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Sample records for highest alpha activity

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3-alkyl/aryl-2-[((alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl)hydrazono]-5-methyl-4-thiazolidinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeldemirci, Nuray Ulusoy; Ilhan, Eser; Küçükbasmaci, Omer; Satana, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    New 4-thiazolidinone derivatives of benzilic acid (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxyacetic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The reaction of 1- (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl-4-alkyl/arylthiosemicarbazides with ethyl 2-bromopropionate gave 3-alkyl/aryl-2-[((alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl)hydrazono]-5-methyl-4-thiazolidinone derivatives. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922, C. albicans ATCC 10231, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei NCPF 375, M. gypseum NCPF 580 and T. tonsurans NCPF 245. 3e, 3f, 3g and 3h showed the highest antibacterial activity. Particularly 3a and 3e showed the highest antifungal activities against C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, T. tonsurans NCPF 245 and M. gypseum NCPF 580.

  2. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in Madeira (Portugal): the highest prevalence in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Carla; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Pereira, Conceição; Brehm, António; Spínola, Hélder

    2009-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common genetic disease which affects both lung and liver. Early diagnosis can help asymptomatic patients to adjust their lifestyle choices in order to reduce the risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The determination of this genetic deficiency prevalence in Madeira Island (Portugal) population is important to clarify susceptibility and define the relevance of performing genetic tests for AAT on individuals at risk for COPD. Two hundred samples of unrelated individuals from Madeira Island were genotyped for the two most common AAT deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Mediated Site-Directed Mutagenesis. Our results show one of the highest frequencies for both mutations when compared to any already studied population in the world. In fact, PI*S mutation has the highest prevalence (18%), and PI*Z mutation (2.5%) was the third highest worldwide. The frequency of AAT deficiency genotypes in Madeira (PI*ZZ, PI*SS, and PI*SZ) is estimated to be the highest in the world: 41 per 1000. This high prevalence of AAT deficiency on Madeira Island reveals an increased genetic susceptibility to COPD and suggests a routine genetic testing for individuals at risk.

  3. Alpha-amylase activity in wheat flour and breadmaking properties in relation to different climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Slađana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the influence of different climatic conditions on the activity of alpha-amylase in wheat samples and bread quality parameters. Three wheat varieties grown in three different localities in three years were chosen for this study. Commonly used methods for estimation of alpha-amylase activity in wheat grain were employed. The obtained results indicated that harvest year 2013, which was characterized with the excessive amount of rainfall, exhibited the highest level of alpha-amylase activity and the lowest values of the peak viscosity. The lowest alpha-amylase level and the highest peak viscosity and FN value were observed for samples harvested in 2012 which was characterized with the greatest number of days with an average daily temperature above 30 and 35°C. In addition, a decrease in Mixolab parameter torque C3 and specific bread loaf volume, as well as increase in the breakdown torque (C3-C4 of samples harvested in 2013 were observed, which could be attributed to rainy weather influencing increase in alpha-amylase activity. It is found that specific bread loaf volume of wheat samples is highest in 2012. Moreover, a negative correlation between alpha-amylase activity and specific bread volume for all the samples grown in three years was determined.

  4. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipak [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)], E-mail: dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2008-02-15

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 {+-} 2.5 to 590.6 {+-} 16.8 Bq kg{sup -1}. The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health.

  5. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 ± 2.5 to 590.6 ± 16.8 Bq kg -1 . The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health

  6. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

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    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  7. Lyman alpha emission in nearby star-forming galaxies with the lowest metallicities and the highest [OIII]/[OII] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The Lyman alpha line of hydrogen is the strongest emission line in galaxies and the tool of predilection for identifying and studying star-forming galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, especially in the early universe. However, it has become clear over the years that not all of the Lyman alpha radiation escapes, due to its resonant scattering on the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and absorption by dust. Although our knowledge of the high-z universe depends crucially on that line, we still do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms behind the production, radiative transfer and escape of Lyman alpha in galaxies. We wish here to investigate these mechanisms by studying the properties of the ISM in a unique sample of 8 extreme star-forming galaxies (SFGs) that have the highest excitation in the SDSS spectral data base. These dwarf SFGs have considerably lower stellar masses and metallicities, and higher equivalent widths and [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios compared to all nearby SFGs with Lyman alpha emission studied so far with COS. They are, however, very similar to the dwarf Lyman alpha emitters at redshifts 3-6, which are thought to be the main sources of reionization in the early Universe. By combining the HST/COS UV data with data in the optical range, and using photoionization and radiative transfer codes, we will be able to study the properties of the Lyman alpha in these unique objects, derive column densities of the neutral hydrogen N(HI) and compare them with N(HI) obtained from the HeI emission-line ratios in the optical spectra. We will derive Lyman alpha escape fractions and indirectly Lyman continuum escape fractions.

  8. Traditionally used plants in diabetes therapy: phytotherapeutics as inhibitors of alpha-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Funke

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. There are many and diverse therapeutic strategies in the management of Type 2 diabetes. The inhibition of alpha-amylase activity is only one possibility to lower postprandial blood glucose levels. In our in-vitro studies we could demonstrate that different plants, mostly traditionally used in common diabetic therapy in Africa or Europe, are able to inhibit alpha-amylase, which is responsible for the breakdown of oligosaccharides into monosaccharides which are absorbed. An inhibition of alpha-amylase activity of 90% was seen with the extract of the leaves of Tamarindus indica. To quantify inhibtion rates, acarbose was used (IC50: 23.2 µM. Highest inhibition level of acarbose in our testmodel was about 85%. Additionally tests with pure polyphenolic compounds might explain the biological activity of the selected plants.

  9. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Zarafshan, Hadi; Fazio, Rachel L; Majidi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT) receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA), a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA. Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls. Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75) = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75) = 5.67, P = 0.025]. Conclusion : A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations.

  10. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  11. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  12. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

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    Reka Palanivel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015. Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity. From the results of the study it is understood that Stoechospermum marginatum contain a high amount of carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber and phytonutrients like tannin, flavonoid, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoids, steroid and total phenolic content. The physicochemical properties namely Water absorption and Swelling power were very promising. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity was recorded to be high in both aqueous and ethanol extracts of eight hour extraction than in extracts taken from six hours extraction. Antioxidant activity was detected using DPPH, FRAP, beta carotene scavenging and H2O2 assay and found to have a high radical scavenging activity. Stoechospermum marginatum possess a valuable amount of total phenolic content and other phytonutrients and physicochemical properties, it may the reason for the potential inhibition of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and antioxidant activity. It is concluded from the study that the brown algae may be incorporated into foods to enhance their nutritional and therapeutic value.

  13. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  14. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    OpenAIRE

    Reka Palanivel; Thahira Banu Azeez; Seethalakshmi Muthaya

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015). Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase...

  15. Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF-related macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-05-01

    Alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) has been reported to accumulate in serum of cancer patients and be responsible for deglycosylation of Gc protein, which is a precursor of GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, finally leading to immunosuppression in advanced cancer patients. We studied the biochemical characterization of alpha-NaGalase from several human tumor cell lines. We also examined its effect on the potency of GcMAF to activate mouse peritoneal macrophage to produce superoxide in GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade. The specific activity of alpha-NaGalases from human colon tumor cell line HCT116, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and normal human liver cells (Chang liver cell line) were evaluated using two types of substrates; GalNAc-alpha-PNP (exo-type substrate) and Gal-beta-GalNAc-alpha-PNP (endo-type substrate). Tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase having higher activity than normal alpha-NaGalase, had higher substrate specificity to the exo-type substrate than to the endo-type substrate, and still maintained its activity at pH 7. GcMAF enhance superoxide production in mouse macrophage, and pre-treatment of GcMAF with tumor cell lysate reduce the activity. We conclude that tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase is different in biochemical characterization compared to normal alpha-NaGalase from normal Chang liver cells. In addition, tumor cell-derived alpha-NaGalase decreases the potency of GcMAF on macrophage activation.

  16. Removal Of Labeled ALPHA-Fetoprotein (AFP) Using Rice Husk-Based Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-MOUHTY, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass agricultural waste materials, rice husk (RH) or saw dust (SD), were used for the preparation of activated carbons. RH was activated by chemical activation using phosphoric acid or potassium hydroxide. The prepared activated carbons were characterized and used for the adsorption of labeled alpha-fetoprotein ( 125 I-AFP) from the lab waste of iodine labeled alpha-fetoprotein tracer. The effects of various factors, e.g. carbon type, carbon dosage, temperature, particle size of carbon, effect of different waste volumes on the adsorption capacity, were quantitatively determined. Desorption of activated carbon was also investigated. From the experimental results, it was found that SDK had the lowest ability for adsorption of 125I-AFP and the highest uptake was 83% by carbon RHH. The amount of adsorption accomplished per unit weight of a solid adsorbent was greater, the more finely divided and the more porous the solid. 0.5 g for RHH carbon was found to be optimum dose of adsorbent for the removal of 125I-AFP. The optimum volume of waste with 0.5 g dose of RHH was 15 ml. The increased adsorption with temperature may be due to the increase of the intra-particle diffusion rate of sorbate ions into the pores at higher temperature as diffusion is an endothermic process.

  17. Activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter during muscle regeneration.

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    Marsh, D R; Carson, J A; Stewart, L N; Booth, F W

    1998-11-01

    Little is known concerning promoter regulation of genes in regenerating skeletal muscles. In young rats, recovery of muscle mass and protein content is complete within 21 days. During the initial 5-10 days of regeneration, mRNA abundance for IGF-I, myogenin and MyoD have been shown to be dramatically increased. The skeletal alpha-actin promoter contains E box and serum response element (SRE) regulatory regions which are directly or indirectly activated by myogenin (or MyoD) and IGF-I proteins, respectively. We hypothesized that the skeletal alpha-actin promoter activity would increase during muscle regeneration, and that this induction would occur before muscle protein content returned to normal. Total protein content and the percentage content of skeletal alpha-actin protein was diminished at 4 and 8 days and re-accumulation had largely occurred by 16 days post-bupivacaine injection. Skeletal alpha-actin mRNA per whole muscle was decreased at day 8, and thereafter returned to control values. During regeneration at day 8, luciferase activity (a reporter of promoter activity) directed by -424 skeletal alpha-actin and -99 skeletal alpha-actin promoter constructs was increased by 700% and 250% respectively; however, at day 16, skeletal alpha-actin promoter activities were similar to control values. Thus, initial activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter is associated with regeneration of skeletal muscle, despite not being sustained during the later stages of regrowth. The proximal SRE of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter was not sufficient to confer a regeneration-induced promoter activation, despite increased serum response factor protein binding to this regulatory element in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Skeletal alpha-actin promoter induction during regeneration is due to a combination of regulatory elements, at least including the SRE and E box.

  18. Intraperitoneal alpha-radioimmunotherapy in mice using different specific activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgqvist, Jörgen; Andersson, Håkan; Haglund, Elin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in mice, using different specific activities. This study was performed by using the monoclonal antibody, MX35 F(ab')(2), labeled with the alpha-particle-emitter, 211At.......The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in mice, using different specific activities. This study was performed by using the monoclonal antibody, MX35 F(ab')(2), labeled with the alpha-particle-emitter, 211At....

  19. [G-protein potentiates the activation of TNF-alpha on calcium-activated potassium channel in ECV304].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Zheng, Y; Qu, J; Bao, G

    2000-06-01

    Observe the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on calcium-activated potassium channel in ECV304 and the possible involvement of G-protein mediation in the action of TNF-alpha. Using the cell-attached configuration of patch clamp technique. (1) the activity of high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKca) was recorded. Its conductance is (202.54 +/- 16.62) pS; (2) the activity of BKca was potentiated by 200 U/ml TNF-alpha; (3) G-protein would intensify this TNF-alpha activation. TNF-alpha acted on vascular endothelial cell ECV304 could rapidly activate the activity of BKca. Opening of BKca resulted in membrane hyper-polarization which could increase electro-chemical gradient for the resting Ca2+ influx and open leakage calcium channel, thus resting cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration could be elevated. G-protein may exert an important regulation in this process.

  20. Activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper aims at the survey on the actual situation in activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes. Homogeneous materials such as liquid-, gaseous- and homogeneous solid wastes are amenable to destructive analyses of representative samples. Available destructive analyses methods are sensitive and precise enough to cope with all requirements in alpha-waste monitoring. The more difficult problems are encountered with alpha-contaminated solids, when representative sampling is not practicable. Non-destructive analysis techniques are applied for monitoring this category of solid wastes. The techniques for nondestructive analysis of alpha-bearing wastes are based on the detection of gamma and/or neutron-emission of actinides. Principles and a theory of non-destructive radiometric assay of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams are explained. Guidelines for the calibration of instruments and interpretation of experimental data are given. Current theoretical and experimental development work in this problem area is reviewed. Evaluations concerning capabilities and limitations of monitoring systems for alpha-bearing solid wastes are very complex and out of the scope of this paper

  1. On alpha activity relationships in 226Ra and U/sub nat/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejbichova, Z.

    1982-01-01

    A gross alpha activity of 0.1 Bq/l is permitted for drinking and surface waters. If gross activity is higher, it is suitable to determine the 226 Ra content which must not exceed 0.1 Bq/l. The permissible content of natural uranium is 0.05 mg/l. In most samples of ground and surface waters gross alpha activity was below the permissible limit. In some samples with a high content of salts a higher Ra+U activity was found which exceeded gross activity. This was caused by the interference of nonradioactive admixtures. In other samples a higher gross alpha activity was found than was the sum Ra+U which may have been caused by alpha sources from radon decay. It was found that the gross alpha activity of waters is rather caused by uranium than by radium. (E.S.)

  2. EEG alpha rhythm, ocular activity and basal skin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaten, M.N.; Beaujon, J.N.R.; Sjouw, W.

    Most hypotheses about the origin of the occipital alpha rhythm stress the specific influence of ocular activity. In this study, the influence of eye-movement frequency and extreme upward deviation of the eyeballs (enlarging the corneo-retinal potential) on occipital alpha activity and basal skin

  3. Alpha- and Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes with 5-Fluorouracil: Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity Evaluation

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    Cristina Di Donato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are natural macrocyclic oligosaccharides able to form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of guests, affecting their physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. In order to obtain an improvement of the bioavailability and solubility of 5-fluorouracil, a pyrimidine analogue used as chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of the colon, liver, and stomac cancers, the drug was complexed with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes were prepared in the solid state by kneading method and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry. In solution, the 1:1 stoichiometry for all the inclusion complexes was established by the Job plot method and the binding constants were determined at different pHs by UV-VIS titration. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of 5-fluorouracil and its complexation products were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line, Hep G2 (hepatocyte carcinoma cell line, Caco-2 (colon adenocarcinoma cell line, and A-549 (alveolar basal epithelial carcinoma cell line. The results showed that both inclusion complexes increased the 5-fluorouracil capability of inhibiting cell growth. In particular, 5-fluorouracil complexed with beta-cyclodextrin had the highest cytotoxic activity on MCF-7; with alpha-cyclodextrin the highest cytotoxic activity was observed on A-549. The IC50 values were equal to 31 and 73 µM at 72 h, respectively. Our results underline the possibility of using these inclusion complexes in pharmaceutical formulations for improving 5-fluorouracil therapeutic efficacy.

  4. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs M Nater

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies.In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies.Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest.Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  5. Protective effect of poly ({alpha}-L-glutamate) against UV and {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Huy, Nguyen Quang; Tsuchiya, Akihito; Nakatsuka, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    We occasionally found that poly ({alpha}-L-glutamate) showed a superior protective effect on enzymes against UV and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation. We selected papain and {alpha}-amylase as a model enzyme and irradiated the aqueous solution (10 mg/ml) of each enzyme with UV and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays in the presence of poly ({alpha}-L-glutamate) ({alpha}-PGA), poly (glucosyl oxyethyl methacrylate (GEMA)), and glucose (1.25% w/v each). The mixture of the three compounds has a significant protective effect on the activity of papain solution showing 40% of remaining activity twice as much as the control containing no additive at the dose of 15 kGy. Among them, {alpha}-PGA showed the highest protecting effect on the both papain and {alpha}-amylase even after 10-kGy irradiation at which 50% of the activity was retained. {alpha}-PGA also showed significant protective activity on {alpha}-amylase against UV both in solution and under dried state.

  6. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E.; Goldsten, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in situ analysis of samples including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform, that would meet the severe mass, power, and environmental constraints of missions to the outer planets. In the neutron-activation mode, a gamma-ray spectrometer will first perform a penetrating scan of soil, ice, and loose material underfoot (depths to 10 cm or more) to identify appropriate samples. Chosen samples will be analyzed in bulk in neutron-activation mode, and then the sample surfaces will be analyzed in alpha-activation mode using Rutherford backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. The instrument will provide sample composition over a wide range of elements, including rock-forming elements (such as Na, Mg, Si, Fe, and Ca), rare earths (Sm and Eu for example), radioactive elements (K, Th, and U), and light elements present in water, ices, and biological materials (mainly H, C, O, and N). The instrument is expected to have a mass of about l kg and to require less than 1 W power. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Alpha-mannosidase activity in goats fed with Sida carpinifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, Marisete; Moleta Colodel, Edson; Viapiana, Marli; Matte, Ursula; Driemeier, David; Giugliani, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Human alpha-mannosidosis results from alpha-mannosidase deficiency and progressive accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in lysosomes. Two days before Saanen goats were fed with Sida carpinifolia, alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes was 128+/-28 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein (first trial) and 104+/-6 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein (second trial). At day 5, after the introduction of S. carpinifolia diet, the alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes was significantly increased, both in the first (288+/-13 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein) and in the second trial (303+/-45 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein), and it returned to normal levels 2 days after the withdrawal of the plant from the diet (114+/-7 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein in first trial, and 108+/-25 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein in the second one). Plasma alpha-mannosidase activity decreased significantly 4 days after animal exposure to the S. carpinifolia diet (769+/-167 nmoles4-MU/h/ml) and returned to normal values 10 days after the withdrawal of the plant from the diet (1289+/-163 nmoles4-MU/h/ml). Thin-layer chromatography showed an abnormal excretion of oligosaccharides in urine as of day 2 after diet exposure, which persisted until one day after the withdrawal of the plant. Animals presented neurological clinical signs beginning at day 37 (in the first trial) and at day 25 (in the second trial) after being fed with the plant. The results obtained herein suggest that oligosaccharides observed in urine are a result of a decrease in alpha-mannosidase activity in plasma. S. carpinifolia seems to have other compounds that act on alpha-mannosidase enzyme in leukocytes in a competitive manner with swainsonine. The increase in alpha-mannosidase enzyme in leukocytes could be attributed to one of these compounds present in S. carpinifolia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. [Acetylcholine activation of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation in liver mitochondria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostakovskaia, I V; Doliba, N M; Gordiĭ, S K; Babskiĭ, A M; Kondrashova, M N

    1986-01-01

    Activation of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation in the rat liver mitochondria takes place 15 and 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of acetyl choline. This mediator in doses of 25, 50 and 100 micrograms per 100 g of body weight causes a pronounced stimulation of phosphorylation respiration rate and calcium capacity of mitochondria with alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation. Acetyl choline is found to have a moderate inhibitory action on oxidation of lower (physiological) concentrations of succinate. Its stimulating action on alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation is associated with activation of M-cholinoreceptors; atropine, a choline-blocker, removes completely this effect. It is supposed that alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate are included into the composition of two reciprocal hormonal-substrate nucleotide systems.

  9. Expression and functional importance of collagen-binding integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, on virus-activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Susanne Ø; Thomsen, Allan R; Koteliansky, Victor E

    2003-01-01

    decreased responses were seen upon transfer of alpha(1)-deficient activated/memory T cells. Thus, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins on activated T cells is directly functionally important for generation of inflammatory responses within tissues. Finally, the inhibitory effect......Adhesive interactions are crucial to cell migration into inflammatory sites. Using murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as an Ag model system, we have investigated expression and function of collagen-binding integrins, alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1), on activated and memory T cells. Using...... this system and MHC tetramers to define Ag-specific T cells, we demonstrate that contrary to being VLAs, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) can be rapidly induced on acutely activated T cells, that expression of alpha(1)beta(1) remains elevated on memory T cells, and that expression of alpha(1...

  10. In vitro alpha glucosidase inhibition and free-radical scavenging activity of propolis from Thai stingless bees in mangosteen orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyadist Vongsak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe chemical component and biological activity of propolis depend on flora area of bee collection and bee species. In the study, the propolis from three stingless bee species, Lepidotrigona ventralis Smith, Lepidotrigona terminata Smith, and Tetragonula pagdeni Schwarz, was collected in the same region of mangosteen garden from Thailand. Total phenolic content, alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect, and free-radical scavenging activity using FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays were determined. The most potent activity of propolis extract was investigated for bioactive compounds and their quantity. The ethanol extract of T. pagdeni propolis had the highest total phenolic content 12.83 ± 0.72 g of gallic acid equivalents in 100 g of the extract, and the strongest alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect with the IC50 of 70.79 ± 6.44 µg/ml. The free-radical scavenging activity evaluated by FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays showed the FRAP value of 279.70 ± 20.55 µmol FeSO4 equivalent/g extract and the IC50 of 59.52 ± 10.76 and 122.71 ± 11.76 µg/ml, respectively. Gamma- and alpha-mangostin from T. pagdeni propolis extract were isolated and determined for the biological activity. Gamma-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity for both alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect and free-radical scavenging activity. Using HPLC quantitative analysis method, the content of gamma- and alpha-mangostin in the extract was found to be 0.94 ± 0.01 and 2.77 ± 0.08% (w/w, respectively. These findings suggested that T. pagdeni propolis may be used as a more suitable raw material for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products and these mangostin derivatives as markers.

  11. A quick method for estimation of long-lived alpha activity in work atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, G.K.; Ramakrishna Rao, A.; Balbudhe, A.Y.; Sarma, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In an operating plant quick reporting of the status of long-lived alpha activity concentrations in the work atmosphere is required. This will help in taking any corrective control measures if required. Radon and thoron progeny concentrations prevalent in the general atmosphere predominantly interfere in measurement of long-lived alpha activity in air. The alpha counts due to radon and thoron progeny vary widely in many atmospheric conditions. Therefore, conventionally, 5 days delay is allowed for all interfering activity to decay completely and true alpha air activity is then estimated. An approach for quick assessment of long-lived alpha activity by eliminating interference due to radon and thoron progeny in air, is made here. Based on the study of the pattern of alpha count rate due to radon and thoron progeny in air, a method for estimation of long-lived alpha activity within 8 hours delay time is suggested in this paper. (author)

  12. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators.We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO.Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation plays a key role in regulating the response of Müller glia to hypoxia.

  13. alpha-Lactalbumin species variation, HAMLET formation, and tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Jenny; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2006-06-23

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of apo alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, formed in casein after low pH treatment of human milk. This study examined if HAMLET-like complexes are present in casein from different species and if isolated alpha-lactalbumin from those species can form such complexes with oleic acid. Casein from human, bovine, equine, and porcine milk was separated by ion exchange chromatography and active complexes were only found in human casein. This was not explained by alpha-lactalbumin sequence variation, as purified bovine, equine, porcine, and caprine alpha-lactalbumins formed complexes with oleic acid with biological activity similar to HAMLET. We conclude that structural variation of alpha-lactalbumins does not preclude the formation of HAMLET-like complexes and that natural HAMLET formation in casein was unique to human milk, which also showed the highest oleic acid content.

  14. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Osipova

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs reflects a window of excitability.

  15. The alpha activity of soils in relation to landscape development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, R G; Quirk, J P [Western Australia Univ., Nedlands. Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    1976-02-01

    The alpha activity of soils and the degree of the equilibrium of the thorium series has been related to the age of soils developed on a truncated laterite landscape in southwestern Australia. The uplift of the old lateritic plateau has formed a sequence of erosional and depositional surfaces which form the parent materials of the present-day soils. These surfaces because of their different relative ages have been subjected to different degrees of weathering and leaching. The alpha activity of the soils formed on these different landscape surfaces is influenced firstly by the amount of weathering that the surface has undergone, and secondly by the degree of leaching that the soil has undergone as evidenced by profile development. It has been found that the younger soils have higher alpha activities with the thorium series tending more towards equilibrium when compared with older soils, where the alpha activity is lower due to the leaching of the daughter nuclides from the profile.

  16. Alpha particle losses during sawtooth activity in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.

    1988-01-01

    The time evolution of the direct losses of fusion produced alpha particles in Tokamak plasmas characterized by sawtooth activity is investigated. The alpha particle loss rate during a sawtooth period is predicted to change invertedly with the change in bulk plasma parameters but also to contain a characteristic burst at the sawtooth crash. The spectrum of the lost alpha particles is also discussed. The predictions for the time evolution and the spectrum of the losses are in qualitative agreement with recently obtained losses of 15 MeV fusion produced protons in JET. (authors)

  17. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  18. Raw starch digestion by. alpha. -amylase and glucoamylase from Chalara paradoxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monma, Mitsura; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kagei, Norio; Kainuma, Keiji

    1989-10-01

    Glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase of Chalara paradoxa were separated by hydrophobic column chromatography using butyl-Toyopearl 650M. The {alpha}-amylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.5 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 5.5-6.5 and at temperatures lower than 40{sup 0}C. The glucoamylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.0 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-7.5 and at temperatures lower than 45{sup 0}C. The molecular mass of the {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase estimated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 80,000 and 68,000, respectively. Both glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase could digest more effectively raw rice starch and raw corn starch than raw sago starch and raw potato starch. 2% raw rice starch in 10 ml solution was digested by more than 90% by 100 units of each amylase. When these amylases were used combined, raw corn starch was more effectively digested than they were used singly. This cooperative action in raw corn starch digestion was also observed when C. paradoxa {alpha}-amylase and R. niveus glucoamylase were combined. (orig.).

  19. DMPD: What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15283983 What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? Mbow ML, Sarisky RT. Tr...ends Biotechnol. 2004 Aug;22(8):395-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show What is disrupting IFN-alpha's ant...iviral activity? PubmedID 15283983 Title What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? Authors Mbow ML,

  20. EEG alpha activity reflects motor preparation rather than the mode of action selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre eDeiber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-band activity (8-13 Hz is suppressed by sensory stimulation and movements, modulated by attention, working memory and mental tasks and may be sensitive to higher motor control functions. The aim of the present study was to examine alpha oscillatory activity during the preparation of simple left or right finger movements, contrasting the external and internal mode of action selection. Three preparation conditions were examined using a precueing paradigm with S1 as the preparatory and S2 as the imperative cue: Full, laterality instructed by S1; Free, laterality freely selected and None, laterality instructed by S2. Time-frequency analysis was performed in the alpha frequency range during the S1-S2 interval, and alpha motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA were also calculated. The significant MRAA during the Full and Free conditions indicated effective external and internal motor response preparation. In the absence of specific motor preparation (None, a posterior alpha power decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD dominated, reflecting the main engagement of attentional resources. In Full and Free motor preparation, posterior alpha ERD was accompanied by a midparietal alpha power increase (event-related synchronization, ERS, suggesting a concomitant inhibition of task-irrelevant visual activity. In both Full and Free motor preparation, analysis of alpha power according to MRAA amplitude revealed two types of functional activation patterns: 1 a motor alpha pattern, with predominantly midparietal alpha ERS and large MRAA corresponding to lateralized motor activation/visual inhibition and 2 an attentional alpha pattern, with dominating right posterior alpha ERD and small MRAA reflecting visuospatial attention. The present results suggest that alpha oscillatory patterns do not resolve the selection mode of action, but rather distinguish separate functional strategies of motor preparation. 

  1. Inhibitory activity and conformational transition of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, A.J.; Huber, R.; Degryse, E.; Speck, D.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1991-01-01

    Several variants of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) were investigated by spectroscopic methods and characterized according to their inhibitory activity. Replacement of Thr345 (P14) with Arg in alpha 1-PI containing an Arg residue in position 358 (yielding [Thr345----Arg,

  2. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  3. Blocking of irrelevant memories by posterior alpha activity boosts memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jensen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    In our daily lives, we are confronted with a large amount of information. Because only a small fraction can be encoded in long-term memory, the brain must rely on powerful mechanisms to filter out irrelevant information. To understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying the gating of information into long-term memory, we employed a paradigm where the encoding was directed by a "Remember" or a "No-Remember" cue. We found that posterior alpha activity increased prior to the "No-Remember" stimuli, whereas it decreased prior to the "Remember" stimuli. The sources were localized in the parietal cortex included in the dorsal attention network. Subjects with a larger cue-modulation of the alpha activity had better memory for the to-be-remembered items. Interestingly, alpha activity reflecting successful inhibition following the "No-Remember" cue was observed in the frontal midline structures suggesting preparatory inhibition was mediated by anterior parts of the dorsal attention network. During the presentation of the memory items, there was more gamma activity for the "Remember" compared to the "No-Remember" items in the same regions. Importantly, the anticipatory alpha power during cue predicted the gamma power during item. Our findings suggest that top-down controlled alpha activity reflects attentional inhibition of sensory processing in the dorsal attention network, which then finally gates information to long-term memory. This gating is achieved by inhibiting the processing of visual information reflected by neuronal synchronization in the gamma band. In conclusion, the functional architecture revealed by region-specific changes in the alpha activity reflects attentional modulation which has consequences for long-term memory encoding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Different responses of spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha activity to ambient luminance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-12-04

    Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse-correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear. Here, we investigated the effect of ambient luminance changes, known to dramatically modulate neural oscillations, on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha. We investigated the effect of ambient luminance on EEG alpha during spontaneous human brain activity at rest (experiment 1) and during visual stimulation (experiment 2). Results show that spontaneous alpha amplitude increased by decreasing ambient luminance, while alpha frequency remained unaffected. In the second experiment, we found that under low-luminance viewing, the stimulus-related alpha amplitude was lower, and its frequency was slightly faster. These effects were evident in the phase-locked part of the alpha response (echo function), but weaker or absent in the induced (non-phase-locked) alpha responses. Finally, we explored the possible behavioural correlates of these modulations in a monocular critical flicker frequency task (experiment 3), finding that dark adaptation in the left eye decreased the temporal threshold of the right eye. Overall, we found that ambient luminance changes impact differently on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha expression. We suggest that stimulus-related alpha activity is crucial in determining human temporal segmentation abilities. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Daily and seasonal variations of outdoor alpha-activity concentration in Salzburg city/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hubmer, A.K.; Rolle, R.; Winkler, R.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term continuous measurements of the atmospheric outdoor alpha-activity concentration have been performed by using a radioaerosol-monitor, roof-mounted 20 m above ground. The alpha-activity concentration was identified to be predominantly attributed to radon progeny. The total alpha-activity covers a range of two orders of magnitude. Three different components of variations could be identified with regard to temporal variations: Short-term diurnal component (daily variation), mid-term component (days to weeks) and long-term component (seasonal variation). Continuous measurements have been recorded since the end of 1993. The results of continuous measurements of the outdoor alpha-activity concentration over a time span from January 1994 to June 1995 are presented. (author)

  6. Correlation between protein kinase C alpha activity and membrane phase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micol, V; Sánchez-Piñera, P; Villalaín, J; de Godos, A; Gómez-Fernández, J C

    1999-02-01

    Lipid activation of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) was studied by using a model mixture containing 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DMPS), and 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol (1,2-DMG). This lipid mixture was physically characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR). Based on these techniques, a phase diagram was constructed by keeping a constant DMPC/DMPS molar ratio of 4:1 and changing the concentration of 1,2-DMG. This phase diagram displayed three regions and two compounds: compound 1 (C1), with 45 mol% 1,2-DMG, and compound 2 (C2), with 60 mol% 1,2-DMG. When the phase diagram was elaborated in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+, at concentrations similar to those used in the PKC alpha activity assay, the boundaries between the regions changed slightly and C1 had 35 mol% 1,2-DMG. The activity of PKC alpha was studied at several temperatures and at different concentrations of 1,2-DMG, with a maximum of activity reached at 30 mol% 1,2-DMG and lower values at higher concentrations. In the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+, maximum PKC alpha activity occurred at concentrations of 1,2-DMG that were close to the boundary in the phase diagram between region 1, where compound C1 and the pure phospholipid coexisted in the gel phase, and region 2, where compounds C1 and C2 coexisted. These results suggest that the membrane structure corresponding to a mixture of 1,2-DMG/phospholipid complex and free phospholipid is better able to support the activity of PKC alpha than the 1,2-DMG/phospholipid complex alone.

  7. Frontal alpha EEG asymmetry before and after behavioral activation treatment for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Chihade, Dietta; Pflieger, Mark E; Rosebrock, Laina; Cacioppo, John

    2014-05-01

    Mid-frontal and mid-lateral (F3/F4 and F7/F8) EEG asymmetry has been associated with motivation and affect. We examined alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed and healthy participants before and after Behavioral Activation treatment for depression; examined the association between alpha EEG asymmetry and motivational systems and affect; and evaluated the utility of alpha EEG asymmetry in predicting remission. Depressed (n=37) and healthy participants (n=35) were assessed before and after treatment using a clinical interview, a task to measure baseline EEG, and questionnaires of behavioral activation and inhibition, avoidance, and affect. Alpha EEG asymmetry was significantly higher in depressed than healthy participants at pre-treatment, positively correlated with negative affect and behavioral inhibition, and inversely correlated with lower behavioral activation sensitivity. Heightened alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed participants was significantly associated with increased behavioral inhibition and negative emotion and was independent of clinical remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  9. A method of alpha-radiating nuclide activity measuring in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Galkina, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation method of determination of alpha-radiating nuclide activity in aerosol filters was suggested. The method involves dissolution of the filter in organic solvent, introduction of luminophore into solution prepared, drying of the preparation and measurement of radionuclide activity. Dependences of alpha-radiation detection efficiency on the content of luminophore, filter material, colourless and coloured substances in preparations analyzed were considered

  10. Left temporal alpha band activity increases during working memory retention of pitches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Jensen, O.

    2010-01-01

    The functional role and regional specificity of similar to 10 Hz alpha band activity remains of debate. Alpha band activity is strongly modulated in visual working memory tasks and it has been proposed to subserve resource allocation by disengaging task-irrelevant regions. It remains unknown if

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Shuang; Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Xia; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Bin; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Ba, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha plays a crucial role in regulating the biosynthesis of mitochondria, which is closely linked to the energy metabolism in various tumors. This study investigated the regulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the changes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha messenger RNA levels between normal human liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissue were examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by RNA interference in the human liver cell line L02, while overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha complementary DNA in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Cellular morphological changes were observed via optical and electron microscopy. Cellular apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining. In addition, the expression levels of 21,400 genes in tissues and cells were detected by microarray. It was shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression was significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with normal liver tissues. After knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression in L02 cells, cells reverted to immature and dedifferentiated morphology exhibiting cancerous tendency. Apoptosis occurred in the HepG2 cells after transfection by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha. Microarray analysis showed consistent results. The results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor

  12. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, T.; Schrøder, Malene

    2009-01-01

    of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios...... intestines of the hamsters administered the highest doses of the glycoalkaloid treatments. In general, more differential gene expression was observed in the epithelial scrapings of the hamsters fed the ratio of 1:3.7. Mostly, pathways involved in lipid and energy metabolism were affected by the ratio of 1:3.7....

  13. Bi209 alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Penna, M.M. de.

    1970-01-01

    The study for measuring Bi 209 alpha activity is presented. Ilford L4 nuclear emulsion pellicles loaded with bismuth citrate to obtain a load of 100 mg/cm 3 of dry emulsion, were prepared. Other pellicles were prepared with the same. Ilford L4 gel to estimate the background radiation. To observe 'fading' effect, pellicles loaded with bismuth were submitted to neutrons of high energy, aiming to record recoil proton tracks. The pellicles were confined in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature lower than -10 0 C. The Bi 209 experimental half-life was obtained and compared with the estimated theoretical data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. 6-Mercaptopurine, an activator of Nur77, enhances transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha resulting in new vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y-G; Na, T-Y; Yang, W-K; Kim, H-J; Lee, I-K; Kong, G; Chung, J-H; Lee, M-O

    2007-05-31

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a central role in oxygen homeostasis. Previously, we reported that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 functions in stabilizing HIF-1alpha. Here, we demonstrate that 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), an activator of the NR4A family members, enhances transcriptional activity of HIF-1. 6-MP enhanced the protein-level of HIF-1alpha as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of HIF-1alpha was abolished by the transfection of either a dominant-negative Nur77 mutant or si-Nur77, indicating a critical role of Nur77 in the 6-MP action. The HIF-1alpha protein level remained up to 60 min in the presence of 6-MP when de novo protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, suggesting that 6-MP induces stabilization of the HIF-1alpha protein. The fact that 6-MP decreased the association of HIF-1alpha with von Hippel-Lindau protein and the acetylation of HIF-1alpha, may explain how 6-MP induced stability of HIF-1alpha. Further, 6-MP induced the transactivation function of HIF-1alpha by recruiting co-activator cyclic-AMP-response-element-binding protein. Finally, 6-MP enhanced the expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF, and the formation of capillary tubes in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Together, our results provide a new insight for 6-MP action in the stabilization of HIF-1alpha and imply a potential application of 6-MP in hypoxia-associated human vascular diseases.

  15. Cell motility in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: defective Rap1 and alphaLbeta2 activation by chemokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kathleen J; Harris, Robert J; Linford, Andrea; Spiller, David G; Zuzel, Mirko; Cawley, John C

    2008-10-15

    Chemokine-induced activation of alpha4beta1 and alphaLbeta2 integrins (by conformational change and clustering) is required for lymphocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) and entry into lymph nodes. We have previously reported that chemokine-induced TEM is defective in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and that this defect is a result of failure of the chemokine to induce polar clustering of alphaLbeta2; engagement of alpha4beta1 and autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) restore clustering and TEM. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nature of this defect in alphaLbeta2 activation and determine how it is corrected. We show here that the alphaLbeta2 of CLL cells is already in variably activated conformations, which are not further altered by chemokine treatment. Importantly, such treatment usually does not cause an increase in the GTP-loading of Rap1, a GTPase central to chemokine-induced activation of integrins. Furthermore, we show that this defect in Rap1 GTP-loading is at the level of the GTPase and is corrected in CLL cells cultured in the absence of exogenous stimuli, suggesting that the defect is the result of in vivo stimulation. Finally, we show that, because Rap1-induced activation of both alpha4beta1 and alphaLbeta2 is defective, autocrine VEGF and chemokine are necessary to activate alpha4beta1 for ligand binding. Subsequently, this binding and both VEGF and chemokine stimulation are all needed for alphaLbeta2 activation for motility and TEM. The present study not only clarifies the nature of the alphaLbeta2 defect of CLL cells but is the first to implicate activation of Rap1 in the pathophysiology of CLL.

