aggression as more acceptable, with parent-child aggression having the only unique association. Maternal attachment buffered the relation between exposure to community violence and perceived acceptability of aggression, which predicted decreased aggression. When exposed to high levels of community violence, youths with more secure maternal attachment perceived aggression as less acceptable than youths with less secure attachment and, in turn, displayed fewer aggressive behaviors. Interventions that focus on strengthening the caregiver-child relationship in children exposed to violence may reduce aggressive behaviors by interrupting the development of aggressive attitudes.

  11. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  12. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  13. Aggression Profiles in the Spanish Child Population: Differences in Perfectionism, School Refusal and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, María; Inglés, Cándido J.; Sanmartín, Ricardo; Gonzálvez, Carolina; García-Fernández, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the existence of combinations of aggression components (Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression) that result in different profiles of aggressive behavior in children, as well as to test the differences between these profiles in scores of perfectionism, school refusal and affect. It is interesting to analyze these variables given: (a) their clinical relevance due to their close relationship with the overall psychopathology; and (b) the need for further evidence regarding how they are associated with aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 1202 Spanish primary education students between the ages of 8 and 12. Three aggressive behavior profiles for children were identified using Latent Class Analysis (LCA): High Aggression (Z scores between 0.69 and 0.7), Moderate Aggression (Z scores between −0.39 and −0.47) and Low Aggression (Z scores between −1.36 and −1.58). These profiles were found for 49.08%, 38.46% and 12.48% of the sample, respectively. High Aggression scored significantly higher than Moderate Aggression and Low Aggression on Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP), Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP), the first three factors of school refusal (i.e., FI. Negative Affective, FII. Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, FIII. To Pursue Attention), and Negative Affect (NA). In addition, Moderate Aggression also reported significantly higher scores than Low Aggression for the three first factors of school refusal and NA. Conversely, Low Aggression had significantly higher mean scores than High Aggression and Moderate Aggression on Positive Affect (PA). Results demonstrate that High Aggression was the most maladaptive profile having a high risk of psychological vulnerability. Aggression prevention programs should be sure to include strategies to overcome psychological problems that characterize children manifesting high levels of aggressive behavior. PMID:29441002

  14. Loss of Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is strongly associated with high-grade tumor budding and correlates with an aggressive phenotype in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has emerged as a significant metastatic suppressor in a variety of human cancers and is known to inhibit Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. By suppressing the activation of the NFkB/SNAIL circuit, RKIP can regulate the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of this study was to evaluate RKIP expression and to determine its association with clinicopathological features, including EMT in form of tumor budding in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methods Staining for RKIP was performed on a multipunch Tissue Microarray (TMA) of 114 well-characterized PDACs with clinico-pathological, follow-up and adjuvant therapy information. RKIP-expression was assessed separately in the main tumor body and in the tumor buds. Another 3 TMAs containing normal pancreatic tissue, precursor lesions (Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, PanINs) and matched lymph node metastases were stained in parallel. Cut-off values were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results We found a significant progressive loss of RKIP expression between normal pancreatic ductal epithelia (average: 74%), precursor lesions (PanINs; average: 37%), PDAC (average 20%) and lymph node metastases (average 8%, p tumor buds (average: 6%) compared to the main tumor body (average 20%; p tumor body was marginally associated with advanced T-stage (p = 0.0599) as well as high-grade peritumoral (p = 0.0048) and intratumoral budding (p = 0.0373). RKIP loss in the buds showed a clear association with advanced T stage (p = 0.0089). Conclusions The progressive loss of RKIP seems to play a major role in the neoplastic transformation of pancreas, correlates with aggressive features in PDAC and is associated with the presence of EMT in form of tumor budding. PMID:24330423

  15. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. PMID:25037891

  16. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol-related aggression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, S; Graham, K; West, P

    2000-07-01

    This study estimates the relationships between drinking in the event and drinking patterns and different levels of aggression severity. A telephone survey of 1,001 adults (542 women) age 18 and over was conducted (response rate of 67%) using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Respondents were asked whether they had been personally involved in a serious argument, an incident involving threat, or physical aggression in the past year and whether anyone had been drinking alcohol in the most recent incident. Respondents also reported their typical alcohol consumption patterns. The proportion of respondents reporting involvement in serious arguments, threats or physical aggression was 19.8%, 11.8% and 12.0%, respectively. Someone in the incident had been drinking in 38.1% of serious arguments, 56.5% of threats and 67.9% of incidents of physical aggression. When gender, age, education, marital status and employment status were controlled for, high quantity drinking (as measured by the largest number of drinks consumed on one drinking occasion in the past year), overall estimated annual volume of alcohol consumed, and frequency of consuming five drinks per occasion were significantly greater for physical aggression, compared with arguments and no aggression. However, drinker status (abstainer/drinker) and frequency of drinking were not significantly associated with involvement in aggression. In a logistic regression analysis controlling for demographic variables, a composite measure of alcohol consumption was highly significant for physical aggression versus no aggression and for physical versus verbal aggression. Physical aggression was also associated with being younger, separated/ divorced and a student. The results suggest that alcohol intoxication, rather than mere alcohol consumption, is associated with aggression. Moreover, alcohol intoxication is more strongly associated with physical aggression than with verbal aggression.

  18. Brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in rat strains with high and low ethanol preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Rusi, M; Lindros, K O

    1981-01-01

    The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase in subcellular fractions of whole brain homogenates from the AA and ANA rat strains developed respectively for high and low ethanol preferences has been studied. No significant strain or sex differences between naive AA and ANA rats were found. In ethanol-experienced rats some strain and sex differences were found, the most consistent being higher enzyme activity in AA females than in males both with aliphatic and aromatic aldehyde substrates. However, contrary to previous findings no relation between brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and drinking behavior was found in the AA and ANA rat strains.

  19. Individual and collective social cognitive influences on peer aggression: exploring the contribution of aggression efficacy, moral disengagement, and collective efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchia, Kirstin; Bussey, Kay

    2011-01-01

    This follow-up study with 1,167 primarily White adolescents (aged 13.45 years at T1, 613 females) examined the impact of self-efficacy for aggression, moral disengagement, and collective efficacy beliefs on peer aggression in schools. Students completed questionnaire measures at the beginning and end of the school year (8 months apart). High aggression efficacy and moral disengagement scores predicted higher frequency of peer aggression over time. Low collective efficacy beliefs regarding the ability of students and teachers to collaboratively act to inhibit peer aggression were also associated with more frequent aggression, although this association was stronger at higher levels of moral disengagement. The findings of this study highlight the need to consider collective efficacy beliefs in conjunction with individual social cognitive processes when seeking to explain aggressive behavior. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz-Benjaminsen, Melanie; Feng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    ) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures...... brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system...... autoradiography protein levels. The strong correlation enables the transformation of the PET-derived human brain atlas into a protein density map of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Next, we compared the regional receptor/transporter protein densities with mRNA levels and uncovered unique...

  1. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicole A.; Flaherty, David K.; Airey, David C.; Varlan, Peter; Aworunse, Feyi; Kaas, Jon H.; Collins, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    The large size of primate brains is an impediment to obtaining high-resolution cell number maps of the cortex in humans and non-human primates. We present a rapid, flow cytometry-based cell counting method that can be used to estimate cell numbers from homogenized brain tissue samples comprising the entire cortical sheet. The new method, called the flow fractionator, is based on the isotropic fractionator (IF) method (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005), but substitutes flow cytometry analysis for manual, microscope analysis using a Neubauer counting chamber. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue provides comparable data to that obtained using a counting chamber on a microscope. The advantages of the flow fractionator over existing methods are improved precision of cell number estimates and improved speed of analysis. PMID:22798947

  2. A fast atlas-guided high density diffuse optical tomography system for brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianjin; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Jiang, Huabei

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an emerging functional brain imaging tool capable of assessing cerebral concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbR) during brain activation noninvasively. As an extension of NIRS, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) not only shares the merits of providing continuous readings of cerebral oxygenation, but also has the ability to provide spatial resolution in the millimeter scale. Based on the scattering and absorption properties of nonionizing near-infrared light in biological tissue, DOT has been successfully applied in the imaging of breast tumors, osteoarthritis and cortex activations. Here, we present a state-of-art fast high density DOT system suitable for brain imaging. It can achieve up to a 21 Hz sampling rate for a full set of two-wavelength data for 3-D DOT brain image reconstruction. The system was validated using tissue-mimicking brain-model phantom. Then, experiments on healthy subjects were conducted to demonstrate the capability of the system.

  3. A Prospective Sequential Analysis of the Relation between Physical Aggression and Peer Rejection Acts in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chih; McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie; Symons, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: In early childhood education, the social ecology of the child is considered critical for healthy behavioral development. There is, however, relatively little information based on directly observing what children do that describes the moment-by-moment (i.e., sequential) relation between physical aggression and peer rejection acts…

  4. Analysis of vascular homogeneity and anisotropy on high-resolution primate brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Pol; Fonta, Caroline; Guibert, Romain; Plouraboué, Franck

    2017-11-01

    Using a systematic investigation of brain blood volume, in high-resolution synchrotron 3D images of microvascular structures within cortical regions of a primate brain, we challenge several basic questions regarding possible vascular bias in high-resolution functional neuroimaging. We present a bilateral comparison of cortical regions, where we analyze relative vascular volume in voxels from 150 to 1000 μm side lengths in the white and grey matter. We show that, if voxel size reaches a scale smaller than 300 µm, the vascular volume can no longer be considered homogeneous, either within one hemisphere or in bilateral comparison between samples. We demonstrate that voxel size influences the comparison between vessel-relative volume distributions depending on the scale considered (i.e., hemisphere, lobe, or sample). Furthermore, we also investigate how voxel anisotropy and orientation can affect the apparent vascular volume, in accordance with actual fMRI voxel sizes. These findings are discussed from the various perspectives of high-resolution brain functional imaging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5756-5777, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Organic electronics for high-resolution electrocorticography of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodagholy, Dion; Gelinas, Jennifer N; Zhao, Zifang; Yeh, Malcolm; Long, Michael; Greenlee, Jeremy D; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Buzsáki, György

    2016-11-01

    Localizing neuronal patterns that generate pathological brain signals may assist with tissue resection and intervention strategies in patients with neurological diseases. Precise localization requires high spatiotemporal recording from populations of neurons while minimizing invasiveness and adverse events. We describe a large-scale, high-density, organic material-based, conformable neural interface device ("NeuroGrid") capable of simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) and action potentials from the cortical surface. We demonstrate the feasibility and safety of intraoperative recording with NeuroGrids in anesthetized and awake subjects. Highly localized and propagating physiological and pathological LFP patterns were recorded, and correlated neural firing provided evidence about their local generation. Application of NeuroGrids to brain disorders, such as epilepsy, may improve diagnostic precision and therapeutic outcomes while reducing complications associated with invasive electrodes conventionally used to acquire high-resolution and spiking data.

  6. Severe encephalopathy after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support for brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F; Gidding, C; De Kanter, M; Punt, C J A

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent medulloblastoma carries a poor prognosis. Long-term survival has been obtained with high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation and secondary irradiation. A 21-year-old woman with recurrent medulloblastoma after previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy is presented. The patient was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. She developed a severe treatment-related encephalopathy which affected her quality of life and neurocognitive functioning for the rest of her life. Possible causative factors are discussed and central nervous system toxicity by high-dose chemotherapy in brain tumour patients is reviewed. Case reports on severe central nervous system toxicity have been reported, but data from prospective studies on neurocognitive functioning are not available. These data strongly support a systematic long-term follow-up of brain tumour patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy with emphasis on neurocognitive function tests.

  7. Aggressive intraabdominal fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intraabdominal or mesenteric fibromatosis is a rare benign nonmetastatic neoplasm that appears as a sporadic lesion or in patients with familiar polyposis. Its evolution is unpredictable. About 10% of the cases show a very aggressive growth. Case report. We presented a 22-year-old woman in whom an aggressive intraabdominal fibromatosis had appeared during the first pregnancy as a well circumscribed ovoid tumor, involving the terminal ileum, the caecum, the ascending colon, the right kidney, the ureter, and the right common iliac artery. The tumor was excised with right colectomy, nephroureterectomy and resection of the involved artery using arterial reconstruction with graft interposition. Two years after the surgery the patient developed an inoperable tumor recurrence with a fatal outcome. Conclusion. In spite of a successful surgical excision during the original surgery intraabdominal or mesenteric fibromatosis might have an aggressive evolution leading to an inoperable tumor recurrency and a fatal outcome.