  16. ALPHA/AMPU, Radionuclide Radioactivity from Alpha Spectrometer Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The two computer programs, ALPHA and AMPU, take raw data obtained from alpha spectrometry and from these calculate activities and uncertainties of the radionuclides present in the sample. ALPHA determines activities of any alpha emitter in a sample that has been directly precipitated with NdF 3 . AMPU determines the Pu-239, Pu-238,and Am-241 activities using Pu-236 and Am-243 tracers. 2 - Method of solution: These programs propagate all random and systematic uncertainties, found anywhere in the experimental process, to the final result. The result is rounded and is in decimal agreement with the uncertainty. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: In ALPHA, a chemical yield of 98% is assumed

  17. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Xiang Hua [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Ho [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak-Ju [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Bang Yeon, E-mail: byhwang@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Joon, E-mail: junelee@korea.ac.kr [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  18. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of 210 Po for alphas and 90 Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90 follow the

  19. Miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Goldsten, John; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband

  20. Activation of c-Raf-1 kinase signal transduction pathway in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, G; Hildt, E

    1999-09-24

    Integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice develop a novel form of muscular dystrophy. Here we report that deficiency of alpha(7) integrin causes an activation of the c-Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) 2 kinase signal transduction pathway in muscle cells. The observed activation of c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases is a specific effect, because the alpha(7) integrin deficiency does not cause unspecific stress as determined by measurement of the Hsp72/73 level and activity of the JNK2 kinase. Because an increased level of activated FAK was found in muscle of alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the activation of c-Raf-1 kinase is triggered most likely by an integrin-dependent pathway. In accordance with this, in the integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice, part of the integrin beta(1D) variant in muscle is replaced by the beta(1A) variant, which permits the FAK activation. A recent report describes that integrin activity can be down-modulated by the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinase pathway. Specific activation of the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases by cell-permeable peptides in skeletal muscle of rabbits causes degeneration of muscle fibers. Therefore, we conclude that in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the continuous activation of c-Raf-1 kinase causes a permanent reduction of integrin activity diminishing integrin-dependent cell-matrix interactions and thereby contributing to the development of the dystrophic phenotype.

  1. Thy-1 attenuates TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts via Src family kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shan

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous surface expression of Thy-1 in fibroblasts modulates inflammation and may thereby modulate injury and repair. As a paradigm, patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with pathologic features of chronic inflammation, demonstrate an absence of Thy-1 immunoreactivity within areas of fibrotic activity (fibroblast foci in contrast to the predominant Thy-1 expressing fibroblasts in the normal lung. Likewise, Thy-1 deficient mice display more severe lung fibrosis in response to an inflammatory injury than wildtype littermates. We investigated the role of Thy-1 in the response of fibroblasts to the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Our study demonstrates distinct profiles of TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in Thy-1 positive (Thy-1+ and negative (Thy-1- subsets of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. TNF-alpha induced a robust activation of MMP-9, ICAM-1, and the IL-8 promoter driven reporter in Thy-1- MEFs, in contrast to only a modest increase in Thy-1+ counterparts. Consistently, ectopic expression of Thy-1 in Thy-1- MEFs significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-activated gene expression. Mechanistically, TNF-alpha activated Src family kinase (SFK only in Thy-1- MEFs. Blockade of SFK activation abrogated TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in Thy-1- MEFs, whereas restoration of SFK activation rescued the TNF-alpha response in Thy-1+ MEFs. Our findings suggest that Thy-1 down-regulates TNF-alpha-activated gene expression via interfering with SFK- and NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation. The current study provides a novel mechanistic insight to the distinct roles of fibroblast Thy-1 subsets in inflammation.

  2. Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiandie; Wu, Hai; Tarr, Paul T; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Wu, Zhidan; Boss, Olivier; Michael, Laura F; Puigserver, Pere; Isotani, Eiji; Olson, Eric N; Lowell, Bradford B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2002-08-15

    The biochemical basis for the regulation of fibre-type determination in skeletal muscle is not well understood. In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. We have previously identified a transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 (PGC-1 alpha), which is expressed in several tissues including brown fat and skeletal muscle, and that activates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. We show here that PGC-1 alpha is expressed preferentially in muscle enriched in type I fibres. When PGC-1 alpha is expressed at physiological levels in transgenic mice driven by a muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter, a fibre type conversion is observed: muscles normally rich in type II fibres are redder and activate genes of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Notably, putative type II muscles from PGC-1 alpha transgenic mice also express proteins characteristic of type I fibres, such as troponin I (slow) and myoglobin, and show a much greater resistance to electrically stimulated fatigue. Using fibre-type-specific promoters, we show in cultured muscle cells that PGC-1 alpha activates transcription in cooperation with Mef2 proteins and serves as a target for calcineurin signalling, which has been implicated in slow fibre gene expression. These data indicate that PGC-1 alpha is a principal factor regulating muscle fibre type determination.

  3. The determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.E.D.

    1963-07-01

    Methods have been developed for the determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials. The chemical stages involved give practically complete separation of all extraneous material from the plutonium, which is electrodeposited on to a 0.5 inch stainless steel disc to produce a thin high resolution source. The limit of detection is 0.025 μμc/sample (sixteen-hour count) when the sources are counted in a small scintillator counter, but is lowest when counted in a counter which counts particles of energy 5.05-5.25 MeV only, and which therefore discriminates against small quantities of α-active materials introduced with the reagents in the final electrodeposition stage of the process. (Any such alpha activity may readily be identified by alpha pulse height analysis). (author)

  4. Nitric oxide production and monoamine oxidase activity in cancer patients during interferon-alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, Durk; Van Gool, Arthur R; Bannink, Marjolein; Sleijfer, Stefan; Kruit, Wim H J; van der Holt, Bronno; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Hengeveld, Michiel W; Stoter, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    Both increased and decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis have been reported in patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Animal studies showed that IFN-alpha administration results in increased levels of biogenic amines, subsequent activation of monoamine oxidases (MAOs), and finally in a change in NO production due to the H(2)O(2) generated by MAOs. We examined the potential relationship between NO production in plasma and MAO-B activity in platelets of 43 cancer patients during 8 weeks of treatment with IFN-alpha. NO synthesis was quantitated by measuring both the ratio of citrulline and arginine (CIT/ARG-ratio) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. Compared to baseline, MAO activity and NOx increased, while the CIT/ARG-ratio decreased. No associations were found between NOx, MAO and CIT/ARG-ratio. Only few associations were observed between changes in the biochemical parameters and changes in psychopathology induced by IFN-alpha, of which the association between changes in CIT and lassitude was the most consistent. The results suggest that peripheral NO production and MAO activity are unrelated to each other, and that peripheral changes in these biochemical parameters induced by IFN-alpha are unlikely to contribute to definite psychiatric disturbance.

  5. Thioesterase activity and acyl-CoA/fatty acid cross-talk of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rachel; Kalderon, Bella; Byk, Tamara; Berman, Ina; Za'tara, Ghadeer; Mayer, Raphael; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2005-07-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) activity is modulated by natural and xenobiotic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA ligands as a function of their chain length, unsaturation, and substitutions. The acyl-CoA site of HNF-4alpha is reported here to consist of the E-F domain, to bind long-chain acyl-CoAs but not the respective free acids, and to catalyze the hydrolysis of bound fatty acyl-CoAs. The free acid pocket, previously reported in the x-ray structure of HNF-4alpha E-domain, entraps fatty acids but excludes acyl-CoAs. The acyl-CoA and free acid sites are distinctive and noncongruent. Free fatty acid products of HNF-4alpha thioesterase may exchange with free acids entrapped in the fatty acid pocket of HNF-4alpha. Cross-talk between the acyl-CoA and free fatty acid binding sites is abrogated by high affinity, nonhydrolyzable acyl-CoA ligands of HNF-4alpha that inhibit its thioesterase activity. Hence, HNF-4alpha transcriptional activity is controlled by its two interrelated acyl ligands and two binding sites interphased in tandem by the thioesterase activity. The acyl-CoA/free-acid and receptor/enzyme duality of HNF-4alpha extends the paradigm of nuclear receptors.

  6. Real-time MEG neurofeedback training of posterior alpha activity modulates subsequent visual detection performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okazaki, Y.O.; Horschig, J.; Luther, L.M.; Oostenveld, R.; Murakami, I.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alpha activity is lateralized when attention is directed to the left or right visual hemifield. We investigated whether real-time neurofeedback training of the alpha lateralization enhances participants' ability to modulate posterior alpha lateralization and causes

  7. Water quality - Measurement of gross alpha activity in non-saline water - Thick source method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 degree Centigrade. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters. The range of application depends on the amount of suspended matter in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. Gross alpha radioactivity is determined by using proportional counting or solid scintillation counting on water residue deposited on a planchet. Due to the strong absorption of the residue deposit, it is considered that the alpha emission from the surface is proportional to the alpha activity of the deposit. Gross alpha determination is not an absolute determination of the sample alpha radioactive content, but a relative determination referring to a specific alpha emitter which constitutes the standard calibration source. This type of determination is also known as alpha index. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 degree Centigrade. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchet and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard and the alpha activity concentration calculated. The paper provides information about scope, normative references, symbols, definitions and units, principle, reagents and equipment, procedure, contamination check, expression of results and test report

  8. Serum concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal sepsis and meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Fadelallah, Mohamed F.; Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether serum levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and meningitis and differentiate them. Blood samples were collected from 35 full term neonates with suspected infection who admitted to the Neonatology Unit, Pediatric Department, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during January 2002 - June 2003. On the basis of laboratory and bacteriological results, newborns were classified into: sepsis (n=28), meningitis (n=7), and healthy controls (n=16). Sepsis groups were further subdivided according to culture results into: group 1 = proven sepsis (n=6), group 2 = clinical sepsis (n=14), and group 3 = possible-infected (n=8). Serum levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay while CRP by nephelometer: In sepsis and meningitis patients, serum levels of CRP (p<0.01, p<0.05,) and IL-1alpha (p<0.001, p<0.05) were elevated than controls. C-reactive protein levels elevated in proven sepsis (p<0.001) and IL-1alpha elevated in all subgroups of sepsis (groups 1, 2, 3) compared with (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.01) controls. Interleukin-6, TNF-alpha showed no significant differences between studied groups. In sepsis and meningitis, IL-1alpha had a highest sensitivity (89%, 86%), and negative predictive values (89% and 93%). Interleukin-1alpha and CRP increased in neonatal sepsis and meningitis, but cannot differentiate between them. Interleukin-1alpha had a highest sensitivity in prediction of neonatal infection and its assessment may improve accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  9. Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients.

  10. Optimization in the nuclear fuel cycle II: Concentration of alpha emitters in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, J.M.; Carmo, A.S.; Mello, C.R.; Fernandes, T.S.; Kelecom, A.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization is one of the bases of radioprotection and aims to move doses away from the dose limit that is the borderline of acceptable radiological risk. The work aims to use the monitoring of the concentration of alpha emitters in the air as a tool of the optimization process. We analyzed 27 sampling points of airborne alpha concentration in a nuclear fuel cycle facility. The monthly averages were considered statistically different, the highest in the month of February and the lowest in the month of August. All other months were found to have identical mean activity concentration values. Regarding the sampling points, the points with the highest averages were points 12, 15 and 9. These points were indicated for the beginning of the optimization process. Analysis of the production of the facility should be performed to verify possible correlations between production and concentration of alpha emitters in the air

  11. Adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin on cork and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Priolo, Giuseppe; Alves, Arminda C; Cabral, Miguel F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin [R)-alpha -cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(1S)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, and (S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] in solutions on granules of cork and activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption studies were carried out using a batch equilibrium technique. A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to analyze alpha -cypermethrin after solid phase extraction with C18 disks. Physical properties including real density, pore volume, surface area and pore diameter of cork were evaluated by mercury porosimetry. Characterization of cork particles showed variations thereby indicating the highly heterogeneous structure of the material. The average surface area of cork particles was lower than that of GAC. Kinetics adsorption studies allowed the determination of the equilibrium time - 24 hours for both cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) and GAC. For the studied alpha -cypermethrin concentration range, GAC revealed to be a better sorbent. However, adsorption parameters for equilibrium concentrations, obtained through the Langmuir and Freundlich models, showed that granulated cork 1-2 mm have the maximum amount of adsorbed alpha-cypermethrin (q(m)) (303 microg/g); followed by GAC (186 microg/g) and cork 3-4 mm (136 microg/g). The standard deviation (SD) values, demonstrate that Freundlich model better describes the alpha -cypermethrin adsorption phenomena on GAC, while alpha -cypermethrin adsorption on cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) is better described by the Langmuir. In view of the adsorption results obtained in this study it appears that granulated cork may be a better and a cheaper alternative to GAC for removing alpha -cypermethrin from water.

  12. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  13. Negative feedback regulation of human platelets via autocrine activation of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Havnen, O K; Heldin, C H; Holmsen, H

    1994-05-13

    Human platelets contain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in their alpha-granules which is released during platelet exocytosis. We show by immunoprecipitation and 125I-PDGF binding experiments that human platelets have functionally active PDGF alpha-receptors, but not beta-receptors. The PDGF alpha-receptor (PDGFR-alpha) was identified as a 170-kDa glycosylated protein-tyrosine kinase as found in other cell types. Stimulation of platelets with 0.1 unit/ml thrombin resulted in a significant increase (2-5-fold) of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha, as determined by immunoprecipitation with phosphotyrosine antiserum as well as with PDGFR-alpha antiserum. The observed thrombin-induced autophosphorylation of the PDGFR-alpha was inhibited by the addition of a neutralizing monoclonal PDGF antibody. Thus, our results suggest that the platelet PDGFR-alpha is stimulated in an autocrine manner by PDGF secreted during platelet activation. Preincubation of platelets with PDGF inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and secretion of ATP + ADP and beta-hexosaminidase. Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was also reversed when PDGF was added 30 s after thrombin stimulation. Inhibition of the autocrine PDGF pathway during platelet activation by the PDGF antibody led to a potentiation of thrombin-induced beta-hexosaminidase secretion. Thus, the PDGFR-alpha takes part in a negative feedback regulation during platelet activation. Our demonstration of PDGF alpha-receptors on human platelets and its inhibitory function during platelet activation identifies a new possible role of PDGF in the regulation of thrombosis.

  14. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  15. Evidence that 17alpha-estradiol is biologically active in the uterine tissue: Antiuterotonic and antiuterotrophic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Erika

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17alpha-Estradiol has been considered as the hormonally inactive isomer of 17beta-estradiol. Recently, nongenomic (smooth muscle relaxation and genomic (light estrogenic activity effects of 17alpha-estradiol have been reported, but no reports have yet determined its possible antiestrogenic activity. Therefore, this study investigated: the nongenomic action of 17alpha-estradiol on uterine contractile activity and its potential agonist-antagonist activity on uterine growth. Methods Uterine rings from rats were isometrically recorded. Different concentrations (0.2–200 microM of 17alpha-estradiol were tested on spontaneous contraction and equimolarly compared with 17beta-estradiol. To examine the mechanism of 17alpha-estradiol action, its effect was studied in presence of beta2-antagonist (propranolol, antiestrogens (tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 or inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide and transcription (actinomycin D. Moreover, contractions induced by high potassium (KCl solution or calcium in depolarized tissues by KCl-calcium free solution were exposed to 17alpha-estradiol. Collaterally, we performed an uterotrophic assay in adult ovariectomized rats measuring the uterine wet weight. The administration for three days of 0.3 microM/day/Kg 17beta-estradiol was equimolarly compared with the response produced by 17alpha-estradiol. Antiuterotrophic activity was assayed by administration of 0.3 microM/day/Kg 17beta-estradiol and various doses ratios (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 1:100 of 17alpha-estradiol. Results The estradiol isomers elicited an immediate relaxation, concentration-dependent and reversible on spontaneous contraction. 17alpha-Estradiol presented lower potency than 17beta-estradiol although it did not antagonize 17beta-estradiol-induced relaxation. Relaxation to 17alpha-estradiol was not inhibited by propranolol, tamoxifen, ICI 182,780, cycloheximide or actinomycin D. The KCl contractions were also sensitive to 17alpha

  16. The T alpha 2 nuclear protein binding site from the human T cell receptor alpha enhancer functions as both a T cell-specific transcriptional activator and repressor

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    T cell-specific expression of the human T cell receptor alpha (TCR- alpha) gene is regulated by the interaction of variable region promoter elements with a transcriptional enhancer that is located 4.5 kb 3' of the TCR-alpha constant region (C alpha) gene segment. The minimal TCR- alpha enhancer is composed of two nuclear protein binding sites, T alpha 1 and T alpha 2, that are both required for the T cell-specific activity of the enhancer. The T alpha 1 binding site contains a consensus cAMP ...

  17. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  18. Formation of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds in beer during storage of Pilsner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adriana; Herrera, Julio C; Scherer, Erika; Ju-Nam, Yon; Rübsam, Heinrich; Madrid, Jorge; Zufall, Carsten; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael

    2008-06-11

    With the aim of determining the formation of alpha-dicarbonyl intermediates during beer aging on the shelf, alpha-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified after derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenze to generate quinoxalines. The sensory effects of alpha-dicarbonyls were evaluated by the quantification of key Strecker aldehydes and by GC-olfactometry (GCO)analysis of beer headspace using solid phase microextraction. Four alpha-dicarbonyls, reported here for the first time, were detected in fresh and aged beers, three were derived from the 2,3-enolization pathway of mono- and disaccharides, and the fourth was derived from the epimerization of 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose. Ten alpha-dicarbonyls were quantified during beer processing and during different periods of beer aging at 28 degrees C. The aging periods were from 15 to 105 days. During beer aging, 1-deoxydiuloses were produced and degraded, while 1,4-dideoxydiuloses were produced at the highest rates. The GCO analysis indicated that forced beer aging increased the amounts of furaneol, trans-2-nonenal, and phenylacetaldehyde. The blockage of alpha-dicarbonyls inhibited the accumulation of sensory-active aldehydes in the beer headspace.

  19. Alpha-in-air monitor for continuous monitoring based on alpha to beta ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayaji, K.S.; Venkataramani, R.; Swaminathan, N.; Pushparaja

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of long-lived alpha activity collected on a filter paper in continuous air monitoring of ambient working environment is difficult due to interference from much larger concentrations of short-lived alpha emitting daughter products of 222 Rn and 220 Rn. However, the ratio between the natural alpha and beta activity is approximately constant and this constancy of the ratio is used to discriminate against short-lived natural radioactivity in continuous air monitoring. Detection system was specially designed for the purpose of simultaneous counting of alpha and beta activity deposited on the filter paper during continuous monitoring. The activity ratios were calculated and plotted against the monitoring duration up to about six hours. Monitoring was carried out in three facilities with different ventilation conditions. Presence of any long-lived alpha contamination on the filter paper results in increase in the alpha to beta ratio. Long-lived 239 Pu contamination of about 16 DAC.h could be detected after about 45 minutes of commencement of the sampling. The experimental results using prototype units have shown that the approach of using alpha to beta activity ratio method to detect long-lived alpha activity in the presence of short-lived natural activity is satisfactory. (author)

  20. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  1. Estimation of low level gross alpha activities in the radioactive effluent using liquid scintillation counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Johnson, Bella E.; Singh, Sanjay; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration in low level liquid effluent samples in presence of higher activity concentrations of tritium. For this purpose, alpha beta discriminating Pulse Shape Analysis Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique was used. Main advantages of this technique are easy sample preparation, rapid measurement and higher sensitivity. The calibration methodology for Quantulus1220 LSC based on PSA technique using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y as alpha and beta standards respectively was described in detail. LSC technique was validated by measuring alpha and beta activity concentrations in test samples with known amount of 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y activities spiked in distilled water. The results obtained by LSC technique were compared with conventional planchet counting methods such as ZnS(Ag) and end window GM detectors. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in spiked samples, obtained by LSC technique were found to be within ±5% of the reference values. (author)

  2. Alpha activity of 190 Pt isotope measured with CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    A new method to measure alpha activity of long-lived radioisotopes is reported. The method consists basically in using CR-39 track detectors in close contact with thick samples of the radioelement to be investigated. Accordingly, a long-term exposure experiment has been performed using metallic sheets of natural platinum to measure alpha activity of platinum 190 isotope. The half-life of platinum 190 has been obtained in good agreement with two recent theoretical half-life predictions. (author). 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Determination of total alpha and beta activities on vegetable samples by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Regina Apolinaria; Santos, Eliane Eugenia dos; Bakker, Alexandre Pereira; Vavassori, Giullia

    2011-01-01

    Gross alpha and beta analyses are screening techniques used for environmental radioactivity monitoring. The present study proposes to determine the gross alpha and beta activities in vegetable samples by using LSC - liquid scintillation spectrometry. The procedure was applied to vegetable foods. After ashing vegetable samples in a muffle furnace, 100 mg of ash were added to gel mixture of scintillation cocktails, Water - Instagel - Ultima Gold AB (6:10:4) ml, in polyethylene vial. Am-241 standard solution and a KCl (K-40) solution were used to determine the counting configuration, alpha/beta efficiencies and spillover

  4. Effect of culture conditions on the activity of amylase used for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.D.; Ryu, Y.H.

    1973-01-01

    A wheat bran culture was used for media for the mold strains: Aspergillus oryzae, A. kawachii, A. usamii, and Rhizopus javanicus, to determine in which strain the amylase activity could be increased the most. The wheat bran media provided 47, 51, and 55% starch for each strain. To the media were added 3 nitrogen sources, viz.: (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, casein, and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ - casein mixture. Each nitrogen source was made available at 2, 4, and 6% levels except only 2% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was used. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The ..cap alpha..-amylase activity was highest in media with 47% starch and 6% casein. (2) The ..beta..-amylase activity was highest in media with 51% starch and 2% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ - casein. (3) Both ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylase activities in A. usamii were highest in the media with 47% starch and no additional nitrogen source. (4) Of the 4 strains examined the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylase activities in R. javanicus were both relatively the highest. (5) The ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylase activities of the strains examined decreased as the percentage of starch was increased except in R. javanicus.

  5. Causality analysis of alpha activities by multidimensional directed coherence; Tajigen yuko coherence ni yoru {alpha}ritsudo no ingasei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, O.; Shimada, N.; Shiina, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Y.; Imanishi, N.

    1998-07-01

    Alpha activities as a basic component of EEG (electroencephalogram) are mainly observed with eye-closed and reported state, and indicates rhythmic and diffused pattern on the scalp. Therefore analysis of the relation among many sequences of alpha activities measured at different positions on the scalp is expected to be useful not only for diagnosing psychiatric but also for investigating mechanism of brain information processing by means of causality analysis that is, macroscopic estimation of flow pattern within brain. Although coherence analysis has been proposed as a method for estimating the direction and magnitude of information flow between two sequences, superposition of results for each pair of sequences can not represent true relation among the whole sequences. In this paper, we proposed the multidimensional directed coherence analysis by modifying two-channel formula in order to apply it to the analysis of multi-channel sequence of alpha activities. Results of simulation revealed that multidimensional directed coherence can indicate more quantitatively the relation among the multi-channel sequences compared with conventional two-channel formula. Moreover, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of EEG data of normal volunteer and patient. Results show the method can provide a useful diagnostic information by assessment of the signal flow pattern within brain. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Changes in alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity in peel and pulp of banana (Musa sp.) fruits during ripening and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Su, Jing; Li, Xue-Ping; Chen, Wei-Xin

    2007-04-01

    Arabinose is one of the most dynamic cell wall glycosyl residues released during fruit ripening, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (alpha-Arab) are major glycosidases that may remove arabinose units from fruit cell wall polysaccharides. To find out whether alpha-Arab plays important roles in banana fruit softening, the enzyme activities in peel and pulp, fruit firmness, respiration rate and ethylene release rate were assayed during banana softening. The results showed that alpha-Arab activities in banana pulp and peel increased slightly at the beginning of storage and reached their maxima when the fruit firmness decreased drastically, alpha-Arab activity increased by more than ten folds in both pulp and peel during ripening and alpha-Arab activities were higher in pulp than in peel. Treatment of banana fruits with ethylene absorbent postponed the time of reaching of its maxima of respiration and ethylene, enhanced the firmness of pup and decreased alpha-Arab activity in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that alpha-Arab induced the decrease of fruit firmness and played an important role in banana fruit softening, and its activity was regulated by ethylene.

  7. Effects of central imidazolinergic and alpha2-adrenergic activation on water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adrenergic ligands that bind to imidazoline receptors (I-R, a selective ligand that binds to alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2-AR and mixed ligands that bind to both receptors were tested for their action on water intake behavior of 24-h water-deprived rats. All drugs were injected into the third cerebral ventricle. Except for agmatine (80 nmol, mixed ligands binding to I-R/alpha2-AR such as guanabenz (40 nmol and UK 14304 (20 nmol inhibited water intake by 65% and up to 95%, respectively. The selective non-imidazoline alpha2-AR agonist, alpha-methylnoradrenaline, produced inhibition of water intake similar to that obtained with guanabenz, but at higher doses (80 nmol. The non-adrenergic I-R ligands histamine (160 nmol, mixed histaminergic and imidazoline ligand and imidazole-4-acetic acid (80 nmol, imidazoline ligand did not alter water intake. The results show that selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-AR activation suppresses water intake, and suggest that the action on imidazoline sites by non-adrenergic ligands is not sufficient to inhibit water intake.

  8. Gas lantern mantle: a low activity alpha particle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Manzoor, S.

    1991-01-01

    Commercially available gas lantern mantles contain a substantial amount of radioactive ThO 2 . Gas lantern mantles purchased from a Sydney camping shop were incinerated, deposited as a thin layer on a aluminium planchette, and the emitted alpha spectrum was measured with a silicon surfacer barrier detector. The specific activity of the samples was estimated by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector as well as CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The micro-morphology of the incinerated powder was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The depth dose and LET distribution of alpha particles in soft tissue were calculated from the energy spectrum. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Phase I Final Report: Ultra-Low Background Alpha Activity Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.

    2005-01-01

    processor we easily distinguish between these two risetimes and thereby count only alpha particles emitted by the sample. Alpha particles emitted from the sample tray are absorbed in the rear of the sample, so the tray's emissivity does not contribute to the background either. Extensions of the method to the counter's sidewalls similarly allow us to reject alpha particles emitted from the sidewalls. We can thus able obtain background rates over a factor of 1000 lower than in conventional instruments without active background rejection. Extending this principle to count at the 0.00001 alpha/cm 2 /hour, level encounters difficulties because there will typically be only 2.4 alpha particles per square meter per day. Since about 6 counts are required to measure activity at the 95% confidence level, large sample areas are required to make measurements in reasonable times. Unfortunately, increasing the counter's anode area to a square meter raises its capacitance so much that the preamplifier noise levels swamp the alpha particle signals and make counting impossible. In this SBIR we worked to solve this dilemma by segmenting the single large area electrode into several smaller, lower capacitance electrodes that could still detect the alpha particles reliably. Each electrode would have its own electronic and we would capture signals from all of them in coincidence (since an alpha track might well deposit charge on more than one electrode), a technique in which XIA is experienced. Therefore, in Phase I we worked to show proof of principle by subdividing our original 1,800 cm 2 electrode into 4 square segments, each 625 cm 2 and demonstrating that signal noise on individual channels reduced as expected. Because the Phase II counter with a 1 m 2 segmented anode would require 16 segments plus a segmented guard as well, we also designed low cost signal processing electronics to instrument it in Phase II. Our Phase I effort met our major proof of principle goals. In particular, reducing

  10. Discovery of an Oxybenzylglycine Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha Selective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Kennedy, L; Shi, Y; Tao, S; Ye, X; Chen, S; Wang, Y; Hernandez, A; Wang, W; et al.

    2010-01-01

    An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, with an EC{sub 50} of 10 nM for human PPAR{alpha} and {approx}410-fold selectivity vs human PPAR{gamma} in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPAR{delta}. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPAR{alpha} ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPAR{alpha} in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.

  11. Right prefrontal TMS disrupts interregional anticipatory EEG alpha activity during shifting of visuospatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSauseng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention can be shifted in space without moving the eyes. Amplitude decrease of rhythmical brain activity around 10 Hz (so called alpha activity at contralateral posterior sites has been reported during covert shifts of visuospatial attention to one visual hemifield. Alpha amplitude increase, on the other hand, can be found at ipsilateral visual cortex. There is some evidence suggesting an involvement of prefrontal brain areas during the control of attention-related anticipatory alpha amplitude asymmetry. However, the exact neural mechanism by which prefrontal cortex influences visual processing has not been completely clear yet. This open question has been studied in detail using a multimodal approach combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG in healthy humans. Slow (1 Hz repetitive TMS inducing an inhibitory effect at the stimulation site was delivered either to right frontal eye field or a control site (vertex. Subsequently, participants had to perform a spatial cueing task in which covert shifts of attention were required to either the left or the right visual hemi-field. After stimulation at the vertex (control condition a pattern of anticipatory, attention-related ipsilateral alpha increase / contralateral alpha decrease over posterior recording sites could be obtained. Additionally, there was pronounced coupling between (in particular right FEF and posterior brain sites. When, however, the right prefrontal cortex had been virtually lesioned preceding the task, these EEG correlates of visuospatial attention were attenuated. Notably, the effect of TMS at the right FEF on interregional fronto-parietal alpha coupling predicted the effect on response times. This suggests that visual attention processes associated with posterior EEG alpha activity are at least partly top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

  12. Naturally-occurring alpha activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayneord, W V

    1960-12-01

    In view of the difficulties of assessing the significance of man-made radioactivity it is important to study for comparison the background of natural radioactivity against which the human race has evolved and lives. It is also important to define the present levels of activity so that it will be possible to detect and study as quickly as possible any changes which may occur owing to the release into the environment of new radioactive materials. Moreover, by the study of the behaviour of natural radioactivity light may be shed upon that of the artificially produced isotopes and a number of analogies traced between the two groups. These concepts have led to studies of naturally-occurring radioactive materials alongside a programme of research into fission products in food, water and air, as well as studies of the metabolism of both sets of materials in the human body. Since the last report there has been a useful increase in our knowledge of natural radioactivity in the biosphere, and its levels relative to the new man-made activities. These studies have necessitated technical developments, particularly in the methods of measuring and identifying alpha-ray emitters, to which group many of the more important natural radioactive materials belong.

  13. Reactivation of the chloroplast CF1-ATPase beta subunit by trace amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit suggests a chaperonin-like activity for CF1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, A; Avital, S; Gromet-Elhanan, Z

    1991-04-25

    Incubation of tobacco and lettuce thylakoids with 2 M LiCl in the presence of MgATP removes the beta subunit from their CF1-ATPase (CF1 beta) together with varying amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit (CF1 alpha). These 2 M LiCl extracts, as with the one obtained from spinach thylakoids (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072), could form active hybrid ATPases when reconstituted into inactive beta-less Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. Pure CF1 beta fractions that have been isolated from these extracts could not form such active hybrids by themselves, but could do so when supplemented with trace amounts (less than 5%) of CF1 alpha. A mitochondrial F1-ATPase alpha subunit was recently reported to be a heat-shock protein, having two amino acid sequences that show a highly conserved identity with sequences found in molecular chaperones (Luis, A. M., Alconada, A., and Cuezva, J. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7713-7716). These sequences are also conserved in CF1 alpha isolated from various plants, but not in F1 beta subunits. The above described reactivation of CF1 beta by trace amounts of CF1 alpha could thus be due to a chaperonin-like function of CF1 alpha, which involves the correct, active folding of isolated pure CF1 beta.

  14. Antecedent occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events in perceptual switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori eNakatani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oculomotor events such as blinks and saccades transiently interrupt the visual input and, even though this mostly goes undetected, these brief interruptions could still influence the percept. In particular, both blinking and saccades facilitate switching in ambiguous figures such as the Necker cube. To investigate the neural state antecedent to these oculomotor events during the perception of an ambiguous figure, we measured the human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG. When blinking led to perceptual switching, antecedent occipital alpha band activity exhibited a transient increase in amplitude. When a saccade led to switching, a series of transient increases and decreases in amplitude was observed in the antecedent occipital alpha band activity. Our results suggest that the state of occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events on the percept.

  15. LaaA, a novel high-active alkalophilic alpha-amylase from deep-sea bacterium Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghao; Wang, Yan; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-amylase is a kind of broadly used industrial enzymes, most of which have been exploited from terrestrial organism. Comparatively, alpha-amylase from marine environment was largely undeveloped. In this study, a novel alkalophilic alpha-amylase with high activity, Luteimonas abyssi alpha-amylase (LaaA), was cloned from deep-sea bacterium L. abyssi XH031(T) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene has a length of 1428bp and encodes 475 amino acids with a 35-residue signal peptide. The specific activity of LaaA reached 8881U/mg at the optimum pH 9.0, which is obvious higher than other reported alpha-amylase. This enzyme can remain active at pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 11.0 and temperatures below 45°C, retaining high activity even at low temperatures (almost 38% residual activity at 10°C). In addition, 1mM Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity of LaaA. To investigate the function of potential active sites, R227G, D229K, E256Q/H, H327V and D328V mutants were generated, and the results suggested that Arg227, Asp229, Glu256 and Asp328 were total conserved and essential for the activity of alpha-amylase LaaA. This study shows that the alpha-amylase LaaA is an alkali-tolerant and high-active amylase with strong potential for use in detergent industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-alpha Gene Level Differently Affects Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation in Apolipoprotein E2 Knock-In Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalloyer, Fanny; Wouters, Kristiaan; Baron, Morgane; Caron, Sandrine; Vallez, Emmanuelle; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Bauge, Eric; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Hofker, Marten; Staels, Bart; Tailleux, Anne

    Objective-Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls lipid metabolism and inflammation. PPAR alpha is activated by fibrates, hypolipidemic drugs used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Previous studies assessing the influence

  17. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The

  18. A study of excess H-alpha emission in chromospherically active M dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Skumanich, A.; Stauffer, J.R.; Harlan, E.; Bopp, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from three observatories are combined to study the properties of the excess H-alpha emission which characterizes the most chromospherically active subset of the M dwarf stars, known as the dMe stars. It is demonstrated that the excess H-alpha luminosity from these stars is a monotonically decreasing function of their (R-I) color, and evidence is presented which suggests that the product of the mean surface brightness and the mean filling factor of the emissive regions is essentially constant with color. Another significant result of the study is a linear correlation between the excess luminosity in H-alpha and the coronal X-ray luminosity. 39 refs

  19. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  20. Absolute measurements of the alpha-gamma emitters activities by a sum-coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute activity of U-235 contained in a UO 2 sample, using a sum-coincidence circuit which selected only the alpha particles which were simultaneous with the well known 184 Kev gamma radiation from Th-231. The alpha particles were detected by ZnS(Ag) scintillator specially designed to show its maximun efficiency for U-235 alpha particles, whereas the gamma radiation was detected by NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The values obtained for the half-life of U-235 was compared with data from various observers using different experimental techniques. (Author) [pt

  1. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  2. HNF1 alpha activates the aminopeptidase N promoter in intestinal (Caco-2) cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen; Laustsen, Lotte; Troelsen, J

    1994-01-01

    The importance of HNF1 binding proteins for intestinal aminopeptidase N expression was investigated using the Caco-2 cell-line. Aminopeptidase N promoter activity in Caco-2 cells depends on the HNF1 element (positions -85 to -58) and co-transfection with an HNF1 alpha expression vector demonstrates...... a direct activation of the promoter by HNF1 alpha through this element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from Caco-2 cells show the presence of high amounts of HNF1 binding proteins irrespective of their state of differentiation....

  3. Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Hansen, Henrik H

    2010-01-01

    alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Selective alpha(7) nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens shell (ACCshell) in rats, regions...

  4. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  5. Studies of the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene in Danish subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye, L; Rasmussen, S; Fenger, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a novel transcriptional co-activator that holds an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. PGC-1alpha is a candidate gene for the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as type 2 diabetes. Recent studies...... related to this syndrome. The variant was examined, using PCR-RFLP, in the DanMONICA cohort comprising a population-based sample of 2349 subjects. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program -- Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. The allelic frequency of the Ser482 allele...... and insulin secretion, 24-ambulatory blood pressure or left ventricular mass index. In conclusion, the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the PGC-1alpha gene is not associated with the metabolic syndrome, related quantitative traits or cardiac hypertrophy among Danish Caucasian subjects...

  6. Analysis of the local kinetics and localization of interleukin-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta, during the course of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pando, R; Orozco, H; Arriaga, K; Sampieri, A; Larriva-Sahd, J; Madrid-Marina, V

    1997-01-01

    A mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis induced by the intratracheal instillation of live and virulent mycobacteria strain H37-Rv was used to examine the relationship of the histopathological findings with the local kinetics production and cellular distribution of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The histopathological and immunological studies showed two phases of the disease: acute or early and chronic or advanced. The acute phase was characterized by inflammatory infiltrate in the alveolar-capillary interstitium, blood vessels and bronchial wall with formation of granulomas. During this acute phase, which lasted from 1 to 28 days, high percentages of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha immunostained activated macrophages were observed principally in the interstium-intralveolar inflammatory infiltrate and in granulomas. Electron microscopy studies of these cells, showed extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum, numerous lysosomes and occasional mycobacteria. Double labelling with colloid gold showed that TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha were present in the same cells, but were confined to separate vacuoles near the Golgi area, and mixed in larger vacuoles near to cell membrane. The concentration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha as well as their respective mRNAs were elevated in the early phase, particularly at day 3 when the bacillary count decreased. A second peak was seen at days 14 and 21-28 when granulomas appeared and evolved to full maturation. In contrast, TGF-beta production and numbers of immunoreactive cells were low in comparison with the advanced phase of the disease. The chronic phase was characterized by histopathological changes indicative of more severity (i.e. pneumonia, focal necrosis and extensive interstitial fibrosis) with a decrease in the TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha production that coincided with the highest level of TGF-beta. The bacillary counts were highest as the macrophages

  7. Determination of alpha activity and fissile mass content in solid waste by systems using neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lacruche, G.; Berne, R.; Auge, J.; Martin Deidier, L.; Butez, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Quantitative control (determination of heavy nuclides and alpha activity) of alpha radioactive wastes is necessary, particularly to determine if the waste is in accordance with the surface storage limits. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the alpha activity resulting from unknown isotopic composition, inhomogeneity of heavy nuclides in the matrix, combination of several methods is necessary. In the paper we present the Cadarache development work in the NDA of solid waste using the Californium shuffler, 14 Mev neutron generator, and also passive techniques such as neutron emission measurement and gamma spectrometry. Experimental systems combining active and passive methods are presented (COSAC, BANCO, DANAIDE, PROMETHEE)

  8. Interleukin 2 and 15 activate Stat3alpha in human T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Nordahl, M; Svejgaard, A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) has recently been shown to exist in two alternatively spliced isoforms, a short form, Stat3beta, and a longer form, Stat3alpha, displaying differences in transcriptional activity. It is unknown which Stat3 isoform(s) is activated in respo...