  8. Triangulating the sexually dimorphic brain through high-resolution neuroimaging of murine sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznahan, Armin; Lue, YanHe; Probst, Frank; Greenstein, Deanna; Giedd, Jay; Wang, Christina; Lerch, Jason; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Murine sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) provide powerful models for charting sex chromosome influences on mammalian brain development. Here, building on prior work in X-monosomic (XO) mice, we use spatially non-biased high-resolution imaging to compare and contrast neuroanatomical alterations in XXY and XO mice relative to their wild-type XX and XY littermates. First, we show that carriage of a supernumerary X chromosome in XXY males (1) does not prevent normative volumetric masculinization of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala, but (2) causes distributed anatomical alterations relative to XY males, which show a statistically unexpected tendency to be co-localized with and reciprocal to XO-XX differences in anatomy. These overlaps identify the lateral septum, BNST, ventral group thalamic nuclei and periaqueductal gray matter as regions with replicable sensitivity to X chromosome dose across two SCAs. We then harness anatomical variation across all four karyotype groups in our study--XO, XX, XY and XXY--to create an agnostic data-driven segmentation of the mouse brain into five distributed clusters which (1) recover fundamental properties of brain organization with high spatial precision, (2) define two previously uncharacterized systems of relative volume excess in females vs. males ("forebrain cholinergic" and "cerebelo-pontine-thalamo-cortical"), and (3) adopt stereotyped spatial motifs which delineate ordered gradients of sex chromosome and gonadal influences on volumetric brain development. Taken together, these data provide a new framework for the study of sexually dimorphic influences on brain development in health and disrupted brain development in SCA.

  9. High expression of CIP2A protein is associated with tumor aggressiveness in stage I–III NSCLC and correlates with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha GQ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geqi Cha,1 Jianyu Xu,1 Xiangying Xu,1 Bin Li,2 Shan Lu,1 Abiyasi Nanding,3 Songliu Hu,1 Shilong Liu1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Pathology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China Abstract: The aim of this work was to examine the expression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and analyze its correlation with clinical outcomes. CIP2A protein levels were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC. One hundred and eighty-four of 209 (88.3% primary stage I–III NSCLC specimens and 4 of 38 (10.5% adjacent normal lung tissue specimens expressed CIP2A protein. High expression of CIP2A was detected in 38.8% (81/209 of the NSCLC specimens. Patients diagnosed histologically with late-stage NSCLC (p<0.001 and malignant nodes (p=0.001 exhibited high CIP2A expression. Univariate analysis using the log-rank test identified CIP2A expression as a prognostic predictor for overall survival (p=0.005. In multivariate analyses using the Cox regression test, CIP2A expression, T stage, N stage, histological type, and chemotherapy were identified as independent prognostic factors (p=0.007, 0.001, 0.003, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively. Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier survival curves demonstrated that high CIP2A expression indicated poor prognosis in the subgroup of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p=0.008. Similar results were noted in the subgroup of patients with adenocarcinoma, but the results did not reach statistical significance (p=0.084. We also used univariate analysis and multivariate analysis to assess the prognostic factors for overall survival in the subgroup of patients who received postoperative chemotherapy. CIP2A expression was also an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC

  10. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  11. Chronic passive exposure to aggression escalates aggressiveness of rat observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Lucas, Louis R

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that exposure to aggression increases aggressiveness of human witnesses. However, the question of whether passive exposure to aggression can exclusively cause a risk of aggressive inclination for observers through a learning process, rather than mimicry effect, has not been readily addressed in the clinical literature. This study aimed to investigate this question by using a simple animal model to test the behavioral effect of chronic passive exposure to aggression. Our results indicate that observer rats that had been passively exposed to aggression for 10 min per day for 23 consecutive days exhibited more aggressive behavior than controls or those groups undergoing a single exposure to passive aggression. Furthermore, aggression levels in the group of 23-day chronic exposure to aggression lasted 16 days after the recovery from exposure to aggression. These data suggest that the development of aggression in this model occurred through a learning process because only chronic exposure to aggression resulted in this behavioral outcome in the long run.

  12. Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake on FDG PET are associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Yeol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Sung Min [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day. We measured the maximum standardized uptake values of the brain and liver from regions of interest manually placed over the frontal cortex at the level of the centrum semiovale and the right lobe of the liver parenchyma, respectively. Fasting blood glucose (FBG; odds ratio [OR] = 1.063, p < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; OR = 3.634, p = 0.010) were the strongest predictive factors for low brain FDG uptake, whereas waist circumference (OR = 1.200, p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR = 1.012, p = 0.001) were the strongest predictive factors for high liver uptake. Eleven subjects (4.2%) showed concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake, and all but one of these subjects (90.9%) had MS. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, FBG, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance (measured by homeostasis model assessment), insulin, HbA1c, and body mass index were higher in subjects with this FDG uptake pattern than in those without (all, p < 0.001). Concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake were closely associated with MS. Moreover, subjects with this pattern had higher values for various cardiovascular risk factors than did those without.

  13. Alcohol Use and Perceived Social and Emotional Consequences among Perpetrators of General and Sexual Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relation between alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last three months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses for general aggression revealed that heavy alcohol consumption at the time of the aggression and strong alcohol-related aggression...

  14. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a su...

  15. [Impact of aggressive assigment performance on the autonomic nervous systems in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, V G; Stepanian, L S; Stepanian, A Iu; Agababian, A R

    2006-01-01

    Impact of aggressive assignment performance on cardiac rhythm was studied in adolescents, by taking into account permanent aggressiveness and autonomic tendency in the examinees. The adolescents with high baseline aggressiveness were found to have a lower Kerdo autonomic index while the latter was not observed in those with low baseline aggressiveness. Aggressive computer games have been ascertained to have no negative impact and to have a beneficial effect on the adolescents' psychoemotional sphere.

  16. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  17. Methylation-mediated repression of microRNA-129-2 suppresses cell aggressiveness by inhibiting high mobility group box 1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhikui; Dou, Changwei; Yao, Bowen; Xu, Meng; Ding, Linglong; Wang, Yufeng; Jia, Yuli; Li, Qing; Zhang, Hongyong; Tu, Kangsheng; Song, Tao; Liu, Qingguang

    2016-06-14

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and its dysfunction have been revealed as crucial modulators of cancer initiation and progression. MiR-129-2 has been reported to play a tumor suppressive role in different human malignancies. Here, we demonstrated that miR-129-2 was significantly decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, miR-129-2 was expressed at significant lower levels in aggressive and recurrent tumor tissues. Clinical analysis indicated that miR-129-2 expression was inversely correlated with venous infiltration, high Edmondson-Steiner grading and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage in HCC. Notably, miR-129-2 was an independent prognostic factor for indicating overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of HCC patients. Ectopic expression of miR-129-2 inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we confirmed that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was a direct target of miR-129-2, and it abrogated the function of miR-129-2 in HCC. Mechanistic investigations showed that miR-129-2 overexpression inhibited AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase2/9 (MMP2/9). Upregulation of p-AKT abolished the decreased cell migration and invasion induced by miR-129-2 in HCC. Whereas inhibition of Akt phosphorylation significantly decreased HMGB1-enhanced HCC cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we found that miR-129-2 was downregulated by DNA methylation, and demethylation of miR-129-2 increased miR-129-2 expression in HCC cells and resulted in significant inhibitory effects on cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, miR-129-2 may serve as a prognostic indicator for HCC patients and exerts tumor suppressive role, at least in part, by inhibiting HMGB1.

  18. Brain reactivity differentiates subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies during both sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-05-01

    The neurophysiological correlates of dreaming remain unclear. According to the "arousal-retrieval" model, dream encoding depends on intrasleep wakefulness. Consistent with this model, subjects with high and low dream recall frequency (DRF) report differences in intrasleep awakenings. This suggests a possible neurophysiological trait difference between the 2 groups. To test this hypothesis, we compared the brain reactivity (evoked potentials) of subjects with high (HR, N = 18) and low (LR, N = 18) DRF during wakefulness and sleep. During data acquisition, the subjects were presented with sounds to be ignored (first names randomly presented among pure tones) while they were watching a silent movie or sleeping. Brain responses to first names dramatically differed between the 2 groups during both sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the attention-orienting brain response (P3a) and a late parietal response were larger in HR than in LR. During sleep, we also observed between-group differences at the latency of the P3a during N2 and at later latencies during all sleep stages. Our results demonstrate differences in the brain reactivity of HR and LR during both sleep and wakefulness. These results suggest that the ability to recall dreaming is associated with a particular cerebral functional organization, regardless of the state of vigilance.

  19. A high-definition fiber tracking report for patients with traumatic brain injury and their doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Jon; Presson, Nora; Benso, Steven; Puccio, Ava M; Fissel, Katherine; Hachey, Rebecca; Braun, Emily; Okonkwo, David O; Schneider, Walter

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a tablet-based application, the High-Definition Fiber Tracking Report App, to enable clinicians and patients in research studies to see and understand damage from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by viewing 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional images of their brain, with a focus on white matter tracts with quantitative metrics. The goal is to visualize white matter fiber tract injury like bone fractures; that is, to make the "invisible wounds of TBI" understandable for patients. Using mobile computing technology (iPad), imaging data for individual patients can be downloaded remotely within hours of a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. Clinicians and patients can view the data in the form of images of each tract, rotating animations of the tracts, 3-dimensional models, and graphics. A growing number of tracts can be examined for asymmetry, gaps in streamline coverage, reduced arborization (branching), streamline volume, and standard quantitative metrics (e.g., Fractional Anisotropy (FA)). Novice users can learn to effectively navigate and interact with the application (explain the figures and graphs representing normal and injured brain tracts) within 15 minutes of simple orientation with high accuracy (96%). The architecture supports extensive graphics, configurable reports, provides an easy-to-use, attractive interface with a smooth user experience, and allows for securely serving cases from a database. Patients and clinicians have described the application as providing dramatic benefits in understanding their TBI and improving their lives. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. ... specialized brain systems. We have many specialized brain systems that work ... research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which ...

  1. Computation of a high-resolution MRI 3D stereotaxic atlas of the sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Arsène; Delgadillo, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu

    2017-02-15

    The sheep model was first used in the fields of animal reproduction and veterinary sciences and then was utilized in fundamental and preclinical studies. For more than a decade, magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed on this model have been increasingly reported, especially in the field of neuroscience. To contribute to MR translational neuroscience research, a brain template and an atlas are necessary. We have recently generated the first complete T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W MR population average images (or templates) of in vivo sheep brains. In this study, we 1) defined a 3D stereotaxic coordinate system for previously established in vivo population average templates; 2) used deformation fields obtained during optimized nonlinear registrations to compute nonlinear tissues or prior probability maps (nlTPMs) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) tissues; 3) delineated 25 external and 28 internal sheep brain structures by segmenting both templates and nlTPMs; and 4) annotated and labeled these structures using an existing histological atlas. We built a quality high-resolution 3D atlas of average in vivo sheep brains linked to a reference stereotaxic space. The atlas and nlTPMs, associated with previously computed T1W and T2W in vivo sheep brain templates and nlTPMs, provide a complete set of imaging space that are able to be imported into other imaging software programs and could be used as standardized tools for neuroimaging studies or other neuroscience methods, such as image registration, image segmentation, identification of brain structures, implementation of recording devices, or neuronavigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:676-692, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Infusing neuroscience into the study and prevention of drug misuse and co-occurring aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana; Tarter, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of behavioral precursors to substance misuse and aggression is viewed from the perspective of a developmental, multifactorial model of complex disorders. Beginning at conception, genetic and environmental interactions have potential to produce a sequence of behavioral phenotypes during development that bias the trajectory toward high-risk outcomes. One pathway is theorized to emanate from a deviation in neurological development that predisposes children to affective and cognitive delays or impairments that, in turn, generate dysregulatory behaviors. The plasticity of these neurobiological systems is highly relevant to the prevention sciences; their functions are reliant upon environmental inputs and can be altered, for better or for worse, contingent upon the nature of the inputs. Thus, social contextual factors confer significant influence on the development of this neural network and behavioral outcomes by increasing risk for, or protecting (1) against, dysregulatory outcomes. A well-designed intervention can exploit the brain's plasticity by targeting biological and social factors at sensitive time points to positively influence emergent neurobiological functions and related behaviors. Accordingly, prevention research is beginning to focus on perturbations in developmental neural plasticity during childhood that increase the likelihood of risky behaviors and may also moderate intervention effects on behavior. Given that the more complex features of neurobiological functions underlying drug misuse and aggression (e.g., executive cognitive function, coping skills, affect regulation) do not coalesce until early adulthood when prefrontal-limbic brain networks consolidate, it is critical that mechanisms underlying developmental risk factors are identified. An empirically driven prevention approach, thus, may benefit from consideration of (i) the type, effect, and developmental timing of the environmental impact on the brain, and (ii) the type and effect