  9. Increase in posterior alpha activity during rehearsal predicts successful long-term memory formation of word sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwissen, Esther B; Takashima, Atsuko; Fernández, Guillén; Jensen, Ole

    2011-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that demanding cognitive tasks rely on an extended network engaging task-relevant areas and, importantly, disengaging task-irrelevant areas. Given that alpha activity (8-12 Hz) has been shown to reflect the disengagement of task-irrelevant regions in attention and working memory tasks, we here ask if alpha activity plays a related role for long-term memory formation. Subjects were instructed to encode and maintain the order of word sequences while the ongoing brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In each trial, three words were presented followed by a 3.4 s rehearsal interval. Considering the good temporal resolution of MEG this allowed us to investigate the word presentation and rehearsal interval separately. The sequences were grouped in trials where word order either could be tested immediately (working memory trials; WM) or later (LTM trials) according to instructions. Subjects were tested on their ability to retrieve the order of the three words. The data revealed that alpha power in parieto-occipital regions was lower during word presentation compared to rehearsal. Our key finding was that parieto-occipital alpha power during the rehearsal period was markedly stronger for successfully than unsuccessfully encoded LTM sequences. This subsequent memory effect demonstrates that high posterior alpha activity creates an optimal brain state for successful LTM formation possibly by actively reducing parieto-occipital activity that might interfere with sequence encoding. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Incineration of alpha-active solid waste by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G K; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S; Purushotham, D S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1996-12-31

    The conventional techniques for treatment of alpha-active compressible solid waste involve incineration using electrically heated incinerators and subsequent recovery of special nuclear materials (SNM) from the ash by acid leaching. A microwave incineration followed by microwave digestion and SNM recovery from ash has specific advantages from maintenance and productivity consideration. The paper describes a preliminary work carried out with simulated uranium containing compressible solid waste using microwave heating technique. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Characteristics of chemical binding to alpha 2u-globulin in vitro--evaluating structure-activity relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghoff, S.J.; Miller, A.B.; Bowen, J.P.; Swenberg, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    alpha 2u-Globulin (alpha 2u) has been shown to accumulate in the kidneys of male rats treated with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP). 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentanol (TMP-2-OH), a metabolite of TMP, is found reversibly bound to alpha 2u isolated from the kidneys of these treated rats. The objectives of the following study were to characterize the ability of [3H]TMP-2-OH to bind to alpha 2u in vitro and to determine whether other compounds that cause this protein to accumulate have the same binding characteristics. Although compounds that have been shown to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u in male rat kidneys compete in vitro with [3H]TMP-2-OH for binding to alpha 2u, they do so to varying degrees. The binding affinity (Kd) of the [3H]TMP-2-OH-alpha 2u complex was calculated to be on the order of 10(-7) M. The inhibition constant values (Ki) determined for d-limonene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol were all in the range 10(-4) M, whereas the Ki values for isophorone, 2,4,4- or 2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pentanol, and d-limonene oxide were determined to be in the range 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, respectively. TMP and 2,4,4- and 2,2,4-trimethylpentanoic acid did not compete for binding. This suggests that other factors, besides binding, are involved in the accumulation of alpha 2u. In this study the ability of a chemical to bind to alpha 2u was used as a measure of biological activity to assess structure-activity relationships among the chemicals tested and known to cause the accumulation of alpha 2u. The results so far suggest that binding is dependent on both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding

  12. Rational design, synthesis, biologic evaluation, and structure-activity relationship studies of novel 1-indanone alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minyong; Xia, Lin

    2007-11-01

    In the present report, a novel series of 1-indanone alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists were designed and synthesized based on 3D-pharmacophore model. Their in vitro alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonistic assay showed that three compounds (2a, 2m, and 2o) had similar or improved alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonistic activities relative to the positive control prazosin. Based on these results, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study was performed using a Self-Organizing Molecular Field Analysis method to provide insight for the future development of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists.

  13. Evidence for Alpha Receptors in the Human Ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeb, Ralph; Knopf, Joy; Golijanin, Dragan; Bourne, Patricia; Erturk, Erdal

    2007-04-01

    An immunohistochemical and western blot expression analysis of human ureters was performed in order to characterize the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor distribution along the length of the human ureteral wall. Mapping the distribution will assist in understanding the potential role alpha -1-adrenergic receptors and their subtype density might have in the pathophysiology of ureteral colic and stone passage. Patients diagnosed with renal cancer or bladder cancer undergoing nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, or cystectomy had ureteral specimens taken from the proximal, mid, distal and tunneled ureter. Tissues were processed for fresh frozen examination and fixed in formalin. None of the ureteral specimens were involved with cancer. Serial histologic sections and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies specific for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1a, alpha 1b, alpha 1d). The sections were examined under a light microscope and scored as positive or negative. In order to validate and quantify the alpha receptor subtypes along the human ureter. Western blotting techniques were applied. Human ureter stained positively for alpha -1-adrenergic receptors. Immunostaining appeared red, with intense reaction in the smooth muscle of the ureter and endothelium of the neighboring blood vessels. There was differential expression between all the receptors with the highest staining for alpha-1D subtype. The highest protein expression for all three subtypes was in the renal pelvis and decreased with advancement along the ureter to the distal ureter. At the distal ureter, there was marked increase in expression as one progressed towards the ureteral orifice. The same pattern of protein expression was exhibited for all three alpha -1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. We provide preliminary evidence for the ability to detect and quantify the alpha-1-receptor subtypes along the human ureter which to the best of our knowledge has never been done with

  14. Transcriptional activation of the mouse obese (ob) gene by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, C S; Mandrup, S; MacDougald, O A

    1996-01-01

    Like other adipocyte genes that are transcriptionally activated by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) during preadipocyte differentiation, expression of the mouse obese (ob) gene is immediately preceded by the expression of C/EBP alpha. While the 5' flanking region of the mouse ob...... gene contains several consensus C/EBP binding sites, only one of these sites appears to be functional. DNase I cleavage inhibition patterns (footprinting) of the ob gene promoter revealed that recombinant C/EBP alpha, as well as a nuclear factor present in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes...... to a consensus C/EBP binding site at nucleotides -55 to -47 generated a specific protein-oligonucleotide complex that was supershifted by antibody against C/EBP alpha. Probes corresponding to two upstream consensus C/EBP binding sites failed to generate protein-oligonucleotide complexes. Cotransfection of a C...

  15. Correlated alpha activity with the facial expression processing network in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Marco; Direito, Bruno; Lima, Joao; Castelhano, Joao; Ferreira, Carlos; Couceiro, Ricardo; Carvalho, Paulo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between EEG and fMRI data is poorly covered in the literature. Extensive work has been conducted in resting-state and epileptic activity, highlighting a negative correlation between the alpha power band of the EEG and the BOLD activity in the default-mode-network. The identification of an appropriate task-specific relationship between fMRI and EEG data for predefined regions-of-interest, would allow the transfer of interventional paradigms (such as BOLD-based neurofeedback sessions) from fMRI to EEG, enhancing its application range by lowering its costs and improving its flexibility. In this study, we present an analysis of the correlation between task-specific alpha band fluctuations and BOLD activity in the facial expressions processing network. We characterized the network ROIs through a stringent localizer and identified two clusters on the scalp (one frontal, one parietal-occipital) with marked alpha fluctuations, related to the task. We then check whether such power variations throughout the time correlate with the BOLD activity in the network. Our results show statistically significant negative correlations between the alpha power in both clusters and for all the ROIs of the network. The correlation levels have still not met the requirements for transferring the protocol to an EEG setup, but they pave the way towards a better understand on how frontal and parietal-occipital alpha relates to the activity of the facial expressions processing network.

  16. [(35)S]-GTPgammaS autoradiography reveals alpha(2) adrenoceptor-mediated G-protein activation in amygdala and lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Millan, M J

    2000-04-03

    alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated G-protein activation was examined by [(35)S]-GTPgammaS autoradiography. In alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-rich regions (amygdala, lateral septum), noradrenaline stimulated [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding. These actions were abolished by the selective alpha(2) antagonist, atipamezole. Conversely, in caudate nucleus, which expresses few alpha(2) receptors, noradrenaline-induced stimulation was not inhibited by atipamezole, suggesting that it is not mediated by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rakhshandehroo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  18. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska, I.; Wolska, K.; Koput, A.

    1993-01-01

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  19. Stochastic interaction between TAE and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krlin, L.; Pavlo, P.; Malijevsky, I.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes with thermonuclear alpha particles in the intrinsic stochasticity regime was investigated based on the numerical integration of the equation of motion of alpha particles in the tokamak. The first results obtained for the ITER parameters and moderate wave amplitudes indicate that the stochasticity is highest in the trapped/passing boundary region, where the alpha particles jump stochastically between the two regimes with an appreciable radial excursion (about 0.5 m amplitudes). A similar chaotic behavior was also found for substantially lower energies (about 350 keV). 7 figs., 15 refs

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonists modulate Th1 and Th2 chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes and Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Alessandro, E-mail: a.antonelli@med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Ferrari, Silvia Martina, E-mail: sm.ferrari@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Frascerra, Silvia, E-mail: lafrasce@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Corrado, Alda, E-mail: dala_res@hotmail.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Pupilli, Cinzia, E-mail: c.pupilli@dfc.unifi.it [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi and University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, I-50134, Florence (Italy); Bernini, Giampaolo, E-mail: g.bernini@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Benvenga, Salvatore, E-mail: s.benvenga@me.nettuno.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Messina, Piazza Pugliatti 1, I-98122, Messina (Italy); Ferrannini, Ele, E-mail: eferrannini@med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Fallahi, Poupak, E-mail: poupak@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Until now, no data are present about the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} activation on the prototype Th1 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10] (CXCL10) and Th2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] (CCL2) chemokines secretion in thyroid cells. The role of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} activation on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion was tested in Graves' disease (GD) and control primary thyrocytes stimulated with interferon (IFN){gamma} and tumor necrosis factor (TNF){alpha}. IFN{gamma} stimulated both CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion in primary GD and control thyrocytes. TNF{alpha} alone stimulated CCL2 secretion, while had no effect on CXCL10. The combination of IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} had a synergistic effect both on CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in GD thyrocytes at levels comparable to those of controls. PPAR{alpha} activators inhibited the secretion of both chemokines (stimulated with IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha}) at a level higher (for CXCL10, about 60-72%) than PPAR{gamma} agonists (about 25-35%), which were confirmed to inhibit CXCL10, but not CCL2. Our data show that CCL2 is modulated by IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in GD and normal thyrocytes. Furthermore we first show that PPAR{alpha} activators inhibit the secretion of CXCL10 and CCL2 in thyrocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} may be involved in the modulation of the immune response in the thyroid.

  1. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  2. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Emanovic, D.; Simpraga, M.; Nejedli, S.; Stojevic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32 P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32 P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. Synthesis of tritiated 1-alpha-methadol and 1-alpha-acetylmethadol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, D.C.; Nam, N.H.; Pontikis, R. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Fernand Widal, 75 - Paris (France)); Pichat, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service des Molecules Marquees)

    1982-04-01

    dl-Methadone was resolved by crystallization of its ammonium d- ..cap alpha.. -bromocamphor-..pi..-sulfonate salt to give d-methadone. The latter in ethyl acetate solution was reduced with tritium gas to 1-..cap alpha..-methadol /sup 3/H in presence of Adams platinum oxide at normal temperature and pressure. Acetylation of 1-..cap alpha..-carbinol hydrochloride by means of acetyl chloride afforded 1-..cap alpha..-acetylmethadol /sup 3/H, specific activity: 20 Ci/mMole. The positions and extent of tritium labelling were determined by /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-12-01

    Previously we reported that Piper nigrum leaf extract showed a potent stimulation effect on melanogenesis and that (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2) were isolated as active constituents. As a part of our continuous studies on Piper species for the development of cosmetic hair-care agents, testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of six Piper species, namely Piper nigrum, P. methysticum, P. betle, P. kadsura, P. longum, and P. cubeba, were examined. Among them, the extracts of P. nigrum leaf, P. nigrum fruit and P. cubeba fruit showed potent inhibitory activity. Activity-guided fractionation of P. nigrum leaf extract led to the isolation of 1 and 2. Fruits of P. cubeba contain 1 as a major lignan, thus inhibitory activity of the fruit may be attributable to 1. As a result of further assay on other known constituents of the cited Piper species, it was found that piperine, a major alkaloid amide of P. nigrum fruit, showed potent inhibitory activity, thus a part of the inhibitory activity of P. nigrum fruit may depend on piperine. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities of 1 and piperine were found for the first time. In addition, the P. nigrum leaf extract showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using the hair regrowth assay in testosterone sensitive male C57Black/6CrSlc strain mice.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nikliński

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the expression pattern of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha and its receptors (TNF-Rs in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC and compare these results with the outcome of 126 patients. Presence of TNF-alpha, TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 were studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The proportion of samples positive for TNF-alpha and TNF-R2 was higher in epithelial ovarian cancer patients than in benign ovarian diseases (p<0.001 and p=0.016, respectively. Immunostaining intensity of TNF-R2 were correlated with tumor stage (p<0.001 and with reduced mean survival time (MST (p=0.002. The results of the present study suggested that tissue expression of TNF-R2 in epithelial ovarian cancer was correlated with the highest risk of cancer progression. Thus, the clinical value of activated TNF system in epithelial ovarian cancer needs to be further investigated.

  7. ATP and MO25alpha regulate the conformational state of the STRADalpha pseudokinase and activation of the LKB1 tumour suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Zeqiraj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudokinases lack essential residues for kinase activity, yet are emerging as important regulators of signal transduction networks. The pseudokinase STRAD activates the LKB1 tumour suppressor by forming a heterotrimeric complex with LKB1 and the scaffolding protein MO25. Here, we describe the structure of STRADalpha in complex with MO25alpha. The structure reveals an intricate web of interactions between STRADalpha and MO25alpha involving the alphaC-helix of STRADalpha, reminiscent of the mechanism by which CDK2 interacts with cyclin A. Surprisingly, STRADalpha binds ATP and displays a closed conformation and an ordered activation loop, typical of active protein kinases. Inactivity is accounted for by nonconservative substitution of almost all essential catalytic residues. We demonstrate that binding of ATP enhances the affinity of STRADalpha for MO25alpha, and conversely, binding of MO25alpha promotes interaction of STRADalpha with ATP. Mutagenesis studies reveal that association of STRADalpha with either ATP or MO25alpha is essential for LKB1 activation. We conclude that ATP and MO25alpha cooperate to maintain STRADalpha in an "active" closed conformation required for LKB1 activation. It has recently been demonstrated that a mutation in human STRADalpha that truncates a C-terminal region of the pseudokinase domain leads to the polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy (PMSE syndrome. We demonstrate this mutation destabilizes STRADalpha and prevents association with LKB1. In summary, our findings describe one of the first structures of a genuinely inactive pseudokinase. The ability of STRADalpha to activate LKB1 is dependent on a closed "active" conformation, aided by ATP and MO25alpha binding. Thus, the function of STRADalpha is mediated through an active kinase conformation rather than kinase activity. It is possible that other pseudokinases exert their function through nucleotide binding and active conformations.

  8. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  9. Fusion alpha loss diagnostic for ITER using activation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Vermaercke, P.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1298-1301 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT) /26th./. Port o, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * fusion product * burning plasma diagnostics * alpha losses * activation technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611002778

  10. Evidence for a prolonged role of alpha 4 integrin throughout active experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, E; Karlik, S; Hyduk, S; Rice, G P; Gordon, G; Yednock, T; Horner, H

    1996-10-01

    The leukocyte integrin receptor, alpha 4 beta 1, and its endothelial cell ligand, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, appear to be of critical importance in the leukocyte trafficking that accompanies CNS damage in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, the persistence of the role for alpha 4 beta 1/VCAM-1 in EAE was established by observing antibody-mediated disease reversal up to 1 month following disease onset. Limited treatment with a monoclonal antibody against alpha 4 integrin, GG5/3, resulted in a significant decrease in both clinical and histopathologic signs. This was not observed in isotype control experiments. In the latter phase of progressive disease, widespread demyelination occurred in the animals that did not respond to 6 days of anti-alpha 4 treatment. These results demonstrate an essential role for alpha 4 beta 1 interactions throughout active EAE and illustrate the difference between reversible clinical deficits caused by edema and irreversible deficits associated with demyelination.

  11. Cow's milk increases the activities of human nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta and retinoid X receptor alpha involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, obesity, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhara, W; Koide, H; Okuzawa, T; Hayashi, D; Hashimoto, T; Kojo, H

    2009-09-01

    The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating energy homeostasis including lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory responses, and cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Because PPAR agonists have the potential to prevent or ameliorate diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and obesity, we have explored new natural agonists for PPAR. For this purpose, cow's milk was tested for agonistic activity toward human PPAR subtypes using a reporter gene assay. Milk increased human PPARalpha activity in a dose-dependent manner with a 3.2-fold increase at 0.5% (vol/vol). It also enhanced human PPARdelta activity in a dose-dependent manner with an 11.5-fold increase at 0.5%. However, it only slightly affected human PPARgamma activity. Ice cream, butter, and yogurt also increased the activities of PPARalpha and PPARdelta, whereas vegetable cream affected activity of PPARdelta but not PPARalpha. Skim milk enhanced the activity of PPAR to a lesser degree than regular milk. Milk and fresh cream increased the activity of human retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha as well as PPARalpha and PPARdelta, whereas neither affected vitamin D3 receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or thyroid receptors alpha and beta. Both milk and fresh cream were shown by quantitative real-time PCR to increase the quantity of mRNA for uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an energy expenditure gene, in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in UCP2 mRNA was found to be reduced by treatment with PPARdelta-short interfering (si)RNA. This study unambiguously clarified at the cellular level that cow's milk increased the activities of human PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and RXRalpha. The possible role in enhancing the activities of PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and RXRalpha, and the health benefits of cow's milk were discussed.

  12. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuebas-Irizarry, Mara F; Irizarry-Caro, Ricardo A; López-Morales, Carol; Badillo-Rivera, Keyla M; Rodríguez-Minguela, Carlos M; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2017-11-21

    We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi . A 2349 bp region ( Hqrw_2071 ) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3-4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3-4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41%) to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum . Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  13. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara F. Cuebas-Irizarry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20 from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi. A 2349 bp region (Hqrw_2071 from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+, expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3–4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3–4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41% to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum. Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  14. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  15. The combination of IL-21 and IFN-alpha boosts STAT3 activation, cytotoxicity and experimental tumor therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten W; Søndergaard, Henrik; Woetmann, Anders

    2008-01-01

    such as IFN-alpha and IL-2 have multiple and severe side effects. Accordingly, they are generally used at sub-optimal doses, which limit their clinical efficacy. Here we hypothesized that a combination of IFN-alpha and IL-21, a novel cytokine of the IL-2 family with anti-cancer effects, will increase the anti......-cancer efficacy at sub-optimal cytokine doses. We show that the combined stimulation of target-cells with IFN-alpha and IL-21 triggers an increased STAT3 activation whereas the activation of other STATs including STAT1/2 is unaffected. In parallel, the combined stimulation with IFN-alpha and IL-21 triggers...... a selective increase in MHC class I expression and NK- and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In an experimental in vivo model of renal carcinoma, the combined treatment of IFN-alpha and IL-21 also produces a significant anti-cancer effect as judged by an inhibition of tumor growth and an increased survival...

  16. Determination of alpha activity produced by Indian tea samples using solid state nuclear track detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Ameer; Naqvi, A.H.; Srivastava, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    India has first place in the world in the production, consumption and export of tea. The average production of tea in India is about 780 million kg annually. Indian population uses tea as a favourite beverage specially with the breakfast. Tea leaves are perennial plants and they have extension root system spread over deeper layers in the soil. Soil contains uranium as trace element. Hence, uranium is transferred to the leaves as a result of uptake from the soil over the years. Since many of the decay products of uranium are alpha emitters hence tea is a source of alpha radioactivity and can cause damaging effects. Therefore, data on alpha activity of tea samples will be useful in estimating these harmful effects at least qualitatively. In the present study the alpha activity produced by thirteen samples of tea available in the local market was measured

  17. Sources of variability in the determination by evaporation method of gross alpha activity in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Caceres (Spain). Environmental Radioactivity Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Determining the gross alpha activity concentration of water samples is one way to screen for waters whose radionuclide content is so high that its consumption could imply surpassing the Total Indicative Dose as defined in European Directive 98/83/EC. One of the most commonly used methods to prepare the sources to measure gross alpha activity in water samples is desiccation. Its main advantages are the simplicity of the procedure, the low cost of source preparation, and the possibility of simultaneously determining the gross beta activity. The preparation of the source, the construction of the calibration curves, and the measurement procedure itself involve, however, various factors that may introduce sufficient variability into the results to significantly affect the screening process. We here identify the main sources of this variability, and propose specific procedures to follow in the desiccation process that will reduce the uncertainties, and ensure that the result is indeed representative of the sum of the activities of the alpha emitters present in the sample. (orig.)

  18. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA inhibits the antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaralizadeh, Reza; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Pourpak, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Moin, Mostafa

    2009-12-01

    FcepsilonRI, The high affinity receptor for IgE plays a critical role in triggering the allergic reactions. It is responsible for inducing mast cell degranulation and deliberation of allergy mediators when it is aggregated by allergen and IgE complexes. FcepsilonRI on the mast cells consists of three subunits; alpha chain directly binds IgE, beta chain and dimmer of gamma chains together mediate intracellular signaling. Cross-linking of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI on the surface of mast cells and basophils by the multivalent antigen induces release of chemical mediators. The present in vitro study was designed to investigate the effect of synthetic FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on the antigen-induced activation of MC/9 cells. MC/9 cells which are murine mast cells were transfected by FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA and negative control siRNA. After 6 h, anti-DNP (Dinitrophenyl) IgE was used for the cells sensitization. Then the cells were challenged with Dinitrophenyl-Human Serum Albumin (DNP-HSA) for mast cell degranulation induction before collection of supernatants. The amount of mRNA and protein expression was measured by Real Time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Determination of the expression rate of FcepsilonRI-alpha on cell surface was achieved by flow cytometry. ELISA and spectrophotometry methods were used subsequently for measuring the effects of FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on antigen-induced histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA treated cells showed significant decrease in FcepsilonRI-alpha mRNA and protein expression in comparison to control cells. FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell release of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine were also inhibited. In this study it was shown that FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA could suppress FcepsilonRI-alpha expression and inhibited degranulation and histamine release in antigen-stimulated MC/9 cells. In conclusion, knock-down of FcepsilonRI-alpha by siRNA could be a promising method for inhibition of the mast

  19. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M; Hecker, U; Krege, S; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    1999-02-15

    We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained from several pharmaceutical companies. They were tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]tamsulosin binding to human prostatic alpha1-adrenoceptors and [3H]prazosin binding to cloned human alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate formation by cloned receptors was also investigated. Up to the highest concentration which could be tested, preparations of beta-sitosterol, stinging nettle, and medicinal pumpkin were without consistent inhibitory effect in all assays. In contrast, all tested saw palmetto extracts inhibited radioligand binding to human alpha1-adrenoceptors and agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate formation. Saturation binding experiments in the presence of a single saw palmetto extract concentration indicated a noncompetitive antagonism. The relationship between active concentrations in vitro and recommended therapeutic doses for the saw palmetto extracts was slightly lower than that for several chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Saw palmetto extracts have alpha1-adrenoceptor-inhibitory properties. If bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic properties of these ingredients are similar to those of the chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism might be involved in the therapeutic effects of these extracts in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction.

  20. Unique regional distribution of delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase and associated epididymal morphology in the marsupial, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Krause, W J; Ganjam, V K

    1987-09-01

    The epididymal epithelial ultrastructure has been described in the adult male North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Morphological results have suggested that absorptive activity is prominent in the proximal epididymal region by virtue of numerous microvilli, an endocytotic complex, dense granules, and multivesicular bodies in the apical cytoplasm. In contrast, the middle and distal epididymal regions exhibit ultrastructural features indicative of protein synthesis such as large invaginated euchromatic nuclei, large nucleoli, and increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum. It is in the middle and distal epididymal regions where sperm head rotation and sperm pairing take place. Epididymal delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase (5 alpha-reductase) activity also has been measured. It has been found that the level of enzyme activity differs significantly (p less than 0.01) between the proximal, middle, and distal epididymal regions. Enzyme-specific activity has been found to be highest in the middle region (47.6 +/- 5.4 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), lower in the distal region (18.3 +/- 0.7 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), with little activity (2.4 +/- 1.2 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/h/mg protein) found in the proximal epididymal region. This regional distribution of enzyme activity differs markedly from that reported for eutherian mammals. Both the suggested epididymal protein synthetic and secretory activity and the level of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase activity appear to correlate regionally with the morphological changes that occur in the opossum spermatozoa as they transit the epididymis.

  1. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Keisuke, E-mail: nya@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamasaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ishimoto, Kenji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Laboratory for System Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Doi, Takefumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  2. Gamma-tocopherol detoxification of nitrogen dioxide: superiority to alpha-tocopherol.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooney, R V; Franke, A A; Harwood, P J; Hatch-Pigott, V; Custer, L J; Mordan, L J

    1993-01-01

    In the vitamin E group, alpha-tocopherol is generally considered to be the most potent antioxidant with the highest vitamin bioactivity, yet gamma-tocopherol is produced in greater amounts by many plants and is the principal tocopherol in the United States diet. This report describes a fundamental difference in the chemical reactivities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol with nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which leads to the formation of a nitrosating agent from alpha-tocopherol, but not from ...

  3. Locus coeruleus alpha-adrenergic-mediated activation of cortical astrocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Lane K; He, Wei; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2008-12-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) provides the sole source of norepinephrine (NE) to the cortex for modulation of cortical synaptic activity in response to salient sensory information. NE has been shown to improve signal-to-noise ratios, sharpen receptive fields and function in learning, memory, and cognitive performance. Although LC-mediated effects on neurons have been addressed, involvement of astrocytes has thus far not been demonstrated in these neuromodulatory functions. Here we show for the 1st time in live mice, that astrocytes exhibit rapid Ca(2+) increases in response to electrical stimulation of the LC. Additionally, robust peripheral stimulation known to result in phasic LC activity leads to Ca(2+) responses in astrocytes throughout sensory cortex that are independent of sensory-driven glutamate-dependent pathways. Furthermore, the astrocytic Ca(2+) transients are competitively modulated by alpha(2)-specific agonist/antagonist combinations known to impact LC output, are sensitive to the LC-specific neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, and are inhibited locally by an alpha-adrenergic antagonist. Future investigations of LC function must therefore consider the possibility that LC neuromodulatory effects are in part derived from activation of astrocytes.

  4. H{alpha} ACTIVITY OF OLD M DWARFS: STELLAR CYCLES AND MEAN ACTIVITY LEVELS FOR 93 LOW-MASS STARS IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E., E-mail: paul@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Through the McDonald Observatory M Dwarf Planet Search, we have acquired nearly 3000 high-resolution spectra of 93 late-type (K5-M5) stars over more than a decade using the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. This sample provides a unique opportunity to investigate the occurrence of long-term stellar activity cycles for low-mass stars. In this paper, we examine the stellar activity of our targets as reflected in the H{alpha} feature. We have identified periodic signals for six stars, with periods ranging from days to more than 10 years, and find long-term trends for seven others. Stellar cycles with P {>=} 1 year are present for at least 5% of our targets. Additionally, we present an analysis of the time-averaged activity levels of our sample, and search for correlations with other stellar properties. In particular, we find that more massive, earlier type (M0-M2) stars tend to be more active than later type dwarfs. Furthermore, high-metallicity stars tend to be more active at a given stellar mass. We also evaluate H{alpha} variability as a tracer of activity-induced radial velocity (RV) variation. For the M dwarf GJ 1170, H{alpha} variation reveals stellar activity patterns matching those seen in the RVs, mimicking the signal of a giant planet, and we find evidence that the previously identified stellar activity cycle of GJ 581 may be responsible for the recently retracted planet f in that system. In general, though, we find that H{alpha} is not frequently correlated with RV at the precision (typically 6-7 m s{sup -1}) of our measurements.

  5. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Katsutaka, E-mail: k-ooishi@aist.go.jp [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, Daisuke [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohkura, Naoki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Horie, Shuichi [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakado, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR{alpha

  6. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  7. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-03-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0.08, 0.12, and 0.17 M NaCl, whereas the two peaks of the variant, with 0.01 and 0.06 M NaCl. The pH optimum and thermal denaturation at 57 degrees C were the same in all enzyme peaks of both isozymes. Rabbit antiacid alpha-glucosidase antibodies produced against the common isozyme were found to cross-react with both peaks of the variant isozyme. The two isozymes shared antigenic identity and had similar Km's with maltose as substrate. Normal substrate saturation kinetics were observed with the common isozyme when glycogen was the substrate, but the variant produced an S-shaped saturation curve indicating a phase of negative and positive cooperativity at low and high glycogen concentrations, respectively. The activity of the variant was only 8.6% and 19.2% of the common isozyme when assayed with nonsaturating and saturating concentrations of glycogen, respectively. A similar rate of hydrolysis of isomaltose by both isozymes was found indicating that the reduced catalytic activity of the variant isozyme toward glycogen is not the result of a reduced ability of this enzyme to cleave the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen.

  8. Modulation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV4 by 4alpha-phorbol esters: a structure-activity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Pagani, Alberto; Minassi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel by 4alpha-phorbol esters was investigated by combining information from chemical modification of 4alpha-phorbol-didecanoate (4alpha-PDD, 2a), site-directed mutagenesis, Ca(2+) imaging, and electrophysiology....... Binding of 4alpha-phorbol esters occurs in a loop in the TM3-TM4 domain of TRPV4 that is analogous to the capsaicin binding site of TRPV1, and the ester decoration of ring C and the A,B ring junction are critical for activity. The lipophilic ester groups on ring C serve mainly as a steering element...

  9. Variability of the Lyman alpha flux with solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, J.L.; Skumanich, A.

    1983-01-01

    A three-component model of the solar chromosphere, developed from ground based observations of the Ca II K chromospheric emission, is used to calculate the variability of the Lyman alpha flux between 1969 and 1980. The Lyman alpha flux at solar minimum is required in the model and is taken as 2.32 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s. This value occurred during 1975 as well as in 1976 near the commencement of solar cycle 21. The model predicts that the Lyman alpha flux increases to as much as 5 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s at the maximum of the solar cycle. The ratio of the average fluxes for December 1979 (cycle maximum) and July 1976 (cycle minimum) is 1.9. During solar maximum the 27-day solar rotation is shown to cause the Lyman alpha flux to vary by as much as 40% or as little as 5%. The model also shows that the Lyman alpha flux varies over intermediate time periods of 2 to 3 years, as well as over the 11-year sunspot cycle. We conclude that, unlike the sunspot number and the 10.7-cm radio flux, the Lyman alpha flux had a variability that was approximately the same during each of the past three cycles. Lyman alpha fluxes calculated by the model are consistent with measurements of the Lyman alpha flux made by 11 of a total of 14 rocket experiments conducted during the period 1969--1980. The model explains satisfactorily the absolute magnitude, long-term trends, and the cycle variability seen in the Lyman alpha irradiances by the OSO 5 satellite experiment. The 27-day variability observed by the AE-E satellite experiment is well reproduced. However, the magntidue of the AE-E 1 Lyman alpha irradiances are higher than the model calculations by between 40% and 80%. We suggest that the assumed calibration of the AE-E irradiances is in error

  10. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  11. Quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Arbutus unedo by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivçak, B; Mert, T

    2001-08-01

    A quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Arbutus unedo leaves was established by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry. Data obtained by TLC-densitometry were compared with those obtained by colorimetry. Also, the alpha-tocopherol content in leaves collected at different times of the year was studied comparatively. The highest amount of alpha-tocopherol was found in the March collection.

  12. Molecular cloning of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its effect on the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Ki Joon; Zenke, Kosuke; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-11-01

    Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rbTNF-alpha) gene was cloned, recombinantly produced, and the effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha on the respiratory burst activity of rock bream phagocytes was analyzed. Structurally, genomic DNA of rbTNF-alpha was comprised with four exons and three introns, and deduced amino acid sequence of its cDNA possessed the TNF family signature, a transmembrane domain, a protease cleavage site, and two cysteine residues, which are the typical characteristics of TNF-alpha gene in mammals and fish. The chemiluminescent (CL) response of rock bream phagocytes was significantly enhanced by pre-incubation with recombinant rbTNF-alpha, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant of the respiratory burst. However, CL enhancing effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha was very weak when the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes was triggered with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) instead of zymosan. These results suggest that rock bream TNF-alpha might have an ability to prime the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes against receptor-mediated phagocytosis inducing stimulants, such as zymosan, but have little ability against stimulants not accompanying receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

  13. A role for 5alpha-reductase activity in the development of male homosexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A G

    2004-12-01

    Higher body hair with lower mesmorphism ratings were observed in Caucasian homosexual men compared with the general male population, reflecting elevated 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) activity, and higher dihydrotestosterone-to-testosterone (DHT-to-T) ratio, in sharp contrast to 46,XY 5alphaR 2 deficiency subjects, who are often born with ambiguous, or female genitalia, but tend to grow up to be muscular, heterosexual men with very little body hair, or beard. One study also showed them scoring around dull normal IQs. A greater prevalence of liberal body hair growth in men with higher IQs and/or educational levels was also observed in several samples. The exceptions to this statistical trend are too unsettling, however. Nevertheless, the results of a number of published studies, including one showing higher DHT-to-T ratio in homosexual men, done with different objectives over a span of 80 years, together strongly support these findings. Furthermore, in an animal model, "cognitive-enhancing effects" of "5alpha-reduced androgen [metabolites]" were recently demonstrated.

  14. Quantification of activity by alpha-camera imaging and small-scale dosimetry within ovarian carcinoma micrometastases treated with targeted alpha therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chouin, N; Lindegren, S; Jensen, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) a promising treatment for small, residual, and micrometastatic diseases has questionable efficacy against malignant lesions larger than the α-particle range, and likely requires favorable intratumoral activity distribution. Here, we characterized and quantified......% IA/g at 4 h) in the outer tumor layer and a sharp drop beyond a depth of 50 µm. Small-scale dosimetry was performed on a multi-cellular micrometastasis model, using time-integrated activities derived from the experimental data. With injected activity of 400 kBq, tumors exhibiting uniform activity...... distribution received 100 µm might not be effectively treated by the examined regimen....

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-heteroarylthioalkanoic acid analogues of clofibric acid as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Letizia; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Giancristofaro, Antonella; Lannutti, Fabio; Bettoni, Giancarlo; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Maccallini, Cristina; Petruzzelli, Michele; Morgano, Annalisa; Moschetta, Antonio; Amoroso, Rosa

    2009-10-22

    A series of 2-heteroarylthioalkanoic acids were synthesized through systematic structural modifications of clofibric acid and evaluated for human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) transactivation activity, with the aim of obtaining new hypolipidemic compounds. Some thiophene and benzothiazole derivatives showing a good activation of the receptor alpha were screened for activity against the PPARgamma isoform. The gene induction of selected compounds was also investigated in the human hepatoma cell line.

  16. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinases are important targets for drug development because many proteins in the PI3 kinase signaling pathway are mutated, hyperactivated, or overexpressed in human cancers. Here, the authors coexpressed the human class Ia PI3 kinase p110alpha catalytic domain with an N-terminal....... In parallel, a second assay format using the AlphaScreen technology was optimized to measure PI3 kinase activity. Both assay formats used should be suitable for high-throughput screening for the identification of PI3 kinase inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening XXXX:xx-xx)....

  17. Changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory rotting of Egusi Fruits was completed in 120 hours. At this stage pulp became soft and the seeds were extracted easily with the fingers. The changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and titratable acidity during the controlled rotting of egusi fruit (Colocynthis citrullus L.) for the harvesting of ...

  18. Cdc25A promotes cell survival by stimulating NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation and destabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hey-Young; Choi, Jiyeon [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Wook [Korea Basic Science Institute, Chuncheon Center, Gangwondaehak-gil 1, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul, E-mail: bckim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the antiapoptotic mechanisms of Cdc25A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 decreases the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-alpha at Ser-32. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 positively regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-alpha ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, exhibits anti-apoptotic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. Here we report that Cdc25A inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death by stimulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity. In HEK-293 cells, Cdc25A decreased protein level of inhibitor subunit kappa B alpha (I{kappa}-B{alpha}) in association with increased serine 32-phosphorylation, followed by stimulation of transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity by chemical inhibitor or overexpression of I{kappa}-B{alpha} in Cdc25A-elevated cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our data show for the first time that Cdc25A has an important physiological role in NF-{kappa}B activity regulation and it may be an important survival mechanism of cancer cells.

  19. Concentration of Uranium Radioisotopes in Albanian Drinking Waters Measured by Alpha Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylyku, Elida; Cfarku, Florinda; Deda, Antoneta; Bode, Kozeta; Fishka, Kujtim

    2010-01-01

    Uranium is a radioactive material that is frequently found in rocks and soil. When uranium decays, it changes into different elements that are also radioactive, including radon, a gas that is known to cause a lung cancer. The main concern with uranium in drinking water is harm to the kidneys. Public water systems are required to keep uranium levels at or below 500 mBq per liter to protect against kidney damage. Such an interest is needed due to safety, regulatory compliance and disposal issue for uranium in the environment since uranium is included as an obligatory controlled radionuclide in the European Legislation (Directive 98/83 CE of Council of 03.11.1998). The aim of this work is to measure the levels of uranium in drinking and drilled well waters in Albania. At first each sample was measured for total Alpha and total Beta activity. The samples with the highest levels of total alpha activity were chosen for the determination of uranium radioisotopes by alpha spectrometry. A radiochemical procedure using extraction with TBP (Tri-Butyl-Phosphate) is used in the presence of U232 as a yield tracer. Thin sources for alpha spectrometry are prepared by electrodepositing on to stainless steel discs. The results of the U238 activity measured in the different samples, depending from their geological origin range between 0.55-13.87 mBq/l. All samples measured results under the European Directive limits for U238 (5-500 mBq/1), Dose Coefficients according to Directive 96/29 EURATOM.

  20. Drotrecogin alpha (activated) in two patients with the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    McDermid, Robert C; Gibney, RT Noel; Brisebois, Ronald J; Skjodt, Neil M

    2006-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA) for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive ...

  1. Effect of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone on the activity and stability of alpha-amylase: a comparative study on bacterial, fungal, and mammalian enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Larijani, Bagher; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was recently introduced as an activator of mammalian alpha-amylase. In the current study, the effect of NHDC has been investigated on bacterial and fungal alpha-amylases. Enzyme assays and kinetic analysis demonstrated the capability of NHDC to significantly activate both tested alpha-amylases. The ligand activation pattern was found to be more similar between the fungal and mammalian enzyme in comparison with the bacterial one. Further, thermostability experiments indicated a stability increase in the presence of NHDC for the bacterial enzyme. In silico (docking) test locates a putative binding site for NHDC on alpha-amylase surface in domain B. This domain shows differences in various alpha-amylase types, and the different behavior of the ligand toward the studied enzymes may be attributed to this fact. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Compensatory increase in alpha 1-globin gene expression in individuals heterozygous for the alpha-thalassemia-2 deletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Cash, F E; Main, D M

    1985-01-01

    alpha-Globin is encoded by the two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Although it is clearly established that both alpha-globin genes are expressed, their relative contributions to alpha-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein synthesis are not fully defined. Furthermore, changes that may occur in alpha-globin gene activity secondarily to the loss of function of one or more of these genes (alpha-thalassemia [Thal]) have not been directly investigated. This study further defines the expressi...

  4. PCNA mono-ubiquitination and activation of translesion DNA polymerases by DNA polymerase {alpha}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Tomida, Shuta; Miao Huang, Qin; Izuta, Shunji; Usukura, Jiro; Itoh, Yasutomo; Hishida, Takashi; Akashi, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Pavlov, Youri; Murate, Takashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) involves PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS DNA polymerases (pols). Recent evidence has shown that the mono-ubiquitination is induced not only by DNA damage but also by other factors that induce stalling of the DNA replication fork. We studied the effect of spontaneous DNA replication errors on PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS induction. In the pol1L868F strain, which expressed an error-prone pol alpha, PCNA was spontaneously mono-ubiquitinated. Pol alpha L868F had a rate-limiting step at the extension from mismatched primer termini. Electron microscopic observation showed the accumulation of a single-stranded region at the DNA replication fork in yeast cells. For pol alpha errors, pol zeta participated in a generation of +1 frameshifts. Furthermore, in the pol1L868F strain, UV-induced mutations were lower than in the wild-type and a pol delta mutant strain (pol3-5DV), and deletion of the RAD30 gene (pol eta) suppressed this defect. These data suggest that nucleotide misincorporation by pol alpha induces exposure of single-stranded DNA, PCNA mono-ubiquitination and activates TLS pols.

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -gamma in auricular tissue from heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Garre, Dulcenombre; Herraíz, Marta; González-Rubio, Ma Luisa; Bernal, Rosa; Aragoncillo, Paloma; Carbonell, Amparo; Rufilanchas, Juan José; Fernández-Cruz, Arturo

    2006-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), key transcriptional regulators of lipid and energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, have recently been proposed to modulate cardiovascular pathophysiological responses in experimental models. However, there is little information about the functional activity of PPARs in human heart failure. To investigate PPAR-alpha and -gamma expression and activity, and the association with ET-1 production and fibrosis, in cardiac biopsies from patients with end-stage heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) in comparison and from non-failing donor hearts. All samples were obtained during cardiac transplantation. Morphological analysis (by Masson trichrome and image analysis) did not detect fibrosis in the left atrium from non-failing donors (NFLA) or from ICM patients (FLA). However, left ventricles from failing hearts (FLV) contained a greater number of fibrotic areas (NFLA: 3.21+/-1.15, FLA: 1.63+/-0.83, FLV: 14.5+/-3.45%; n = 9, PPPAP-gamma mRNA (by RT-PCR) and protein (by Western blot) levels were higher in the ventricles from failing hearts compared with the atrium from failing and non-failing hearts. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PPAR-alpha and PPAP-gamma were not activated in the ventricles (NFLA: 1.00+/-0.11, FLA: 1.89+/-0.24, FLV: 0.95+/-0.07; n = 9, PPPAP-gamma are selectively activated in the atria from ICM patients and might be functionally important in the maintenance of atrial morphology.

  6. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with [ 32 P]Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-[5,4-d] azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta

  7. Thalamic involvement in the regulation of alpha EEG activity in psychiatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, S.P.; Pakula, J.; Young, I.J.; Crayton, J.W.; Konopka, L.M.; Rybak, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The thalamus is considered to be an important sub-cortical system involved in modulation of cortical activities. A relationship between thalamic activity and surface EEG was recently reported. In this study we evaluated a group of patients with psychiatric disorders who presented with asymmetric perfusion of the thalamus based on brain SPECT HMPAO studies. We predicted that asymmetrical activity of the thalamus would have asymmetrically distributed surface qEEG activity patterns. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three male psychiatric patients (age 54±14) with a primary diagnosis of depression and co-morbid substance abuse (83%) were studied with qEEG and HMPAO brain SPECT. The HMPAO ligand was administered while the EEG activity was being recorded. The SPECT analysis was conducted by means of ROI and SPM. ROI regions were determined based on the Talairach atlas coordinate system. ROI locations were verified by the automated utility, Talairach Demon. QEEG data was analyzed by a standardized protocol involving the NxLink database. Correlations between SPECT findings and qEEG absolute power were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups based on thalamic perfusion patterns. Group 1 (Gr 1) had decreased perfusion to the right thalamus whereas Group 2 (Gr 2) had decreased perfusion to the left thalamus. SPM comparison of the patient groups to normal control subjects indicated significant findings. Comparison of Gr 1 to controls showed increased activity in the left temporal lobe and vermis. Decreased activity was observed in the left and right medial frontal lobes (right Brodmann 9;left Brodmann 6) as well as the left (Brodmann 30) and right (Brodmann 24) cingulate. Gr 2 comparison showed increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann 10) and left inferior parietal lobe. Decreased activity was found in the left inferior frontal lobe (Brodmann 47). A positive correlation between alpha power and thalamic perfusion was identified in Gr

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of phytotoxic activity of {alpha}-Santonin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade fitotoxica de derivados da {alpha}-Santonina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Elson S.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Saliba, William A.; Arantes, Francisco F.P.; Demuner, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: elson@ufv.br; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2009-07-01

    Mixtures of {alpha}-Santonin and various solvents were irradiated by either high or low pressure mercury lamps. The photochemical reactions afforded lumisantonin (11) (76% in acetonitrile), (3 S,3a S,9{beta}S)-3,6,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydronafto[1,2-b]furan-2,7({eta}6,9{beta}{eta}) dione (12) (100% in acetonitrile), 10{alpha}-acetoxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}H{eta},6,11{alpha}a{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-oli= de (8) (26% in acetic acid), 10{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}a{eta},6,11{alpha}{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (10) (32%) and (E)-3-((3 S,3a S,7{alpha}S)-3-methyl-2-oxo-6-(propan-2-ylidene)hexahydrobenzofuran- 7 - (7{alpha}{eta})-ylidene)propanoic acid (9) (44%) (in water/ acetic acid 1:1, v/v). Lactone 12 was also prepared by irradiation of lumisantonin in diethyl ether. Lactones 8 and 10 were converted, respectively, into the 10 {alpha}-acetoxy-3{alpha}-hydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (13) (87%) and 3a,10a-dihydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olide (14) (75%) by sodium borohydride reduction. The effects of the compounds on the development of radicle of Sorghum bicolor and Cucumis sativus were evaluated. (author)

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activates signal transduction in hypothalamus and modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and orexigenic/anorexigenic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria E; Barbuio, Raquel; Milanski, Marciane; Romanatto, Talita; Barbosa, Helena C; Nadruz, Wilson; Bertolo, Manoel B; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mario J A; Franchini, Kleber G; Velloso, Licio A

    2006-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to participate in the wastage syndrome that accompanies cancer and severe infectious diseases. More recently, a role for TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has been shown. Much of the regulatory action exerted by TNF-alpha upon the control of energy stores depends on its action on the hypothalamus. In this study, we show that TNF-alpha activates canonical pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways in the hypothalamus of rats. These signaling events lead to the transcriptional activation of an early responsive gene and to the induction of expression of cytokines and a cytokine responsive protein such as interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-3, respectively. In addition, TNF-alpha induces the expression of neurotransmitters involved in the control of feeding and thermogenesis. Thus, TNF-alpha may act directly in the hypothalamus inducing a pro-inflammatory response and the modulation of expression of neurotransmitters involved in energy homeostasis.

  10. An isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase with reduced catalytic activity for glycogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Beratis, N G; LaBadie, G U; Hirschhorn, K

    1980-01-01

    Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha-glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. The three peaks of activity of the common isozyme were eluted with 0....

  11. [Cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha [activated] in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, José A; Prieto, Luis; Huete, Teresa; Artigas, Antonio; Badia, Xavier; Chinn, Christopher; Hudson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The PROWESS clinical trial has shown that treatment with drotrecogin alpha (activated) in patients with severe sepsis is associated with a reduction in the absolute risk of death compared with standard treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha (activated) versus that of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain. A decision analysis model was drawn up to compare costs to hospital discharge and the long-term efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated) versus those of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain from the perspective of the health care payer. Most of the information for creating the model was obtained from the PROWESS clinical trial. A two-fold baseline analysis was performed: a) for all patients included in the PROWESS clinical trial and b) for the patients with two or more organ failures. The major variables for clinical assessment were the reduction in mortality and years of life gained (YLG). Cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per YLG. A sensitivity analysis was applied using 3% and 5% discount rates for YLG and by modifying the patterns of health care, intensive care unit costs, and life expectancy by initial co-morbidity and therapeutic efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated). Treatment with drotrecogin alfa (activated) was associated with a 6.0% drop in the absolute risk of death (p = 0.005) when all of the patients from the PROWESS trial were included and with a 7.3% reduction (p = 0.005) when the analysis was restricted to patients with two or more organ failures. The cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alfa (activated) was 13,550 euros per YLG with respect to standard care after analysing all of the patients and 9,800 euros per YLG in the group of patients with two or more organ failures. In the sensitivity analysis, the results ranged from 7,322 to 16,493 euros per YLG. The factors with the greatest impact on the results were the change in the efficacy of

  12. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    -amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha...

  13. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    The self-scattering of alpha-active substances has long been recognized and is attributed to expulsion of aggregates of atoms from the surface of alpha-active materials by alpha emission recoil energy, and perhaps to further propulsion of these aggregates by subsequent alpha recoils. Workers at the University of Lowell recently predicted that this phenomenon might affect the retention of alpha-active particulate matter by HEPA filters, and found support in experiments with 212 Pb. Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter media, such as that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.9 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter were observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers by subsequent alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow

  14. Characterization of the human pH- and PKA-activated ClC-2G(2 alpha) Cl- channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A M; Stroffekova, K; Knapp, L M; Kupert, E Y; Cuppoletti, J; Malinowska, D H

    1997-08-01

    A ClC-2G(2 alpha) Cl- channel was identified to be present in human lung and stomach, and a partial cDNA for this Cl- channel was cloned from a human fetal lung library. A full-length expressible human ClC-2G(2 alpha) cDNA was constructed by ligation of mutagenized expressible rabbit ClC-2G(2 alpha) cDNA with the human lung ClC-2G(2 alpha) cDNA, expressed in oocytes, and characterized at the single-channel level. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKA) treatment increased the probability of opening of the channel (Po). After PKA activation, the channel exhibited a linear (r = 0.99) current-voltage curve with a slope conductance of 22.1 +/- 0.8 pS in symmetric 800 mM tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl; pH 7.4). Under fivefold gradient conditions of TEACl, a reversal potential of +21.5 +/- 2.8 mV was measured demonstrating anion-to-cation discrimination. As previously demonstrated for the rabbit ClC-2G(2 alpha) Cl- channel, the human analog, hClC-2G(2 alpha), was active at pH 7.4 as well as when the pH of the extracellular face of the channel (trans side of the bilayer; pHtrans) was asymmetrically reduced to pH 3.0. The extent of PKA activation was dependent on pHtrans. With PKA treatment, Po increased fourfold with a pHtrans of 7.4 and eightfold with a pHtrans of 3.0. Effects of sequential PKA addition followed by pHtrans reduction on the same channel suggested that the PKA- and pH-dependent increases in channel Po were separable and cumulative. Northern analysis showed ClC-2G(2 alpha) mRNA to be present in human adult and fetal lung and adult stomach, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed this channel to be present in the adult human lung and stomach at about one-half the level found in fetal lung. The findings of the present study suggest that the ClC-2G(2 alpha) Cl- channel may play an important role in Cl- transport in the fetal and adult human lung.

  15. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroxisome proliferators, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are environmentally widespread and persistent and multiple toxicities have been reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds trigger biological activity via activation of the alpha isotype of pero...

  16. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: Jqin710@vip.sina.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yao, Jin, E-mail: dryaojin@yahoo.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  17. Low resolution solution structure of HAMLET and the importance of its alpha-domains in tumoricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C S James; Rydstrom, Anna; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes with broad tumoricidal activity. Elucidating the molecular structure and the domains crucial for HAMLET formation is fundamental for understanding its tumoricidal function. Here we present the low-resolution solution structure of the complex of oleic acid bound HAMLET, derived from small angle X-ray scattering data. HAMLET shows a two-domain conformation with a large globular domain and an extended part of about 2.22 nm in length and 1.29 nm width. The structure has been superimposed into the related crystallographic structure of human α-lactalbumin, revealing that the major part of α-lactalbumin accommodates well in the shape of HAMLET. However, the C-terminal residues from L105 to L123 of the crystal structure of the human α-lactalbumin do not fit well into the HAMLET structure, resulting in an extended conformation in HAMLET, proposed to be required to form the tumoricidal active HAMLET complex with oleic acid. Consistent with this low resolution structure, we identified biologically active peptide epitopes in the globular as well as the extended domains of HAMLET. Peptides covering the alpha1 and alpha2 domains of the protein triggered rapid ion fluxes in the presence of sodium oleate and were internalized by tumor cells, causing rapid and sustained changes in cell morphology. The alpha peptide-oleate bound forms also triggered tumor cell death with comparable efficiency as HAMLET. In addition, shorter peptides corresponding to those domains are biologically active. These findings provide novel insights into the structural prerequisites for the dramatic effects of HAMLET on tumor cells.

  18. The Determination of Gross Alpha And Beta Activity of Drinking Water in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, A.T.; Cifter, C.; Altay, T.

    2002-01-01

    Man and his environment must be protected from the adverse effects of pesticides, radiation, noise and other forms of pollutions. Radioactive materials occur naturally in the environment (for example uranium, thorium and potassium). Same radioactive compounds arise from human activities (for example from medical or industrial uses of radioactivity). Drinking water should be safe to use and aesthetically pleasing. World Health Organisation (WHO) and Turkish Standards (TSE) have established maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha and gross beta. The purpose of these study is to determine the level of gross alpha and gross beta activities of samples collected from the different Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI)). After that compare the results versus permissible values of World Health Organisation and Turkish Standards. Collected samples from 14 Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI), have completed. All the analyses results suitable for WHO and TSE. We will give all the research our final report after completed the other Regional Directories' s analyses

  19. Alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone protects lung of BALB/c mice irradiated with 6 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubec, G.; Tichatschek, E.; Foltinova, J.; Leplawy, T.; Mallinger, R.; Getoff, N.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protective activity of intaperitoneally administered alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone (α-MHCTL); 100 mg/kg body weight) in female BALB/c mice and such treated with cysteine treated (100 mg/kg body weight), using unirradiated and placebo treated irradiated mice were tested as controls. 6Gy whole body irradiated was applied and after a period of three weeks the animals were sacrificed and lungs were taken for morphometry and the determination of o-tyrosine. Septal areas were highest in the irradiated, placebo treated mice (68.67 + 9.82% septal area to total area) and lowest in the α-MHCTL treated irradiated mice (55.67 + 11.29%), significant at the p < 0.05 level. Morphometric data were accompanied by highest levels of o-tyrosine, a reliable parameter for OH-attack, in the irradiated, placebo treated group with 1.87 + 0.40 μM/g lung tissue and 0.32 + 0.13 μM/g lung tissue in the αMHCTL treated group; the statistical difference was significant. Significant radiation protection in the mammalian system at the morphological and biochemical level were found. The potent effect could be explained by the influence of alpha-alkylation in homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) which renders amino acids unmetabolizeable, nontoxic, increases lipophilicity and therefore improving permeability through membranes. The present report confirms morphological data on the radiation protective activity of this interesting thiol compound. (Author)

  20. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  1. Measurement of gross alpha - activity in some thermal water sources in Yugoslavia by SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderac, R.; Ristic, D.; Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J.

    1991-01-01

    The possible application of the CN-BDH (type 1) nitrocellulose detector synthesized in laboratory conditions, and also the CR-39 detector, to the measurement of the gross alpha-activity of geothermal and mineral water has been investigated. (author)

  2. SUB-THz AND H{alpha} ACTIVITY DURING THE PREFLARE AND MAIN PHASES OF A GOES CLASS M2 EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Gimenez de Castro, C. Guillermo; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Correia, Emilia; Fernandes, Luis Olavo; De Souza, Rodney V. [CRAAM, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marcon, Rogerio [IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); White, Stephen M. [AFRL, Space Vehicles Directorate, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Godoy, Rodolfo; Marun, Adolfo; Pereyra, Pablo [Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2011-12-01

    Radio and optical observations of the evolution of flare-associated phenomena have shown an initial and rapid burst at 0.4 THz only followed subsequently by a localized chromospheric heating producing an H{alpha} brightening with later heating of the whole active region. A major instability occurred several minutes later producing one impulsive burst at microwaves only, associated with an M2.0 GOES X-ray flare that exhibited the main H{alpha} brightening at the same site as the first flash.The possible association between long-enduring time profiles at soft X-rays, microwaves, H{alpha}, and sub-THz wavelengths is discussed. In the decay phase, the H{alpha} movie shows a disrupting magnetic arch structure ejecting dark, presumably chromospheric, material upward. The time sequence of events suggests genuine interdependent and possibly non-thermal instabilities triggering phenomena, with concurrent active region plasma heating and material ejection.

  3. Automation of a measurement systems of waste drum alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, S.; Bardy, N.

    1985-10-01

    The alpha radiator activity in the two-hundred liter waste drums is found by an IN96, computerized analyzer of the society Intertechnique, from data delivered by a gamma detector (GeHP) and by neutron detection blocks (He counter). This computerized analyzer manages not only the drum rotation and position in front of the detector, but also the experimental data monitoring and their processing from specific programs (background noise, calibration, drum measurements). Thanks to this automation, the measurement number and their reliability are optimized [fr

  4. Uranium analysis in Cypriot groundwaters by total alpha-radiometry and alpha-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, Maria; Kiliari, Tasoula; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Two different alpha-radiometric methods (e.g. alpha-spectroscopy and alpha-particle counting) have been applied to the determination of uranium in Cypriot groundwater samples after separation of the radionuclides by cation exchange using Chelex-100 and its electrodeposition on stainless steel planchettes. The data obtained were compared to show the advantages and disadvantages of the two radiometric methods, determine the alpha-radioactivity concentration and the radiation dose associated with the use of the studied groundwaters. Calibration of the methods was performed by means of uranium standard solutions and the corresponding data were used to evaluate linear range, detector efficiency, detection limits, value of the information obtained, and time of analysis of the methods. Comparison of the data obtained from calibration and natural sample measurements has shown that alpha-particle counting with a simple alpha-radiometer (equipped with a semiconductor detector) may offer only an activity value and not detailed information about the isotopic composition but it is the fastest method and the method of choice if only a screening method for the alpha-radioactivity measurement is required. Based on the alpha-radioactivity data, the corresponding radiation dose was estimated for situations where the groundwaters are used for drinking water purposes.

  5. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs

  6. The anti-apoptotic activity associated with phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha activates the MAPK and Akt/PKB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenning, Martijn; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Avram, Diana; Wirtz, Karel W A; Snoek, Gerry T

    2008-10-01

    The conditioned medium (CM) from mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells overexpressing phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PI-TPalpha; SPIalpha cells) demonstrates an increased anti-apoptotic activity compared with CM from wild type NIH3T3 (wtNIH3T3) cells. As previously shown, the anti-apoptotic activity acts by activating a G protein-coupled receptor, most probably a cannabinoid 1 (CB1)-like receptor as the activity was blocked by both pertussis toxin and rimonabant [M. Schenning, C.M. van Tiel, D. Van Manen, J.C. Stam, B.M. Gadella, K.W. Wirtz and G.T. Snoek, Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha regulates growth and apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells: involvement of a cannabinoid 1-like receptor, J. Lipid Res. 45 (2004) 1555-1564]. The CB1 receptor appears to be expressed in mouse fibroblast cells, at levels in the order SPIalpha>wtNIH3T3>SPIbeta cells (i.e. wild type cells overexpressing PI-TPbeta). Upon incubation of SPIbeta cells with the PI-TPalpha-dependent anti-apoptotic factors, both the ERK/MAP kinase and the Akt/PKB pathway are activated in a CB1 receptor dependent manner as shown by Western blotting. In addition, activation of ERK2 was also shown by EYFP-ERK2 translocation to the nucleus, as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The subsequent activation of the anti-apoptotic transcription factor NF-kappaB is in line with the increased resistance towards UV-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, receptor activation by CM from SPIalpha cells was not linked to phospholipase C activation as the YFP-labelled C2-domain of protein kinase C was not translocated to the plasma membrane of SPIbeta cells as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  7. Development of methodology for detection of long lived alpha emitters in air based on simultaneous alpha and beta activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Vivek; Rath, D.P.; Vinayagami, Bhakti; Ashokkumar, P.; Umashankar, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Interference of the radon and thoron progeny co-deposited on the filtration media is the long-standing problem related to prompt analyses in continuous air sampling or monitoring of any potential suspect radionuclides. The solutions to this problem have been quite diverse, and included, for example, simple gross-alpha counting, the use of beta-to-alpha ratios, and the use of alpha spectrum analyses. The techniques based on beta to alpha disintegration ratios make use of the naturally occurring alpha to beta disintegration ratios and departures therefrom. This ratio is found empirically to be relatively constant. With the help of the solution of differential equation, which govern the deposition of radionuclide on filter paper, one can easily estimate theoretically the behavior of the radon progeny alpha to beta disintegration (or count) rate ratio

  8. Code Betal to calculation Alpha/Beta activities in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    A codes, BETAL, was developed, written in FORTRAN IV, to automatize calculations and presentations of the result of the total alpha-beta activities measurements in environmental samples. This code performs the necessary calculations for transformation the activities measured in total counts, to pCi/1., bearing in mind the efficiency of the detector used and the other necessary parameters. Further more, it appraise the standard deviation of the result, and calculus the Lower limit of detection for each measurement. This code is written in iterative way by screen-operator dialogue, and asking the necessary data to perform the calculation of the activity in each case by a screen label. The code could be executed through any screen and keyboard terminal, (whose computer accepts Fortran IV) with a printer connected to the said computer. (Author) 5 refs

  9. Simulated Microgravity Reduces TNF-Alpha Activity, Suppresses Glucose Uptake and Enhances Arginine Flux in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.; Hashemi, Brian B.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The present studies were designed to determine effects of microgravity upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF - alpha) activity and indices of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1726+/-117,150 u IEU) from Wistar Furth rats were treated as: 1) HARV (High Aspect Ratio Vessel cell culture) , 2) HARV plus LPS 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (palpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV paradigm. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity averaged cell culture methods or by three dimensional cell assembly.

  10. 3-[2,4-Dimethoxybenzylidene]anabaseine (DMXB) selectively activates rat alpha7 receptors and improves memory-related behaviors in a mecamylamine-sensitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E M; Tay, E T; Papke, R L; Meyers, C; Huang, G L; de Fiebre, C M

    1997-09-12

    The alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonist 3-[2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene]anabaseine (DMXB; GTS-21) was investigated for its ability to: (1) activate a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes in Xenopus oocytes; (2) improve passive avoidance and spatial Morris water task performances in mecamylamine-sensitive manners in bilaterally nucleus basalis lesioned rats; and (3) elevate high-affinity [3H]acetylcholine (ACh) and high-affinity alpha-[125I]bungarotoxin binding in rat neocortex following 2 weeks of daily injections. DMXB (100 microM) activated alpha7 homo-oligomeric receptors, without significant activity at alpha2-, alpha3- and alpha4-containing subtypes. Mecamylamine blocked rat alpha7 receptors weakly if co-administered with agonist, but much more potently when pre-applied. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus basalis interfered with passive avoidance and spatial memory-related behaviors. DMXB (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) improved passive avoidance behavior in lesioned animals in a mecamylamine-sensitive manner. DMXB (0.5 mg/kg 15 min before each session) also improved performance in the training and probe components of the Morris water task. DMXB-induced improvement in the probe component but not the training phase was mecamylamine-sensitive. [3H]ACh binding was elevated after 14 days of daily i.p. injections with 0.2 mg/kg nicotine but not after 1 mg/kg DMXB. Neither drug elevated high-affinity alpha-[125I]bungarorotoxin binding over this interval.

  11. AMPK alpha1 activation is required for stimulation of glucose uptake by twitch contraction, but not by H2O2, in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Schjerling, Peter; Viollet, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    into muscle by certain stimuli. In contrast, no clear function has yet been determined for alpha(1) AMPK in skeletal muscle, possibly due to alpha-AMPK isoform signaling redundancy. By applying low-intensity twitch-contraction and H(2)O(2) stimulation to activate alpha(1) AMPK, but not alpha(2) AMPK......, in wildtype and alpha-AMPK transgenic mouse muscles, this study aimed to define conditions where alpha(1) AMPK is required to increase muscle glucose uptake. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following stimulation with H(2)O(2) (3 mM, 20 min) or twitch-contraction (0.1 ms pulse, 2 Hz, 2 min), signaling and 2......-deoxyglucose uptake were measured in incubated soleus muscles from wildtype and muscle-specific kinase-dead AMPK (KD), alpha(1) AMPK knockout or alpha(2) AMPK knockout mice. H(2)O(2) increased the activity of both alpha(1) and alpha(2) AMPK in addition to Akt phosphorylation, and H(2)O(2)-stimulated glucose...

  12. Classification of alpha-active workplace aerosols based on coefficient of transportability as measured by the dialysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhryakov, V.F.; Suslova, K.G.; Tseveloyova, I.A.; Aladova, E.E.; Filipy, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes a method by which potentially inhaled workplace aerosols containing plutonium compounds are classified on the basis of measured transportability in Ringer's solution. It is suggested that the criterion 'transportability' be used in the ICRP respiratory tract model. Transportability is measured as the fraction of plutonium alpha activity, deposited on a collecting filter, that passes through a semi-permeable membrane in Ringer's physiological solution during two days of dialysis. First order kinetic equations are used for explanation of dialysis results. The dissolution characteristics of alpha-active aerosols are important in interpretation of their passage from the lungs after inhalation. (author)

  13. Interferon alpha as antiviral therapy in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease with interstitial pneumonia - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roliński, Jacek; Grywalska, Ewelina; Pyzik, Aleksandra; Dzik, Michał; Opoka-Winiarska, Violetta; Surdacka, Agata; Maj, Maciej; Burdan, Franciszek; Pirożyński, Michał; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2018-04-20

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease (CAEBV) is defined as a severe, progressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with active EBV infection persisting longer than 6 months and developing in patients without recognised immunodeficiency. Rarely, interstitial pneumonitis (IP) occurs as a serious complication in CAEBV patients. The standard therapeutic regimen for IP in CAEBV has not yet been defined. Although interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is known to suppress viral DNA replication by affecting its basal promoter activation process, it is rarely used in CAEBV patients. A 22-year-old Caucasian woman, diagnosed with CAEBV 1.5 years earlier, was admitted to the Immunology Clinic due to a 4-week history of productive cough, fever and general weakness. Cultures of blood, urine and sputum were negative, but EBV DNA copies were found in the sputum, whole blood, isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as in the blood plasma. Cytokine assessment in peripheral blood revealed the lack of IFN-alpha synthesis. Disseminated maculate infiltrative areas in both lungs were observed on a computed tomography (CT) chest scan. The patient was not qualified for the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) due to the risk of immunosuppression-related complications of infectious IP. Inhaled (1.5 million units 3 times a day) and subcutaneous (6 million units 3 times a week) IFN-alpha was implemented. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first documented use of inhaled IFN-alpha in a patient with CAEBV and concomitant IP. Patient's status has improved, and she was eventually qualified to allo-HSCT with reduced conditioning. Currently, the patient feels well, no EBV was detected and further regression of pulmonary changes was documented. CAEBV should be considered in patients who present with interstitial lung infiltration and involvement of other organs. Although more promising results have been obtained with allo-HSCT, inhaled IFN-alpha may

  14. Simultaneous measurement of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using both endogenous and exogenous [4-14C]cholesterol as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylemon, P.B.; Studer, E.J.; Pandak, W.M.; Heuman, D.M.; Vlahcevic, Z.R.; Chiang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The HPLC-spectrophotometric method for measuring cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was modified by using a C-18 reverse-phase column to separate 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 4-cholesten-3-one and by adding 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol to each reaction mixture as an internal recovery standard. With this method, we were able to simultaneously measure cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity using endogenous cholesterol and exogenous [4- 14 C]cholesterol as substrate. Rat liver cytosol differentially stimulated (286%) the 7 alpha-hydroxylation of exogenous [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. In contrast, total cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was stimulated only 35% by cytosol. This method should prove useful for studying mechanisms of cholesterol delivery to cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

  15. Spontaneous local alpha oscillations predict motion-induced blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Barbara F; Jensen, Ole

    2014-11-01

    Bistable visual illusions are well suited for exploring the neuronal states of the brain underlying changes in perception. In this study, we investigated oscillatory activity associated with 'motion-induced blindness' (MIB), which denotes the perceptual disappearance of salient target stimuli when a moving pattern is superimposed on them (Bonneh et al., ). We applied an MIB paradigm in which illusory target disappearances would occur independently in the left and right hemifields. Both illusory and real target disappearance were followed by an alpha lateralization with weaker contralateral than ipsilateral alpha activity (~10 Hz). However, only the illusion showed early alpha lateralization in the opposite direction, which preceded the alpha effect present for both conditions and coincided with the estimated onset of the illusion. The duration of the illusory disappearance was further predicted by the magnitude of this early lateralization when considered over subjects. In the gamma band (60-80 Hz), we found an increase in activity contralateral relative to ipsilateral only after a real disappearance. Whereas early alpha activity was predictive of onset and length of the illusory percept, gamma activity showed no modulation in relation to the illusion. Our study demonstrates that the spontaneous changes in visual alpha activity have perceptual consequences. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  17. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback of the mediodorsal and anterior thalamus enhances correlation between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Wong, Chung Ki; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2018-02-01

    Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) with simultaneous EEG allows volitional modulation of BOLD activity of target brain regions and investigation of related electrophysiological activity. We applied this approach to study correlations between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm. Healthy volunteers in the experimental group (EG, n = 15) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the target region consisting of the mediodorsal (MD) and anterior (AN) thalamic nuclei using rtfMRI-nf during retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. Healthy subjects in the control group (CG, n = 14) were provided with a sham feedback. The EG participants were able to significantly increase BOLD activities of the MD and AN. Functional connectivity between the MD and the inferior precuneus was significantly enhanced during the rtfMRI-nf task. Average individual changes in the occipital alpha EEG power significantly correlated with the average MD BOLD activity levels for the EG. Temporal correlations between the occipital alpha EEG power and BOLD activities of the MD and AN were significantly enhanced, during the rtfMRI-nf task, for the EG compared to the CG. Temporal correlations with the alpha power were also significantly enhanced for the posterior nodes of the default mode network, including the precuneus/posterior cingulate, and for the dorsal striatum. Our findings suggest that the temporal correlation between the MD BOLD activity and posterior alpha EEG power is modulated by the interaction between the MD and the inferior precuneus, reflected in their functional connectivity. Our results demonstrate the potential of the rtfMRI-nf with simultaneous EEG for noninvasive neuromodulation studies of human brain function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  19. Determination of Alpha Activity from Radium-226 and its Decay Products in Human Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, M.A.; Morsy, A.A.; Abdel Hameid, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new and elaborate technique for the quantitative determination of alpha emitting particles in biological samples have been developed using the highly sensitive solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 which allows activities as low as 10 -15 Ci.g -1 to be detected. Blood samples (10 ml) were taken from volunteers. Three pieces of CR-39 were inserted in each blood container and stored at 20 degree for 15 weeks. The pre-etching condition were 6N NaOH+40% C 2 H 5 OH at 60 degree for 3 hours to reduce the background alpha tracks from the environmental radon

  20. Immunodetection of Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Alpha1/Alpha2) in the Rat Uterus and Oviduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öner, Jale; Öner, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization and the existence of thyroid hormone receptors (THR) (alpha1/alpha2) in rat uterus and oviduct. For this purpose 6 female Wistar albino rats found in estrous period were used. Tissue samples fixed in 10% neutral formalin were examined immunohistochemically. Sections were incubated with primary mouse-monoclonal THR (alpha1/alpha2) antibody. In uterus, THR (alpha1/alpha2) immunoreacted strongly with uterine luminal epithelium, endometrial gland epithelium and endometrial stromal cells and, moderately with myometrial smooth muscle. In oviduct, they were observed moderately in the epithelium of the tube and the smooth muscle cells of the muscular layer. In conclusion, the presence of THR in uterus and oviduct suggests that these organs are an active site of thyroid hormones

  1. Effects of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in human hepatocytes: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated to play important roles in the production of liver damage. L-carnitine is a natural substance and acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent beta-oxidation. It is also an antioxidant that reduces metabolic stress in the cells. Recent years L-carnitine has been proposed for treatment of various kinds of disease, including liver injury. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in a normal human hepatocyte cell line, HL7702. Methods We analyzed cytotoxicity using MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release. Antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, activities and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA formation. Expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-alpha and its target genes were evaluated by RT-PCR or western blotting. The role of PPAR-alpha in L-carnitine-enhanced expression of SOD and CAT was also explored. Statistical analysis was performed by a one-way analysis of variance, and its significance was assessed by Dennett's post-hoc test. Results The results showed that L-carnitine protected HL7702 cells against cytotoxity induced by H2O2. This protection was related to the scavenging of ROS, the promotion of SOD and CAT activity and expression, and the prevention of lipid peroxidation in cultured HL7702 cells. The decreased expressions of PPAR-alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1 and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX induced by H2O2 can be attenuated by L-carnitine. Besides, we also found that the promotion of SOD and CAT protein expression induced by L-carnitine was blocked by PPAR-alpha inhibitor MK886. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest that L-carnitine could protect HL

  2. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and alpha-glucosidase inhibition activities from the Mexican berry "Anacahuita" (Cordia boissieri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Jaramillo-Mora, Carlos; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Mordn-Martinez, Javier; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as cytotoxic, alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antiradical/antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from the edible fruits of Cordia boissieri, which is widely distributed throughout northeastern Mexico. Phenolic and flavonoid content were evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay respectively. The antiradical/antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by means of human cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and HeLa), alpha-glucosidase inhibition was determined by colorimetric assay using p-Nitrophenyl a-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as a substrate. Results indicate that extract of C. boissieri fruit has a good antioxidant potential to show a EC₅₀: 137.76 ± 35 ptg/mL and 65 ±2 ltM/g in the DPPH and TEAC assays respectively, inhibitor of the enzyme alpha-glu- cosidase involved in sugar uptake (ICSO: 215.20 ± 35 μg/ mL), cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 (IC50: 310 ± 42 μg/mL) and HeLa (IC₅₀0: 450.4 ±21μgg/mL) cancer cell lines as well as an important phenolic content with 230 t 23 mg/1OOg and 54±11 mg100g g of phenols and flavonoids totals respectively. These results point towards an interesting potential for the fruits of C. boissieri as chemopreventive properties and expand the possibilities.

  3. FEATURES OF THE ALPHA ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN ON THE BACKGROUND OF MEDITATIVEPSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of the alpha activity of the brain on the background of meditative psychological training, depending on experience and qualifications.Materials and methods. Examined 30 volunteers of 25-45 years old, 12 men and 18 women. Depending on the experience of meditative practices, the participants were divided into three groups: a group with no experience of meditation (beginners, group practicing Kundalini yoga in General classes (1-3 times a week – average level, and a group of professionals (yoga teachers, practicing for at least three years and having a daily practice. All participants did not had neurological and psychiatric diseases, and had no dependence on alcohol or drugs and was relatively healthy. A study was conducted of the electrical activity of the brain at rest, during and after the meditative psychological training. As a result we acquired data for the frontal, Central, occipital and temporal leads.Results. Identified a number of changes of EEG parameters in the application of meditation techniques, which depended on the experience and qualifications of the subjects. Changes of alpha activity occur in all areas of the brain with the development of meditation techniques, whereas newcomers have changes mainly in the frontal region. The index of alpha-rhythm at rest is higher in groups with experience of meditation practice. The given material allows to recommend psychological training (meditation techniques of Kundalini yoga to reduce the level of fatigue and correction of psycho-emotional excitation. 

  4. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}-{alpha}-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale; Sintesis de N-Acetil-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartil-Glutamico a escala de Micromoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C

    1984-07-01

    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- {alpha} -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3{sup H}-acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. Supported rhodium catalysts for ammonia-borane hydrolysis. Dependence of the catalytic activity on the highest occupied state of the single rhodium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Xiao; Qiu, Jianxiang; Li, Aowen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zeng, Jie [Hefei National Lab. for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Lab. of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui(China); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Hu, Zhenpeng [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Si, Rui [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-04-18

    Supported metal nanocrystals have exhibited remarkable catalytic performance in hydrogen generation reactions, which is influenced and even determined by their supports. Accordingly, it is of fundamental importance to determine the direct relationship between catalytic performance and metal-support interactions. Herein, we provide a quantitative profile for exploring metal-support interactions by considering the highest occupied state in single-atom catalysts. The catalyst studied consisted of isolated Rh atoms dispersed on the surface of VO{sub 2} nanorods. It was observed that the activation energy of ammonia-borane hydrolysis changed when the substrate underwent a phase transition. Mechanistic studies indicate that the catalytic performance depended directly on the highest occupied state of the single Rh atoms, which was determined by the band structure of the substrates. Other metal catalysts, even with non-noble metals, that exhibited significant catalytic activity towards NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} hydrolysis were rationally designed by adjusting their highest occupied states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  7. ALPHA-AMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM Aspergillus oryzae M BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleimenova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of present study was implementation of the Aspergillus oryzae M strain improved technology using earlier developed method of microorganism selection. 8 pure strains of Aspergillus fungi were screened for the production of extra cellular alpha-amylase using agar medium with starch as a substrate and incubated for 72h at 30 ºС. Zone of clearance was observed for screening of the amylolytic fungi (in mm. Aspergillus oryzae M has demonstrated the highest zone of clearance. Aspergillus oryzae M was cultivated for 42 days in submerged conditions of growth using new method of fungal cultivation. This method based on immobilizing enzymes producers on solid career in submerged conditions of growth gives the way to improve quality of filtrates, which remain clear, does not require additional filtering and easily separated from the mycelium. Moreover, it allows to prolong the process of fungal cultivation and to maintain high enzymatic activity for a long period of time. Presented method allowed increasing alpha-amylase production from 321 U/ml (before immobilization to 502 U/ml (after immobilization.

  8. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandle, Anita T. [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Zahavi, David [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Melillo, Giovanni [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Libutti, Steven K., E-mail: slibutti@montefiore.org [Department of Surgery, Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Greene Medical Arts Pavilion, 4th Floor 3400, Bainbridge Avenue, Bronx, New York 10467 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  9. Differences in genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized and nickel-unsensitized donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrouijal, F Z; Marzin, D; Hildebrand, H F; Pestel, J; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-05-01

    The genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 was assessed on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized (SSL) and nickel-unsensitized (USL) subjects. Three genotoxicity tests were performed: the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test, the metaphase analysis test and the micronucleus test. (i) The SCE test (3-100 micrograms/ml) showed a weak but statistically significant increase in the number of SCE in both lymphocyte types with respect to controls, USL presenting a slightly higher SCE incidence but only at one concentration. (ii) The metaphase analysis test demonstrated a high dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 in both lymphocyte types. The frequency of chromosomal anomalies was significantly higher in USL than in SSL for all concentrations applied. (iii) The micronucleus test confirmed the dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 and the differences already observed between USL and SSL, i.e. the number of cells with micronuclei was statistically higher in USL. Finally, the incorporation study with alpha-63Ni3S2 showed a higher uptake of its solubilized fraction by USL. This allows an explanation of the different genotoxic action of nickel on the two cell types. In this study we demonstrated that hypersensitivity has an influence on the incorporation of alpha-Ni3S2 and subsequently on the different induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes.

  10. Targeted deficiency of the transcriptional activator Hnf1alpha alters subnuclear positioning of its genomic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reini F Luco

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA binding transcriptional activators play a central role in gene-selective regulation. In part, this is mediated by targeting local covalent modifications of histone tails. Transcriptional regulation has also been associated with the positioning of genes within the nucleus. We have now examined the role of a transcriptional activator in regulating the positioning of target genes. This was carried out with primary beta-cells and hepatocytes freshly isolated from mice lacking Hnf1alpha, an activator encoded by the most frequently mutated gene in human monogenic diabetes (MODY3. We show that in Hnf1a-/- cells inactive endogenous Hnf1alpha-target genes exhibit increased trimethylated histone H3-Lys27 and reduced methylated H3-Lys4. Inactive Hnf1alpha-targets in Hnf1a-/- cells are also preferentially located in peripheral subnuclear domains enriched in trimethylated H3-Lys27, whereas active targets in wild-type cells are positioned in more central domains enriched in methylated H3-Lys4 and RNA polymerase II. We demonstrate that this differential positioning involves the decondensation of target chromatin, and show that it is spatially restricted rather than a reflection of non-specific changes in the nuclear organization of Hnf1a-deficient cells. This study, therefore, provides genetic evidence that a single transcriptional activator can influence the subnuclear location of its endogenous genomic targets in primary cells, and links activator-dependent changes in local chromatin structure to the spatial organization of the genome. We have also revealed a defect in subnuclear gene positioning in a model of a human transcription factor disease.