  3. Transcriptional analysis of aggressiveness and heterogeneity across grades of astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Funk, Cory C; Eddy, James A; Price, Nathan D

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytoma is the most common glioma, accounting for half of all primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Late detection and the aggressive nature of high-grade astrocytomas contribute to high mortality rates. Though many studies identify candidate biomarkers using high-throughput transcriptomic profiling to stratify grades and subtypes, few have resulted in clinically actionable results. This shortcoming can be attributed, in part, to pronounced lab effects that reduce signature robustness and varied individual gene expression among patients with the same tumor. We addressed these issues by uniformly preprocessing publicly available transcriptomic data, comprising 306 tumor samples from three astrocytoma grades (Grade 2, 3, and 4) and 30 non-tumor samples (normal brain as control tissues). Utilizing Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC), a network-based classification approach, we examined the global and individual patterns of network regulation across tumor grades. Additionally, we applied gene-based approaches to identify genes whose expression changed consistently with increasing tumor grade and evaluated their robustness across multiple studies using statistical sampling. Applying DIRAC, we observed a global trend of greater network dysregulation with increasing tumor aggressiveness. Individual networks displaying greater differences in regulation between adjacent grades play well-known roles in calcium/PKC, EGF, and transcription signaling. Interestingly, many of the 90 individual genes found to monotonically increase or decrease with astrocytoma grade are implicated in cancer-affected processes such as calcium signaling, mitochondrial metabolism, and apoptosis. The fact that specific genes monotonically increase or decrease with increasing astrocytoma grade may reflect shared oncogenic mechanisms among phenotypically similar tumors. This work presents statistically significant results that enable better characterization of different human astrocytoma grades

  4. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  5. Aggression Against Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay: Of Thomas D. Grant. Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xxx, 283 pp. Treaties and Other International Texts. Cases. Municipal Instruments and Other State Documents. Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $105.50, cloth.

  6. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  7. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  8. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  9. Aggression Replacement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Barry; Goldstein, Arnold P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes aggression replacement training (ART), a multimodal, psychoeducational intervention for assaultive, hostile adolescents and children who are either institutionalized or pose severe, disruptive behaviors in communities. Presents the research evaluating ART efficacy, planned efforts in program development, and ART's relevance for…

  10. Sports and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Tom

    1976-01-01

    Study of male athletes at Springfield College indicates that while participation in competitive sports reduces feelings of aggression for winners, it may actually increase such feelings for losers. Author concludes that emphasis should be placed on performance rather than winning or losing. (RW)

  11. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  12. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  13. Abdominal fat is associated with a greater brain reward response to high-calorie food cues in Hispanic women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, S; Romero, A; Adam, T.C; Hu, H.H; Monterosso, J; Page, K.A

    2013-01-01

    .... Participants rated hunger and food desire after each block of pictures. Brain activation to high-calorie foods was determined by calculating a contrast of high-calorie food minus non-food images...

  14. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in fixed brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The numbers and types of cells in an area of cortex define its function. Therefore it is essential to characterize the numbers and distributions of total cells in areas of the cortex, as well as to identify numbers of subclasses of neurons and glial cells. To date, the large size of the primate brain and the lack of innovation in cell counting methods have been a roadblock to obtaining high-resolution maps of cell and neuron density across the cortex in humans and non-human primates. Stereological counting methods and the isotropic fractionator are valuable tools for estimating cell numbers, but are better suited to smaller, well-defined brain structures or to cortex as a whole. In the present study, we have extended our flow-cytometry based counting method, the flow fractionator (Collins et al., 2010a, to include high-throughput total cell population estimates in homogenized cortical samples. We demonstrate that our method produces consistent, accurate and repeatable cell estimates quickly. The estimates we report are in excellent agreement with estimates for the same samples obtained using a Neubauer chamber and a fluorescence microscope. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue is more efficient and more precise than manual counting methods. The addition of automated nuclei counting to our flow fractionator method allows for a fully automated, rapid characterization of total cells and neuronal and non-neuronal populations in human and non-human primate brains, providing valuable data to further our understanding of the functional organization of normal, aging and diseased brains.

  15. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    will be those that exhibit more aggressive disease . In more aggressive cancer tissues, we expect to find metabolic signatures of enhanced fatty acid...using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the prediction of prostate disease aggressiveness. Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase...design we will recruit 50 men with low- grade and 50 men with high grade prostate cancer post- diagnosis as determined prior to prostatectomy. Each

  16. Psychopathic traits, victim distress and aggression in children

    OpenAIRE

    van Baardewijk, Y.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Bushman, B.J.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a reduced sensitivity to others' distress, these important interpersonal signals cannot perform their aggression inhibiting function. The present exper...

  17. Influence of the Bullying Victim Position on Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huseynova E.A.,; Yenikolopov S. N.

    2014-01-01

    In a study involving 150 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years the emphasis was placed on the connection of the bullying victim position and level of aggressiveness. The following methods were used: a questionnaire, a method of sociometry, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Bass-Perry aggressive behavior diagnosis questionnaire. We tested the assumption that the people occupying the bullying victim position, have a high level of aggression. Analysis of the results showed that the greatest number of subje...

  18. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Roche, Jessica S.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14–20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The stu...

  19. [Aggression of Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia: a systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiongni; Zhou, Jiansong

    2012-07-01

    To systematically review and analyze literature on episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards and to determine the coping and preventive strategies employed to deal with aggression of patients with schizophrenia. We used the key words such as "schizophrenia" and "aggression" to collect literature citations, which were published between July 1997 and November 2011, by searching databases such as the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD). The literature reports of aggression by patients with schizophrenia were surveyed by computer-assisted searches, scanning of reference lists, and manual search of relevant journals. We analyzed the reports of episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards. Prevalence of aggression in psychiatric wards was reported to range from 9.1% (95% CI: 6.3 to 11.9) to 49.6% (95% CI: 41.1 to 58.1), with most reports in the range of 20% to 40% (mean 28.0%). The aggressive behavior often occurred in special groups and typically bore a close relationship with the patient's personal qualities, social environment, or psychiatric symptoms. The aggressive behaviors can be attributed to a lack of standardized assessments and intervention instruments. There is a high risk of aggression in Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia, and it is urgent to establish the scientific, standardized, operational systems for assessing and treating the aggression of these patients.

  20. Properties and expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms in the brain of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, which has unusually high brain ammonia tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu L Chen

    Full Text Available The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l(-1 and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (4.5 µmol g(-1. Na(+/K(+-ATPase (Nka is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4(+ can substitute for K(+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K(+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na(+/K(+-ATPase and Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities over a range of K(+/NH4(+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na(+/K(+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4(+/K(+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1 lack of nkaα2 expression, (2 high K(+ specificity of K(+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3 down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus.

  1. Decreasing Aggression Using Four-Point Restraints and Symbol Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    Physical aggression among institutionalized mentally retarded persons arouses great social concern. To examine the effectiveness of four-point mechanical restraints and a positive adaptive symbol program in the reduction of high frequency, high intensity aggression, three institutionalized severely mentally retarded adolescents (2 females, 1 male)…

  2. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression and violence in the substance using population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, R

    1997-01-01

    Advances in our knowledge of the neurobiology of aggression and violence has given rise to rational pharmacological treatments for these behaviors. The main biological systems which are known to be involved are the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and electrophysiological activity in the brain. Abnormal functioning of these systems may also be complicated or caused by abuse of various psychoactive substances, particularly alcohol and stimulants. Adding further to this interaction is the high incidence of psychiatric disorders in the substance-using population, providing other behavioral influences and accompanying neurobiological dysregulation. Understanding of the interaction of these components has led to success in the treatment of aggressive and violent behaviors using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), lithium carbonate, beta-adrenergic blockers, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, neuroleptics, and novel agents such as anti-androgens and serenics.

  3. Effects of high vs. low cadence training on cyclists' brain cortical activity during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2016-04-01

    As brain cortical activity depends on cadence, exercise at different pedaling frequencies could provide efficient stimuli for functional adaptations of the brain. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cadence-specific training on brain cortical activity as well as endurance performance. Randomized, controlled experimental trial in a repeated measure design. Male (n=24) and female (n=12) cyclists were randomly assigned to either a high cadence group (HCT), a low cadence group (LCT) or a control group (CON) for a 4 week intervention period. All groups performed 4h of basic endurance training per week. Additionally, HCT and LCT completed four cadence-specific 60min sessions weekly. At baseline and after 4 weeks subjects performed an incremental test with spirometry as well as an interval session (constant load; varying cadences) with continuous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. In contrast to CON, HCT and LCT elicited similar improvements of maximal oxygen uptake and power at the individual anaerobic threshold. Additionally, there was a reduction of alpha-, beta- and overall-power spectral density in HCT, which was more pronounced at high cadences. Improvements of endurance performance were correlated with reductions of EEG spectral power at 90 and 120rpm. Whereas high and low cadence training elicit similar improvements in endurance performance, brain cortical activity is especially sensitive to high cadence training. Its reduction can be interpreted in the sense of the neural efficiency hypothesis and might as well influence the sensation of central fatigue positively. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  5. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  6. What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2003-09-01

    Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry aggression. These include resource (including status and territory) competition as motives that are particularly elicited by conspecific challenge situations and, when the aggression is successful, outcomes of reduction of challenge and enhancement of resource control and status. Although the response characteristics of human aggression have been dramatically altered by human verbal, technological, and social advancements, there is some evidence for targeting of blows, similar to a well-established pattern for offensive aggression in many nonhuman mammals. Finally, for people as well as for nonhuman mammals, fear of defeat or punishment is a major factor inhibiting the expression of offensive aggression. While defensive aggression has been very little researched in people, it may represent a different phenomenon than angry aggression, again providing a parallel to the offense-defense distinction of laboratory rodent studies.

  7. Designing a compact high performance brain PET scanner—simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Kuang; Majewski, Stan; Kinahan, Paul E.; Harrison, Robert L.; Elston, Brian F.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra; Dolinsky, Sergei; Stolin, Alexander V.; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A.; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-05-01

    The desire to understand normal and disordered human brain function of upright, moving persons in natural environments motivates the development of the ambulatory micro-dose brain PET imager (AMPET). An ideal system would be light weight but with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, although these requirements are often in conflict with each other. One potential approach to meet the design goals is a compact brain-only imaging device with a head-sized aperture. However, a compact geometry increases parallax error in peripheral lines of response, which increases bias and variance in region of interest (ROI) quantification. Therefore, we performed simulation studies to search for the optimal system configuration and to evaluate the potential improvement in quantification performance over existing scanners. We used the Cramér-Rao variance bound to compare the performance for ROI quantification using different scanner geometries. The results show that while a smaller ring diameter can increase photon detection sensitivity and hence reduce the variance at the center of the field of view, it can also result in higher variance in peripheral regions when the length of detector crystal is 15 mm or more. This variance can be substantially reduced by adding depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement capability to the detector modules. Our simulation study also shows that the relative performance depends on the size of the ROI, and a large ROI favors a compact geometry even without DOI information. Based on these results, we propose a compact ‘helmet’ design using detectors with DOI capability. Monte Carlo simulations show the helmet design can achieve four-fold higher sensitivity and resolve smaller features than existing cylindrical brain PET scanners. The simulations also suggest that improving TOF timing resolution from 400 ps to 200 ps also results in noticeable improvement in image quality, indicating better timing resolution is desirable for brain imaging.

  8. High-level mobility outcomes following acquired brain injury: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gavin P; Morris, Meg E

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a high-level mobility programme for people with acquired brain injury (ABI). A cohort study which evaluated the efficacy of a high-level mobility programme for people with ABI. A major rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-eight people with acquired brain injury. A 3 month high-level mobility programme conducted twice weekly consisting of strengthening exercises, pre-running and running drills and agility exercises supplemented with a gym or home exercise programme. The primary outcome measure was the high-level mobility assessment tool (HiMAT). Participants were predominantly male and young (average age 33.2 years, range 16-72 years) with chronic ABI. HiMAT scores for the 28 participants who returned at the 3 month follow-up initially ranged from 6-44 points (mean 20.3). The 3 month follow-up scores ranged from 12-51 points (mean 29.2). The mean HiMAT score change ranged from 2-20 points (mean 8.9). Significant recovery in high-level mobility was achieved during a 3 month running programme. People with chronic ABI may also expect to benefit from retraining high-level mobility. Clinical trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of training programmes for high-level mobility.

  9. Not just the booze talking: trait aggression and hypermasculinity distinguish perpetrators from victims of male barroom aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Tremblay, Paul F; Magyarody, Nora

    2011-04-01

    To our knowledge, no research has assessed whether young male victims and perpetrators of barroom aggression differ in terms of their drinking patterns and predisposing characteristics. This study assessed the extent that frequent heavy episodic drinking (HED) and bar-going, trait aggression, and hypermasculinity were differentially associated with victimization versus perpetration for aggression occurring among young adult men in the setting of the public drinking establishment. A random sample of 2,500 male students attending a local university and a local community college was invited to participate in an online survey. Participants were asked the number of times in the past 12 months they had experienced an incident of aggression at a bar in which (a) someone was physically aggressive toward them and (b) they were physically aggressive toward another person. Responses were coded as (i) any perpetration of aggression, (ii) victim only, (iii) no aggression. A composite variable of HED (5 or more drinks per occasion) and bar-going frequency was computed: (i) both HED and bar ≥ twice a month, (ii) only HED ≥ twice a month, (iii) only bar ≥ twice a month, and (iv) both aggression and hypermasculinity were used. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that a combination of both frequent HED and frequent bar-going was associated with both perpetration and victimization at a bar (compared to no aggression). Trait aggression and hypermasculinity were associated with perpetration but not with victimization. Logistic regression analyses directly comparing perpetrators with victims indicated that perpetrators were more likely to both drink heavily and go to bars frequently and were more likely to have high levels of trait aggression and hypermasculinity. While HED is an important target for prevention programming, additional efforts should be directed toward addressing the combination of frequent HED and frequent bar-going as well as underlying

  10. Autoradiographic imaging and quantification of the high-affinity GHB binding sites in rodent brain using (3)H-HOCPCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Bay, T; Villumsen, I S

    2016-01-01

    GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) is a compound endogenous to mammalian brain with high structural resemblance to GABA. GHB possesses nanomolar-micromolar affinity for a unique population of binding sites, but the exact nature of these remains elusive. In this study we utilized the highly selective GHB......, (3)H-HOCPCA displays excellent signal-to-noise ratios using rodent brain autoradiography, which makes it a valuable ligand for anatomical quantification of native GHB binding site levels. Our data confirmed that (3)H-HOCPCA labels only the high-affinity specific GHB binding site, found in high...... brain development. Due to the high sensitivity of this radioligand, we were able to detect low levels of specific binding already at E15 in mouse brain, which increased progressively until adulthood. Collectively, we show that (3)H-HOCPCA is a highly sensitive radioligand, offering advantages over...

  11. Emerging themes in preclinical research on alcohol and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudko, E; Blanchard, D C; Henrie, J A; Blanchard, R J

    1997-01-01

    Animal research into the alcohol-aggression relationship is based on a need to understand this relationship in people, and its success depends on the degree to which animal models can provide appropriate parallels to relevant human phenomena. Comparisons of human and animal literature suggest that parallels may be found for the following: alcohol enhances aggression in some, but not all individuals; consumption increases the probability of victimization (being attacked by a conspecific); alcohol reduces anxiety, and socially stressed individuals show increased voluntary consumption; alcohol reduces avoidance of threatening situations or stimuli and may place individuals at greater risk of being attacked; both anxiety reduction and decreased avoidance of threat may increase the probability of involvement in violent situations. These findings suggest that a variety of mechanisms may be involved in alcohol enhancement of aggression. Differences in effects of alcohol on human, as opposed to animal, aggression may reflect specific human capabilities. Although high doses of alcohol consistently reduce aggression in laboratory animals, this may reflect motoric and sedative effects that are not relevant for human behavior, in which verbal aggression and aggression involving the use of weapons make motor capability less important. Human voluntary alcohol consumption may also reflect response to stressors that also simultaneously promote aggression, a situation not paralleled by animal studies in which the drug is administered rather than voluntarily consumed. Nonetheless, obtained parallels suggest that animal experimentation using ecologically relevant situations can provide highly generalizable analyses of the alcohol-aggression relationship.

  12. Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N = 986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs.

  13. Predictors of experiencing aggression in clubs: Beyond alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N=986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3%) and sexual aggression (12.6%) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression, increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk, increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

  14. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  15. Neuroimaging correlates of aggression in schizophrenia: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Aggression in schizophrenia is associated with poor treatment outcomes, hospital admissions, and stigmatization of patients. As such it represents an important public health issue. This article reviews recent neuroimaging studies of aggression in schizophrenia, focusing on PET/single photon emission computed tomography and MRI methods. The neuroimaging literature on aggression in schizophrenia is in a period of development. This is attributable in part to the heterogeneous nature and basis of that aggression. Radiological methods have consistently shown reduced activity in frontal and temporal regions. MRI brain volumetric studies have been less consistent, with some studies finding increased volumes of inferior frontal structures, and others finding reduced volumes in aggressive individuals with schizophrenia. Functional MRI studies have also had inconsistent results, with most finding reduced activity in inferior frontal and temporal regions, but some also finding increased activity in other regions. Some studies have made a distinction between types of aggression in schizophrenia in the context of antisocial traits, and this appears to be useful in understanding the neuroimaging literature. Frontal and temporal abnormalities appear to be a consistent feature of aggression in schizophrenia, but their precise nature likely differs because of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior.

  16. [Aggression in the dental office].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijk, A M; Hosseini Nejad, G

    2002-06-01

    In this study on aggression in the dental practice, 8 dentists and 1 dental nurse who had experienced aggression in their dental practice, were interviewed and filled out a questionnaire. They had responded to a call in 2 Dutch dental journals or were contacted through personal communication. The interviews show that aggression in particular can be expected in patients having not paid their expense account, non compliant patients, or in patients who often come too late or even do not show up at their appointments. Aggression also can appear when patients with toothache are told they cannot be helped immediately. Aggression seems predominantly connected to people under influence of alcohol or drugs, psychiatric patients and people having contacts in criminal circuits. Although the incidence seems relatively low, the occurrence of aggression always has a great impact on the dental team. Therefore it seems useful to study how dentists and their auxiliaries could act to prevent aggression.

  17. A comparison of two assessments of high level cognitive communication disorders in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Tanya; Scott, Amanda; Bond, Annabelle; Paul, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently encounter cognitive communication disorders. Deficits can be subtle but can seriously influence an individual's ability to achieve life goals. Feedback from rehabilitation facilities indicated that high level cognitive communication disorders are not consistently identified in the acute setting. This study aimed to compare the cognitive communication results from two screening assessments, the Cognistat and the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT), in participants with a mild traumatic brain injury and to relate these findings to a range of prognostic indicators. Eighty-three adults post-TBI (16-81 years; 79.5% males) were recruited at an acute trauma centre. The language components of the two tests were analysed. The CLQT identified more participants with an impairment in language than the Cognistat, 19.3% compared to 1.2% (p communication deficits than the Cognistat in the acute setting.

  18. Cerebral Connectivity and High-grade Gliomas: Evolving Concepts of Eloquent Brain in Surgery for Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Konakondla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in imaging the human brain help us map and understand the intricacies of cerebral connectivity. Current techniques and specific imaging sequences, however, do come with limitations. Image resolution, variability of techniques and interpretation of images across institutions are just a few concerns. In the setting of high-grade gliomas, understanding how these pathways are affected during tumor growth, surgical resection, and in the brain plasticity presents an even greater challenge. Clinical symptoms, tumor growth, and intraoperative electrical stimulation are important peri-operative considerations to assist in determining neuronal re-wiring and establish a basis of anatomic and functional correlation. The application of functional mapping coupled with the understanding of the natural history of gliomas and implications of neural plasticity, is critical in achieving the goals of maximal tumor resection while minimizing post operative deficits and improving quality of life.

  19. From Big Data to Big Displays High-Performance Visualization at Blue Brain

    KAUST Repository

    Eilemann, Stefan

    2017-10-19

    Blue Brain has pushed high-performance visualization (HPV) to complement its HPC strategy since its inception in 2007. In 2011, this strategy has been accelerated to develop innovative visualization solutions through increased funding and strategic partnerships with other research institutions. We present the key elements of this HPV ecosystem, which integrates C++ visualization applications with novel collaborative display systems. We motivate how our strategy of transforming visualization engines into services enables a variety of use cases, not only for the integration with high-fidelity displays, but also to build service oriented architectures, to link into web applications and to provide remote services to Python applications.

  20. Regional distribution of high affinity binding of 3H-adenosine in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversa, U.; Puppini, P.; de Angelis, L.; Vertua, R.

    1984-06-01

    The high and low affinity adenosine binding sites with Kd values ranging respectively from 0.8 to 1.65 microM and from 3.1 to 13.86 microM were demonstrated in the following rat brain areas: cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and pons-medulla. Adenosine receptors involved in the high affinity binding seem to be mainly Ra-type. The analysis of the regional distribution of 3H-Adenosine showed the highest levels of specific binding in striatum and hippocampus; somewhat smaller values in cortex, cerebellum, and diencephalon, and even lower in pons-medulla.

  1. Sweetened blood cools hot tempers: Physiological self-control and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWall, C.N.; Deckman, T.; Gailliot, M.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviors are restrained by self-control. Self-control consumes a lot of glucose in the brain, suggesting that low glucose and poor glucose metabolism are linked to aggression and violence. Four studies tested this hypothesis. Study 1 found that participants who consumed a

  2. Do undergraduate students' ratings of perceived aggression in sport reflect athletes' self-reported aggression? Comments on Pedersen (2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J P

    2007-12-01

    In 2007 Pedersen described the results of undergraduate students' ratings of 16 common sports based on their perceptions of the aggression in each sport. Unfortunately, it is unclear whether Pedersen's sample's perception of aggression actually reflects aggression of athletes who participate in these sports. Therefore, response of 1,441 British competitive athletes (817 men, mean age = 21.5, SD = 4.9) to a short aggression questionnaire were analysed to distinguish whether the same pattern of ranks reported by Pedersen could be replicated. In general, data were consistent with Pedersen's rankings (Correlations were moderate to high), but some exceptions were evident, particularly for male athletes.

  3. Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery of High Molecular Weight Molecules in Lysosomal Storage Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Salvalaio

    Full Text Available Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSDs are a group of metabolic syndromes, each one due to the deficit of one lysosomal enzyme. Many LSDs affect most of the organ systems and overall about 75% of the patients present neurological impairment. Enzyme Replacement Therapy, although determining some systemic clinical improvements, is ineffective on the CNS disease, due to enzymes' inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB. With the aim to deliver the therapeutic enzymes across the BBB, we here assayed biodegradable and biocompatible PLGA-nanoparticles (NPs in two murine models for LSDs, Mucopolysaccharidosis type I and II (MPS I and MPS II. PLGA-NPs were modified with a 7-aminoacid glycopeptide (g7, yet demonstrated to be able to deliver low molecular weight (MW molecules across the BBB in rodents. We specifically investigated, for the first time, the g7-NPs ability to transfer a model drug (FITC-albumin with a high MW, comparable to the enzymes to be delivered for LSDs brain therapy. In vivo experiments, conducted on wild-type mice and knockout mouse models for MPS I and II, also included a whole series of control injections to obtain a broad preliminary view of the procedure efficiency. Results clearly showed efficient BBB crossing of albumin in all injected mice, underlying the ability of NPs to deliver high MW molecules to the brain. These results encourage successful experiments with enzyme-loaded g7-NPs to deliver sufficient amounts of the drug to the brain district on LSDs, where exerting a corrective effect on the pathological phenotype.