  11. Bovine alpha-lactalbumin stimulates mucus metabolism in gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Y; Shimokawa, Y; Toida, T; Matsui, H; Takase, M

    2007-02-01

    Bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), a major milk protein, exerts strong gastroprotective activity against rat experimental gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this activity, the influence of alpha-LA on gastric mucus metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, RGM1 cells (a rat gastric epithelial cell line) were selected for observation of the direct activity of alpha-LA on gastric mucosal cells and cultured in the presence of either alpha-LA or ovalbumin (OVA), a reference protein showing no gastroprotective activity. Amounts of synthesized and secreted mucin, a major component of mucus, were determined using [3H]glucosamine as a tracer, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the culture medium were determined by RIA. For the in vivo study, the thickness of the mucus gel layer, a protective barrier for gastric mucosa, was evaluated histochemically in rat gastric mucosa. alpha-Lactalbumin (3 mg/mL) significantly stimulated mucin synthesis and secretion in RGM1 cells and also increased PGE2 levels in the culture medium. In contrast, OVA showed no enhancing effects under identical conditions. Neither indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, nor AH23848, a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist, affected alpha-LA-induced enhancement of mucin synthesis and secretion. In vivo, oral administration of alpha-LA (300 mg/kg x 3 times/d x 7 d) increased the thickness of the mucus gel layer in rats. These results indicate that alpha-LA fortifies the mucus gel layer by stimulating mucin production and secretion in gastric mucus-producing cells, and that this enhancing effect is independent of endogenous PGE2. Comparison of the efficacy of alpha-LA with OVA suggests that the activities observed in RGM1 cells are closely related to the gastroprotective effects in rat gastric ulcer models. In conclusion, alpha-LA stimulates mucus metabolism, and this action may be responsible for its gastroprotective

  12. The continuous monitoring of the artificial beta aerosol activity by measuring the alpha and beta activity in aerosol simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hironobu; Oonishi, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    We have constructed the system to monitor the artificial beta aerosol activity around the nuclear power plants continuously in real time. The smaller releases of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power plants can be lost in the fluctuations of the natural background of the beta aerosol activity, when only the beta activity of the aerosol is measured. This method to discriminate the artificial and the natural beta activity of the aerosol is based on the fact that the ratio of the natural alpha and beta activities of the aerosol is almost constant. The detection limit of this system is below 3 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  13. Alpha chymotrypsin coated clusters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biocatalysis in low water media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Joyeeta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes in low water containing non aqueous media are useful for organic synthesis. For example, hydrolases in such media can be used for synthetic purposes. Initial work in this area was carried out with lyophilized powders of enzymes. These were found to have poor activity. Drying (removing bulk water by precipitation turned out to be a better approach. As enzymes in such media are heterogeneous catalysts, spreading these precipitates over a large surface gave even better results. In this context, nanoparticles with their better surface to volume ratio provide obvious advantage. Magnetic nanoparticles have an added advantage of easy separation after the reaction. Keeping this in view, alpha chymotrypsin solution in water was precipitated over a stirred population of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in n-propanol. This led to alpha chymotrypsin activity coated over clusters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These preparations were found to have quite high transesterification activity in low water containing n-octane. Results Precipitation of alpha chymotrypsin over a stirred suspension of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (3.6 nm diameter led to the formation of enzyme coated clusters of nanoparticles (ECCNs. These clusters were also magnetic and their hydrodynamic diameter ranged from 1.2- 2.6 microns (as measured by dynamic light scattering. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, showed that these clusters had highly irregular shapes. Transesterification assay of various clusters in anhydrous n-octane led to optimization of concentration of nanoparticles in suspension during precipitation. Optimized design of enzyme coated magnetic clusters of nanoparticles (ECCN 3 showed the highest initial rate of 465 nmol min-1 mg-1protein which was about 9 times higher as compared to the simple precipitates with an initial rate of 52 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein. Circular Dichroism (CD(with a spinning cell accessory showed that secondary structure content of the alpha

  14. Penetration of HEPA-filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Results of work confirming that alpha-emitting particulate matter penetrates high-efficiency filter media much more effectively than do nonradioactive or beta-gamma-active aerosols are reported. Filter retention efficiencies appreciably lower than the 99.97% expected for ordinary particulate matter have been observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, 238 Pu and 239 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these. Similar amounts of a beta-gamma-active material placed in the test filter system showed no migration, but when homogeneously mixed with alpha-active material, the gamma activity migrated along with the alpha material. (U.K.)

  15. The relationship between the level of salivary alpha amylase activity and pain severity in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Assessment of dental pain severity is very challenging in dentistry. Previous studies have suggested that elevated salivary alpha amylase may contribute to increased physical stresses. There is a close association between salivary alpha amylase and plasma norepinephrine under stressful physical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain severity and salivary alpha amylase levels in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (20 females and 16 males with severe tooth pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were selected. The visual analogue scale (VAS score was used to assess the pain severity in each patient. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and the level of alpha amylase activity was assessed by the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13. Results The level of alpha amylase was significantly increased in the saliva in association with pain severity assessed by VAS. The salivary alpha amylase was also elevated with increased age and in males. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between the VAS pain scale and salivary alpha amylase level, which indicates this biomarker may be a good index for the objective assessment of pain intensity.

  16. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezziddin, Samer; Sabet, Amir; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Xun, Sunny; Matthies, Alexander; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    131 I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci) 131 I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131 I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131 I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90 Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment

  17. In parkinsonian substantia nigra, alpha-synuclein is modified by acrolein, a lipid-peroxidation product, and accumulates in the dopamine neurons with inhibition of proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto-Nagai, M; Maruyama, W; Hashizume, Y; Yoshida, M; Osawa, T; Riederer, P; Naoi, M

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein (alphaSYN) plays a central role in the neural degeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) through its conformational change. In PD, alphaSYN, released from the membrane, accumulates in the cytoplasm and forms Lewy body. However, the mechanism behind the translocation and conformational change of alphaSYN leading to the cell death has not been well elucidated. This paper reports that in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra containing neuromelanin from PD patients, alphaSYN was modified with acrolein (ACR), an aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation confirmed the co-localization of protein immunoreactive to anti-alphaSYN and ACR antibody. By Western blot analyses of samples precipitated with either anti-alphaSYN or anti-ACR antibody, increase in ACR-modified alphaSYN was confirmed in PD brain. Modification of recombinant alphaSYN by ACR enhanced its oligomerization, and at higher ACR concentrations alphaSYN was fragmented and polymerized forming a smear pattern in SDS-PAGE. ACR reduced 20S proteasome activity through the direct modification of the proteasome proteins and the production of polymerized ACR-modified proteins, which inhibited proteasome activity in vitro. These results suggest that ACR may initiate vicious cycle of modification and aggregation of proteins, including alphaSYN, and impaired proteolysis system, to cause neuronal death in PD.

  18. Application of a proportional counter to some particular cases of {alpha} measurements; Applications d'un compteur proportionnel a quelques cas particuliers de mesures {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferret, J; Gasc, M T; Le Du, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I - A measurement method based on {alpha} {gamma} coincidences is used for activity measurements on {sup 241}Am in the presence of a strong {alpha} activity due to Pu. The sensitivity of the apparatus makes it possible to detect: less than 10{sup -7} {mu}C {sup 241}Am in the presence of a Pu activities several hundred times greater. II - The same equipment has been used for {alpha} measurements on {alpha}-emitting sources in the presence of very strong {beta} and {gamma} activities. In particular results are given for {alpha}-activity measurements on powder samples. It is even possible in these conditions, to detect or measure {sup 241}Am. III - The equipment makes possible also: - the absolute calibration of a pure {sup 241}Am source - {sup 237}Np measurements - simultaneous measurements of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} activities in solid samples in various forms. IV - The assembly includes a small-size proportional counter operating in conjunction with a {gamma} probe, together with auxiliary electronic equipment (stabilized high voltages, amplifiers, a coincidence unit, a sealer). (authors) [French] I - Une methode de mesures par coincidences {alpha} {gamma} est utilisee pour des mesures d'activite de {sup 241}Am en presence d'activite {alpha} (due au Pu) importante. -La sensibilite de l'appareillage permet de deceler: moins de 10{sup -7} {mu}C {sup 241}Am dans les activites {alpha} Pu plusieurs centaines de fois plus importantes. II - Le meme appareillage a ete utilise pour des mesures {alpha} sur des sources emettrices {alpha} en presence d'activites {beta} et {gamma} tres importantes. En particulier des mesures d'activite {alpha} sur des echantillons de poudre sont exposees. Il est meme possible, dans ces conditions, de deceler ou mesurer {sup 241}Am. III - L'ensemble permet egalement: - l'etalonnage absolu d'une source de {sup 241}Am pur - des mesures de {sup 237}Np - des mesures simultanees d'activites {alpha}, {beta} et {gamma} dans des echantillons solides

  19. Anchoring alpha-manganese oxide nanocrystallites on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as electrode materials for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li; Qin Zongyi, E-mail: phqin@dhu.edu.cn; Wang Lingfeng; Liu Hongjin; Zhu Meifang [Donghua University, State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2010-09-15

    The partial coverage of manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}) particles was achieved on the surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through a facile hydrothermal process. These particles were demonstrated to be alpha-manganese dioxide ({alpha}-MnO{sub 2}) nanocrystallites, and exhibited the appearance of the whisker-shaped crystals with the length of 80-100 nm. In such a configuration, the uncovered CNTs in the nanocomposite acted as a good conductive pathway and the whisker-shaped MnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites efficiently increased the contact of the electrolyte with the active materials. Thus, the highest specific capacitance of 550 F g{sup -1} was achieved using the resulting nanocomposites as the supercapacitor electrode. In addition, the enhancement of the capacity retention was observed, with the nanocomposite losing only 10% of the maximum capacity after 1,500 cycles.

  20. Epigenetic Basis for the Regulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Contreras, J.I., Prescott , M.S., Dagenais, S.L., Wu, R., Yee, J., Orringer, M.B., Misek, D.E., Hanash, S.M., et al. (2002). The hepatocyte nuclear... Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Coactivator Function Defines the Active Estrogen Receptor Alpha Cistrome† Mathieu Lupien,1‡ Jérôme Eeckhoute,1

  1. Preliminary studies for the determination of alpha emitters using the gross alpha coprecipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Pujol, L.; Suarez, J. A.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2003-01-01

    The radiological quality of drinking water in Spain is regulated by Nuclear Security Guideline No, 7.7 (Rev.1) of the Nuclear Security Council (NSC). this guideline establishes the protocol to follow when the radiological level exceeds 0,1 Bq.l''1. When this level is passed, the responsible alpha emitter must be identified; ''210 Po, ''226Ra, ''230Th, ''239Pu, ''224Ra, ''234 U and ''138 U. Activity due to these isotopes is usually determined using alpha spectrometry with semiconductor detectors. This method allows the activity of the alpha emitters to be determined with a good sensitivity. however, it requires long radiochemical isolations and long counting times, so the method is not suitable for rough estimate radiological analysis. In this preliminary work, we present the conditioning of the sample-precipitate that is essential for further radiochemical isolations. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Study on influences of experimental factors on energy and absolute activity measurements of alpha-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents firstly a review of the fundamental results and conclusions obtained through alpha-spectrometry and alpha-counting, and the influence of energy straggling, energy loss, self-absorption and backscattering, on the determination of the energy and the absolute activity of alpha samples. Is is shown that the techniques of source fabrication and the methods of measurements play a capital influence on the obtained results. Moreover, measurements made by us, with a silicon surface barrier detector, show that the peak-asymmetry and peak-shift of an alpha-spectrum increases with the angle of emission, and that the magnitude of this effect depends on the thickness and homogeneity of the sample, as well as on the geometry of the measuring system. Through an analysis of the angular distribution of the emitted particles, the degree of isotropy of some thin Am sup(241) sources was measured and the influence of source backing and the geometry was analysed. We can conclude that, in general, there is a larger precision in measurements made under very small solid angles around the normal to the sample, and we enphasize the necessary cares required on the production of the source and on the set up of the measuring system. (author)

  3. Effect of active acidity on the stability of amylolytic enzymes in fermentation of corn mash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zherebtsov, N A; Mal' tsev, P M

    1957-01-01

    The effect of pH between 6.5 and 3.5 on the activity of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylases, dextrinase, and on the yield of alcohol in the fermentation of corn mash were investigated. The minimum of unfermented maltose and maximum activity of amylolytic enzymes were found from fermentations between pH 5.5 and 4.9. Under these conditions ..beta..-amylase and dextrinase were unaffected, while ..cap alpha..-amylase activity was reduced to 59.1% initial activity. Considerable inactivation of ..beta..-amylase and dextrinase set in at pH 4.0 and ..cap alpha..-amylase at pH 4.5. The highest yield of alcohol was produced from mash with initial pH 6.0 obtained by addition of sodium hydroxide.

  4. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect...... cells, all others in Escherichia coli. IC(50) studies involving the established CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBBt, TBBz, apigenin and emodin were carried out and the K(i) values calculated. Although the differences in the K(i) values found were modest, there was a general tendency showing that the CK2...... holoenzymes were more sensitive towards the inhibitors than the free catalytic subunits. Thermal inactivation experiments involving the individual catalytic subunits showed an almost complete loss of activity after only 2 min at 45 degrees C. In the case of the two holoenzymes, the CK2alpha...

  5. Standardization and estimation of gross alpha and beta activities for potable water samples in presence of TDS using TDCR based LSA (Hidex 300SL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anil; Lenka, P.; Sahoo, S.K.; Patra, A.C.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Quality of water is important in environmental studies because of its daily use for human consumption and an important route of intake for various elements and radionuclides. Therefore radiological quality of drinking water must be ensured. The screening parameter to evaluate the radiological safety of potable water is by estimating gross alpha and gross beta activities with a limit of 0.5 Bq/l and 1 Bq/l respectively. These have been traditionally being done by radiochemical co-precipitation of alpha and beta emitters followed by counting by ZnS(Ag) counter for alpha and gas flow proportional counter for beta. Gross alpha estimation in water samples with high TDS by ZnS(Ag) is difficult and often leads to underestimation of result due to self-absorption of alpha within the residue. This study was carried out to standardize a method to provide rapid results by simultaneously estimating both gross alpha and gross beta activity in the presence of TDS with adequate sensitivity, minimum sample processing

  6. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Interaction of C-terminal truncated human alphaA-crystallins with target proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbarasu Kumarasamy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant portion of alphaA-crystallin in human lenses exists as C-terminal residues cleaved at residues 172, 168, and 162. Chaperone activity, determined with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and betaL-crystallin as target proteins, was increased in alphaA(1-172 and decreased in alphaA(1-168 and alphaA(1-162. The purpose of this study was to show whether the absence of the C-terminal residues influences protein-protein interactions with target proteins.Our hypothesis is that the chaperone-target protein binding kinetics, otherwise termed subunit exchange rates, are expected to reflect the changes in chaperone activity. To study this, we have relied on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET utilizing amine specific and cysteine specific fluorescent probes. The subunit exchange rate (k for ADH and alphaA(1-172 was nearly the same as that of ADH and alphaA-wt, alphaA(1-168 had lower and alphaA(1-162 had the lowest k values. When betaL-crystallin was used as the target protein, alphaA(1-172 had slightly higher k value than alphaA-wt and alphaA(1-168 and alphaA(1-162 had lower k values. As expected from earlier studies, the chaperone activity of alphaA(1-172 was slightly better than that of alphaA-wt, the chaperone activity of alphaA(1-168 was similar to that of alphaA-wt and alphaA(1-162 had substantially decreased chaperone activity.Cleavage of eleven C-terminal residues including Arg-163 and the C-terminal flexible arm significantly affects the interaction with target proteins. The predominantly hydrophilic flexible arm appears to be needed to keep the chaperone-target protein complex soluble.

  8. Influence of polymer matrix and adsorption onto silica materials on the migration of alpha-tocopherol into 95% ethanol from active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirlings, L; Siró, I; Devlieghere, F; Van Bavel, E; Cool, P; De Meulenaer, B; Vansant, E F; Debevere, J

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the effect of polymer materials with different polarity, namely low density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), on the migration behaviour of alpha-tocopherol from active packaging was investigated. The antioxidant was also adsorbed onto silica materials, namely SBA-15 (Santa Barbara-15) and Syloblock, in order to protect the antioxidant during extrusion and to ensure a controlled and sufficient release during the shelf-life of the food product. Migration experiments were performed at 7.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 95% ethanol was used as fatty food simulant. All films contained a high concentration of alpha-tocopherol, approximately 2000 mg kg(-1), to obtain an active packaging. Polymer matrix had a small influence on the migration profile. The migration of 80% of total migrated amount of antioxidant was retarded for 2.4 days by using LDPE instead of EVA. When alpha-tocopherol was adsorbed onto both silica materials, the migration of 80% of total migrated amount of antioxidant was retarded for 3.4 days in comparison to pure alpha-tocopherol. No difference was seen between the migration profiles of alpha-tocopherol adsorbed onto both silica materials. In the case of pure alpha-tocopherol, 82% of the initial amount of alpha-tocopherol in the film migrated into the food simulant at a rather fast migration rate. In the case of adsorption on silica materials, a total migration was observed. These antioxidative films can have positive food applications.

  9. Alpha emitters activity measurement using the defined solid angle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchis, P.

    1983-01-01

    The defined solid angle counting method can reach a very high accuracy, specially for heavy ions as alpha particles emitted by a radioactive source. The activity measurement of such sources with a relative uncertainty of the order of 0.01% is investigated. Such an accuracy is available only under suitable conditions: the radiation emitted by the source must be isotropic and all the particles emitted in the effective solid angle must be detected. The efficiency detection value must be equal to unity and phenomena such as absorption or scattering must be null. It is shown that corrections often become necessary. All parameters which can influence the measurements are studied [fr

  10. The nicotinic alpha7 acetylcholine receptor agonist ssr180711 is unable to activate limbic neurons in mice overexpressing human amyloid-beta1-42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soderman, A.; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens; Hansen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that amyloid-beta1-42 (Abeta1-42) binds to the nicotinergic alpha7 acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) and that the application of Abeta1-42 to cells inhibits the function of the alpha7 nAChR. The in vivo consequences of the pharmacological activation of the alp...

  11. alpha-Adducin mutations increase Na/K pump activity in renal cells by affecting constitutive endocytosis: implications for tubular Na reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torielli, Lucia; Tivodar, Simona; Montella, Rosa Chiara; Iacone, Roberto; Padoani, Gloria; Tarsini, Paolo; Russo, Ornella; Sarnataro, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizia; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2008-08-01

    Genetic variation in alpha-adducin cytoskeletal protein is implicated in the polymerization and bundling of actin and alteration of the Na/K pump, resulting in abnormal renal sodium transport and hypertension in Milan hypertensive rats and humans. To investigate the molecular involvement of alpha-adducin in controlling Na/K pump activity, wild-type or mutated rat and human alpha-adducin forms were, respectively, transfected into several renal cell lines. Through multiple experimental approaches (microscopy, enzymatic assays, coimmunoprecipitation), we showed that rat and human mutated forms increased Na/K pump activity and the number of pump units; moreover, both variants coimmunoprecipitate with Na/K pump. The increased Na/K pump activity was not due to changes in its basolateral localization, but to an alteration of Na/K pump residential time on the plasma membrane. Indeed, both rat and human mutated variants reduced constitutive Na/K pump endocytosis and similarly affected transferrin receptor trafficking and fluid-phase endocytosis. In fact, alpha-adducin was detected in clathrin-coated vesicles and coimmunoprecipitated with clathrin. These results indicate that adducin, besides its modulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics, might play a direct role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The constitutive reduction of the Na/K pump endocytic rate induced by mutated adducin variants may be relevant in Na-dependent hypertension.

  12. Comparison of direct alpha spectrometry and neutron activation analysis of aerosol filters for determination of workplace thorium air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany); Riedmann, W.; Weinmueller, K. [Strahlenschutz und Isotopentechnik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Direct alpha spectrometry with three different filter types was investigated for the determination of thorium air concentrations at workplaces in the manufacturing process of discharge lamps containing thoriated tungsten electrodes. The method was compared with neutron activation analysis over an activity range of five orders of magnitude. Within the experimental limits of error, both methods were found to be comparable with respect to sensitivity and accuracy. The advantage of direct alpha spectrometry, however, is that it is less laborious than neutron activation analysis and that it supplies information on the degree of radioactive equilibrium of the thorium series, which is important with regard to the estimation of dose. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, Ulrike; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Geller, Beate; Nystrand, Mats; Härlin, Annika; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Keller, Walter; Niggemann, Bodo; Quirce, Santiago; Ebner, Christoph; Mari, Adriano; Pauli, Gabrielle; Herz, Udo; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2009-06-01

    Milk is one of the first components introduced into human diet. It also represents one of the first allergen sources, which induces IgE-mediated allergies in childhood ranging from gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory manifestations to severe life-threatening manifestations, such as anaphylaxis. Here we isolated a cDNA coding for a major cow's milk allergen, alphaS1-casein, from a bovine mammary gland cDNA library with allergic patients' IgE Abs. Recombinant alphaS1-casein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by circular dichroism as a folded protein. IgE epitopes of alphaS1-casein were determined with recombinant fragments and synthetic peptides spanning the alphaS1-casein sequence using microarrayed components and sera from 66 cow's milk-sensitized patients. The allergenic activity of ralphaS1-casein and the alphaS1-casein-derived peptides was determined using rat basophil leukemia cells transfected with human FcepsilonRI, which had been loaded with the patients' serum IgE. Our results demonstrate that ralphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides exhibit IgE reactivity, but mainly the intact ralphaS1-casein induced strong basophil degranulation. These results suggest that primarily intact alphaS1-casein or larger IgE-reactive portions thereof are responsible for IgE-mediated symptoms of food allergy. Recombinant alphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides may be used in clinical studies to further explore pathomechanisms of food allergy as well as for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for milk allergy.

  14. Actions of alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at alpha2A and 5-HT1A receptors: the antagonist, atipamezole, and the agonist, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective for alpha2A adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Nicolas, J P; Audinot, V; Gavaudan, S; Verrièle, L; Touzard, M; Chaput, C; Richard, N; Millan, M J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the activity of chemically diverse alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at recombinant human (h) and native rat (r) alpha2A adrenoceptors compared with 5-HT1A receptors. First, in competition binding experiments at h alpha2A and h5-HT1A receptors expressed in CHO cells, several compounds, including the antagonists 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP), (+/-)-idazoxan, benalfocin (SKF 86466), yohimbine and RX 821,002, displayed preference for h alpha2A versus h5-HT1A receptors of only 1.4-, 3.6-, 4-, 10- and 11-fold, respectively (based on differences in pKi values). Clonidine, brimonidine (UK 14304), the benzopyrrolidine fluparoxan and the guanidines guanfacine and guanabenz exhibited intermediate selectivity (22- to 31-fold) for h alpha2A receptors. Only the antagonist atipamezole and the agonist dexmedetomidine (DMT) displayed high preference for alpha2 adrenoceptors (1290- and 91-fold, respectively). Second, the compounds were tested for their ability to induce h5-HT1A receptor-mediated G-protein activation, as indicated by the stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. All except atipamezole and RX 821,002 exhibited agonist activity, with potencies which correlated with their affinity for h5-HT1A receptors. Relative efficacies (Emax values) were 25-35% for guanabenz, guanfacine, WB 4101 and benalfocin, 50-65% for 1-PP, (+/-)-idazoxan and clonidine, and over 70% for fluparoxan, oxymetazoline and yohimbine (relative to 5-HT = 100%). Yohimbine-induced [35S]GTPgammaS binding was inhibited by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635. In contrast, RX 821,002 was the only ligand which exhibited antagonist activity at h5-HT1A receptors, inhibiting 5-HT-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Atipamezole, which exhibited negligeable affinity for 5-HT1A receptors, was inactive. Third, the affinities for r alpha2A differed considerably from the affinities for h alpha2A receptors whereas the affinities for r5-HT1A differed much less from the affinities for h5-HT

  15. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II alters fibronectin based endothelial cell adhesion and matrix assembly via alpha5 beta1 integrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Margaret A.; Zheng, Hiahua; Liu, Jie; Corbett, Siobhan; Schwarz, Roderich E.

    2005-01-01

    Mature Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (mEMAP) II functions as a potent antiangiogenic peptide. Although the anti-tumor effect of mEMAP II has been described, little is known regarding its mechanism of action. Observations that mEMAP II induced apoptosis only in a subset of migrating and proliferating endothelial cells (EC) suggests a targeted effect on cells engaged in angiogenic activities which are known to rely upon cell adhesion and migration. Indeed, we demonstrate that mEMAP II inhibited fibronectin (FN) dependent microvascular EC (MEC) adhesion and spreading and we show that this depends upon the alpha5 beta1 integrin. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that mEMAP II-dependent blockade of FN-alpha5 beta1 interactions was associated with disassembly of both actin stress fiber networks and FN matrix. These findings suggest that mEMAP II blocks MEC adhesion and spreading on fibronectin, via a direct interaction with the integrin alpha5 beta1, thus implicating that alpha5 integrin may be a mediator of mEMAP II's antiangiogenic function

  16. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Petar; Myny, Katrien; Braeckman, Lutgart; van Sprundel, Marc; Kusters, Edouard; Doekes, Gert; Pössel, Kerstin; Droste, Jos; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries. The study included 70 bakeries from the northern part of Belgium. Based on the degree of automation and a clear division of individual job tasks, four bakeries were identified as industrial and the remaining 66 were identified as traditional ones. Personal, as well as stationary, samples of inhalable dust were collected during full shift periods, usually 5-7 h. The portable pumps aspirated 2 l/min through Teflon personal dust samplers (Millipore, pore size 1.0 microm) mounted in PAS-6 sampling heads. In the collected samples the inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens were determined. Wheat flour allergens were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition and an antiwheat IgG4 serum pool. The alpha-amylase allergens were measured using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay with affinity-purified polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies. In total, 440 samples (300 personal and 140 stationary) were processed. The highest inhalable dust exposure was observed in traditional bakeries among bread [geometric mean (GM) 2.10 mg/m3] and bread and pastry workers (GM 1.80 mg/m3). In industrial bakeries the highest dust exposure was measured in bread-producing workers (GM 1.06 mg/m3). Similar relations were observed for wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens. Bread baking workers in traditional bakeries had the highest exposure to both allergens (wheat flour GM 22.33 microg/m(3), alpha-amylase GM 0.61 ng/m3). The exposure to wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial bakeries was higher in bread baking workers (wheat flour GM 6.15 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.47 ng/m3) than in bread packing workers (wheat flour GM 2.79 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.15 ng/m3). The data presented suggest that, on average, exposure in the Belgium bakeries studied-industrial as well as traditional-is lower than or similar to

  18. Low geometry counter for the absolute measurement of the activity of alpha-emitting sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torano, E.; Acena, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A low-geometry counter is described which allows the absolute determination of the activity for alpha-emitting sources. A Si implanted detector is used to obtain the spectrum of the sample. Two samples are measured with this counter and a 2 π gridded ion chamber. The results an their uncertainties for both instruments are discussed. (Author)

  19. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  20. Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Omata

    Full Text Available The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04-0.167 Hz and slow fluctuation (0-0.04 Hz. Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG.

  1. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  2. [Activity of alpha-amylase and concentration of protein in saliva of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejak, Magdalena; Olszewska, Maria; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Zebiełowicz, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    One of the hypothetical reasons of the increased incidence of caries in women during the pregnancy may be the increased activity of alpha-amylase, which can be found in their saliva. The enzyme takes part in the process of decomposition of simple sugars, which make basic substrate for caries-causing bacteria. The aim of the paper was the evaluation of the influence of pregnancy and gestational age on the activity of alpha-amylase and the concentration of protein in women's saliva. The examined group consisted of 64 pregnant women at age 17-39, between 21st and 40th week of pregnancy. The control group consisted of 44 healthy women at age 20-35, who were not pregnant. In saliva, which was taken before morning meal, without stimulation, protein concentration was determined by Bradford method and the activity of amylase was determined by kinetic method. The activity of amylase correlated strongly and positively with protein concentration in saliva of both the pregnant (RS = +0.65; p women. There were no significant differences between examined parameters in the examined and the control group. It has been observed in the examined group, that there is the significant negative correlation between protein concentration in saliva and the week of pregnancy (RS = -0.35; p increased caries incidence of pregnant women. However, the observed changes of total protein concentration in saliva during pregnancy, suggest that the exact cognition of proteins in pregnant women's saliva may reveal new mechanisms, which lead to an increase of caries risk.

  3. Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Ni Nengah Dwi; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Oda, Masataka; Shimizu, Kenta; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Sakurai, Jun; Matsushita, Osamu; Oguma, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs), the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  4. Excitation functions for alpha-particle-induced reactions with natural antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. L.; Shah, D. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Chintalapudi, S. N. [Vadodara, M. S. Univ. of Baroda (India). Fac. of Science. Dept. of Physics

    1997-07-01

    Stacked-foil activation technique and {gamma} - rays spectroscopy were used for the determination of the excitation functions of the {sup 121}Sb [({alpha}, n); ({alpha}, 2n); ({alpha},4 n); ({alpha}, p3n); ({alpha}, {alpha}n)]; and Sb [({alpha}, 3n); ({alpha}, 4n); ({alpha}, {alpha}3n)] reactions. The excitation functions for the production of {sup 124}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 121}I, {sup 121}Te and {sup 120}Sb were reported up to 50 MeV. The reactions {sup 121} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}n) + {sup 123} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}3n) are measured for the first time. Since natural antimony used as the target has two odd mass stable isotopes of abundances 57.3 % ({sup 121}Sb), their activation in some cases gives the same product nucleus through different reaction channels but with very different Q-values. In such cases, the individual reaction cross-sections are separated with the help of theoretical cross-sections. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions based on hybrid model of Blann. The high-energy part of the excitation functions are dominated by the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism and the initial exciton number n{sub 0} = 4 (4 p 0 h) gives fairly good agreement with presently measured results.

  5. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M.; Goncalez, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  6. Particularisation of Alpha Contamination using CR-39 Track Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakia, M.F.; El-Shaer, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of the alpha particles. Furthermore, the measurement of alpha activity by most gas ionization detectors suffers from the high background induced by the accompanying gamma radiation. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been used successfully as detecting devices as passive system to detect the alpha contamination different surfaces. This work presents the response of CR-39 (for two types) to alpha particles from two sources, 238 Pu with energy 5 MeV and 241 Am with energy 5.4 MeV. The methods of etching and counting are investigated, along with the achievable linearity, efficiency and reproducibility. The sensitivity to low activity and energy resolution are studied

  7. Optimization in the nuclear fuel cycle II: Concentration of alpha emitters in the air; Otimização no ciclo do combustível nuclear II: concentração de alfa emissores no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S., E-mail: pereiras@gmail.com [Universidade Veiga de Ameida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X.; Lopes, J.M.; Carmo, A.S.; Mello, C.R.; Fernandes, T.S., E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Optimization is one of the bases of radioprotection and aims to move doses away from the dose limit that is the borderline of acceptable radiological risk. The work aims to use the monitoring of the concentration of alpha emitters in the air as a tool of the optimization process. We analyzed 27 sampling points of airborne alpha concentration in a nuclear fuel cycle facility. The monthly averages were considered statistically different, the highest in the month of February and the lowest in the month of August. All other months were found to have identical mean activity concentration values. Regarding the sampling points, the points with the highest averages were points 12, 15 and 9. These points were indicated for the beginning of the optimization process. Analysis of the production of the facility should be performed to verify possible correlations between production and concentration of alpha emitters in the air.

  8. Alpha-Driven MHD and MHD-Induced Alpha Loss in TFTR DT Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zuoyang

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation indicate that there can be interesting interactions between alpha particles and MHD activity which can adversely affect the performance of a tokamak reactor (e.g., ITER). These interactions include alpha-driven MHD, like the toroidicity-induced-Alfven-eigenmode (TAE) and MHD induced alpha particle losses or redistribution. Both phenomena have been observed in recent TFTR DT experiments. Weak alpha-driven TAE activity was observed in a NBI-heated DT experiment characterized by high q0 ( >= 2) and low core magnetic shear. The TAE mode appears at ~30-100 ms after the neutral beam turning off approximately as predicted by theory. The mode has an amplitude measured by magnetic coils at the edge tildeB_p ~1 mG, frequency ~150-190 kHz and toroidal mode number ~2-3. It lasts only ~ 30-70 ms and has been seen only in DT discharges with fusion power level about 1.5-2.0 MW. Numerical calculation using NOVA-K code shows that this type of plasma has a big TAE gap. The calculated TAE frequency and mode number are close to the observation. (2) KBM-induced alpha particle loss^1. In some high-β, high fusion power DT experiments, enhanced alpha particle losses were observed to be correlated to the high frequency MHD modes with f ~100-200 kHz (the TAE frequency would be two-times higher) and n ~5-10. These modes are localized around the peak plasma pressure gradient and have ballooning characteristics. Alpha loss increases by 30-100% during the modes. Particle orbit simulations show the added loss results from wave-particle resonance. Linear instability analysis indicates that the plasma is unstable to the kinetic MHD ballooning modes (KBM) driven primarily by strong local pressure gradients. ----------------- ^1Z. Chang, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 1071. In collaberation with R. Nazikian, G.-Y. Fu, S. Batha, R. Budny, L. Chen, D. Darrow, E. Fredrickson, R. Majeski, D. Mansfield, K. McGuire, G. Rewoldt, G. Taylor, R. White, K

  9. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  10. Structural (operational) synchrony of EEG alpha activity during an auditory memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew; Fingelkurts, Alexander; Krause, Christina; Kaplan, Alexander; Borisov, Sergei; Sams, Mikko

    2003-09-01

    Memory paradigms are often used in psycho-physiological experiments in order to understand the neural basis underlying cognitive processes. One of the fundamental problems encountered in memory research is how specific and complementary cortical structures interact with each other during episodic encoding and retrieval. A key aspect of the research described below was estimating the coupling of rapid transition processes (in terms of EEG description) which occur in separate cortical areas rather than estimating the routine phase-frequency synchrony in terms of correlation and coherency. It is assumed that these rapid transition processes in the EEG amplitude correspond to the "switching on/off" of brain elemental operations. By making a quantitative estimate of the EEG structural synchrony of alpha-band power between different EEG channels, it was shown that short-term memory has the emergent property of a multiregional neuronal network, and is not the product of strictly hierarchical processing based on convergence through association regions. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the dynamic temporal structure of alpha activity is strongly correlated to the dynamic structure of working memory.

  11. Evaluation of the alpha-amylase activity as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency and microbiological quality of liquid whole eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Resende da; Menezes, Liliane Denize Miranda; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Oliveira, Daniela Duarte de; Silva, Carla Aparecida; Klein, Roger Wilker Tavares; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-09-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of the pasteurization process in liquid whole eggs, an UV/visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the assessment of alpha-amylase activity. Samples were collected from 30 lots of raw eggs (n = 30) and divided into three groups: one was reserved for analysis of the raw eggs, the second group was pasteurized at 61.1°C for 3.5 minutes (n = 30), and the third group was pasteurized at 64.4°C for 2.5 minutes (n = 30). In addition to assessing alpha-amylase activity, the microbiological quality of the samples was also evaluated by counting total and thermotolerant coliforms, mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Staphylococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. The validated spectrophotometric method demonstrated linearity, with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.99, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.48 mg kg-1 and 1.16 mg kg-1, respectively, and acceptable precision and accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 10% and recovery rates between 98.81% and 105.40%. The results for alpha-amylase activity in the raw egg samples showed high enzyme activity due to near-complete hydrolysis of the starch, while in the eggs pasteurized at 61.1°C, partial inactivation of the enzyme was observed. In the samples of whole eggs pasteurized at 64.4°C, starch hydrolysis did not occur due to enzyme inactivation. The results of the microbiological analyses showed a decrease (P pasteurized egg samples according to the two binomials under investigation, compared to the raw egg samples, which showed high rates of contamination (P pasteurization, only one sample (3.33%) was positive for Salmonella spp., indicating failure in the pasteurization process, which was confirmed by the alpha-amylase test. It was concluded that the validated methodology for testing alpha-amylase activity is adequate for assessing the efficiency of the pasteurization process, and that the time

  12. Regulation of PPAR{gamma} function by TNF-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Jianping [Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States)], E-mail: yej@pbrc.edu

    2008-09-26

    The nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} is a lipid sensor that regulates lipid metabolism through gene transcription. Inhibition of PPAR{gamma} activity by TNF-{alpha} is involved in pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer cachexia. PPAR{gamma} activity is regulated by TNF-{alpha} at pre-translational and post-translational levels. Activation of serine kinases including IKK, ERK, JNK, and p38 may be involved in the TNF-regulation of PPAR{gamma}. Of the four kinases, IKK is a dominant signaling molecule in the TNF-regulation of PPAR{gamma}. IKK acts through at least two mechanisms: inhibition of PPAR{gamma} expression and activation of PPAR{gamma} corepressor. In this review article, literature is reviewed with a focus on the mechanisms of PPAR{gamma} inhibition by TNF-{alpha}.

  13. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  14. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  15. The selective alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist A-582941 activates immediate early genes in limbic regions of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M S; Mikkelsen, J D; Timmermann, D B

    2008-01-01

    to study whether alpha7 nAChR stimulation activates brain regions involved in cognition in juvenile as well as adult individuals. Here, we compared the effects of the novel and selective alpha7 nAChR agonist 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) in the juvenile...... regions critically involved in working memory and attention. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in juvenile than adult rats, indicating that the juvenile forebrain is more responsive to alpha7 nAChR stimulation. This observation may be relevant in the treatment of juvenile-onset schizophrenia....

  16. Combinations of ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors ablate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) mRNA induction. Evidence for selective destabilization of TNF-alpha transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutault, K; Hazzalin, C A; Mahadevan, L C

    2001-03-02

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine whose synthesis and secretion are implicated in diverse pathologies. Hence, inhibition of TNF-alpha transcription or translation and neutralization of its protein product represent major pharmaceutical strategies to control inflammation. We have studied the role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in controlling TNF-alpha mRNA levels in differentiated THP-1 cells and in freshly purified human monocytes. We show here that it is possible to produce virtually complete inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation by using a combination of ERK and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, substantial inhibition is achievable using combinations of 1 microm of each inhibitor, whereas inhibitors used individually are incapable of producing complete inhibition even at high concentrations. Finally, addressing mechanisms involved, we show that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase selectively destabilizes TNF-alpha transcripts but does not affect degradation of c-jun transcripts. These results impinge on the controversy in the literature surrounding the mode of action of MAP kinase inhibitors on TNF-alpha mRNA and suggest the use of combinations of MAP kinase inhibitors as an effective anti-inflammatory strategy.