  4. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Du, Haixiao; Xia, Mingrui; Ren, Ling; Xu, Mo; Xie, Teng; Gong, Gaolang; Xu, Ningyi; Yang, Huazhong; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome). Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based) brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  5. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome. Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  6. Fast high resolution whole brain T2* weighted imaging using echo planar imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Versluis, Maarten J; Luijten, Peter R; Petridou, Natalia

    2011-06-15

    Magnetic susceptibility based (T(2)* weighted) contrast in MRI at high magnetic field strength is of great value in research on brain structure and cortical architecture, but its use is hampered by the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency of the conventional spoiled gradient echo sequence (GRE) leading to long scan times even for a limited number of slices. In this work, we show that high resolution (0.5mm isotropic) T(2)* weighted images of the whole brain can be obtained in 6min by utilizing the high SNR efficiency of echo-planar imaging (EPI). A volumetric (3D) EPI protocol is presented and compared to conventional 3D GRE images acquired with the same resolution, amount of T(2)* weighting, and imaging duration. Spatial coverage in 3D EPI was increased by a factor of 4.5 compared to 3D GRE, while also the SNR was increased by a factor of 2. Image contrast for both magnitude and phase between gray and white matter was similar for both sequences, with enhanced conspicuity of anatomic details in the 3D EPI images due to the increased SNR. Even at 7T, image blurring and distortion is limited if the EPI train length remains short (not longer than the T(2)* of the imaged tissue). 3D EPI provides steps (speed, whole brain coverage, and high isotropic resolution) that are necessary to utilize the benefits of high field MRI in research that employs T(2)* weighted imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosocial bases of aggressive and violent behavior--implications for nursing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Wuerker, Anne

    2005-02-01

    Although aggression and violence have been increasingly viewed as a major public health problem with a biological and health basis, it has been under-researched in the nursing and health context. This paper reviews early biological risk factors for violence. These factors include pregnancy/birth complications, fetal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, and drugs, low cholesterol, malnutrition, lead and manganese exposure, head injuries and brain dysfunction, low arousal, low serotonin, low cortisol, and high testosterone. A biopsychosocial violence mode is proposed. Finally, the paper argues that nursing is ideally placed to develop a new body of knowledge based on a biosocial perspective that can lead to more effective prevention programs for violence.

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  11. High resolution whole brain diffusion imaging at 7 T for the Human Connectome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, AT; Auerbach, E; Lenglet, C; Moeller, S; Sotiropoulos, SN; Jbabdi, S; Andersson, J; Yacoub, E; Ugurbil, K

    2015-01-01

    Mapping structural connectivity in healthy adults for the Human Connectome Project (HCP) benefits from high quality, high resolution, multiband (MB)-accelerated whole brain diffusion MRI (dMRI). Acquiring such data at ultrahigh fields (7 T and above) can improve intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but suffers from shorter T2 and T2* relaxation times, increased B1+ inhomogeneity (resulting in signal loss in cerebellar and temporal lobe regions), and increased power deposition (i.e. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)), thereby limiting our ability to reduce the repetition time (TR). Here, we present recent developments and optimizations in 7 T image acquisitions for the HCP that allow us to efficiently obtain high-quality, high-resolution whole brain in-vivo dMRI data at 7 T. These data show spatial details typically seen only in ex-vivo studies and complement already very high quality 3 T HCP data in the same subjects. The advances are the result of intensive pilot studies aimed at mitigating the limitations of dMRI at 7 T. The data quality and methods described here are representative of the datasets that will be made freely available to the community in 2015. PMID:26260428

  12. Animal models : Implications for human aggression and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sietse; Bushman, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A large body of animal neurobehavioral research convincingly demonstrates that abnormal expressions of aggressive behavior principally find their origin in a dys- regulation of the deeply rooted neuronal circuits and/or neurochemical pathways in the brain that mediate normal social

  13. Institutional climate and aggression in a secure psychiatric setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, N.; van der Helm, P.; Wissink, I.; Stams, G.J.; Schaftenaar, P.

    2013-01-01

    The number of aggressive incidents committed by patients in (secure) mental health care is high. The present study examined the relation between institutional climate (support, growth, atmosphere, and repression) and aggressive incidents using data of 72 patients in a secure (forensic) mental health

  14. Violence and Aggression in Schools in Schleswig-Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebel, Gabriele; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of the extent and distribution of several forms of aggression and violence in schools in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). Includes responses from 2,382 persons in a representative sample. Finds a slight increase in violence during the past three years but a high frequency of verbal aggression. (CFR)

  15. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  16. Trajectories of peer nominated aggression: Risk status, predictors and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of peer-nominated aggression, risk factors at baseline, and outcomes were studied. Peer nominations of aggression were obtained annually from grades 1 to 3. Three developmental trajectories were identified: an early-onset/increasers trajectory with high levels of

  17. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  18. Combatting workplace aggression in detainee transport: A Dutch case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasthuizen, K.M.; Paanakker, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – In Dutch detainee care custodial transport police officers experience high levels of aggression and violence from detainees. Being a first of its kind in the Netherlands, the purpose of this paper is to unravel the true nature and origins of such workplace aggression against transport

  19. Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Lyle Light; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Study explored leadership, cohesion, and demographic variables in relation to team norms about cheating and aggression. Surveys of high school and college ball players indicated that older age, higher year in school, and more years playing ball correlated positively with expectations of peer cheating and aggression. (SM)

  20. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  1. Television violence and children's aggression: testing the priming, social script, and disinhibition predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, W L

    1987-11-01

    The effect of television violence on boys' aggression was investigated with consideration of teacher-rated characteristic aggressiveness, timing of frustration, and violence-related cues as moderators. Boys in Grades 2 and 3 (N = 396) watched violent or nonviolent TV in groups of 6, and half the groups were later exposed to a cue associated with the violent TV program. They were frustrated either before or after TV viewing. Aggression was measured by naturalistic observation during a game of floor hockey. Groups containing more characteristically high-aggressive boys showed higher aggression following violent TV plus the cue than following violent TV alone, which in turn produced more aggression than did the nonviolent TV condition. There was evidence that both the violent content and the cue may have suppressed aggression among groups composed primarily of boys low in characteristic aggressiveness. Results were interpreted in terms of current information-processing theories of media effects on aggression.

  2. Aggressive behaviour in preschool children. Neuropsychological correlates, costs of service use, and preventive efforts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    At ages two and three the vast majority of children shows a high level of aggression. During the preschool period the level of aggression generally declines. However, some children continue to show a high level of aggression and are at risk for the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD),

  3. The theory of planned behavior, materialism, and aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Kalanit; Shoham, Aviv

    2013-10-01

    Aggressive driving is a growing problem worldwide. Previous research has provided us with some insights into the characteristics of drivers prone to aggressiveness on the road and into the external conditions triggering such behavior. Little is known, however, about the personality traits of aggressive drivers. The present study proposes planned behavior and materialism as predictors of aggressive driving behavior. Data was gathered using a questionnaire-based survey of 220 individuals from twelve large industrial organizations in Israel. Our hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Our results indicate that while planned behavior is a good predictor of the intention to behave aggressively, it has no impact on the tendency to behave aggressively. Materialism, however, was found to be a significant indicator of aggressive driving behavior. Our study is based on a self-reported survey, therefore might suffer from several issues concerning the willingness to answer truthfully. Furthermore, the sampling group might be seen as somewhat biased due to the relatively high income/education levels of the respondents. While both issues, aggressive driving and the theory of planned behavior, have been studied previously, the linkage between the two as well as the ability of materialism to predict aggressive behavior received little attention previously. The present study encompasses these constructs providing new insights into the linkage between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-speed documented experimental gunshot to a skull-brain model and radiologic virtual autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Vock, Peter; Allmen, Gabriel v; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2002-09-01

    The authors documented and evaluated experimental gunshots to a skull-brain model with high-speed photography and subsequent radiographic examination for comparison of the morphologic findings in the model. The artificial skull was a polyurethane ball constructed in layers, with a porous diploe sandwiched between a tabula externa and a tabula interna. The brain itself was simulated with gelatin 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at the model from a distance of 10 m and documented with high-speed photography (up to 50 million frames/sec). Subsequently, a complete examination of the artificial skull was performed, including spiral computed tomography (with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructions) and classic skull autopsy. The high-speed photographs clearly showed the dynamic development of the skull fracture system from an external perspective. The subsequent radiographic examination of the entire head volume created two-dimensional reformations in any plane and three-dimensional reconstructions of the gunshot injury of the polyurethane skull-brain model, especially the wound channel and the fracture system. Thanks to the model and high-speed photographs, the dynamic development of the morphology of a gunshot wound could be documented and studied. The data from computed tomography, using two-dimensional and three-dimensional postprocessing with a perspective view, were very similar to those from classic head autopsy, but derived in a hands-off and nondestructive manner. This examination method leads the way to radiographic digital autopsy or virtual autopsy.

  5. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, R; Miranda, P C [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Roth, Y [Advanced Technology Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Zangen, A [Neurobiology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: rnsalvador@fc.ul.pt

    2009-05-21

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/{radical}2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  6. High-intensity Exercise Modifies the Effects of Stanozolol on Brain Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiletti-Moirón, D; Aparicio, V A; Nebot, E; Medina, G; Martínez, R; Kapravelou, G; Andrade, A; Porres, J M; López-Jurado, M; Aranda, P

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the effects of high-intensity exercise (HIE) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on brain redox status. 40 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 4 experimental groups (n=10) with or without HIE and with or without weekly Stanozolol administration. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were assessed. Total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Finally, protein expression levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, Quinone 1 (NQO1), NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nuclear factor kappa β p65 (NF-κβ) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were determined. Brain PCC concentrations were lower in the HIE groups compared to the untrained controls, whereas CAT activity was higher (both, peffect on brain redox status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Aggression in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, A C; Raspa, M; Bishop, E; Bailey, D B

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially men, have long been described as presenting with significant behavioural challenges. Despite this known aspect of the phenotype, there has been little research exploring the prevalence, frequency, nature or consequences of aggressive behaviour in FXS. This study used survey methodology to gather caregiver reports on the types, frequency and severity of aggressive behaviour in 774 individuals with FXS. Based on caregiver report, nearly all (>90%) male and female individuals were reported to have engaged in some aggression over the previous 12 months, with a third of male cases and slightly fewer than 20% of female cases being described as engaging in moderate to severe aggression or being diagnosed or treated for aggression. Further, aggressive behaviours in male individuals were serious enough that 30% had caused injuries to caregivers and 22% had caused injuries to peers or friends. Sensory issues and hyperactivity were significant predictors of the frequency of aggressive acts, while sensory issues and anxiety were predictive of the severity of aggression. Traditional behaviour management techniques as well as medication was described as the most common and successful treatment options. Aggressive behaviours are a significant concern for a subsample of both male and female individuals with FXS. Given that sensory concerns were predictive of both the frequency and the severity of aggression suggests these behaviours may be a reactive means of escaping uncomfortable situations. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Acute ethanol effects on brain activation in low- and high-level responders to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, Ryan S; Simmons, Alan N; Tolentino, Neil J; Hall, Shana A; Matthews, Scott C; Robinson, Shannon K; Smith, Tom L; Padula, Claudia B; Paulus, Martin P; Tapert, Susan F; Schuckit, Marc A

    2010-07-01

    A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is an important endophenotype associated with an increased risk of alcoholism. However, little is known about how neural functioning may differ between individuals with low and high LRs to alcohol. This study examined whether LR group effects on neural activity varied as a function of acute alcohol consumption. A total of 30 matched high- and low-LR pairs (N = 60 healthy young adults) were recruited from the University of California, San Diego, and administered a structured diagnostic interview and laboratory alcohol challenge followed by two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions under placebo and alcohol conditions, in randomized order. Task performance and blood oxygen level-dependent response contrast to high relative to low working memory load in an event-related visual working memory (VWM) task were examined across 120 fMRI sessions. Both LR groups performed similarly on the VWM task across conditions. A significant LR group by condition interaction effect was observed in inferior frontal and cingulate regions, such that alcohol attenuated the LR group differences found under placebo (p group by condition effect remained even after controlling for cerebral blood flow, age, and typical drinking quantity. Alcohol had differential effects on brain activation for low- and high-LR individuals within frontal and cingulate regions. These findings represent an additional step in the search for physiological correlates of a low LR and identify brain regions that may be associated with the low LR response.