  17. Orientation of the calcium channel beta relative to the alpha(12.2 subunit is critical for its regulation of channel activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia Vitko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ca(vbeta subunits of high voltage-activated Ca(2+ channels control the trafficking and biophysical properties of the alpha(1 subunit. The Ca(vbeta-alpha(1 interaction site has been mapped by crystallographic studies. Nevertheless, how this interaction leads to channel regulation has not been determined. One hypothesis is that betas regulate channel gating by modulating movements of IS6. A key requirement for this direct-coupling model is that the linker connecting IS6 to the alpha-interaction domain (AID be a rigid structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study tests this hypothesis by altering the flexibility and orientation of this region in alpha(12.2, then testing for Ca(vbeta regulation using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Flexibility was induced by replacement of the middle six amino acids of the IS6-AID linker with glycine (PG6. This mutation abolished beta2a and beta3 subunits ability to shift the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and the ability of beta2a to produce non-inactivating currents. Orientation of Ca(vbeta with respect to alpha(12.2 was altered by deletion of 1, 2, or 3 amino acids from the IS6-AID linker (Bdel1, Bdel2, Bdel3, respectively. Again, the ability of Ca(vbeta subunits to regulate these biophysical properties were totally abolished in the Bdel1 and Bdel3 mutants. Functional regulation by Ca(vbeta subunits was rescued in the Bdel2 mutant, indicating that this part of the linker forms beta-sheet. The orientation of beta with respect to alpha was confirmed by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that the orientation of the Ca(vbeta subunit relative to the alpha(12.2 subunit is critical, and suggests additional points of contact between these subunits are required for Ca(vbeta to regulate channel activity.

  18. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  19. Direct chemical synthesis of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 with high specific activity: its use in receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, J.L.; Mellon, W.S.; Fivizzani, M.A.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    The first direct chemical synthesis of radiolabeled 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is reported. Unlike all previous syntheses, the new approach does not rely on enzymatic 1 alpha-hydroxylation of radiolabeled precursors. Rather, isotope is introduced in the last synthetic step by reaction of [3H] -methylmagnesium bromide with methyl 1 alpha-hydroxy-26,27-dinorvitamin D3-25-carboxylate to give 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 with a specific activity of 160 Ci/mmol. Mass spectroscopy confirmed that the radiohormone consists of a single isomer with six tritium atoms bound to carbons 26 and 27. Synthetically produced 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy [26,27-3H] vitamin D3 is indistinguishable from 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 obtained from the enzymatic 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 (160 Ci/mmol) by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis and in the competitive binding assay using chick intestinal cytosol as the receptor source. Equilibrium dissociation constant measurements with the high specific activity radiohormone indicate a Kd of 8.2 x 10(-11) M for the chick intestinal cytosol 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor--a value considerably lower than the constants in the range of (1-5) x 10(-9) M previously reported

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in baboons through an exclusive effect on the p55 receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Jansen, P. M.; van Zee, K. J.; Welborn, M. B.; de Jong, I.; Hack, C. E.; Loetscher, H.; Lesslauer, W.; Lowry, S. F.; Moldawer, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can bind to two distinct transmembrane receptors, the p55 and p75 TNF receptors. We compared the capability of two mutant TNF proteins with exclusive affinity for the p55 or p75 TNF receptor with that of wild type TNF, to activate the hemostatic mechanism in

  1. Increase in posterior alpha activity during rehearsal predicts successful long-term memory formation of word sequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, E.B.; Takashima, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Jensen, O.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that demanding cognitive tasks rely on an extended network engaging task-relevant areas and, importantly, disengaging task-irrelevant areas. Given that alpha activity (8-12 Hz) has been shown to reflect the disengagement of task-irrelevant regions in attention and

  2. sup. alpha. N-acetyl derivatives of. beta. -endorphin-(1-31) and -(1-27) regulate the supraspinal antinociceptive activity of different opioids in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P. (Cajal Institute, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin(1-31) injected icv to mice antagonized the analgesic activity of {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) and morphine whereas the analgesia evoked by DADLE and DAGO was enhanced by this treatment. The modulatory activity of {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) was exhibited at remarkable low doses (fmols) reaching a maximum that persisted even though the dose was increased 100,000 times. The regulatory effect of a single dose of the acetylated neuropeptide lasted for 24h. The activity of {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin(1-31) was partially retained by the shorter peptide {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin-(1-27) and to a lesser extent by {beta}-endorphin-(1-27), {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) lacked this regulatory activity on opioid analgesia. Acetylated {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) displayed a biphasic curve when competing with 5 pM ({sup 125}I)-Tyr{sup 27} human {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) specific binding, the first step was abolished with an apparent IC{sub 50} of 0.35 nM, and the rest with an IC{sub 50} of 200 nM. It is suggested that {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) changed the efficiency of the opioid analgesics by acting upon a specific substrate that is functionally coupled to the opioid receptor, presumably the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins G{sub i}/G{sub 0}.

  3. Investigation of advanced materials for fusion alpha particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonheure, G., E-mail: g.bonheure@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Van Wassenhove, G. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association “Euratom-Belgian State”, Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Vermaercke, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Delvigne, T. [DSI SPRL, 3 rue Mont d’Orcq, Froyennes B-7503 (Belgium); Chene, G.; Delhalle, R. [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Université de Liège (Belgium); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.; Neubauer, O. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We examine the feasibility of alpha particle measurements in ITER. ► We test advanced material detectors borrowed from the GERDA neutrino experiment. ► We compare experimental results on TEXTOR tokamak with our detector response model. ► We investigate the detector response in ITER full power D–T plasmas. ► Advanced materials show good signal to noise ratio and alpha particle selectivity. -- Abstract: Fusion alpha particle diagnostics for ITER remain a challenging task. Standard escaping alpha particle detectors in present tokamaks are not applicable to ITER and techniques suitable for fusion reactor conditions need further research and development [1,2]. The activation technique is widely used for the characterization of high fluence rates inside neutron reactors. Tokamak applications of the neutron activation technique are already well developed [3] whereas measuring escaping ions using this technique is a novel fusion plasma diagnostic development. Despite low alpha particle fluence levels in present tokamaks, promising results using activation technique combined with ultra-low level gamma-ray spectrometry [4] were achieved before in JET [5,6]. In this research work, we use new advanced detector materials. The material properties beneficial for alpha induced activation are (i) moderate neutron cross-sections (ii) ultra-high purity which reduces neutron-induced background activation and (iii) isotopic tailoring which increases the activation yield of the measured activation product. Two samples were obtained from GERDA[7], an experiment aimed at measuring the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. These samples, made of highly pure (9 N) germanium highly enriched to 87% in isotope Ge-76, were irradiated in real D–D fusion plasma conditions inside the TEXTOR tokamak. Comparison of the calculated and the experimentally measured activity shows good agreement. Compared to previously investigated high temperature ceramic material [8

  4. Intratumoral IL-12 and TNF-alpha-loaded microspheres lead to regression of breast cancer and systemic antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Michael S; Skitzki, Joseph; Stoolman, Lloyd; Egilmez, Nejat K; Mathiowitz, Edith; Bailey, Nicola; Chang, Wen-Jian; Chang, Alfred E

    2004-02-01

    Local, sustained delivery of cytokines at a tumor can enhance induction of antitumor immunity and may be a feasible neoadjuvant immunotherapy for breast cancer. We evaluated the ability of intratumoral poly-lactic-acid-encapsulated microspheres (PLAM) containing interleukin 12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in a murine model of breast cancer to generate a specific antitumor response. BALB/c mice with established MT-901 tumors underwent resection or treatment with a single intratumoral injection of PLAM containing IL-12, TNF-alpha, or GM-CSF, alone or in combination. Two weeks later, lymph nodes and spleens were harvested, activated with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and rhIL-2, and assessed for antitumor reactivity by an interferon gamma (IFNgamma) release assay. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) analysis was performed on days 2 and 5 after treatment by mechanically processing the tumors to create a single cell suspension, followed by three-color fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Intratumoral injection of cytokine-loaded PLAM significantly suppressed tumor growth, with the combination of IL-12 and TNF-alpha leading to increased infiltration by polymorphonuclear cells and CD8+ T-cells in comparison with controls. The induction of tumor-specific reactive T-cells in the nodes and spleens, as measured by IFN-gamma production, was highest with IL-12 and TNF-alpha. This treatment resulted in resistance to tumor rechallenge. A single intratumoral injection of IL-12 and TNF-alpha-loaded PLAM into a breast tumor leads to infiltration by polymorphonuclear cells and CD8+ T-cells with subsequent tumor regression. In addition, this local therapy induces specific antitumor T-cells in the lymph nodes and spleens, resulting in memory immune response.

  5. alpha-MSH in systemic inflammation. Central and peripheral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A; Delgado, R; Airaghi, L; Cutuli, M; Garofalo, L; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Lipton, J M

    1999-10-20

    Until recently, inflammation was believed to arise from events taking place exclusively in the periphery. However, it is now clear that central neurogenic influences can either enhance or modulate peripheral inflammation. Therefore, it should be possible to improve treatment of inflammation by use of antiinflammatory agents that reduce peripheral host responses and inhibit proinflammatory signals in the central nervous system (CNS). One such strategy could be based on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Increases in circulating TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin in mice, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Increase in lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that antiinflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation. In addition to its central influences, alpha-MSH has inhibitory effects on peripheral host cells, in which it reduces release of proinflammatory mediators. alpha-MSH reduces chemotaxis of human neutrophils and production of TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO by monocytes. In research on septic patients, alpha-MSH inhibited release of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in whole blood samples in vitro. Combined central and peripheral influences can be beneficial in treatment of sepsis.

  6. Concentration levels of alpha emitting radionuclides in natural waters. Implications in the use of various radionuclides of reference for the determination of total alpha activity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)

  7. Management of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: With the increasing use of nuclear energy throughout the world for the generation of electric power and, especially, the use of the plutonium cycle for fast breeder reactors (FBRs), close attention has to be given to the safe management of alpha-contaminated wastes arising from spent-fuel reprocessing or mixed fuel fabrication Appropriate handling, conditioning and disposal of these wastes is, therefore, an activity of highest importance to ensure adequate protection of man and his environment from the potential hazard they pose over long periods of time. As the generation of alpha-contaminated waste is expected to increase considerably in the 1990s, when FBRs and the associated plutonium recycling will reach an industrial scale, it was felt timely to review the present state of the art in this area. The symposium organized jointly by the IAEA and the Commission of European Communities (CEC) was the first international symposium dealing with this specific topic. Its principle aim was to serve as 'zero-point' stating the present technical knowledge in view of the future needs for the management of alpha-contaminated wastes, before an industrial scale of production will be reached. The programme of the symposium was drawn up in eight sessions and covered the following topics: general policies; general practices; volume reduction techniques (two sessions); conditioning; alpha-monitoring; actinides partitioning; and disposal options. A variety of techniques has been investigated in various countries for several years for managing alpha-contaminated wastes. The first target was to reduce the volume of the wastes and to study matrices for the immobilization of waste radionuclides with a view to final waste disposal. At present, operational experience has been gained at different nuclear laboratories and facilities. At the same time various disposal options have been investigated. Some of the major items discussed at the symposium might be concluded as follows

  8. Chrysophanic Acid Suppresses Adipogenesis and Induces Thermogenesis by Activating AMP-activated Protein Kinase Alpha in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Lim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysophanic acid (CA is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA. CA reduced weight gain in HFD-induced obese mice. They also decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of adipogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α, the brown fat specific thermogenic genes, were up-regulated in brown adipocytes by CA treatment. Furthermore, when co-treated with Compound C, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK inhibitor, CA was able to restore the activation of AMPKα in both types of adipocytes, indicating the multi-controlling effect of CA was partially via the AMPKα pathway. Given all together, these results indicate that CA can ameliorate obesity by controlling the adipogenic and thermogenic pathway at the same time. On these bases we suggest the new potential of CA as an anti-obese pharmacotherapy.

  9. TENORM wastes and the potential alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the years seventies release-rates and derived limits for releasing radionuclides into the environment were adopted for each particular radionuclide and for a number of pathways. The release-rate limit adopted for alpha emitters was 10 15 Bq.y -1 for a single site, but limited to 10 14 Bq.y -1 for 226 Ra and supported 210 Po. In addition, to meet the requirements of the London Convention, a derived limit should be expressed in terms of concentration, which for alpha emitters was 10 10 Bq.t -1 , but limited to 10 14 Bq.t -1 for 226 Ra and supported 210 Po, assuming an upper limit to the mass dumping rate of 10 5 t per year at a single dumping site. New data on the radioactivity in the marine environment and biota, including plankton, indicated a potential alpha radiation dose to these aquatic organisms due to the release of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes. At the highest accumulation of 239 Pu in the zooplankton Gammarus in Thule, Greenland, due to an accidental release associated with military activities, the dose rate reached about 0.14 μGy.h -1 . Such dose rate was similar to that received by the phytoplankton Chaetoceros and Rhizosolenia from Agulhas current, Africa, due to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) supposedly enhanced for almost one century of gold mining at first, and subsequently because of heap-leaching uranium extraction from the tailings left behind by earlier gold miners. The paper will discuss the alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota, in general, and to plankton, in particular, due to potential releases of TENORM wastes in the aquatic environment. (author)

  10. Inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase activity induces stromal remodeling and smooth muscle de-differentiation in adult gerbil ventral prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Lara S; Góes, Rejane M; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2004-06-01

    Prostatic differentiation during embryogenesis and its further homeostatic state maintenance during adult life depend on androgens. Dihydrotestosterone, which is synthesized from testosterone by 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha-r), is the active molecule triggering androgen action within the prostate. In the present work, we examined the effects of 5 alpha-reductase inhibition by finasteride in the ventral prostate (VP) of the adult gerbil, employing histochemical and electron microscopy techniques to demonstrate the morphological and organizational changes of the organ. After 10 days of finasteride treatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, the prostatic complex (VP and dorsolateral prostate) absolute weight was reduced to about 18%. The epithelial cells became short and cuboidal, with less secretory blebs and reduced acid phosphatase activity. The luminal sectional area diminished, suggestive of decreased secretory activity. The stromal/epithelial ratio increased, the stroma becoming thicker but less cellular. There was a striking accumulation of collagen fibrils, which was accompanied by an increase in deposits of amorphous granular material adjacent to the basal lamina and in the clefts between smooth muscle cells (SMC). Additionally, the periacinar smooth muscle became loosely packed. Some SMC were atrophic and showed a denser array of the cytoskeleton, whereas other SMC had a highly irregular outline with numerous spine-like projections. The present data indicate that 5 alpha-r inhibition causes epithelial and stromal changes by affecting intra-prostatic hormone levels. These alterations are probably the result of an imbalance of the homeostatic interaction between the epithelium and the underlying stroma.

  11. Increase in posterior alpha activity during rehearsal predicts successful long-term memory formation of word sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, E.B.; Takashima, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Jensen, O.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that demanding cognitive tasks rely on an extended network engaging task-relevant areas and, importantly, disengaging task-irrelevant areas. Given that alpha activity (8–12 Hz) has been shown to reflect the disengagement of task-irrelevant regions in attention and

  12. Does alpha 1-acid glycoprotein act as a non-functional receptor for alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M; Oie, S

    1994-11-01

    The ability of a variety of alpha 1-acid glycoproteins (AAG) to affect the intrinsic activity of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin was studied in rabbit aortic strip preparations. From these studies, the activity of AAG appears to be linked to their ability to bind the antagonist. However, a capability to bind prazosin was not the only requirement for this effect. The removal of sialic acid and partial removal of the galactose and mannose residues by periodate oxidation of human AAG all but eliminated the ability of AAG to affect the intrinsic pharmacologic activity of prazosin, although the binding of prazosin was not significantly affected. The presence of bovine AAG, a protein that has a low ability to bind prazosin, reduced the effect of human AAG on prazosin activity. Based upon these results, we propose that AAG is able to bind in the vicinity of the alpha 1-adrenoceptors, therefore extending the binding region for antagonists in such a way as to decrease the ability of the antagonist to interact with the receptor. The carbohydrate side-chains are important for the binding of AAG in the region of the adrenoceptor.

  13. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5alpha-reductase irreversibly catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions. Clinical studies of SPE have been equivocal, with some showing significant results and others not. These inconsistent results may be due, in part, to varying bioactivities of the SPE used in the studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system. On the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5alpha-reduced product 5alpha-androstanedione, the inhibitory potency was measured and compared to those of finasteride, an approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II. SPET-085 effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is very low compared to data reported for other extracts. It can be concluded from data in the literature that SPET-085 is as effective as a hexane extract of saw palmetto that exhibited the highest levels of bioactivity, and is more effective than other SPEs tested. This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to

  14. Microstructure evolution and microstructure/mechanical properties relationships in alpha+beta titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunha

    alpha laths and the prior beta grain size. Nanoindentation testing found that the hardness of the individual grains was related to their orientations. The hardness values were highest near the [0001] stress axis, and they decreased as the stress axis deviated from [0001] orientation. Dislocation analyses indicated that the deformation in individual grains conformed to the Schmid factor analysis where slip primarily occurs on those slip systems where RSS (SF) values are highest.

  15. Characterization of a series of anabaseine-derived compounds reveals that the 3-(4)-dimethylaminocinnamylidine derivative is a selective agonist at neuronal nicotinic alpha 7/125I-alpha-bungarotoxin receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Meyer, E M; Henry, J C; Muraskin, S I; Kem, W R; Papke, R L

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of the naturally occurring, nicotinic agonist anabaseine and novel derivatives has shown that these compounds have cytoprotective and memory-enhancing effects. The hypothesis that these arise at least in part through actions on brain nicotinic receptors was evaluated by examining the ability of these compounds to displace the binding of nicotinic ligands and to affect the function of the alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 7 receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The derivative 3-(4)-dimethylaminocinnamylidine anabaseine (DMAC) was found to be a selective alpha 7 receptor agonist; it was more potent than nicotine, acetylcholine, anabaseine, and other derivatives at activating the alpha 7 receptor subtype, while displaying little agonist activity at alpha 4 beta 2 and other receptor subtypes. Compared with anabaseine and the other derivatives, DMAC was the most potent at displacing 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin binding (putative alpha 7) and the least potent at displacing [3H]cytisine binding (putative alpha 4 beta 2) to brain membranes. Independently of agonist activities, all of the novel compounds displayed secondary inhibitory activity at both receptor subtypes. At the alpha 4 beta 2 receptor subtype, inhibition by the 3-(2,4)-dimethoxybenzylidene derivative was enhanced by coapplication of acetylcholine, suggesting a noncompetitive form of inhibition. Anabaseine and nicotine prolonged the time course of activation of alpha 4 beta 2 receptors, compared with acetylcholine, suggesting sequential channel-blocking activity. As selective agonists, anabaseine derivatives such as DMAC may be useful for elucidating the function of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors, including their potential role(s) in the cytoprotective and memory-enhancing effects of nicotinic agents.

  16. The highest energy cosmic rays, photons and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zas, Enrique

    1998-01-01

    In these lectures I introduce and discuss aspects of currently active fields of interest related to the production, transport and detection of high energy particles from extraterrestrial sources. I have payed most attention to the highest energies and I have divided the material according to the types of particles which will be searched for with different experimental facilities in planning: hadrons, gamma rays and neutrinos. Particular attention is given to shower development, stochastic acceleration and detection techniques

  17. Observations of the distribution and the nature of alpha-active particulate material in a HEPA filter used for plutonium-containing dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; McDowell, W.J.

    1977-02-01

    Autoradiography has been used to determine the distribution and the nature of plutonium particulate material on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter used to filter 239 Pu-containing dust. Higher concentrations of alpha-active material on upstream and downstream folds of the filter indicate uneven airflow through the filter. Observations of aggregate recoil particles on the downstream face of the filter suggest that aggregate recoil transfer, a mechanism which may reduce long-term HEPA filter efficiency, may be occurring. Amounts of alpha activity found on downstream filters confirm this supposition

  18. Metabolic adaptation to intermittent fasting is independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guolin; Brocker, Chad N.; Yan, Tingting; Xie, Cen; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Xiang, Rong; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) is a major regulator of fatty acid oxidation and severe hepatic steatosis occurs during acute fasting in Ppara-null mice. Thus, PPARA is considered an important mediator of the fasting response; however, its role in other fasting regiments such as every-other-day fasting (EODF) has not been investigated. Methods: Mice were pre-conditioned using either a diet containing the potent PPARA agonist Wy-14643 or an EODF regimen ...

  19. Set-up of an alpha-spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calicchia, A.

    1976-01-01

    Principle of operation of alpha-spectrometry system is described, using a solid state detector, which allows to precisely determine sample's activity and specify alpha-emitting radionuclides. Measurements which allow to define system performances are shown, that is energy resolution and real sensitivity of spectrometer

  20. Immobilization of alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gargi; Nagpal, Varima; Banerjee, Rintu

    2002-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for immobilizing alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber was developed. The immobilization conditions for highest efficiency were optimized with respect to immobilization pH of 5.5, 30 degrees C, contact time of 4 h, and enzyme to support a ratio of 1:1 containing 0.12 mg/mL of protein. The catalytic properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with that of the free enzyme. The activity of amylase adsorbed on coconut fiber was 38.7 U/g of fiber at its optimum pH of 5.7 and 48 degrees C, compared with the maximum activity of 40.2 U/mL of free enzyme at the optimum pH of 4.9 and 48 degrees C. The reutilization capacity of the immobilized enzyme was up to three cycles.

  1. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail

  2. Characterization of Makrofol ® DE 1-1 for alpha particle radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazaly, M.; Aydarous, Abdulkadir; Al-Thomali, Talal A.

    2017-09-01

    Makrofol ® DE 1-1 (bisphenol-A polycarbonate) was investigated for alpha particle radiography. The edge spread function (ESF) was measured by razor-blade's edge. Makrofol ® DE 1-1 detectors were irradiated with perpendicular incident alpha particles of energy 2.5, 4 and 5.4 MeV, thereafter they were etched in 75% 6N KOH+25% C2H5OH at a temperature of 50 °C for different durations. The etched Makrofol®DE 1-1 detectors were imaged with an optical microscope equipped with a CCD camera. The results revealed that the green channel of the original RGB image provides the highest contrast comparing with red and blue channel by a factor of 27.6% of the original RGB image. The image contrast of alpha particle-irradiated Makrofol®DE 1-1 detector was found to be inversely related to the etching time since the alpha particle tracks proceed from a conical phase to spherical phase. The spatial resolution of alpha particle-irradiated Makrofol®DE 1-1 detector, in terms of line spread function, was found to deteriorate as the etching time increases for all examined alpha particle energies. The results revealed the potential capability of Makrofol®DE 1-1 detector as an efficient detector for alpha particle radiography such as autoradiography.

  3. Elafibranor, an Agonist of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-alpha and -delta, Induces Resolution of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Without Fibrosis Worsening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratziu, V.; Harrison, S.A.; Francque, S.; Bedossa, P.; Lehert, P.; Serfaty, L.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Boursier, J.; Abdelmalek, M.; Caldwell, S.; Drenth, J.P.; Anstee, Q.M.; Hum, D.; Hanf, R.; Roudot, A.; Megnien, S.; Staels, B.; Sanyal, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elafibranor is an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta. Elafibranor improves insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism and reduces inflammation. We assessed the safety and efficacy

  4. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging.

  5. Physiological covalent regulation of rat liver branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.; Powell, S.M.; Paxton, R.; Gillim, S.E.; Nagae, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical assay was developed for measuring branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity of Triton X-100 extracts of freeze-clamped rat liver. The proportion of active (dephosphorylated) enzyme was determined by measuring enzyme activities before and after activation of the complex with a broad-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase. Hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in normal male Wistar rats was 97% active but decreased to 33% active after 2 days on low-protein (8%) diet and to 13% active after 4 days on the same diet. Restricting protein intake of lean and obese female Zucker rats also caused inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Essentially all of the enzyme was in the active state in rats maintained for 14 days on either 30 or 50% protein diets. This was also the case for rats maintained on a commercial chow diet (minimum 23% protein). However, maintaining rats on 20, 8, and 0% protein diets decreased the percentage of the active form of the enzyme to 58, 10, and 7% of the total, respectively. Fasting of chow-fed rats for 48 h had no effect on the activity state of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, i.e., 93% of the enzyme remained in the active state compared to 97% for chow-fed rats. However, hepatic enzyme of rats maintained on 8% protein diet was 10% active before starvation and 83% active after 2 days of starvation. Thus, dietary protein deficiency results in inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, presumably as a consequence of low hepatic levels of branched-chain alpha-ketoacids

  6. Alpha detection on moving surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Orr, C.; Luff, C.

    1998-01-01

    Both environmental restoration (ER) and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) require characterization of large surface areas (walls, floors, in situ soil, soil and rubble on a conveyor belt, etc.) for radioactive contamination. Many facilities which have processed alpha active material such as plutonium or uranium require effective and efficient characterization for alpha contamination. Traditional methods for alpha surface characterization are limited by the short range and poor penetration of alpha particles. These probes are only sensitive to contamination located directly under the probe. Furthermore, the probe must be held close to the surface to be monitored in order to avoid excessive losses in the ambient air. The combination of proximity and thin detector windows can easily cause instrument damage unless extreme care is taken. The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) system addresses these problems by detecting the ions generated by alpha particles interacting with ambient air rather than the alpha particle directly. Thus, detectors based on LRAD overcome the limitations due to alpha particle range (the ions can travel many meters as opposed to the several-centimeter alpha particle range) and penetrating ability (an LRAD-based detector has no window). Unfortunately, all LRAD-based detectors described previously are static devices, i.e., these detectors cannot be used over surfaces which are continuously moving. In this paper, the authors report on the first tests of two techniques (the electrostatic ion seal and the gridded electrostatic LRAD detector) which extend the capabilities of LRAD surface monitors to use over moving surfaces. This dynamic surface monitoring system was developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and at BNFL Instruments. All testing was performed at the BNFL Instruments facility in the UK

  7. Coevolving residues of (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel proteins play roles in stabilizing active site architecture and coordinating protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongbo; Xu, Feng; Hu, Hairong; Wang, Feifei; Wu, Qi; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Honghai

    2008-12-01

    Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) is a representative of (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel proteins-the most common enzyme fold in nature. To better understand how the constituent amino-acids work together to define the structure and to facilitate the function, we investigated the evolutionary and dynamical coupling of IGPS residues by combining statistical coupling analysis (SCA) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The coevolving residues identified by the SCA were found to form a network which encloses the active site completely. The MD simulations showed that these coevolving residues are involved in the correlated and anti-correlated motions. The correlated residues are within van der Waals contact and appear to maintain the active site architecture; the anti-correlated residues are mainly distributed on opposite sides of the catalytic cavity and coordinate the motions likely required for the substrate entry and product release. Our findings might have broad implications for proteins with the highly conserved (betaalpha)(8)-barrel in assessing the roles of amino-acids that are moderately conserved and not directly involved in the active site of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. The results of this study could also provide useful information for further exploring the specific residue motions for the catalysis and protein design based on the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel scaffold.

  8. Distribution of alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v) integrin subunits in mature and immature human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Mart, M; Santaló, J; Bolton, V N

    1998-10-01

    The distribution of three integrin subunits, alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v), in immature and mature human oocytes has been examined using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both alpha5 and alpha(v) are present at the germinal vesicle stage, while alpha3 was only detected in oocytes after germinal vesicle breakdown, in metaphase I and II stage oocytes. The cortical concentration of integrin subunits alpha3 and alpha5 is consistent with their localization in the oolemma. In contrast, the homogeneous distribution of alpha(v) throughout the oocyte suggests the existence of cytoplasmic reservoirs of this protein in the oocyte.

  9. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  10. Alpha-lactalbumin unfolding is not sufficient to cause apoptosis, but is required for the conversion to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Malin; Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Düringer, Caroline; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Brooks, Charles L; Berliner, Lawrence; Linse, Sara; Svanborg, Catharina

    2003-12-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex of human alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid (C18:1:9 cis) that kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism. Previous studies have shown that a conformational change is required to form HAMLET from alpha-lactalbumin, and that a partially unfolded conformation is maintained in the HAMLET complex. This study examined if unfolding of alpha-lactalbumin is sufficient to induce cell death. We used the bovine alpha-lactalbumin Ca(2+) site mutant D87A, which is unable to bind Ca(2+), and thus remains partially unfolded regardless of solvent conditions. The D87A mutant protein was found to be inactive in the apoptosis assay, but could readily be converted to a HAMLET-like complex in the presence of oleic acid. BAMLET (bovine alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and D87A-BAMLET complexes were both able to kill tumor cells. This activity was independent of the Ca(2+)site, as HAMLET maintained a high affinity for Ca(2+) but D87A-BAMLET was active with no Ca(2+) bound. We conclude that partial unfolding of alpha-lactalbumin is necessary but not sufficient to trigger cell death, and that the activity of HAMLET is defined both by the protein and the lipid cofactor. Furthermore, a functional Ca(2+)-binding site is not required for conversion of alpha-lactalbumin to the active complex or to cause cell death. This suggests that the lipid cofactor stabilizes the altered fold without interfering with the Ca(2+)site.

  11. Measurement of very low alpha activity in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M. T.; Acena, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of very low levels of alpha-emitting nuclides in water needs substantial improvements. A system based on the adsorbing properties manganese dioxide eliminates the need for transporting very large volumes of water and increases the sensitivity of the measurement. (Author) 21 refs

  12. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horschig, J.M.; Oosterheert, W.; Oostenveld, R.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the

  13. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  14. Evaluation of Fibroblast Activation Protein-Alpha (FAP) as a Diagnostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    low molecular weight recombinant human gelatin: development of a substitute for animal- derived gelatin with superior features, Protein Expr. Purif...by the honey - bee , could be modified to a form that was no longer hydro- lyzed by the native activator protease DPP4 but, instead, was hydrolyzed by...TITLE: Evaluation of Fibroblast Activation Protein -Alpha (FAP) as a Diagnostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL

  15. Regulation of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by calcium ion and adenine nucleotides. Effects on S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, V B; Roche, T E

    1981-04-28

    Regulation of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by energy-linked metabolites was investigated. Ca2+, ADP, or inorganic phosphate markedly enhanced the activity of the complex, and ATP or, to a lesser extent, GTP decreased the activity of the complex. Initial velocity studies with alpha-ketoglutarate as the varied substrate demonstrated that these modulators induced large changes in S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate (based on analysis in Hill plots) with no change in the maximum velocity (as determined by double-reciprocal plots). For all conditions studied, the Hill coefficients were significantly less than 1.0 with slopes that were linear over wide ranges of alpha-ketoglutarate concentrations, indicating negative cooperativity that probably resulted from multiple site-site interactions. Ca2+ (maintained at 10 muM by a Ca2+ buffer) decreased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate 63-fold (from 25 to 0.40 mM); even in the presence of a positive effector, ADP or phosphate, Ca2+ decreased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate 7.8- or 28-fold, respectively. Consistent with a mechanism of action dependent of Ca2+, ADP (1.60 mM) or phosphate (20 mM) reduced the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of Ca2+ (i.e., 4.5- or 1.67-fold, respectively); however, these effectors elicited larger decreases in S0.5 in the absence of Ca2+ (i.e., 37- or 3.7-fold, respectively). ATP (1.6 mM) increased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate, and Ca2+ appreciably reduced the effect, lowering the S0.5 98-fold from 66 to 0.67 mM. Thus the activity of the kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is poised to increase as the energy potential in mitochondria declines, and Ca2+ has a pronounced modulatory effect. Comparative studies on bovine heart alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and the effects of varying the ADP/ATP ratio in the presence or absence of Ca2+ or phosphate are also described.

  16. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter medium, identical to that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.97 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter have been observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers, by the alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow. Dependence on the air flow velocity is slight. It appears that this phenomenon has not been observed in previous experiments with alpha-active aerosols because the tests did not continue for a sufficiently long time. A theoretical model of the process has been developed, amenable to computer handling, that should allow calculation of the rate constants associated with the transfer through and release of radioactive material from a filter system by this process

  17. Insights into the electrochemical activity of nanosized {alpha}-LiFeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.; Santos-Pena, J.; Trocoli, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba 14071 (Spain); Franger, S. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Etat Solide, ICMMO, Universite Paris XI, Orsay 91405 (France); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Campus de Teatinos, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain)

    2008-09-20

    In recent work [J. Morales, J. Santos-Pena, Electrochem. Commun. 9 (2007) 2116], we prepared nanosized {alpha}-LiFeO{sub 2} with increased electrochemical activity in lithium cells relative to various lithium ferrite polymorphs. In this work, we studied the previous electrodes in different charge states in order to obtain a more accurate picture of the phenomena occurring during cycling. Exsitu X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed the oxidation/reduction of iron atoms during the charge/discharge process. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggested that the electrolyte is not oxidised during the first charge, but rather than a solid electrolyte interface is formed after one cycle. Also, thermal tests revealed that Fe(IV) present in the electrodes reacted with the electrolyte to form oxidised carbon species. Finally, {alpha}-LiFeO{sub 2} was tested as a positive electrode material in a lithium battery under different regimes. Stabilised capacities up to 150 mAh g{sup -1} were obtained under a C/4 regime. This lithium ferrite is therefore an attractive alternative to LiCoO{sub 2}. (author)

  18. Use of proportional gas scintillator in absolute measurements of alpha-gamma emitter activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.C.B.

    1987-01-01

    The absolute activity of U-235 contained in a U 3 O 8 sample was measured utilizing a sum-coincidence circuit which selects only the alpha particles which are simultaneous with the 143 KeV and 186 KeV gamma radiations from the Th-231 (product nucleus). The alpha particles were detected by means of a new type of a gas scintillating chamber, in which the light emitted by excitation of the gas atoms, due to the passage of a charged incoming particle, has its intensity increased by the action of an applied electric field. The gamma radiations were detected by means of a NaI(Tl) 1'' x 1 1/2'' scintillation detector. The value obtained for the half-life of U-235 was compared with the data available from various observers which used different experimental techniques. It is shown tht the results, are in excellent agreement with the best international data available on the subject and that, therefore, the sum-coincidence technique constitutes an important method for such measurements. (Author) [pt

  19. Radon Progenies as a Source of Gross Alpha-beta Activities in Drinking Water in Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Rabesiranana, N.; Rasolonirina, M.; Rakotomanga, H.

    2004-01-01

    The village of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe, Madagascar is located in a high radioactivity area. With the aim of assessing the health impact of radioactivity pollution, a survey was conducted around an abandoned radium mining. Waters from 24 sampling points, including 5 wells and 13 springs were sampled. The water radioactivity was measured using a portable Triathler LSC, model 425-034 from Hidex Turku. Each sample is counted more than 3 times: less than 2h after sampling, 4h to few days and more than 3 weeks after when 226 Ra attains equilibrium with 222 Rn and its short-lived daughters. Combination of water non miscible, radon extractive LS cocktail and water miscible one is used to reveal contribution of radium, radon and its short lived progenies to the gross alpha-beta activities. Maximum activity values found are : 3.6±0.3 Bq.L -1 for 226 Ra, 554±9 Bq.L -1 for the excess of radon, and 408±8 Bq.L -1 for the excess of radon progenies. Based on these data, a daily consumption of 2 L of these waters by a standard person would produce an annual 226 Ra ingestion well above the annual intake limit for 226 Ra. Moreover, the increasing gross alpha-beta activity resulting from radon progenies raises the issue of health effects. The potential for rapid spring-to-mouth delivery, which is frequent in rural area, may expose the water consumer to the short-lived alpha particle emitters.

  20. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes; Determinacion del indice de actividad alfa total en muestras de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of {sup 210}Po for alphas and {sup 90}Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90

  1. Activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced in germanium by alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, M.P.; Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with E{sub α} = 20.7 and E{sub α} = 51.25 MeV, I{sub α} = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the {sup 72,73,75}Se, {sup 71,72,74,76,78}As, and {sup 69}Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.

  2. Imidazoline2 (I2) receptor- and alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in control and acute restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, David P; Hudson, Alan L; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Coventry, Toni L; Jessop, David S; Nutt, David J; Harbuz, Michael S

    2004-03-01

    Central noradrenaline regulates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. alpha2-adrenoceptors and imidazoline2 (I2) receptors modulate the activity of the central noradrenergic system. The present set of experiments investigated the role of alpha2-adrenoceptors and I2 receptors in the regulation of HPA axis activity under basal conditions and during exposure to the acute psychological stress of restraint. Three separate experiments were carried out in which rats were given an i.p. injection of either saline vehicle, the combined alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist and I2 receptor ligand idazoxan (10 mg/kg), the selective I2 receptor ligand BU224 (2.5 or 10 mg/kg) or the selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 (2.5 mg/kg) with or without restraint stress. Drugs were administered immediately prior to restraint of 60 min duration. Blood was sampled pre-injection, 30, 60 and 240 min post-injection and plasma corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. In experiment 1, idazoxan increased plasma corticosterone levels in naive animals and potentiated the corticosterone response to acute restraint stress. In experiment 2, BU224 administration increased plasma corticosterone levels in a dose-related manner in naive rats. The results of experiment 3 indicated that RX821002 also elevated plasma corticosterone levels in naive rats, however, only BU224 potentiated the corticosterone response to restraint stress. These studies suggest that both alpha2-adrenoceptors and I2 receptors play a role in modulating basal HPA axis activity and that I2 receptors may play a more important role than alpha2-adrenoceptors in modulating the HPA axis response to the acute psychological stress of restraint.

  3. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  4. Drotrecogin Alpha (Activated in Two Patients with the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C McDermid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated (DAA for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive medications were required for a maximum of 52 h, whereas creatinine levels and platelet counts normalized within seven to nine days. Given the similar presentations of HCPS and bacterial septic shock, empirical DAA therapy will likely be initiated before a definitive diagnosis of HCPS is made. Further observations of DAA in HCPS seem warranted.

  5. [EEG alpha indices in dependence on the menstrual cycle phase and salivary progesterone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kondratenko, A V; Kuz'minova, O I; Muravleva, K B; Petrova, S E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the neurohumoral status on the EEG alpha - activity indices were studied in a within-subject design with 78 women aged 18-27 years during 1-2 menstrual cycle. Psychometric and EEG indices of alpha waves basal body temperature, saliva progesterone and cortisol level were monitored every 2-3 days. Menstrual and follicular recording sessions occurred before the ovulatory temperature rise, luteal recording session--after increasing progesterone level more than 20% respect to previous day and premenstrual sessions after decreasing progesterone level more that 20% respect to previous day. The design consisted of rest and task periods EEG, EMG and ECG recordings. Half the subjects began during their menstrual phase and half began during their luteal phase. All 5 phases were compared for differences between psychometric features EEG alpha activity, EMG and ECG baseline resting levels, as well as for reactivity to cognitive task. The results showed menstrual phase differences in all psychometric and alpha EEG indices. The cognitive fluency, alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, power in alpha-2 frequency range are maximal at luteal, alpha visual activation and reactivity to cognitive task performance--at follicular phase. The hypothesis that the EEG alpha activity depends on the hormonal status supported by the positive association salivary progesterone level with the alpha peak frequency, power in the alpha-2 band and negative--with the power of the alpha-1 band. According these results, we conclude that psycho-physiological recording sessions with women might be provided with a glance to phase of menstrual cycle.