  9. High resolution MRI anatomy of the cat brain at 3 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Edwards, Heather L.; Salibi, Nouha; Josephson, Eleanor M.; Hudson, Judith A.; Cox, Nancy R.; Randle, Ashley N.; McCurdy, Victoria J.; Bradbury, Allison M.; Wilson, Diane U.; Beyers, Ronald J.; Denney, Thomas S.; Martin, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline models of neurologic diseases, such as lysosomal storage diseases, leukodystrophies, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and NeuroAIDS, accurately recreate many aspects of human disease allowing for comparative study of neuropathology and the testing of novel therapeutics. Here we describe in vivo visualization of fine structures within the feline brain that were previously only visible post mortem. New Method 3 Tesla MR images were acquired using T1-weighted (T1w) 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence (0.4mm isotropic resolution) and T2-weighted (T2w) turbo spin echo (TSE) images (0.3×0.3×1 mm3 resolution). Anatomic structures were identified based on feline and canine histology. Results T2w high resolution MR images with detailed structural identification are provided in transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. T1w MR images are provided electronically in three dimensions for unrestricted spatial evaluation. Comparison with Existing Methods Many areas of the feline brain previously unresolvable on MRI are clearly visible in three orientations, including the dentate, interpositus and fastigial cerebellar nuclei, cranial nerves, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiation, cochlea, caudal colliculus, temporal lobe, precuneus, spinocerebellar tract, vestibular nuclei, reticular formation, pyramids and rostral and middle cerebral arteries. Additionally, the feline brain is represented in 3 dimensions for the first time. Conclusions These data establish normal appearance of detailed anatomical structures of the feline brain, which provide reference when evaluating neurologic disease or testing efficacy of novel therapeutics in animal models. PMID:24525327

  10. Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: Sharing ultra-high-field MR images of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Christine Lucas; Schäfer, Andreas; Trampel, Robert; Villringer, Arno; Turner, Robert; Bazin, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra high field opens the door to quantitative brain imaging at sub-millimeter isotropic resolutions. However, novel image processing tools to analyze these new rich datasets are lacking. In this article, we introduce the Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: a unique repository of high-resolution and quantitative images acquired at 7 T. The motivation for this project is to increase interest for high-resolution and quantitative imaging and stimulate the development of image processing tools developed specifically for high-field data. Our growing repository currently includes datasets from MP2RAGE and multi-echo FLASH sequences from 28 and 20 healthy subjects respectively. These datasets represent the current state-of-the-art in in-vivo relaxometry at 7 T, and are now fully available to the entire neuroimaging community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do beliefs about aggressive feelings and actions predict reported levels of aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J; Haigh, A M

    1997-03-01

    In Study 1, a 40-item questionnaire measuring instrumental and expressive beliefs about aggression, along a five-point scale, was developed. It was based on a 20-item questionnaire (Campbell, Muncer & Coyle, 1992) where the two alternatives were forced choices for each item. In the present study the two sets of beliefs were only moderately correlated (-.35), and their separation into 20-item scales showed a clearer factor structure than combining all 40 items. Men showed higher instrumental scores whereas women showed higher expressive scores: factor analysis revealed one major factor in each case on which items showing the highest sex differences were concentrated. In Study 2 the questionnaire was used on another sample to assess the association between these beliefs and self-reported physical and verbal aggression, and anger. Instrumental beliefs were found to be highly correlated with physical aggression, and to a lesser extent verbal aggression. In this study, sex differences were similar to Study 1, but were complicated by the finding of stronger instrumental beliefs at younger ages for both sexes. In both studies, when filling out the questionnaire, women were equally likely to think of an aggressive episode with a same-sex opponent as with an opposite-sex partner whereas men nearly always thought of an aggressive episode with a same-sex opponent. However, neither instrumental nor expressive scores were affected by whether female respondents were thinking of a partner or same-sex other.

  12. The neurobiology of offensive aggression: Revealing a modular view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, S F; Olivier, B; Veening, J; Koolhaas, J M

    2015-07-01

    Experimental studies aimed at understanding the neurobiology of aggression started in the early 20th century, and by employing increasingly sophisticated tools of functional neuroanatomy (i.e., from electric/chemical lesion and stimulation techniques to neurochemical mapping and manipulations) have provided the important framework for the functional brain circuit organization of aggressive behaviors. Recently, newly emerging technologies for mapping,measuring and manipulating neural circuitry at the level of molecular and genetically defined neuronal subtypes promise to further delineate the precise neural microcircuits mediating the initiation and termination of aggressive behavior, and characterize its dynamic neuromolecular functioning. This paper will review some of the behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurochemical evidence in support of a modular view of the neurobiology of offensive aggressive behavior. Although aggressive behavior likely arises from a specific concerted activity within a distributed neural network across multiple brain regions, emerging opto- and pharmacogenetic neuronal manipulation studies make it clear that manipulation of molecularly-defined neurons within a single node of this global interconnected network seems to be both necessary and sufficient to evoke aggressive attacks. However, the evidence so far also indicates that in addition to behavior-specific neurons there are neuronal systems that should be considered as more general behavioral control modules. The answer to the question of behavioral specificity of brain structures at the level of individual neurons requires a change of the traditional experimental setup. Studies using c-fos expression mapping usually compare the activation patterns induced by for example aggression with a home cage control. However, to reveal the behavioral specificity of this neuronal activation pattern, a comparison with other social and non-social related behaviors such as mating, defensive burying

  13. Clinically relevant genetic biomarkers from the brain in alcoholism with representation on high resolution chromosome ideograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; McGuire, Austen; Butler, Merlin G

    2015-04-15

    Alcoholism arises from combined effects of multiple biological factors including genetic and non-genetic causes with gene/environmental interaction. Intensive research and advanced genetic technology has generated a long list of genes and biomarkers involved in alcoholism neuropathology. These markers reflect complex overlapping and competing effects of possibly hundreds of genes which impact brain structure, function, biochemical alcohol processing, sensitivity and risk for dependence. We compiled a tabular list of clinically relevant genetic biomarkers for alcoholism targeting expression disturbances in the human brain through an extensive search of keywords related to alcoholism, alcohol abuse, and genetics from peer reviewed medical research articles and related nationally sponsored websites. Gene symbols were then placed on high resolution human chromosome ideograms with gene descriptions in tabular form. We identified 337 clinically relevant genetic biomarkers and candidate genes for alcoholism and alcohol-responsiveness from human brain research. Genetic biomarkers included neurotransmitter pathways associated with brain reward processes for dopaminergic (e.g., DRD2, MAOA, and COMT), serotoninergic (e.g., HTR3A, HTR1B, HTR3B, and SLC6A4), GABAergic (e.g., GABRA1, GABRA2, and GABRG1), glutaminergic (GAD1, GRIK3, and GRIN2C) and opioid (e.g., OPRM1, OPRD1, and OPRK1) pathways which presumably impact reinforcing properties of alcohol. Gene level disturbances in cellular and molecular networks impacted by alcohol and alcoholism pathology include transketolase (TKT), transferrin (TF), and myelin (e.g., MBP, MOBP, and MOG). High resolution chromosome ideograms provide investigators, physicians, geneticists and counselors a convenient visual image of the distribution of alcoholism genetic biomarkers from brain research with alphabetical listing of genes in tabular form allowing comparison between alcoholism-related phenotypes, and clinically-relevant alcoholism

  14. Brain Microglial Cells Are Highly Susceptible to HIV-1 Infection and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenker, Jennifer J; Stultz, Ryan D; McDonald, David

    2017-11-01

    Macrophages are a target of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and may serve as an important reservoir of the virus in the body, particularly after depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV/AIDS. Recently, sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) was identified as the major restriction factor of HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by Vpx, a viral protein encoded by HIV-2 and many simian immunodeficiency viruses but not HIV-1. In this study, we assessed SAMHD1 restriction in in vitro differentiated macrophages and in freshly isolated macrophages from the lungs, abdomen, and brain. We found that infection and spread in in vitro cultured monocyte-derived macrophages were highly limited and that Vpx largely relieved the restriction to initial infection, as expected. We observed nearly identical infection and restriction profiles in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes, as well as lung (alveolar) and abdominal (peritoneal) macrophages. In contrast, under the same infection conditions, primary brain macrophages (microglia) were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection despite levels of endogenous SAMHD1 comparable to the other macrophage populations. Addition of Vpx further increased HIV-1 infection under conditions of limiting virus input, and viral spread was robust whether or not SAMHD1 was depleted. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of peripherally circulating macrophages is effectively restricted by SAMHD1; however, microglia are highly susceptible to infection despite SAMHD1 expression. These data may explain the long-standing observation that HIV-1 infection is often detected in macrophages in the brain, but seldom in other tissues of the body.

  15. Influence of subjective intoxication, breath alcohol concentration, and expectancies on the alcohol-aggression relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancola, Peter R

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of subjective intoxication, alcohol-aggression expectancies, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) on intoxicated aggression in men and women while controlling for dispositional aggressivity. Subjects were 328 (163 men and 165 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or an active placebo beverage, subjects were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Levels of subjective intoxication and BrAC were measured immediately before subjects began the aggression task. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Subjective intoxication ratings were not related to aggressive behavior for either men or women. Alcohol-aggression expectancies were related to aggression for men, but this effect was rendered nonsignificant when controlling for dispositional aggressivity, which in turn, was significantly related to the dependent variables for both men and women. Finally, BrAC was also related to aggression above and beyond the effects of dispositional aggressivity, yet only for men. Taken as a whole, this study suggests that intoxicated aggression is primarily the result of alcohol's pharmacological properties in conjunction with an aggressive disposition.

  16. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-09-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility ( N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  17. Characterising aggressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Suresh; Shirani, Afsaneh; Zhao, Yinshan; Oger, Joel; Traboulsee, Anthony; Freedman, Mark S; Tremlett, Helen

    2013-11-01

    To explore the occurrence and characteristics of aggressive multiple sclerosis (AMS) in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Prospectively collected data (1980-2009) from British Columbia, Canada, were retrospectively analysed. AMS was defined in three different ways (AMS1, 2 and 3): 'AMS1'--confirmed Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ≥ 6 within 5 years of MS onset; 'AMS2'--confirmed EDSS ≥ 6 by age 40; and 'AMS3'--secondary progressive MS within 3 years of a relapsing-onset course. Three respective 'non-aggressive' MS comparison cohorts were selected. Patients' characteristics were compared between aggressive and non-aggressive cohorts using multivariable logistic regression, with findings expressed as adjusted OR (AOR) and 95% CI. Application of the three definitions to the source population of 5891 patients resulted in 235/4285 (5.5%) patients fulfilling criteria for AMS1 (59.6% were female; 74.5% had relapsing-onset MS), 388/2762 (14.0%) for AMS2 (65.2% were female; 92.8% had relapsing-onset MS) and 195/4918 (4.0%) patients for AMS3 (61.0% were female). Compared to the respective control cohorts, those with AMS were more likely to be male (AOR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0 (AMS1); 1.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.1 (AMS2); 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.4 (AMS3)), older at MS symptom onset (AOR=1.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.1 (AMS1 and AMS3)) and have primary progressive MS (AOR=2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.3 (AMS1); 2.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.4 (AMS2)). AMS was identified in 4-14% of patients, depending on the definition used. Although there was a relative preponderance of men and primary progressive MS presenting with AMS, the majority of patients were still women and those with relapsing-onset MS.

  18. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickmore Tamsin FA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio, an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT, previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases

  19. Markerless 3D Head Tracking for Motion Correction in High Resolution PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter

    relying on markers. Data-driven motion correction is problematic due to the physiological dynamics. Marker-based tracking is potentially unreliable, and it is extremely hard to validate when the tracking information is correct. The motion estimation is essential for proper motion correction of the PET...... images. Incorrect motion correction can in the worst cases result in wrong diagnosis or treatment. The evolution of a markerless custom-made structured light 3D surface tracking system is presented. The system is targeted at state-of-the-art high resolution dedicated brain PET scanners with a resolution...

  20. Psychometric evaluation of the Greek version of the Aggression Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2006-06-01

    The study assesses the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry in a sample of 760 Greek high school students. This questionnaire has been widely used to study Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. A confirmatory factor analysis of responses showed adequate fit for the original 4-factor model (total variance explained: 68.2%). The analysis also showed satisfactory internal consistency and temporal stability over 6 to 8 weeks. Also, the construct validity, extreme groups' validity, and predictive validity indices were adequate. Greek female students adopted more indirect forms of aggression (Hostility) than males, who applied more direct forms such as Physical Aggression. Findings supported the use of the Greek version of the questionnaire for assessment in high school students.