  6. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  7. [beta]-hexosaminidase isozymes from cells cotransfected with [alpha] and [beta] cDNA constructs: Analysis of the [alpha]-subunit missense mutation associated with the adult form of Tay-Sachs disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.A.; Mahuran, D.J. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1993-08-01

    In vitro mutagenesis and transient expression in COS cells has been used to associate a missense mutation with a clinical or biochemical phenotype. Mutations affecting the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A ([alpha][beta]) (E.C.3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. Because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric, analysis of [alpha]-chain mutations is not straightforward. The authors examine three approaches utilizing previously identified mutations affecting [alpha]-chain folding. These involve transfection of (1) the [alpha] cDNA alone; (2) a [beta] cDNA construct encoding a [beta]-subunit substituted at a position homologous to that of the [alpha]-subunit, and (3) both [alpha] and [beta] cDNAs. The latter two procedures amplified residual activity levels over that of patient samples, an effect not previously found with mutations affecting an [open quotes]active[close quotes] [alpha]Arg residue. This effect may help to discriminate between protein-folding and active-site mutations. The authors conclude that, with proper controls, the latter method of cotransfection can be used to evaluate the effects and perhaps to predict the clinical course of some [alpha]-chain mutations. Using this technique, they demonstrate that the adult-onset Tay-Sachs mutation, [alpha]Gly[yields]Ser[sup 269], does not directly affect [alpha][beta] dimerization but exerts an indirect effect on the dimer through destabilizing the folded [alpha]-subunit at physiological temperatures. Two other [alpha] mutations linked to more severe phenotypes appear to inhibit the initial folding of the subunit. 36 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Stabilization of {alpha}-amylase by using anionic surfactant during the immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Batal, A.I. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Atia, K.S. [Nuclear Research Center, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Abo-Zable, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: ks_atia@yahoo.com; Eid, M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-10-01

    This work describes the entrapment of {alpha}-amylase into butylacrylate-acrylic acid copolymer (BuA/AAc) using {gamma} irradiation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (AOT), the reuse efficiency, and kinetic behavior of immobilized {alpha}-amylase were studied. Covering of {alpha}-amylase with bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) made the enzyme more stable than the uncovered form. The hydrolytic activity of the pre-coated immobilized {alpha}-amylase was increased below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) (10mmol/L). The results showed an increase in the relative activity with increase in the degree of hydration. The pre-coated immobilized {alpha}-amylase showed a higher k{sub cat}/K{sub m} and lower activation energy compared to the free and uncoated-immobilized preparation, respectively. The results suggest that the immobilization of {alpha}-amylase is a potentially useful approach for commercial starch hydrolysis in two-phase systems.

  9. Regional Patterns of Elevated Alpha and High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity during Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep in Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedner, Brady A.; Goldstein, Michael R.; Plante, David T.; Rumble, Meredith E.; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). Methods: All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. Results: The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. Citation: Riedner BA, Goldstein MR, Plante DT, Rumble ME, Ferrarelli F, Tononi G, Benca RM. Regional patterns of elevated alpha and high-frequency electroencephalographic activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep in chronic insomnia: a pilot study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):801–812. PMID:26943465

  10. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A [Livermore, CA; Mitchell, Alexander R [Livermore, CA; De Yoreo, James J [Clayton, CA

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  11. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring pipe interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.; Vaccarella, J.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a prototype instrument capable of assessing alpha-emitting contamination on interior surfaces of ducts, pipes, tanks, and other enclosed volumes without inserting a probe. Air is drawn through the potentially contaminated volume and then through a detection grid, where ions created in the air by alpha particles are collected and the resulting charge measured with a sensitive electrometer. A filter at the intake end of the contaminated volume excludes externally created ions, so only ions generated inside the volume are detected. We have studied the response of this prototype in initial experiments using calibrated alpha sources with various pipe diameters and configurations, air flows, and source locations in the pipes. The results of these experiments indicate that this method can be an effective approach to assessing internal contamination

  12. Functional activities of receptors for tumor necrosis factor-alpha on human vascular endothelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paleolog, E.M.; Delasalle, S.A.; Buurman, W.A.; Feldmann, M.

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a critical role in the control of endothelial cell function and hence in regulating traffic of circulating cells into tissues in vivo. Stimulation of endothelial cells in vitro by TNF-alpha increases the surface expression of leukocyte adhesion

  13. Temporal Courses in EEG Theta and Alpha Activity in the Dynamic Health Qigong Techniques Wu Qin Xi and Liu Zi Jue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Henz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Qigong is a common technique of Traditional Chinese Medicine applied to strengthen mental and physical health. Several studies report increases in EEG theta and alpha activity after meditative Qigong techniques indicating a relaxed state of mind. To date, little is known on the effects of dynamic Health Qigong techniques that comprise bodily movements on brain activity. In the current study, we compared effects of two dynamic Health Qigong techniques on EEG brain activity. Subjects performed the techniques Wu Qin Xi (five animals play and Liu Zi Jue (six healing sounds in a within-subjects design. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded before and immediately after each 15-min practice block. Additionally, the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire was administered at pretest, and after each 15-min practice block. Results show a decrease in alpha activity after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the Health Qigong technique Liu Zi Jue. Theta activity was decreased after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the technique Wu Qin Xi. Results of the POMS indicated an increased vigor-activity level with decreased fatigue and tension-anxiety levels in both techniques after 30 min of practice. Our results demonstrate different temporal dynamics in EEG theta and alpha activity for the Health Qigong techniques Wu Qin Xi and Liu Zi Jue. We hypothesize that the found brain activation patterns result from different attentional focusing styles and breathing techniques performed during the investigated Health Qigong techniques.

  14. Measurement of Plutonium-240 Angular Momentum Dependent Fission Probabilities Using the Alpha-Alpha' Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Johnathon

    8:0MeV and one bin from 4:5MeV to 5:5MeV. Across energy bins the fission probability increases approximately linearly with increasing alpha' scattering angle. At 90° the fission probability increases from 0:069(6) in the lowest energy bin to 0:59(2) in the highest. Likewise, within a single energy bin the fission probability increases with alpha' scattering angle. Within the 6:5MeV and 7:0MeV energy bin, the fission probability increased from 0:41(1) at 60° to 0:81(10) at 140°. Fission fragment angular distributions were also measured integrated over each energy bin. These distributions were fit to theoretical distributions based on combinations of transitional nuclear vibrational and rotational excitations at the saddle point. Contributions from specific K vibrational states were extracted and combined with fission probability measurements to determine the relative fission probability of each state as a function of nuclear excitation energy. Within a given excitation energy bin, it is found that contributions from K states greater than the minimum K = 0 state tend to increase with the increasing alpha' scattering angle. This is attributed to an increase in the transferred angular momentum associated with larger scattering angles. The 90° alpha' scattering angle produced the highest quality results. The relative contributions of K states do not show a discernible trend across the energy spectrum. The energy-binned results confirm existing measurements that place a K = 2 state in the first energy bin with the opening of K = 1 and K = 4 states at energies above 5:5MeV. This experiment represents the first of its kind in which fission probabilities and angular distributions are simultaneously measured at a large number of scattering angles. The acquired fission probability, angular distribution, and K state contribution provide a diverse dataset against which microscopic fission models can be constrained and further the understanding of the properties of the 240Pu

  15. Microglia acquire distinct activation profiles depending on the degree of alpha-synuclein neuropathology in a rAAV based model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo

    Full Text Available Post-mortem analysis of brains from Parkinson's disease (PD patients strongly supports microglia activation and adaptive immunity as factors contributing to disease progression. Such responses may be triggered by alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn, which is known to be the main constituent of the aggregated proteins found in Lewy bodies in the brains of PD patients. To investigate this we used a recombinant viral vector to express human alpha-syn in rat midbrain at levels that induced neuronal pathology either in the absence or the presence of dopaminergic cell death, thereby mimicking early or late stages of the disease. Microglia activation was assessed by stereological quantification of Mac1+ cells, as well as the expression patterns of CD68 and MCH II. In our study, when alpha-syn induced neuronal pathology but not cell death, a fast transient increase in microglia cell numbers resulted in the long-term induction of MHC II+ microglia, denoting antigen-presenting ability. On the other hand, when alpha-syn induced both neuronal pathology and cell death, there was a delayed increase in microglia cell numbers, which correlated with long-lasting CD68 expression and a morphology reminiscent of peripheral macrophages. In addition T-lymphocyte infiltration, as judged by the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, showed distinct kinetics depending on the degree of neurodegeneration, and was significantly higher when cell death occurred. We have thus for the first time shown that the microglial response differs depending on whether alpha-syn expression results on cell death or not, suggesting that microglia may play different roles during disease progression. Furthermore, our data suggest that the microglial response is modulated by early events related to alpha-syn expression in substantia nigra and persists at the long term.

  16. Study on molecular epidemiology of the alpha-thalassemias in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Liu, Jingzhong; Wang, Lirong; Liang, Xin; Xiao, Bai; Su, Liu; Zhou, Yan; Pan, Lizhen

    2004-01-01

    Guangxi is one of the provinces of Southern China with the highest incidence of alpha-thalassemia (thal). Liuzhou is the second biggest city in Guangxi. To find out the incidence of the various alpha-thal genotypes, and their distribution in the Liuzhou area, an F820 Blood Cell Analysis System was used to measure the parameters of red blood cells. A SPIFE Rapid Auto-Electrophoresis System was used to analyze the normal and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the alpha-globin genotypes. Thirty-two (2.05%) out of 7805 young couples undergoing pre-marriage counseling, were diagnosed as having an Hb H (beta4) disease. The study of 1228 cord blood samples revealed 138 newborn children carrying an alpha-thal determinant with nine different genotypes, thus making the total incidence of alpha-thal 11.24%. Among 185 cases of Hb H, 119 (64.1%) were confirmed as being deletional, and 66 cases (35.7%) nondeletional types. The severity of the Hb H diseases could be classified in the following order: alphaCSalpha/--SEA (alphaConstant (Spring)alpha/--Southeast Asia); alpha(-4.2)/--SEA; alpha(-3.7)/--SEA. Ten cases of alpha-thal determinants were found in combination with beta-thal. The mPCR technique can detect all kinds of combinations of the three common large deletions (--SEA, alpha(-4.2) and alpha(-3.7)) accurately and conveniently.

  17. Determination of radium activity in some natural mineral waters using radioactive chemical extraction method and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Oanh; Duong Van Thang; Duong Duc Thang; Nguyen Van Khanh; Doan Thuy Hau; Pham Bao Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    The 226 Ra activity concentration in several of mineral water samples of Northern Vietnam was measured by using alpha spectrometry. Ra adsorption techniques on manganese oxide were applied to produce thin alpha samples. The efficiency of sample preparation process was determined by conducting similar procedures for IAEA reference materials. The 226 Ra content in mineral water ranged from (11.33 ± 1.00) mBq/l to (38.00 ± 4.50) mBq/l. The measured maximum values do not exceed the permissible limit radiation dose for all samples (100 mBq/l - USEPA ). This study may be useful for assessing impacts of radiation dose from mineral water on human health. (author)

  18. The use of the long-range alpha detector (LRAD) for alpha emission surveys at active and inactive firing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.F.V.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Garner, S.E.; Walter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Surveys were carried out at five different firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure residual alpha emissions in earth contaminated with natural and depleted uranium. This contamination is caused by controlled experimental explosions during testing of the non fissile components of nuclear weapons. Two conclusions were reached: the first is that post shot clearing of the experimental areas is effective at removing contamination and the second is that the diminution of alpha emissions due to aging is small

  19. Hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) promotes the carcinogenic effects of benzo [alpha] pyrene by interacting with microsomal epoxide hydrolase and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin-Yan; Chen, Wan-Nan; Jiao, Bo-Yan; Lin, Wan-Song; Wu, Yun-Li; Liu, Ling-Ling; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases in chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers who often have concomitant increase in the levels of benzo[alpha]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide(±) (BPDE)-DNA adduct in liver tissues, suggesting a possible co-carcinogenesis of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and benzo[alpha]pyrene in HCC; however the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. The interaction between hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was confirmed using GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assay; the effects of HBSP on mEH-mediated B[alpha]P metabolism was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); and the influences of HBSP on B[alpha]P carcinogenicity were evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor xenograft. HBSP could interact with mEH in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction was mediated by the N terminal 47 amino acid residues of HBSP. HBSP could greatly enhance the hydrolysis activity of mEH in cell-free mouse liver microsomes, thus accelerating the metabolism of benzo[alpha]pyrene to produce more ultimate carcinnogen, BPDE, and this effect of HBSP requires the intact HBSP molecule. Expression of HBSP significantly increased the formation of BPDE-DNA adduct in benzo[alpha]pyrene-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells, and this enhancement was blocked by knockdown of mEH. HBSP could enhance the cell proliferation, accelerate the G1/S transition, and promote cell transformation and tumorigenesis of B[alpha]P-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells. Our results demonstrated that HBSP could promote carcinogenic effects of B[alpha]P by interacting with mEH and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

  20. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horschig, Jörn M; Oosterheert, Wouter; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direction of attention from the magnetoencephalogram by a template matching classifier and provided the classification outcome to the subject in real-time using a novel graphical user interface. Training data for the templates were obtained from a Posner-cueing task conducted just before the BCI task. Eleven subjects participated in four sessions each. Eight of the subjects achieved classification rates significantly above chance level. Subjects were able to significantly increase their performance from the first to the second session. Individual patterns of posterior alpha power remained stable throughout the four sessions and did not change with increased performance. We conclude that posterior alpha power can successfully be used as a control signal in brain-computer interfaces. We also discuss several ideas for further improving the setup and propose future research based on solid hypotheses about behavioral consequences of modulating neuronal oscillations by brain computer interfacing.

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Jeong, Hyung Min; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2013-05-10

    Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3α) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3α regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3α up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3α regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  3. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  4. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  5. Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin loci in normals and alpha-thalassemics.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1981-01-01

    The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expressi...

  6. Origin of the highest energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Stanev, Todor

    2000-06-01

    Introducing a simple Galactic wind model patterned after the solar wind we show that back-tracing the orbits of the highest energy cosmic events suggests that they may all come from the Virgo cluster, and so probably from the active radio galaxy M87. This confirms a long standing expectation. Those powerful radio galaxies that have their relativistic jets stuck in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, such as 3C147, will then enable us to derive limits on the production of any new kind of particle, expected in some extensions of the standard model in particle physics. New data from HIRES will be crucial in testing the model proposed here.

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) transcription and translation in the CD4+ T cell-transplanted scid mouse model of colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, A M; Whiting, C V; Bonhagen, K

    1999-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of activated CD4+ alpha/beta T cell blasts from the spleens of immunocompetent C.B-17+/+ or BALB/cdm2 mice into C.B-17scid/scid (scid) mice induces a colitis in the scid recipient within 8 weeks, which progresses to severe disease within 16 weeks. T cells isolated from......-labelled riboprobes were used. The prominent myeloid cell infiltrate in diseased tissues comprised F4/80+, Mac-l+ macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and activated macrophages. TNF-alpha transcription and translation were associated with activated macrophages in the lamina propria. Activated macrophages...

  8. Characterization of a new cell-bound alpha-amylase in Bacillus subtilis 168 Marburg that is only immunologically related to the exocellular alpha-amylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddaoui, E; Petit-Glatron, M F; Chambert, R

    1995-01-01

    Immunoblot analysis of Bacillus subtilis cell extracts with polyclonal antibodies, raised against purified exocellular alpha-amylase, revealed one protein species of 82,000 Da. This protein was found even in cells in which the amyE gene, encoding exocellular alpha-amylase, was disrupted. Isolated from the membrane fraction, the 82,000-M(r) protein displayed an alpha-amylase activity in vitro.

  9. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  10. Alpha oscillations correlate with the successful inhibition of unattended stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Barbara F; Haarmeier, Thomas; Jensen, Ole

    2011-09-01

    Because the human visual system is continually being bombarded with inputs, it is necessary to have effective mechanisms for filtering out irrelevant information. This is partly achieved by the allocation of attention, allowing the visual system to process relevant input while blocking out irrelevant input. What is the physiological substrate of attentional allocation? It has been proposed that alpha activity reflects functional inhibition. Here we asked if inhibition by alpha oscillations has behavioral consequences for suppressing the perception of unattended input. To this end, we investigated the influence of alpha activity on motion processing in two attentional conditions using magneto-encephalography. The visual stimuli used consisted of two random-dot kinematograms presented simultaneously to the left and right visual hemifields. Subjects were cued to covertly attend the left or right kinematogram. After 1.5 sec, a second cue tested whether subjects could report the direction of coherent motion in the attended (80%) or unattended hemifield (20%). Occipital alpha power was higher contralateral to the unattended side than to the attended side, thus suggesting inhibition of the unattended hemifield. Our key finding is that this alpha lateralization in the 20% invalidly cued trials did correlate with the perception of motion direction: Subjects with pronounced alpha lateralization were worse at detecting motion direction in the unattended hemifield. In contrast, lateralization did not correlate with visual discrimination in the attended visual hemifield. Our findings emphasize the suppressive nature of alpha oscillations and suggest that processing of inputs outside the field of attention is weakened by means of increased alpha activity.

  11. Interacting Memory Systems—Does EEG Alpha Activity Respond to Semantic Long-Term Memory Access in a Working Memory Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Berger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory consists of various individual processes which form a dynamic system co-ordinated by central (executive functions. The episodic buffer as direct interface between episodic long-term memory (LTM and working memory (WM is fairly well studied but such direct interaction is less clear in semantic LTM. Here, we designed a verbal delayed-match-to-sample task specifically to differentiate between pure information maintenance and mental manipulation of memory traces with and without involvement of access to semantic LTM. Task-related amplitude differences of electroencephalographic (EEG oscillatory brain activity showed a linear increase in frontal-midline theta and linear suppression of parietal beta amplitudes relative to memory operation complexity. Amplitude suppression at upper alpha frequency, which was previously found to indicate access to semantic LTM, was only sensitive to mental manipulation in general, irrespective of LTM involvement. This suggests that suppression of upper EEG alpha activity might rather reflect unspecific distributed cortical activation during complex mental processes than accessing semantic LTM.

  12. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t -test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T -test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  13. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. SUMMARY Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed

  14. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis , the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora , a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH • ) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC 50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH • , in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed synergistic effect over alpha-glucosidase and peroxyl radicals

  15. Human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptors. I. Functional exploration and pharmacological definition with selected alpha-2 agonists and antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galitzky, J.; Mauriege, P.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate more fully the pharmacological characteristics of the human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Biological assays were performed on intact isolated fat cells while radioligand binding studies were carried out with [ 3 H]yohimbine in membranes. These pharmacological studies brought: (1) a critical definition of the limits of the experimental conditions required for the exploration of alpha-2 adrenergic responsiveness on human fat cells and membranes; (2) an improvement in the pharmacological definition of the human fat cell postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Among alpha-2 agonists, UK-14,304 was the most potent and the relative order of potency was: UK-14,304 greater than p-aminoclonidine greater than clonidine = B-HT 920 greater than rilmenidine. For alpha-2 antagonists, the potency order was: yohimbine greater than idazoxan greater than SK ampersand F-86,466 much greater than benextramine; (3) a description of the impact of benextramine (irreversible alpha-1/alpha-2 antagonist) on human fat cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and on human fat cell function; the drug inactivates the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors with a minor impact on beta adrenergic receptors and without noticeable alterations of fat cell function as assessed by preservation of beta adrenergic and Al-adenosine receptor-mediated lipolytic responses; and (4) a definition of the relationship existing between alpha-2 adrenergic receptor occupancy, inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and antilipolysis with full and partial agonists. The existence of a receptor reserve must be taken into account when evaluating alpha-2 adrenergic receptor distribution and regulation of human fat cells

  16. Effects of a dietary Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, J M; Abney, M D; Galyean, M L; Rivera, J D; Hanson, K C; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

    2007-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of roughage source (alfalfa hay vs. cottonseed hulls) and supplemental alpha-amylase at 950 dextrinizing units (DU)/kg of DM. Significant roughage source x alpha-amylase interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for performance. In steers fed cottonseed hulls, supplemental alpha-amylase increased ADG through d 28 and 112 and tended (P < 0.15) to increase ADG in all other periods. The increases in ADG were related to increased DMI and efficiency of gain during the initial 28-d period but were primarily related to increased DMI as the feeding period progressed. Supplemental alpha-amylase increased (P = 0.02) the LM area across both roughage sources. In Exp. 2, 96 crossbred heifers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of corn processing (dry cracked vs. high moisture) and supplemental alpha-amylase concentration (0, 580, or 1,160 DU/kg of DM). Alpha-amylase supplementation increased DMI (P = 0.05) and ADG (P = 0.03) during the initial 28 d on feed and carcass-adjusted ADG (P = 0.04) across corn processing methods. Longissimus muscle area was greatest (quadratic effect, P = 0.04), and yield grade was least (quadratic effect, P = 0.02) in heifers fed 580 DU of alpha-amylase/kg of DM across corn processing methods. In Exp. 3, 56 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of supplemental alpha-amylase (930 DU/kg of DM) on performance when DMI was restricted to yield a programmed ADG. Alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect performance when DMI was restricted. We conclude that dietary alpha-amylase supplementation of finishing beef diets may result in

  17. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) agonist FGF1 and the neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide FGL activate FGFR substrate 2alpha differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongshuo; Li, Shizhong; Berezin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) both by FGFs and by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is crucial in the development and function of the nervous system. We found that FGFR substrate 2alpha (FRS2alpha), Src homologous and collagen A (ShcA), and phospholipase-Cg...

  18. A network of hydrophobic residues impeding helix alphaC rotation maintains latency of kinase Gcn2, which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárriz, Andrés; Qiu, Hongfang; Dey, Madhusudan; Seo, Eun-Joo; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2009-03-01

    Kinase Gcn2 is activated by amino acid starvation and downregulates translation initiation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). The Gcn2 kinase domain (KD) is inert and must be activated by tRNA binding to the adjacent regulatory domain. Previous work indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn2 latency results from inflexibility of the hinge connecting the N and C lobes and a partially obstructed ATP-binding site in the KD. Here, we provide strong evidence that a network of hydrophobic interactions centered on Leu-856 also promotes latency by constraining helix alphaC rotation in the KD in a manner relieved during amino acid starvation by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation of Thr-882 in the activation loop. Thus, we show that mutationally disrupting the hydrophobic network in various ways constitutively activates eIF2alpha phosphorylation in vivo and bypasses the requirement for a key tRNA binding motif (m2) and Thr-882 in Gcn2. In particular, replacing Leu-856 with any nonhydrophobic residue activates Gcn2, while substitutions with various hydrophobic residues maintain kinase latency. We further provide strong evidence that parallel, back-to-back dimerization of the KD is a step on the Gcn2 activation pathway promoted by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation. Remarkably, mutations that disrupt the L856 hydrophobic network or enhance hinge flexibility eliminate the need for the conserved salt bridge at the parallel dimer interface, implying that KD dimerization facilitates the reorientation of alphaC and remodeling of the active site for enhanced ATP binding and catalysis. We propose that hinge remodeling, parallel dimerization, and reorientation of alphaC are mutually reinforcing conformational transitions stimulated by tRNA binding and secured by the ensuing autophosphorylation of T882 for stable kinase activation.

  19. Alpha amylase and Alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of aqueous stem extract of Salacia oblonga and its GC-MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Raja Malar Chelladurai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Our present investigation deals with the phytochemical screening, estimation of total flavonoids, terpenoids and tannin contents to evaluate the anti-diabetic activities of Salacia oblonga stem followed by GC-MS analysis. It explores the natural compounds and the potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions of stem extracts. The aqueous stem extract was selected from other extracts (ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and chloroform for the in vitro study of anti-diabetic activity by alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory assays. The stem extract was also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to identify the natural chemical components. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous stem extract showed major classes of secondary metabolites such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins. The total flavonoid, terpenoid, and tannin contents were quantified as 19.82±0.06 mg QE/g, 96.2±0.20 mg/g and 11.25±0.03 mg TAE/g respectively. The percentage inhibition of assays showed maximum inhibitory effects (59.46±0.04% and 68.51±0.01% at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. The IC50 values of stem extract was found to be 73.56 mg/mL and 80.90 mg/mL for alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition. Fifteen chemical constituents were found by GC-MS analysis. This study suggest the aqueous stem extract of Salacia oblonga might be considered as potential source of bio active constituents with excellent antidiabetic activity.

  20. Prediction for the high-level alpha-active waste to be generated by nuclear power stations in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1977-04-01

    Starting with a forecast for the nuclear power generating capacity to be installed in the Member States of the European Communities before the end of this century, a prediction is made of the annual production of high-level alpha-active waste from reprocessing plants and the corresponding accumulation up to the year 2000. The isotopic composition of the alpha-active waste from individual reactor types was calculated and an estimation of the influence of recycling plutonium through light water reactors on the produced quantity of higher actinides is made

  1. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  2. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  3. Identification of potential target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 and HUVEC cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, Cagri, E-mail: cagri.gulec@gmail.com; Coban, Neslihan, E-mail: neslic@istanbul.edu.tr; Ozsait-Selcuk, Bilge, E-mail: ozsaitb@istanbul.edu.tr; Sirma-Ekmekci, Sema, E-mail: semasirma@gmail.com; Yildirim, Ozlem, E-mail: ozlm-yildirim@hotmail.com; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan, E-mail: nihanerginel@yahoo.com

    2017-04-01

    ROR-alpha is a nuclear receptor, activity of which can be modulated by natural or synthetic ligands. Due to its possible involvement in, and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, we aimed to identify ROR-alpha target genes in monocytic and endothelial cell lines. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by tiling array (ChIP-on-chip) for ROR-alpha in monocytic cell line THP1 and endothelial cell line HUVEC. Following bioinformatic analysis of the array data, we tested four candidate genes in terms of dependence of their expression level on ligand-mediated ROR-alpha activity, and two of them in terms of promoter occupancy by ROR-alpha. Bioinformatic analyses of ChIP-on-chip data suggested that ROR-alpha binds to genomic regions near the transcription start site (TSS) of more than 3000 genes in THP1 and HUVEC. Potential ROR-alpha target genes in both cell types seem to be involved mainly in membrane receptor activity, signal transduction and ion transport. While SPP1 and IKBKA were shown to be direct target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 monocytes, inflammation related gene HMOX1 and heat shock protein gene HSPA8 were shown to be potential target genes of ROR-alpha. Our results suggest that ROR-alpha may regulate signaling receptor activity, and transmembrane transport activity through its potential target genes. ROR-alpha seems also to play role in cellular sensitivity to environmental substances like arsenite and chloroprene. Although, the expression analyses have shown that synthetic ROR-alpha ligands can modulate some of potential ROR-alpha target genes, functional significance of ligand-dependent modulation of gene expression needs to be confirmed with further analyses.

  4. Influence of thermodynamic parameter in Lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase inhibitory activity as antifungal agents: a QSAR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Lakshmi, Manickavasagam; Arockia Babu, Marianesan; Kaskhedikar, Sathish Gopalrao

    2006-06-01

    A quantitative structure activity relationship, Hansch approach was applied on twenty compounds of chromene derivatives as Lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase inhibitory activity against eight fungal organisms. Various physicochemical descriptors and reported minimum inhibitory concentration values of different fungal organisms were used as independent variables and dependent variable respectively. The best models for eight different fungal organisms were first validated by leave-one-out cross validation procedure. It was revealed that thermodynamic parameters were found to have overall significant correlationship with anti fungal activity and these studies provide an insight to design new molecules.

  5. Modification of the activity of an alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis by several surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Rodríguez,Vicente; Jurado Alameda,Encarnación; Martínez Gallegos,Juan Francisco; Reyes Requena,Antonia; García López,Ana Isabel; Sampaio Cabral,Joaquim Manuel; Fernandes,Pedro; Pina da Fonseca,Luis Joaquim

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different commercial surfactants on the enzymatic activity of a commercial alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (Termamyl 300 L) has been studied. As non-ionic surfactants, alkyl polyglycosides (Glucopon® 215, Glucopon® 600 and Glucopon® 650) were studied, as were fatty alcohol ethoxylates (Findet 1214N/23 and Findet 10/15), and nonyl phenol ethoxylate (Findet 9Q/21.5NF). Also, an anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) was assayed. In general, none of t...

  6. Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon E; Stone, William L; Lee, Steven; Whaley, Sarah; Yang, Hongsong; Qui, Min; Goforth, Paige; Sherman, Devin; McHaffie, Derek; Krishnan, Koyamangalath

    2006-01-17

    Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol is highest in the plasma. The effectiveness of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype) was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-alpha- or RRR-gamma-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation. Treatment with RRR-gamma-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-gamma-tocopherol to induce cell death. This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR-gamma-tocopherol without damage to

  7. UK equity mutual fund alphas make a comeback

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, Irina B.; Mateus, Cesario; Todorovic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we re-visit the performance of 887 active UK equity mutual funds using a new approach proposed by Angelidis, Giamouridis, and Tessaromatis. The authors argue that mutual funds stock selection is driven by the benchmark index, so if the benchmark generates alpha, there will be a bias in interpretation of manager's stock-picking ability. In their model, the alpha of a fund is adjusted by the benchmark's alpha. By applying this method, we eliminate bias inflicted by the persistent...

  8. Alpha-Hydroxylation of lignoceric and nervonic acids in the brain. Effects of altered thyroid function on postnatal development of the hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, S; Strycharz, G D; Kishimoto, Y

    1976-09-10

    Rat brain postnuclear preparations catalyzed the alpha-hydroxylation of nervonic acid with an apparent Km of 3 muM. Evidence has been presented which suggests that nervonic acid in the brain is hydroxylated by the same enzyme system which hydroxylates lignoceric acid. The hydroxylase activity in brains of normal (euthyroid) rats increased rapidly from a low in the period immediately following birth to a maximum at the 23rd day and then declined to a low level characteristic of the mature brain. Neonatal hypothyroidism retarded the development of the activity and shifted its peak to the 39th day after birth. Conversely, neonatal hyperthyroidism accelerated the entire developmental pattern and shifted the peak to the 16th day after birth. The hydroxylase activity in mouse brain was also increased by thyroid hormone administration from the 13th through the 18th day after birth. Unlike normal mice, the low activity in jimpy mice was not affected by this treatment. It is concluded that thyroid hormones play an important role in the control of brain fatty acid alpha-hydroxylation. The stimulation of alpha-hydroxy fatty acid synthesis in response to hyperthyroidism during the early postnatal period may be one of the major effects of thyroid hormones in accelerating myelination of the central nervous system.

  9. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  10. Measurement of gross alpha - activity in some thermal water sources in Yugoslavia by SSNTDs. [Solid state nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benderac, R.; Ristic, D. (Inst. of Security, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1991-01-01

    The possible application of the CN-BDH (type 1) nitrocellulose detector synthesized in laboratory conditions, and also the CR-39 detector, to the measurement of the gross alpha-activity of geothermal and mineral water has been investigated. (author).

  11. Phaeophytins from Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. with inhibitory activity on human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Analucia Guedes Silveira; Tenorio-Souza, Fabio Henrique; Moura, Marcelo Dantas; Mota, Sabrina Gondim Ribeiro; Silva Lins, Antonio Claudio da; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Frmaceuticas; Giulietti, Ana Maria [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares; Santos, Creusioni Figueredo dos, E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular

    2012-07-01

    Our study reports the extraction and isolation of a new phaeophytin derivative 15{sup 1}-hydroxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone, designated anamariaine (1) herein, isolated from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. along with the known 15{sup 1}-ethoxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone (2). These compounds were identified by usual spectroscopic methods. Both compounds were subjected to in vitro (inhibitory activity) tests by means of supercoiled DNA relaxation techniques and were shown to display inhibitory activity against human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha} at 50 {mu}M. Interconversion of these two pigments under the mild conditions of the isolation techniques should be highly unlikely but cannot be entirely ruled out. (author)

  12. Interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Hernando; LaRocco, Michael; Golde, William T; Baxt, Barry

    2004-09-01

    At least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphaVbeta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta6, and alphaVbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro. Our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (H. Duque and B. Baxt, J. Virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). To further examine these differences, we generated soluble alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins. cDNA plasmids encoding the individual complete integrin alphaV, beta3, and beta6 subunits were used to amplify sequences encoding the subunits' signal peptide and ectodomain, resulting in subunits lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. COS-1 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the soluble alphaV subunit and either the soluble beta3 or beta6 subunit and labeled with [35S]methionine-cysteine. Complete subunit heterodimeric integrins were secreted into the medium, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. For the examination of the integrins' biological activities, stable cell lines producing the soluble integrins were generated in HEK 293A cells. In the presence of divalent cations, soluble alphaVbeta6 bound to representatives of type A or O viruses, immobilized on plastic dishes, and significantly inhibited viral replication, as determined by plaque reduction assays. In contrast, soluble alphaVbeta3 was unable to bind to immobilized virus of either serotype; however, virus bound to the immobilized integrin, suggesting that FMDV binding to alphaVbeta3 is a low-affinity interaction. In addition, soluble alphaVbeta3 did not neutralize virus infectivity. Incubation of soluble alphaVbeta6 with labeled type A12 or O1 resulted in a significant inhibition of virus adsorption to BHK cells, while soluble alphaVbeta3 caused a low (20 to 30%), but consistent, inhibition of virus

  13. alpha-Adrenoceptor and opioid receptor modulation of clonidine-induced antinociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, F; Naquira, D; Pinardi, G; Miranda, H F

    1996-10-01

    1. The antinociceptive action of clonidine (Clon) and the interactions with alpha 1, alpha 2 adrenoceptor and opioid receptor antagonists was evaluated in mice by use of chemical algesiometric test (acetic acid writhing test). 2. Clon produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive action and the ED50 for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was lower than for intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (1 ng kg-1 vs 300 ng kg-1). The parallelism of the dose-response curves indicates activation of a common receptor subtype. 3. Systemic administration of prazosin and terazosin displayed antinociceptive activity. Pretreatment with prazosin produced a dual action: i.c.v. Clon effect did not change, and i.p. Clon effect was enhanced. Yohimbine i.c.v. or i.p. did not induce antinonciception, but antagonized Clon-induced activity. These results suggest that alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, either located at the pre- and/or post-synaptic level, are involved in the control of spinal antinociception. 4. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) induced antinociceptive effects at low doses (microgram kg-1 range) and a lower antinociceptive effect at higher doses (mg kg-1 range). Low doses of NX or NTX antagonized Clon antinociception, possibly in relation to a preferential mu opioid receptor antagonism. In contrast, high doses of NX or NTX increased the antinociceptive activity of Clon, which could be due to an enhanced inhibition of the release of substance P. 5. The results obtained in the present work suggest the involvement of alpha 1-, alpha 2-adrenoceptor and opioid receptors in the modulation of the antinociceptive activity of clonidine, which seems to be exerted either at spinal and/or supraspinal level.

  14. Confined trapped-alpha behavior in TFTR deuterium-tritium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Budny, R.V.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; White, R.B.; Petrov, M.P.; Gorelenkov, N.N.

    1997-10-01

    Confined trapped-alpha energy spectra and differential radial density profiles in TFTR D-T plasmas are obtained with the Pellet Charge-eXchange (PCX) diagnostic which measures high energy (E α = 0.5--3.5 MeV), trapped alphas (v parallel /v = - 0.048) at a single time slice (Δt ∼ 1 msec) with a spatial resolution of Δr ∼ 5 cm. Tritons produced in D-D plasmas and RF-driven ion tails (H, 3 He or T) were also observed and energetic tritium ion tail measurements will be discussed. PCX alpha and triton energy spectra extending up to their birth energies were measured in the core of MHD-quiescent discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity. Both the shape of the measured alpha and triton energy distributions and their density ratios are in good agreement with TRANSP predictions, indicating that the PCX measurements are consistent with classical thermalization of the fusion-generated alphas and tritons. From calculations, these results set an upper limit on possible anomalous radial diffusion for trapped alphas of D α ≤ 0.01 m 2 s -1 . Outside the core, where the trapped alphas are influenced by stochastic ripple diffusion effects, the PCX measurements are consistent with the functional dependence of the Goldston-White-Boozer stochastic ripple threshold on the alpha energy and the q-profile. In the presence of strong sawtooth activity, the PCX diagnostic observes significant redistribution of the alpha signal radial profile wherein alphas are depleted in the core and redistributed to well outside the q = 1 radius, but apparently not beyond the energy-dependent stochastic ripple loss boundary

  15. Alpha oscillations and early stages of visual encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eKlimesch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system (KS in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha ‘directs the flow of information’ to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early poststimulus interval of about 0 - 150 ms.

  16. PPAR alpha-activation results in enhanced carnitine biosynthesis and OCTN2-mediated hepatic carnitine accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlies, Naomi; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Turkenburg, Marjolein; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Vaz, Frédéric M.

    2007-01-01

    In fasted rodents hepatic carnitine concentration increases considerably which is not observed in PPAR alpha-/- mice, indicating that PPAR alpha is involved in carnitine homeostasis. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the PPAR alpha-dependent hepatic carnitine accumulation we measured

  17. SM22{alpha}-induced activation of p16{sup INK4a}/retinoblastoma pathway promotes cellular senescence caused by a subclinical dose of {gamma}-radiation and doxorubicin in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Rim; Lee, Hee Min; Lee, So Yong; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Kug Chan [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Gi [Department of Biology, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Wie, E-mail: ewcho@kribb.re.kr [Daejeon-KRIBB-FHCRC Cooperation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Gyu, E-mail: igkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} SM22{alpha} overexpression in HepG2 cells leads cells to a growth arrest state, and the treatment of a subclinical dose of {gamma}-radiation or doxorubicin promotes cellular senescence. {yields} SM22{alpha} overexpression elevates p16{sup INK4a} followed by pRB activation, but there are no effects on p53/p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} pathway. {yields} SM22{alpha}-induced MT-1G activates p16{sup INK4a}/pRB pathway, which promotes cellular senescence by damaging agents. -- Abstract: Smooth muscle protein 22-alpha (SM22{alpha}) is known as a transformation- and shape change-sensitive actin cross-linking protein found in smooth muscle tissue and fibroblasts; however, its functional role remains uncertain. We reported previously that SM22{alpha} overexpression confers resistance against anti-cancer drugs or radiation via induction of metallothionein (MT) isozymes in HepG2 cells. In this study, we demonstrate that SM22{alpha} overexpression leads cells to a growth arrest state and promotes cellular senescence caused by treatment with a subclinical dose of {gamma}-radiation (0.05 and 0.1 Gy) or doxorubicin (0.01 and 0.05 {mu}g/ml), compared to control cells. Senescence growth arrest is known to be controlled by p53 phosphorylation/p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} induction or p16{sup INK4a}/retinoblastoma protein (pRB) activation. SM22{alpha} overexpression in HepG2 cells elevated p16{sup INK4a} followed by pRB activation, but did not activate the p53/p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} pathway. Moreover, MT-1G, which is induced by SM22{alpha} overexpression, was involved in the activation of the p16{sup INK4a}/pRB pathway, which led to a growth arrest state and promoted cellular senescence caused by damaging agents. Our findings provide the first demonstration that SM22{alpha} modulates cellular senescence caused by damaging agents via regulation of the p16{sup INK4a}/pRB pathway in HepG2 cells and that these effects of SM22{alpha} are partially mediated by MT-1G.