  1. Wounding words: swearing and verbal aggression in an inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa; McMillan, Margaret; Hazelton, Michael; Clayton, Edward H

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate swearing and verbal aggression in Australian inpatient settings, including incidence, gender, patient motivation, and nursing interventions. A mixed methods approach utilizing the Overt Aggression Scale and a survey of 107 nurses' perceptions of their experience of swearing was used. High levels of swearing and verbal aggression were found, with differing patterns for male and female patients. Nurses subjected to swearing experienced high levels of distress, especially females. All nurses appeared to use a limited range of interventions to deal with patient aggression. In order to provide optimal care for patients, there is a clear need to improve nurses' ability to predict and prevent aggression. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Effects of Alcohol Problems, PTSD, and Combat Exposure on Nonphysical and Physical Aggression Among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Simpson, Tracy; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Aggression among combat veterans is of great concern. Although some studies have found an association between combat exposure and aggressive behavior following deployment, others conclude that aggression is more strongly associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and that alcohol misuse may influence this association. Many of these studies have assessed aggression as a single construct, whereas the current study explored both nonphysical aggression only and physical aggression in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans (N = 337; 91% male). We found that alcohol problems interacted with PTSD symptom severity to predict nonphysical aggression only. At low levels of PTSD symptoms, veterans with alcohol problems were more likely to perpetrate nonphysical aggression only, as compared with no aggression, than veterans without an alcohol problem. There was no difference in the likelihood of nonphysical aggression only between those with and without alcohol problems at high levels of PTSD symptoms. The likelihood of nonphysical aggression only, as compared with no aggression, was also greater among younger veterans. Greater combat exposure and PTSD symptom severity were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating physical aggression, as compared with no aggression. Ethnic minority status and younger age were also associated with physical aggression, as compared with no aggression. Findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of veterans' aggressive behavior, as well as their alcohol problems and PTSD symptoms, by researchers and clinicians is needed in order to determine how best to intervene.

  3. An improved high-throughput lipid extraction method for the analysis of human brain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Mitchell, Todd W; Brown, Simon H J; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a protocol suitable for high-throughput lipidomic analysis of human brain samples. The traditional Folch extraction (using chloroform and glass-glass homogenization) was compared to a high-throughput method combining methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction with mechanical homogenization utilizing ceramic beads. This high-throughput method significantly reduced sample handling time and increased efficiency compared to glass-glass homogenizing. Furthermore, replacing chloroform with MTBE is safer (less carcinogenic/toxic), with lipids dissolving in the upper phase, allowing for easier pipetting and the potential for automation (i.e., robotics). Both methods were applied to the analysis of human occipital cortex. Lipid species (including ceramides, sphingomyelins, choline glycerophospholipids, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserines) were analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and sterol species were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No differences in lipid species composition were evident when the lipid extraction protocols were compared, indicating that MTBE extraction with mechanical bead homogenization provides an improved method for the lipidomic profiling of human brain tissue.

  4. Purification of high affinity benzodiazepine receptor binding site fragments from rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    In central nervous system benzodiazepine recognition sites occur on neuronal cell surfaces as one member of a multireceptor complex, including recognition sites for benzodiazepines, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), barbiturates and a chloride ionophore. During photoaffinity labelling, the benzodiazepine agonist, /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to central benzodiazepine high affinity recognition sites in the presence of ultraviolet light. In these studies a /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam radiolabel was used to track the isolation and purification of high affinity agonist binding site fragments from membrane-bound benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain. The authors present a method for limited proteolysis of /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled rat brain membranes, generating photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site. Using trypsin chymotrypsin A/sub 4/, or a combination of these two proteases, they have demonstrated the extent and time course for partial digestion of benzodiazepine receptor, yielding photolabeled receptor binding site fragments. These photolabeled receptor fragments have been further purified on the basis of size, using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as well as on the basis of hydrophobicity, using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) precolumn, several HPLC elution schemes, and two different HPLC column types. Using these procedures, they have purified three photolabeled benzodiazepine receptor fragments containing the agonist binding site which appear to have a molecular weight of less than 2000 daltons each.

  5. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running have larger midbrains: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, E M; Rezende, E L; Holness, L; Radtke, A; Lee, S K; Obenaus, A; Garland, T

    2013-02-01

    Increased brain size, relative to body mass, is a primary characteristic distinguishing the mammalian lineage. This greater encephalization has come with increased behavioral complexity and, accordingly, it has been suggested that selection on behavioral traits has been a significant factor leading to the evolution of larger whole-brain mass. In addition, brains may evolve in a mosaic fashion, with functional components having some freedom to evolve independently from other components, irrespective of, or in addition to, changes in size of the whole brain. We tested whether long-term selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running in laboratory house mice results in changes in brain size, and whether those changes have occurred in a concerted or mosaic fashion. We measured wet and dry brain mass via dissections and brain volume with ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging of brains that distinguished the caudate-putamen, hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum and forebrain. Adjusting for body mass as a covariate, mice from the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines had statistically larger non-cerebellar wet and dry brain masses than those from four non-selected control lines, with no differences in cerebellum wet or dry mass or volume. Moreover, the midbrain volume in HR mice was ~13% larger (PHR and control lines. We hypothesize that the enlarged midbrain of HR mice is related to altered neurophysiological function in their dopaminergic system. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which selection for a particular mammalian behavior has been shown to result in a change in size of a specific brain region.

  6. Epidemiology and demographics of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Cristiano; Haas, Alex N; Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis have used different study designs and a range of examination methods and case definitions, and this greatly complicates the study of disease prevalence in populations. The wide range of disease case definitions, in particular, profoundly impacts the reported rate of disease, and the use of a standard disease definition is strongly recommended. Surveys of aggressive periodontitis that use only clinical examinations, without radiographic examination to confirm the presence of a distinctive pattern of tissue loss, may overestimate the prevalence of this disease, particularly when a low threshold of attachment loss is used. The prevalence of aggressive periodontitis varies significantly between populations, and differences in race/ethnicities seem to be a key factor. Studies consistently show that aggressive periodontitis is most prevalent in Africa and in populations of African descent and is least prevalent in Caucasians in Europe and North America. Among children and young adults the prevalence of this disease is higher in older than in younger age groups. Most studies show comparable disease prevalence in male and female subjects. These findings show that aggressive periodontitis is a significant health problem in certain populations. This review also highlights a lack of information on the epidemiology and demographics of this disease in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis in high-risk populations are important and could provide vital data on the determinants of this disease, and this information is needed for the establishment of effective health-promotion measures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  8. Tumour-associated microglia/macrophages predict poor prognosis in high-grade gliomas and correlate with an aggressive tumour subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M D; Dahlrot, R H; Boldt, H B

    2018-01-01

    by software-based classifiers. The associations between TAMs, gemistocytic cells and glioblastoma subtype were examined with immuno- and haematoxylin-eosin stainings. Three tissue arrays containing glioblastoma specimens were included to study IBA-1/CD204 levels in central tumour and tumour periphery......(+) TAMs co-expressed proteins related to tumour aggressiveness including matrix metallopeptidase-14 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to use automated quantitative immunofluorescence to determine the prognostic impact of TAMs. Our results suggest that M2-like TAMs hold...... automated quantitative double immunofluorescence. METHODS: Samples from 240 patients with primary glioma were stained with antibodies against ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA-1) and cluster of differentiation 204 (CD204) to detect TAMs and M2-like TAMs. The expression levels were quantified...

  9. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Roche, Jessica S; Walton, Maureen A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Chermack, Stephen T; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2014-09-01

    Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14-20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The study includes 210 youth who reported having a dating partner in the past 2 months. About 48.1% of participants reported TDA in the past 2 months. Mindfulness was negatively associated with TDA. Youth reporting TDA were more likely to report physical dating violence and community violence exposure. TDA is not an isolated occurrence and is positively associated with in-person violence among adolescents. Associations between TDA, risk and promotive factors, and other forms of violence can help identify avenues for targeting interventions.

  10. A novel and rapid method for obtaining high titre intact prion strains from mammalian brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenborn, Adam; Terry, Cassandra; Gros, Nathalie; Joiner, Susan; D’Castro, Laura; Panico, Silvia; Sells, Jessica; Cronier, Sabrina; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Brandner, Sebastian; Saibil, Helen R.; Collinge, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions exist as multiple strains which produce characteristic and highly reproducible phenotypes in defined hosts. How this strain diversity is encoded by a protein-only agent remains one of the most interesting and challenging questions in biology with wide relevance to understanding other diseases involving the aggregation or polymerisation of misfolded host proteins. Progress in understanding mammalian prion strains has however been severely limited by the complexity and variability of the methods used for their isolation from infected tissue and no high resolution structures have yet been reported. Using high-throughput cell-based prion bioassay to re-examine prion purification from first principles we now report the isolation of prion strains to exceptional levels of purity from small quantities of infected brain and demonstrate faithful retention of biological and biochemical strain properties. The method’s effectiveness and simplicity should facilitate its wide application and expedite structural studies of prions. PMID:25950908

  11. Mapping human brain capillary water lifetime: high-resolution metabolic neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, William D; Li, Xin; Sammi, Manoj K; Bourdette, Dennis N; Neuwelt, Edward A; Springer, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    Shutter-speed analysis of dynamic-contrast-agent (CA)-enhanced normal, multiple sclerosis (MS), and glioblastoma (GBM) human brain data gives the mean capillary water molecule lifetime (τ(b)) and blood volume fraction (v(b); capillary density-volume product (ρ(†)V)) in a high-resolution (1)H2O MRI voxel (40 μL) or ROI. The equilibrium water extravasation rate constant, k(po) (τ(b)(-1)), averages 3.2 and 2.9 s(-1) in resting-state normal white matter (NWM) and gray matter (NGM), respectively (n = 6). The results (italicized) lead to three major conclusions. (A) k(po) differences are dominated by capillary water permeability (P(W)(†)), not size, differences. NWM and NGM voxel k(po) and v(b) values are independent. Quantitative analyses of concomitant population-averaged k(po), v(b) variations in normal and normal-appearing MS brain ROIs confirm P(W)(†) dominance. (B) P(W)(†) is dominated (>95%) by a trans(endothelial)cellular pathway, not the P(CA)(†) paracellular route. In MS lesions and GBM tumors, P(CA)(†) increases but P(W)(†) decreases. (C) k(po) tracks steady-state ATP production/consumption flux per capillary. In normal, MS, and GBM brain, regional k(po) correlates with literature MRSI ATP (positively) and Na(+) (negatively) tissue concentrations. This suggests that the P(W)(†) pathway is metabolically active. Excellent agreement of the relative NGM/NWM k(po)v(b) product ratio with the literature (31)PMRSI-MT CMR(oxphos) ratio confirms the flux property. We have previously shown that the cellular water molecule efflux rate constant (k(io)) is proportional to plasma membrane P-type ATPase turnover, likely due to active trans-membrane water cycling. With synaptic proximities and synergistic metabolic cooperativities, polar brain endothelial, neuroglial, and neuronal cells form "gliovascular units." We hypothesize that a chain of water cycling processes transmits brain metabolic activity to k(po), letting it report neurogliovascular unit Na

  12. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  13. Optimum aggression development in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutergin N.B.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The positive lines of aggressiveness of sportsmen are exposed in relation to adaptability in sport and to adaptability out of sport. They accompany sporting and vital success. The contradictory are set to in relation to adaptability lines of aggressiveness of sportsmen. They play role of positive factors. In relation to life out of sport - subzero. The specific of interdependence of indexes of aggressiveness and skills of self-control and communicative activity of sportsmen is certain. The program of forming of optimum indexes of aggressiveness of sportsmen is developed.

  14. A high-resolution anatomical framework of the neonatal mouse brain for managing gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyl Boline

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a high-resolution atlas and use it as an anatomical framework to localize the gene expression data for mouse brain on postnatal day 0 (P0. A color Nissl-stained volume with a resolution of 13.3×50×13.3 µm3 was constructed and co-registered to a standard anatomical space defined by an averaged geometry of C57BL/6J P0 mouse brains. A 145 anatomical structures were delineated based on the histological images. Anatomical relationships of delineated structures were established based on the hierarchical relations defined in the atlas of adult mouse brain (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2004 so the P0 atlas can be related to the database associated with the adult atlas. The co-registered multimodal atlas as well as the original anatomical delineations is available for download at http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Atlases/. The region-specific anatomical framework based on the neonatal atlas allows for the analysis of gene activity within a high-resolution anatomical space at an early developmental stage. We demonstrated the potential application of this framework by incorporating gene expression data generated using in situ hybridization to the atlas space. By normalizing the gene expression patterns revealed by different images, experimental results from separate studies can be compared and summarized in an anatomical context. Co-displaying multiple registered datasets in the atlas space allows for 3D reconstruction of the co-expression patterns of the different genes in the atlas space, hence providing better insight into the relationship between the differentiated distribution pattern of gene products and specific anatomical systems.

  15. Accumulated Source Imaging of Brain Activity with Both Low and High-Frequency Neuromagnetic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eXiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz. One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB, which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation’s memory (<196 GB. The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz and high-frequency (70~200 Hz ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 hours by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2-3 days and used 1-2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  17. Endogenous Sensory Discrimination and Selection by a Fast Brain Switch for a High Transfer Rate Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Dosen, Strahinja; Lin, Chuang; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we present a novel multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) for communication and control. In this system, the information processing is shared by the algorithm (computer) and the user (human). Specifically, an electro-tactile cycle was presented to the user, providing the choice (class) by delivering timely sensory input. The user discriminated these choices by his/her endogenous sensory ability and selected the desired choice with an intuitive motor task. This selection was detected by a fast brain switch based on real-time detection of movement-related cortical potentials from scalp EEG. We demonstrated the feasibility of such a system with a four-class BCI, yielding a true positive rate of  ∼ 80% and  ∼ 70%, and an information transfer rate of  ∼ 7 bits/min and  ∼ 5 bits/min, for the movement and imagination selection command, respectively. Furthermore, when the system was extended to eight classes, the throughput of the system was improved, demonstrating the capability of accommodating a large number of classes. Combining the endogenous sensory discrimination with the fast brain switch, the proposed system could be an effective, multi-class, gaze-independent BCI system for communication and control applications.

  18. Association between Internet overuse and aggression in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitai

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between Internet overuse and aggression. A total of 2336 high school students (boys, 57.5%; girls, 42.5%) in South Korea completed the structured questionnaire. The severity of Internet overuse was evaluated using Young's Internet Addiction Test. Aggression was measured using the Aggression Questionnaire, a modified hostility inventory by Buss and Perry. The proportions of boys who were classified as severe addicts and moderate addicts were 2.5% and 53.7%, respectively. For girls, the corresponding proportions were 1.9% and 38.9%, respectively. manova results for univariate analysis showed that sex, duration of Internet use, most-frequently used Internet activities, level of Internet addiction, smoking, alcohol, and caffeine were significantly associated with aggression scores. From multivariate analysis, it was found that smoking, alcohol, and level of Internet addiction were independently associated with all aggressive characteristics. Internet addiction scores were also significantly associated with all aggression scores from simple and multiple linear regression analyses (parameter estimate = 0.54-0.58 for total aggression). Pearson correlation results showed that Internet addiction scores revealed the highest correlation coefficients with aggression among Internet-related factors, age, and sex. Severe Internet-addicted boys showed higher scores in all aggression characteristics than severe Internet-addicted girls, even though it was not statistically significant in every characteristic. However, there was no sex effect on the association between Internet overuse and aggression. This study shows that Internet overuse is strongly associated with aggression in adolescents. © 2013 The Author. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF SELECTIVE AGGRESSION CONDITIONED ON ALLORECOGNITION SPECIFICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Richard K; Quinn, James F

    1989-05-01

    Many sessile cnidarians deploy specialized structures while competing aggressively for living space. The initiation of aggression is often contingent on the relatedness of the interacting contestants; clonemates and close kin generally behave passively toward one another, whereas more distant relatives generally behave aggressively. Behavioral specificity of this sort requires that there be 1) an allorecognition system that can discriminate among subtle differences in cell-surface determinants and 2) a highly polymorphic genetic system that provides specific labels of relatedness (haplotypes or allotypes). The evoutionary models analyzed in this paper show that a population of individuals that behave aggressively only against haplotypically distinct individuals (discriminating phenotypes) will not be evolutionarily stable in the face of either unconditionally aggressive or unconditionally nonaggressive phenotypes. Furthermore, even if the discriminating trait were somehow fixed, the rare recognition alleles necessary to confer allotypic specificity could not become established through natural selection. Thus, allotypic specificity is unlikely to be maintained by individual selection acting directly through aggressive behavior. Other selective mechanisms might account for the evolution of allorecognition specificity. Allotypic polymorphism could be maintained by pleiotropic mechanisms in which rare alleles are favored by natural selection acting either on gametic incompatibility, pathogen resistance, or somatic fusion, rather than aggressive behavior per se. However, these mechanisms do not explain the maintenance of selective aggression based on allotypic differences. Alternatively, if aggressive members of a clone indirectly enhance the reproductive output or survival of the entire clone (or close relatives), then kin selection acting directly through aggressive behavior could favor allorecognition specificity. Choosing among these alternatives will require the

  20. Exacerbation of brain pathology after partial restraint in hypertensive rats following SiO₂ nanoparticles exposure at high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari S; Muresanu, Dafin F; Patnaik, Ranjana; Sharma, Aruna

    2013-10-01

    This investigation examines the possibility that exposure to silica dust of hypertensive individuals may exacerbate brain pathology and sensory motor dysfunction at high environmental temperature. Hypertension was produced in rats (200-250 g) by two-kidney one clip (2K1C) method, and in these animals, SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs; 50 to 60 nm) were administered at 50 mg/kg, i.p. daily for 1 week. On the 8th day, these rats were subjected to partial restraint in a Perspex box for 4 h either at room temperature (21 °C) or at 33 °C in a biological oxygen demand incubator (wind velocity, 2.6 cm/s; relative humidity, 65 to 67 %). In these animals, behavioral functions, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to Evans blue albumin (EBA) and radioiodine (([131]-)Iodine), brain water content and neuronal injuries were determined. Hypertensive rats subjected to 4 h restraint at room temperature did not exhibit BBB dysfunction, brain edema, neural injury, or alterations in rotarod or inclined plane angle performances. However, when these hypertensive rats were subjected to restraint at 33 °C, breakdown of the cortical BBB (EBA, +38 %; radioiodine, +56 %), brain water (+0.88 %), neuronal damages (+18 %), and behavioral impairment were exacerbated. Interestingly, SiO2 exposure to these rats further exacerbated BBB breakdown (EBA, 280 %; radioiodine, 350 %), brain edema (4 %), and neural injury (30 %) after identical restraint depending on the ambient temperature. SiO2 treatment also induced brain pathology and alteration in behavioral functions in normotensive rats after restraint at high temperature. These observations clearly show that hypertension significantly enhances restraint-induced brain pathology, and behavioral anomalies particularly at high ambient temperature and SiO2 intoxication further exacerbated these brain pathologies and cognitive dysfunctions.

  1. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effect of pomegranate extracts on brain antioxidant markers and cholinesterase activity in high fat-high fructose diet induced obesity in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Zahra; Ghorbel, Asma; Turki, Mouna; Akrout, Férièle Messadi; Ayadi, Fatma; Elfeki, Abdelfateh; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-06-27

    To investigate beneficial effects of Pomegranate seeds oil (PSO), leaves (PL), juice (PJ) and (PP) on brain cholinesterase activity, brain oxidative stress and lipid profile in high-fat-high fructose diet (HFD) induced-obese rat. In vitro and in vivo cholinesterase activity, brain oxidative status, body and brain weight and plasma lipid profile were measured in control rats, HFD-fed rats and HFD-fed rats treated by PSO, PL, PJ and PP. In vitro study showed that PSO, PL, PP, PJ inhibited cholinesterase activity in dose dependant manner. PL extract displayed the highest inhibitory activity by IC50 of 151.85 mg/ml. For in vivo study, HFD regime induced a significant increase of cholinesterase activity in brain by 17.4% as compared to normal rats. However, the administration of PSO, PL, PJ and PP to HDF-rats decreased cholinesterase activity in brain respectively by 15.48%, 6.4%, 20% and 18.7% as compared to untreated HFD-rats. Moreover, HFD regime caused significant increase in brain stress, brain and body weight, and lipid profile disorders in blood. Furthermore, PSO, PL, PJ and PP modulated lipid profile in blood and prevented accumulation of lipid in brain and body evidenced by the decrease of their weights as compared to untreated HFD-rats. In addition administration of these extract protected brain from stress oxidant, evidenced by the decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Protein carbonylation (PC) levels and the increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. These findings highlight the neuroprotective effects of pomegranate extracts and one of mechanisms is the inhibition of cholinesterase and the stimulation of antioxidant capacity.

  3. Neuroimaging and Neurocognitive Correlates of Aggression and Violence in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders such as schizophrenia are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. Although aggressive acts can have numerous causes, research about the underlying neurobiology of violence and aggression in schizophrenia can lead to a better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of that behavior and can assist in developing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and discuss some of the neurobiological correlates of aggression and violence. The focus will be on schizophrenia, and the results of neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies that have directly investigated brain functioning and/or structure in aggressive and violent samples will be discussed as well as other domains that might predispose to aggression and violence such as deficits in responding to the emotional expressions of others, impulsivity, and psychopathological symptoms. Finally gender differences regarding aggression and violence are discussed. In this context several methodological and conceptional issues that limited the comparison of these studies will be addressed.

  4. Delineation of Violence from Functional Aggression in Mice : An Ethological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan; de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Maxson, Stephen; De Vries, H.

    The present study aims at delineating violence from aggression, using genetically selected high (SAL, TA, NC900) and low (LAL, TNA NC100) aggressive mouse strains. Unlike aggression, violence lacks intrinsic control, environmental constraints as well as functional endpoints. Conventional measures

  5. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.; Lemmens, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of

  6. Policy Implications of Present Knowledge on the Development and Prevention of Physical Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Feder, Lynette; Cote, Sylvana M.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that children are born with aggressive tendencies which they learn to control through early socialization. A small group, however, shows high aggression levels early on which remain stable throughout their life. Physical aggression is an epiphenomenon in a wide variety of

  7. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  8. Authoritative School Climate, Aggression toward Teachers, and Teacher Distress in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Juliette K.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less…

  9. Aggression in Children and Adolescents with ASD: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for aggression were examined in 1,380 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Prevalence was high, with parents reporting that 68% had demonstrated aggression to a caregiver and 49% to non-caregivers. Overall, aggression was not associated with clinician observed severity of ASD symptoms,…

  10. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  11. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  12. Aggressive periodontitis: case definition and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. © 2014

  13. Attitudes and dating aggression: a cognitive dissonance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julie A; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the association between attitudes about dating aggression and select dating aggressive behaviors (verbal aggression and jealous behavior) in high school students. Our hypothesis, derived from cognitive dissonance theory, was that discrepancies between self-reported attitudes and aggressive behavior at Time 1 (i.e., putative cognitive dissonance) would predict decreases in aggression between Time 1 and Time 2 beyond what would be predicted by change in attitudes over the same period. Results indicated that cognitive dissonance (as indexed by the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior) was generally a significant predictor of behavior change, providing significant improvement in prediction of behavior over attitude change alone. We discuss the implications of these findings for prevention efforts and directions for future research in this area.

  14. Executive cognitive functioning, alcohol, and aggression: comment on Giancola (2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherek, D R

    2000-11-01

    P. R. Giancola (2000) postulated executive cognitive functioning (ECF) as a mechanism to explain the association between alcohol consumption and aggression. Alcohol intoxication disrupts ECF, which heightens the probability of aggression. This is most likely to occur in individuals with low ECF. These propositions are found lacking. The disruption in ECF by alcohol would be greatest among individuals with high ECF, and low-ECF individuals presumably would not experience much further disruption as result of low baseline functioning. These 2 premises appear to be inconsistent. The concept of ECF suffers from the problems associated with hypothetical constructs. Patterns of aggression emerge in young children before the development of cognitive skills associated with ECF, and the association of aggression and low ECF occur as results of environmental risk factors. ECF is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to explain aggression following alcohol drinking.

  15. Indirect Peer Aggression in Adolescence and Reproductive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that indirect aggression during adolescence is a strategy to compete with same-sex peer rivals for resources, status, and mating opportunities. We collected survey data on 143 young adults to determine retrospectively, the amount of indirect aggressive behavior they perpetrated and the amount of indirect victimization they experienced in middle school and high school. We also collected information about reproductive opportunities such as age at first sexual intercourse and number of lifetime sex partners to determine whether aggression or victimization could be used to predict measures of reproductive opportunity. We performed a principal components analysis to develop f