  18. Study on cytotoxicities induced by alpha particle irradiation combined with NNK treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie; Cao Zhenshan; Mi Na; Chen Zhongmin; Liu Gang; Wei Han; Li Huiyin; Zhu Maoxiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cytotoxicities of alpha-particle irradiation combined with NNK treatment. Methods: Exponentially growing immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were divided into normal control group (NC), alpha particle irradiation group (α), NNK administration group (NNK), NNK administration (100 μg/ml) followed by alpha particle irradiation group (NNK + α), and alphaparticle irradiation followed by NNK administration (100 μg/ml) group (α + NNK). Cell survival fractions were measured by cloning rate of low-density plating cell. Ethidium bromide and 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein, fluorescent products of the membrane-permeable dyes hydroethine and 2', 7'-dichloroflurescindiacetate were used to monitor the inarticulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) . Damage to membrane permeability was evaluated through testing LDH activity in medium. Results: In the groups exposed to both alpha particles and NNK, the survival rates were significantly lower than that of the groups administrated with the same dose of alpha particles or NNK alone. The levels of intracellular ROS and the activity of LDH in medium were significantly higher than that of the groups administrated with the same dose of alpha particles or NNK alone. Subtracted the NNK effect, the survival rates of the groups received both alpha particle irradiation and NNK treatment were significantly lower than that of alpha particle irradiated only group. However, the intracellular ROS level and the activity of LDH in medium were significantly higher than that of alpha-particle irradiated only group. In addition, the survival rates of the cells in groups exposed to alpha particle irradiation followed by NNK administration were significantly lower than that of cells treated with NNK administration followed by alpha particle irradiation. Conclusions: Alpha particle irradiation and NNK administration had synergisticity in cytotoxicity, and furthermore different schedules of the administration resulted in

  19. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence enhances motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaz, Anais; Solcà, Marco; Magnin, Cécile; Corbet, Tiffany; Schnider, Armin; Guggisberg, Adrian G

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback training of motor cortex activations with brain-computer interface systems can enhance recovery in stroke patients. Here we propose a new approach which trains resting-state functional connectivity associated with motor performance instead of activations related to movements. Ten healthy subjects and one stroke patient trained alpha-band coherence between their hand motor area and the rest of the brain using neurofeedback with source functional connectivity analysis and visual feedback. Seven out of ten healthy subjects were able to increase alpha-band coherence between the hand motor cortex and the rest of the brain in a single session. The patient with chronic stroke learned to enhance alpha-band coherence of his affected primary motor cortex in 7 neurofeedback sessions applied over one month. Coherence increased specifically in the targeted motor cortex and in alpha frequencies. This increase was associated with clinically meaningful and lasting improvement of motor function after stroke. These results provide proof of concept that neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence is feasible and behaviorally useful. The study presents evidence for a role of alpha-band coherence in motor learning and may lead to new strategies for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution for new genetic markers of rheumatoid arthritis activity and severity: sequencing of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Cavaleiro, João; Teles, José; Sousa, Elsa; Andreozzi, Valeska L; Antunes, Marília; Amaral-Turkman, Maria A; Canhão, Helena; Mourão, Ana F; Lopes, Joana; Caetano-Lopes, Joana; Weinmann, Pamela; Sobral, Marta; Nero, Patrícia; Saavedra, Maria J; Malcata, Armando; Cruz, Margarida; Melo, Rui; Braña, Araceli; Miranda, Luis; Patto, José V; Barcelos, Anabela; da Silva, José Canas; Santos, Luís M; Figueiredo, Guilherme; Rodrigues, Mário; Jesus, Herberto; Quintal, Alberto; Carvalho, Teresa; da Silva, José A Pereira; Branco, Jaime; Queiroz, Mário Viana

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether clinical measures of rheumatoid arthritis activity and severity were influenced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter genotype/haplotype markers. Each patient's disease activity was assessed by the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) and functional capacity by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score. Systemic manifestations, radiological damage evaluated by the Sharp/van der Heijde (SvdH) score, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug use, joint surgeries, and work disability were also assessed. The promoter region of the TNF-alpha gene, between nucleotides -1,318 and +49, was sequenced using an automated platform. Five hundred fifty-four patients were evaluated and genotyped for 10 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, but 5 of these markers were excluded due to failure to fall within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or to monomorphism. Patients with more than 10 years of disease duration (DD) presented significant associations between the -857 SNP and systemic manifestations, as well as joint surgeries. Associations were also found between the -308 SNP and work disability in patients with more than 2 years of DD and radiological damage in patients with less than 10 years of DD. A borderline effect was found between the -238 SNP and HAQ score and radiological damage in patients with 2 to 10 years of DD. An association was also found between haplotypes and the SvdH score for those with more than 10 years of DD. An association was found between some TNF-alpha promoter SNPs and systemic manifestations, radiological progression, HAQ score, work disability, and joint surgeries, particularly in some classes of DD and between haplotypes and radiological progression for those with more than 10 years of DD.

  2. Alpha Power Modulates Perception Independently of Endogenous Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasskia Brüers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain. Alpha oscillations in particular have been proposed to play an important role in sensory perception. Past studies have shown that the power of ongoing EEG oscillations in the alpha band is negatively correlated with visual outcome. Moreover, it also co-varies with other endogenous factors such as attention, vigilance, or alertness. In turn, these endogenous factors influence visual perception. Therefore, it remains unclear how much of the relation between alpha and perception is indirectly mediated by such endogenous factors, and how much reflects a direct causal influence of alpha rhythms on sensory neural processing. We propose to disentangle the direct from the indirect causal routes by introducing modulations of alpha power, independently of any fluctuations in endogenous factors. To this end, we use white-noise sequences to constrain the brain activity of 20 participants. The cross-correlation between the white-noise sequences and the concurrently recorded EEG reveals the impulse response function (IRF, a model of the systematic relationship between stimulation and brain response. These IRFs are then used to reconstruct rather than record the brain activity linked with new random sequences (by convolution. Interestingly, this reconstructed EEG only contains information about oscillations directly linked to the white-noise stimulation; fluctuations in attention and other endogenous factors may still modulate brain alpha rhythms during the task, but our reconstructed EEG is immune to these factors. We found that the detection of near-perceptual threshold targets embedded within these new white-noise sequences depended on the power of the ~10 Hz reconstructed EEG over parieto-occipital channels. Around the time of presentation, higher power led to poorer performance. Thus, fluctuations in alpha power, induced here by random luminance sequences, can directly influence perception: the relation between

  3. Molecular basis for nondeletion alpha-thalassemia in American blacks. Alpha 2(116GAG----UAG).

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Coleman, M B; Adams, J G; Cash, F E; Steinberg, M H

    1987-01-01

    An American black woman was found to have the phenotype of moderately severe alpha-thalassemia normally associated with the loss of two to three alpha-globin genes despite an alpha-globin gene map that demonstrated the loss of only a single alpha-globin gene (-alpha/alpha alpha). Several individuals in her kindred with normal alpha-globin gene mapping studies (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) had mild alpha-thalassemia hematologic values consistent with the loss of one to two alpha-globin genes. Thes...

  4. Catching the Highest Energy Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We briefly discuss the possible sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos and the methods for their detection. Then we present the results obtained by different experiments for detection of the highest energy neutrinos.

  5. Oridonin stabilizes retinoic acid receptor alpha through ROS-activated NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Qing; Xu, Wen-Bin; Yu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Ying-Li; Yan, Hua

    2015-04-10

    Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) plays an essential role in the regulation of many biological processes, such as hematopoietic cell differentiation, while abnormal RARα function contributes to the pathogenesis of certain diseases including cancers, especially acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Recently, oridonin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, was demonstrated to regulate RARα by increasing its protein level. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for this action has not been fully elucidated. In the APL cell line, NB4, the effect of oridonin on RARα protein was analyzed by western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Flow cytometry was performed to detect intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The association between nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and the effect of oridonin was assessed using specific inhibitors, shRNA gene knockdown, and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, primary leukemia cells were treated with oridonin and analyzed by western blot in this study. RARα possesses transcriptional activity in the presence of its ligand, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Oridonin remarkably stabilized the RARα protein, which retained transcriptional activity. Oridonin also moderately increased intracellular ROS levels, while pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), dramatically abrogated RARα stabilization by oridonin. More intriguingly, direct exposure to low concentrations of H2O2 also increased RARα protein but not mRNA levels, suggesting a role for ROS in oridonin stabilization of RARα protein. Further investigations showed that NAC antagonized oridonin-induced activation of NF-κB signaling, while the NF-κB signaling inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, effectively blocked the oridonin increase in RARα protein levels. In line with this, over-expression of IκΒα (A32/36), a super-repressor form of IκΒα, or NF-κB-p65 knockdown inhibited oridonin or H2O2-induced

  6. Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Alters Pre- and Post-Synaptic Activity by Fragmenting Lipid Rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Emanuele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (αSyn interferes with multiple steps of synaptic activity at pre-and post-synaptic terminals, however the mechanism/s by which αSyn alters neurotransmitter release and synaptic potentiation is unclear. By atomic force microscopy we show that human αSyn, when incubated with reconstituted membrane bilayer, induces lipid rafts' fragmentation. As a consequence, ion channels and receptors are displaced from lipid rafts with consequent changes in their activity. The enhanced calcium entry leads to acute mobilization of synaptic vesicles, and exhaustion of neurotransmission at later stages. At the post-synaptic terminal, an acute increase in glutamatergic transmission, with increased density of PSD-95 puncta, is followed by disruption of the interaction between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and PSD-95 with ensuing decrease of long term potentiation. While cholesterol loading prevents the acute effect of αSyn at the presynapse; inhibition of casein kinase 2, which appears activated by reduction of cholesterol, restores the correct localization and clustering of NMDARs.

  7. Suppression of no-longer relevant information in Working Memory: An alpha-power related mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Claudia; Valdivia, María; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Campo, Pablo

    2018-03-27

    Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information. However, whether ipsilateral alpha power represents a mechanism through which no longer relevant WM representations are inhibited has yet not been explored. Here we examined whether the amount of distractors to be suppressed during WM maintenance is functionally related to alpha power lateralized activity. We measure EEG activity while participants (N = 36) performed a retro-cue task in which the WM load was varied across the relevant/irrelevant post-cue hemifield. We found that alpha activity was lateralized respect to the locus of attention, but did not track post-cue irrelevant load. Additionally, non-lateralized alpha activity increased with post-cue relevant load. We propose that alpha lateralization associated to retro-cuing might be related to a general orienting mechanism toward relevant representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Joshi, V.B.; Bhanti, D.P.; Bhagwat, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m 3 (3.73x10 -17 Ci/m 3 ) to 36.41x10 -6 Bq/m 3 (9.84x10 -16 Ci/m 3 ) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  9. Modifications of the alpha,beta-double bond in chalcones only marginally affect the antiprotozoal activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S F; Kharazmi, A; Christensen, S B

    1998-01-01

    Methods for selective alkylation of chalcones in the alpha- or beta-position and for selective reduction of the alpha,beta-double bond have been developed. The antiparasitic potencies of the alpha,beta-double bond modified chalcones only differ marginally from the potencies of the parent chalcones...

  10. Human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) is an active metalloprotease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loechel, F; Gilpin, B J; Engvall, E

    1998-01-01

    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) are a family of multidomain proteins with structural homology to snake venom metalloproteases. We recently described the cloning and sequencing of human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha). In this report we provide evidence that the metalloprotease domain of ADAM...

  11. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L. (Michigan)

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.

  12. A technical alpha-active aerosol express measurement system for volumetric activity monitoring.; Metodika ehkspressnogo opredeleniya ob`emnoj aktivnosti tekhnogennykh al`fa-aktivnykh aehrozolej.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badovskij, V P; Dubar, L V; Tokarevskij, V V; Shevchenko, S V; Shcherbina, V G [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A possibility of a volumetric aerosol activity determination at the level of MPCa for {sup 239} Pu with a measurement time less than 60 minutes is discussed. For achieving maximum reduction of the natural background the virtual impactor and alpha-spectroscopy are proposed to be employed. Results of investigation of the virtual impactor parameters at the << Shelter >> and at the laboratory are described.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme: an encouraging target for various inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Malkeet S; Silakari, Om

    2010-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha is one of the most common pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for various inflammatory disorders. It plays an important role in the origin and progression of rheumatoid arthritis and also in other autoimmune disease conditions. Some anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies like Enbrel, Humira and Remicade have been successfully used in these disease conditions as antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Inhibition of generation of active form of tumor necrosis factor alpha is a promising therapy for various inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the inhibition of an enzyme (tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme), which is responsible for processing inactive form of tumor necrosis factor alpha into its active soluble form, is an encouraging target. Many tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibitors have been the candidates of clinical trials but none of them have reached in to the market because of their broad spectrum inhibitory activity for other matrix metalloproteases. Selectivity of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme inhibition over matrix metalloproteases is of utmost importance. If selectivity is achieved successfully, side-effects can be over-ruled and this approach may become a novel therapy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. This cytokine not only plays a pivotal role in inflammatory conditions but also in some cancerous conditions. Thus, successful targeting of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme may result in multifunctional therapy.

  14. Critical review for the determination of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of alpha-emitter radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.

    1996-12-01

    Different criteria for the calculation of the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of an alpha emitter in environmental levels are reviewed in this report. Practical examples of its application to previously analyzed samples are shown. The authors propose a criteria based on prior calculations that applies to the radiochemical activities performed in the laboratory. The calculation procedure has been discussed with scientist from other laboratories in order to establish a general criteria to calculate the MDA

  15. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  16. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  17. Regional Patterns of Elevated Alpha and High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity during Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep in Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedner, Brady A; Goldstein, Michael R; Plante, David T; Rumble, Meredith E; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-04-01

    To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Nonlinear Recurrent Dynamics and Long-Term Nonstationarities in EEG Alpha Cortical Activity: Implications for Choosing Adequate Segment Length in Nonlinear EEG Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerquera, Alexander; Vollebregt, Madelon A; Arns, Martijn

    2018-03-01

    Nonlinear analysis of EEG recordings allows detection of characteristics that would probably be neglected by linear methods. This study aimed to determine a suitable epoch length for nonlinear analysis of EEG data based on its recurrence rate in EEG alpha activity (electrodes Fz, Oz, and Pz) from 28 healthy and 64 major depressive disorder subjects. Two nonlinear metrics, Lempel-Ziv complexity and scaling index, were applied in sliding windows of 20 seconds shifted every 1 second and in nonoverlapping windows of 1 minute. In addition, linear spectral analysis was carried out for comparison with the nonlinear results. The analysis with sliding windows showed that the cortical dynamics underlying alpha activity had a recurrence period of around 40 seconds in both groups. In the analysis with nonoverlapping windows, long-term nonstationarities entailed changes over time in the nonlinear dynamics that became significantly different between epochs across time, which was not detected with the linear spectral analysis. Findings suggest that epoch lengths shorter than 40 seconds neglect information in EEG nonlinear studies. In turn, linear analysis did not detect characteristics from long-term nonstationarities in EEG alpha waves of control subjects and patients with major depressive disorder patients. We recommend that application of nonlinear metrics in EEG time series, particularly of alpha activity, should be carried out with epochs around 60 seconds. In addition, this study aimed to demonstrate that long-term nonlinearities are inherent to the cortical brain dynamics regardless of the presence or absence of a mental disorder.

  19. Liquid scintillation alpha particle spectrometry. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.L.; Hakooz, S.A.; Johnson, L.O.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1979-12-01

    Objective to develop a technique whereby Pu may be put into solution, extracted by solvent extraction into a suitable extractive scintillant and subsequently counted. Presented here are results of attempts to separate beta and alpha activities through pulse shape discrimination. A qualitative discussion is given which yields alpha particle peak widths, resolution and response. The detection efficiency for alpha particles in a liquid scintillant is 100%. Present detection sensitivities of the equipment being used are: 4.5 x 10 -6 μCi (100 s), 1.2 x 10 -6 μCi (1000 s), and 4.0 x 10 -7 μCi (10,000 s) at the 3 sigma level. The detectability of a particular alpha-emitting species is strongly dependent upon the population of other species. The ability to discriminate depends upon the system resolution. 14 figures, 2 tables

  20. Potential late-onset Alzheimer's disease-associated mutations in the ADAM10 gene attenuate {alpha}-secretase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Suh, Jaehong; Romano, Donna; Truong, Mimy H; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Norton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Elliott, Kathy; Wagner, Steven L; Moir, Robert D; Becker, K David; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2009-10-15

    ADAM10, a member of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family, is an alpha-secretase capable of anti-amyloidogenic proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein. Here, we present evidence for genetic association of ADAM10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as two rare potentially disease-associated non-synonymous mutations, Q170H and R181G, in the ADAM10 prodomain. These mutations were found in 11 of 16 affected individuals (average onset age 69.5 years) from seven late-onset AD families. Each mutation was also found in one unaffected subject implying incomplete penetrance. Functionally, both mutations significantly attenuated alpha-secretase activity of ADAM10 (>70% decrease), and elevated Abeta levels (1.5-3.5-fold) in cell-based studies. In summary, we provide the first evidence of ADAM10 as a candidate AD susceptibility gene, and report two potentially pathogenic mutations with incomplete penetrance for late-onset familial AD.

  1. Contribution to the study of alpha-alpha interaction; Contribution a l'etude de l'interaction alpha - alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darriulai, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    Two sets of measurements of the {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering differential cross section are presented. The first set - angular distributions from 50 up to 120 MeV - shows two new resonances, 6{sup +} and 8{sup +}, at 25 and 57 MeV. Complex phase shifts are extracted from the data and a phenomenological potential is given. A description of the 3 {alpha}-particle 0{sup +} states in C{sup 12} is made with this interaction potential. The second set - excitation curves between 20 and 50 MeV - allows investigation of the Be{sup 8} level structure within this energy range - It identifies the 16.6 and 16.9 MeV states as 2{sup +}, but the rise of inelastic processes at higher energies makes further identification of spins and parities more and more difficult. (author) [French] Deux series de mesures de la section efficace differentielle de diffusion {alpha}-{alpha} sont presentees. La premiere - distributions angulaires entre 50 et 120 MeV - fait apparaitre deux nouvelles resonances, 6{sup +} et 8{sup +}, a 25 et 57 MeV d'excitation. Des dephasages complexes en sont extraits et un potentiel phenomenologique est presente. Une etude des etats 0{sup +} a parentage (3{alpha}) de {sup 12}C est faite a partir de ce potentiel. La seconde - courbes d'excitation s'etendant de 20 a 50 MeV - met en evidence la structure de {sup 8}Be dans cette region. Elle montre que les niveaux a 16,6 et 16,9 MeV sont des 2{sup +} mais l'importance des processus inelastiques rend difficile l'identification des niveaux d'excitation plus elevee. (auteur)

  2. In vitro bioactivity of 17alpha-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2004-12-01

    A miniaturised short-term in vitro assay based on the activation of the human estrogen receptor alpha and genetically modified yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells was performed to explore the capacity of this system to monitor the bioactivity of estrogenic compounds, particularly 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol. Together with the human estrogen receptor (hER)-alpha plasmid, the reporter plasmid containing a yeast-optimised version of the green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) linked to three repeats of the cis-acting estrogen hormone-responsive element (ERE) were expressed in a strain being deleted in the pleiotropic drug resistance transporters Pdr5, Snq2 and Yor1, known to facilitate efflux of organic compounds including steroids and chemotherapeutics. Agonists that bind to hER in vitro trigger estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the GFP reporter gene monitored by fluorescence emission at 535 nm. The sensitivity of the assay was tested with various 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol concentrations, yielding a detection limit of 5 pg/ml (0.018 nM) for the agonist 17beta-E2 in solvent and in human charcoal-stripped serum using a S. cerevisiae pdr5, snq2 and yor1 mutant strain. For 17alpha-estradiol only, at approximately 1500 pg/ml a similar fluorescence response compared to 100 pg/ml 17beta-E2 was observed implicating a much weaker potency of this stereoisomer. The specificity of the system was tested by expression of a truncated hER lacking the ligand-binding domain E and by administration of the androgen, 4-androsten 3,17 dione. Both controls did not yield an increase in fluorescence emission. This fluorescence emission assay enables detection of estrogenic biological activity induced by direct agonists, such as 17beta-E2 at concentrations similar to those found in human sera or by estrogen-like chemicals.

  3. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  4. Mapping of HNF4alpha target genes in intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mette; Bressendorff, Simon; Moller, Jette

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The role of HNF4alpha has been extensively studied in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta-cells, and HNF4alpha is also regarded as key regulator of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation as well. The aim of the present work is to identify novel HNF4alpha target genes....... The HNF4alpha ChIP-chip data was matched with gene expression and histone H3 acetylation status of the promoters in order to identify HNF4alpha binding to actively transcribed genes with an open chromatin structure. RESULTS: 1,541 genes were identified as potential HNF4alpha targets, many of which have...

  5. Measurement of 233U/234U ratios in contaminated groundwater using alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Jennifer J.; Payne, Timothy E.; Wilsher, Kerry L.; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Child, David P.; Johansen, Mathew P.; Hotchkis, Michael A.C.

    2016-01-01

    The uranium isotope 233 U is not usually observed in alpha spectra from environmental samples due to its low natural and fallout abundance. It may be present in samples from sites in the vicinity of nuclear operations such as reactors or fuel reprocessing facilities, radioactive waste disposal sites or sites affected by clandestine nuclear operations. On an alpha spectrum, the two most abundant alpha emissions of 233 U (4.784 MeV, 13.2%; and 4.824 MeV, 84.3%) will overlap with the 234 U doublet peak (4.722 MeV, 28.4%; and 4.775 MeV, 71.4%), if present, resulting in a combined 233+234 U multiplet. A technique for quantifying both 233 U and 234 U from alpha spectra was investigated. A series of groundwater samples were measured both by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine 233 U/ 234 U atom and activity ratios and by alpha spectrometry in order to establish a reliable 233 U estimation technique using alpha spectra. The Genie™ 2000 Alpha Analysis and Interactive Peak Fitting (IPF) software packages were used and it was found that IPF with identification of three peaks ( 234 U minor, combined 234 U major and 233 U minor, and 233 U major) followed by interference correction on the combined peak and a weighted average activity calculation gave satisfactory agreement with the AMS data across the 233 U/ 234 U activity ratio range (0.1–20) and 233 U activity range (2–300 mBq) investigated. Correlation between the AMS 233 U and alpha spectrometry 233 U was r 2  = 0.996 (n = 10). - Highlights: • Describes a technique for deconvoluting the combined 233 U and 234 U multiplet in alpha spectra. • Enables 233 U and 234 U activities and 233 U/ 234 U ratios to be quantified without requiring additional analysis and measurement. • Applicable to an environmental matrix (groundwater) using standard alpha spectrometry counting equipment, operation and set-up.

  6. Nicotinic {alpha}4{beta}2 receptor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Collins, Daphne [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Christian, Bradley T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Shi, Bingzhi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Narayanan, Tanjore K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Potkin, Steven G. [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Mukherjee, Jogeshwar [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States)]. E-mail: j.mukherjee@uci.edu

    2006-04-15

    The {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Optimal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are therefore highly desired for this receptor. We report here the development and initial evaluation of 2-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (nifene). In vitro binding affinity of nifene in rat brain homogenate using {sup 3}H-cytisine exhibited a K {sub i}=0.50 nM for the {alpha}4{beta}2 sites. The radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 18}F-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine ({sup 18}F-nifene) was accomplished in 2.5 h with an overall radiochemical yield of 40-50%, decay corrected. The specific activity was estimated to be approx. 37-185 GBq/{mu}mol. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices indicated selective binding of {sup 18}F-nifene to anteroventral thalamic (AVT) nucleus, thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with {alpha}4{beta}2 receptor distribution. Rat cerebellum showed some binding, whereas regions in the hippocampus had the lowest binding. The highest ratio of >13 between AVT and cerebellum was measured for {sup 18}F-nifene in rat brain slices. The specific binding was reduced (>95%) by 300 {mu}M nicotine in these brain regions. Positron emission tomography imaging study of {sup 18}F-nifene (130 MBq) in anesthetized rhesus monkey was carried out using an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner. PET study showed selective maximal uptake in the regions of the anterior medial thalamus, ventro-lateral thalamus, lateral geniculate, cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex including the subiculum. The cerebellum in the monkeys showed lower binding than the other regions. Thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio peaked at 30-35 min postinjection to a value of 2.2 and subsequently reduced. The faster binding profile of {sup 18}F-nifene indicates promise as a PET imaging agent and thus needs further evaluation.

  7. A survey of strippable and tie-down coatings for use in the decommissioning of alpha-active facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Worrall, G.; Dalton, J.T.

    1987-04-01

    The paper concerns temporary coatings for use in decommissioning operations of alpha-active facilities. The various temporary coating options are described with respect to: decontamination by removal of a previously applied protective coating, and the in-situ application of a coating for tie-down or decontamination duties. The specifications for coating systems to be used in active areas are defined in general terms. A survey of currently available temporary coating material is given, as well as the suitability of commercially available coating systems. (U.K.)

  8. Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Strahler, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme - Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity (Dipl.-Psych. Jana Strahler) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are two of the major systems playing a role in the adaptation of organisms to developmental changes that threaten homeostasis. The HPA system involves the secretion of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, into the circulatory system. Numerous studies hav...

  9. Identification and characterization of an alternative promoter of the human PGC-1{alpha} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Toyo; Inagaki, Kenjiro [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Noguchi, Tetsuya, E-mail: noguchi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Sakai, Mashito; Ogawa, Wataru; Hosooka, Tetsuya [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Iguchi, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Eijiro; Matsuki, Yasushi; Hiramatsu, Ryuji [Genomic Science Laboratories, DainipponSumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 4-2-1 Takatsukasa, Takarazuka 665-8555 (Japan); Kasuga, Masato [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) controls mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Although physical exercise induces PGC-1{alpha} expression in muscle, the underlying mechanism of this effect has remained incompletely understood. We recently identified a novel muscle-enriched isoform of PGC-1{alpha} transcript (designated PGC-1{alpha}-b) that is derived from a previously unidentified first exon. We have now cloned and characterized the human PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter. The muscle-specific transcription factors MyoD and MRF4 transactivated this promoter through interaction with a proximal E-box motif. Furthermore, either forced expression of Ca{sup 2+}- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), calcineurin A, or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) kinase MKK6 or the intracellular accumulation of cAMP activated the PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter in cultured myoblasts through recruitment of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) to a putative CRE located downstream of the E-box. Our results thus reveal a potential molecular basis for isoform-specific regulation of PGC-1{alpha} expression in contracting muscle.

  10. Prediction of Active Site and Distal Residues in E. coli DNA Polymerase III alpha Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuram, Ramya; Coulther, Timothy A; Hollander, Judith M; Keston-Smith, Elise; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Beuning, Penny J

    2018-02-20

    The process of DNA replication is carried out with high efficiency and accuracy by DNA polymerases. The replicative polymerase in E. coli is DNA Pol III, which is a complex of 10 different subunits that coordinates simultaneous replication on the leading and lagging strands. The 1160-residue Pol III alpha subunit is responsible for the polymerase activity and copies DNA accurately, making one error per 10 5 nucleotide incorporations. The goal of this research is to determine the residues that contribute to the activity of the polymerase subunit. Homology modeling and the computational methods of THEMATICS and POOL were used to predict functionally important amino acid residues through their computed chemical properties. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical assays were used to validate these predictions. Primer extension, steady-state single-nucleotide incorporation kinetics, and thermal denaturation assays were performed to understand the contribution of these residues to the function of the polymerase. This work shows that the top 15 residues predicted by POOL, a set that includes the three previously known catalytic aspartate residues, seven remote residues, plus five previously unexplored first-layer residues, are important for function. Six previously unidentified residues, R362, D405, K553, Y686, E688, and H760, are each essential to Pol III activity; three additional residues, Y340, R390, and K758, play important roles in activity.

  11. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and platelet-activating factor in neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Montrucchio, G; Battaglia, E; Modena, V; Camussi, G

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo in a mouse model the stimulation of neoangiogenesis by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the formation of new vessels. Angiogenesis was studied in a mouse model in which Matrigel, injected subcutaneously, was used as a vehicle for the delivery of potential angiogenic stimuli. Synovial fluids of patients with RA but not with osteoarthritis (OA) were shown to induce neoangiogenesis. Since synovial fluid of patients with RA contained significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha-like bioactivity and of PAF than that of patients with OA, the role of these mediators was evaluated by using an anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170. When added to Matrigel, anti-TNF-alpha mAb and particularly WEB 2170 significantly reduced neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of RA patients. Moreover, PAF extracted and purified from synovial fluid induced angiogenesis. These results suggest that the neoangiogenesis observed in rheumatoid synovitis may be due, at least in part, to the angiogenic effect of locally produced TNF-alpha and PAF.

  12. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) coincidence experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the

  13. Production of surfactant and detergent-stable, halophilic, and alkalitolerant alpha-amylase by a moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. Strain TSCVKK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Kondepudi Kanthi; Chandra, T S

    2008-01-01

    A moderately halophilic alkalitolerant Bacillus sp. Strain TSCVKK, with an ability to produce extracellular halophilic, alkalitolerant, surfactant, and detergent-stable alpha-amylase was isolated from soil samples obtained from a salt-manufacturing industry in Chennai. The culture conditions for higher amylase production were optimized with respect to NaCl, substrate, pH, and temperature. Maximum amylase production of 592 mU/ml was achieved in the medium at 48 h with 10% NaCl, 1% dextrin, 0.4% yeast extract, 0.2% tryptone, and 0.2% CaCl(2) at pH 8.0 at 30 degrees C. The enzyme activity in the culture supernatant was highest with 10% NaCl at pH 7.5 and 55 degrees C. The amylase that was partially purified by acetone precipitation was highly stable in various surfactants and detergents. Glucose, maltose, and maltooligosaccharides were the main end products of starch hydrolysis indicating that it is an alpha-amylase.

  14. Instruments used to measure or check {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} activity and neutron emission in the course of processing ore or irradiated fuel; Appareils de mesure ou de controle {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, n, des circuits des usines de traitement du minerai ou du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A; Brunet, M; Kermagoret, M; Labeyrie, J; Roux, G; Vasseur, J; Weil, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    One of the methods checking ores in the course of treatment is the rapid quantitative determination of thorium. This measurement is carried out by means of a scintillation instrument which shows the {beta} and {alpha} coincidences of ThC and ThC'. The treatment of irradiated fuel is accompanied by a large number of radioactive checks relative to the performance of the fixation and elution operations of uranium in the ion exchangers, to the concentration of radioactivity of effluent sent from the plant into watercourses. The operations of fixation and elution of the uranium are checked automatically by an instrument which takes a sample of 5 cm{sup 3} of solution, evaporates it and measures its activity every 10 or 20 minutes. Plutonium concentrations are measured: - in the presence of strong {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of rotating cylinder detectors; - in the presence of weak {beta} {gamma} activities, by means of {alpha} detectors scanning a constant level liquid surface; - by means of fission chambers relatively insensitive to {gamma}. Fission product concentrations are measured by chambers, counters or scintillators, according to the amount of {gamma} activity present. Finally, the activity of effluent to be emptied into watercourses is checked by means of a scintillation instrument, which measures the {alpha} activity on the one hand, and on the other hand the {beta} {gamma} activity of residue from a 100 cm{sup 3} sample taken and evaporated in 20 minutes. (author) [French] Parmi les controles relatifs au minerai en cours de traitement, figure le dosage rapide de thorium. Cette mesure est realisee au moyen d'un appareillage a scintillation qui met en evidence la coincidence des emissions {beta} et {alpha} du ThC et du ThC'. Le traitement des combustibles irradies s'accompagne d'un grand nombre de controles radioactifs portant sur le fonctionnement des operations de fixation et d'elution de l'uranium dans les echangeurs d'ions, sur la concentration du

  15. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  16. Calcineurin signaling and PGC-1alpha expression are suppressed during muscle atrophy due to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Wilson, Tiffany K; Reddy, Ramesh N; Bailey, James L; Zheng, Bin; Ordas, Ronald; Gooch, Jennifer L; Price, S Russ

    2010-08-01

    PGC-1alpha is a transcriptional coactivator that controls energy homeostasis through regulation of glucose and oxidative metabolism. Both PGC-1alpha expression and oxidative capacity are decreased in skeletal muscle of patients and animals undergoing atrophy, suggesting that PGC-1alpha participates in the regulation of muscle mass. PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled by calcium- and cAMP-sensitive pathways. However, the mechanism regulating PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle during atrophy remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the mechanism responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression using a rodent streptozotocin (STZ) model of chronic diabetes and atrophy. After 21days, the levels of PGC-1alpha protein and mRNA were decreased. We examined the activation state of CREB, a potent activator of PGC-1alpha transcription, and found that phospho-CREB was paradoxically high in muscle of STZ-rats, suggesting that the cAMP pathway was not involved in PGC-1alpha regulation. In contrast, expression of calcineurin (Cn), a calcium-dependent phosphatase, was suppressed in the same muscles. PGC-1alpha expression is regulated by two Cn substrates, MEF2 and NFATc. Therefore, we examined MEF2 and NFATc activity in muscles from STZ-rats. Target genes MRF4 and MCIP1.4 mRNAs were both significantly reduced, consistent with reduced Cn signaling. Moreover, levels of MRF4, MCIP1.4, and PGC-1alpha were also decreased in muscles of CnAalpha-/- and CnAbeta-/- mice without diabetes indicating that decreased Cn signaling, rather than changes in other calcium- or cAMP-sensitive pathways, were responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression. These findings demonstrate that Cn activity is a major determinant of PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes and possibly other conditions associated with loss of muscle mass.

  17. High-dose interferon-alpha2a exerts potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 not associated with antitumor activity in subjects with Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, P. H.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, C. H.; Danner, S. A.; Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity was assessed in HIV-1-infected homosexual and bisexual men receiving 18-36 MIU/day of recombinant interferon (IFN)-alpha2a for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The median baseline HIV-1 RNA level was 4.99 log10 copies/mL. Seventeen subjects (68%)

  18. Measurement of radon daughters in air samples by alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Crespo, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of polonium 214 and polonium 218. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter (Author)

  19. A model for the stepwise radiation inactivation of the alpha 2-dimer of Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, J.G.; Jensen, J.

    1989-01-01

    This study is a direct continuation of Jensen, J., and Norby. A new model in which we propose that the in situ organization of the Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit is an alpha 2-dimer and which describes the stepwise degradation by radiation inactivation of this assembly is presented on the basis of the following findings. Radiation inactivation size for alpha-peptide integrity, normal nucleotide, vanadate and ouabain binding, and K-pNPPase activity is close to m(alpha) = 112 kDa; for Na-ATPase activity it is 135 kDa and for Na,K-ATPase activity it increases from 140 to about 195 kDa with increasing assay ATP concentration (equal to increasing average turnover). Normal Tl+ occlusion had the same radiation inactivation size as Vmax for Na,K-ATPase, i.e. about 195 kDa. The binding experiments disclosed radiation-produced molecules with active binding sites but with a lower than normal affinity. Radiation inactivation size for the total binding capacity of ADP and ouabain was therefore smaller than the size of an alpha-peptide, namely about 70 kDa, and for total Tl+ occlusion it was down to 40 kDa. We can explain all these observations by using a new approach to target size analysis and by assuming a dimeric organization of the alpha-subunit. Each alpha-peptide is degraded stepwise by first destruction of either a 42- or a 70-kDa domain, and the partly damaged peptide may retain biochemical activity. We conclude that there is no role for the beta-subunit in catalysis and that the alpha-peptide is organized as an alpha 2-dimer in the membrane with each alpha-subunit being able to perform complete catalytic cycles (and probably also active transport), provided that it is stabilized by an adjacent alpha-peptide or a sufficiently large fragment thereof

  20. A model for the stepwise radiation inactivation of the alpha 2-dimer of Na,K-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norby, J.G.; Jensen, J. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-11-25

    This study is a direct continuation of Jensen, J., and Norby. A new model in which we propose that the in situ organization of the Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit is an alpha 2-dimer and which describes the stepwise degradation by radiation inactivation of this assembly is presented on the basis of the following findings. Radiation inactivation size for alpha-peptide integrity, normal nucleotide, vanadate and ouabain binding, and K-pNPPase activity is close to m(alpha) = 112 kDa; for Na-ATPase activity it is 135 kDa and for Na,K-ATPase activity it increases from 140 to about 195 kDa with increasing assay ATP concentration (equal to increasing average turnover). Normal Tl+ occlusion had the same radiation inactivation size as Vmax for Na,K-ATPase, i.e. about 195 kDa. The binding experiments disclosed radiation-produced molecules with active binding sites but with a lower than normal affinity. Radiation inactivation size for the total binding capacity of ADP and ouabain was therefore smaller than the size of an alpha-peptide, namely about 70 kDa, and for total Tl+ occlusion it was down to 40 kDa. We can explain all these observations by using a new approach to target size analysis and by assuming a dimeric organization of the alpha-subunit. Each alpha-peptide is degraded stepwise by first destruction of either a 42- or a 70-kDa domain, and the partly damaged peptide may retain biochemical activity. We conclude that there is no role for the beta-subunit in catalysis and that the alpha-peptide is organized as an alpha 2-dimer in the membrane with each alpha-subunit being able to perform complete catalytic cycles (and probably also active transport), provided that it is stabilized by an adjacent alpha-peptide or a sufficiently large fragment thereof.

  1. Activation of Penile Proadipogenic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor with an Estrogen: Interaction with Estrogen Receptor Alpha during Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Mansour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the estrogen receptor alpha (ER ligand diethylstilbesterol (DES between neonatal days 2 to 12 induces penile adipogenesis and adult infertility in rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo interaction between DES-activated ER and the proadipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR. Transcripts for PPARs , , and and 1a splice variant were detected in Sprague-Dawley normal rat penis with PPAR predominating. In addition, PPAR1b and PPAR2 were newly induced by DES. The PPAR transcripts were significantly upregulated with DES and reduced by antiestrogen ICI 182, 780. At the cellular level, PPAR protein was detected in urethral transitional epithelium and stromal, endothelial, neuronal, and smooth muscular cells. Treatment with DES activated ER and induced adipocyte differentiation in corpus cavernosum penis. Those adipocytes exhibited strong nuclear PPAR expression. These results suggest a biological overlap between PPAR and ER and highlight a mechanism for endocrine disruption.

  2. Alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Shannon R; Jennings, Merilyn H; Rome, Courtney; Hadjivassiliou, Vicky; Papas, Konstantinos A; Alexander, Jonathon S

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin E, a micronutrient (comprising alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols), has documented antioxidant and non-antioxidant effects, some of which inhibit inflammation and angiogenesis. We compared the abilities of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols to regulate human blood cytotoxicity (BEC) and lymphatic endothelial cytotoxicity (LEC), proliferation, invasiveness, permeability, capillary formation and suppression of TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 as in vitro models of inflammatory angiogenesis. alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols were not toxic to either cell type up to 40 microM. In BEC, confluent cell density was decreased by all concentrations of delta- and gamma-tocopherol (10-40 microM) but not by alpha-tocopherol. LEC showed no change in cell density in response to tocopherols. delta-Tocopherol (40 microM), but not other isomers, decreased BEC invasiveness. In LEC, all doses of gamma-tocopherol, as well as the highest dose of alpha-tocopherol (40 microM), decreased cell invasiveness. delta-Tocopherol had no effect on LEC invasiveness at any molarity. delta-Tocopherol dose dependently increased cell permeability at 48 h in BEC and LEC; alpha- and gamma-tocopherols showed slight effects. Capillary tube formation was decreased by high dose (40 microM) concentrations of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol, but showed no effects with smaller doses (10-20 microM) in BEC. gamma-Tocopherol (10-20 microM) and alpha-tocopherol (10 microM), but not delta-tocopherol, increased LEC capillary tube formation. Lastly, in BEC, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol each dose-dependently reduced TNF-alpha-induced expression of VCAM-1. In LEC, there was no significant change to TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression with any concentration of alpha-, gamma- or delta-tocopherol. These data demonstrate that physiological levels (0-40 microM) of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols are nontoxic and dietary tocopherols, especially delta

  3. HNF4alpha dysfunction as a molecular rational for cyclosporine induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehof, Monika; Borlak, Jürgen

    2011-01-27

    Induction of tolerance against grafted organs is achieved by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine, a prominent member of the calcineurin inhibitors. Unfortunately, its lifetime use is associated with hypertension and nephrotoxicity. Several mechanism for cyclosporine induced hypertension have been proposed, i.e. activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endothelin-mediated systemic vasoconstriction, impaired vasodilatation secondary to reduction in prostaglandin and nitric oxide, altered cytosolic calcium translocation, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In this regard the molecular basis for undue RAS activation and an increased signaling of the vasoactive oligopeptide angiotensin II (AngII) remain elusive. Notably, angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of AngII and transcriptional regulation of AGT is controlled by the hepatic nuclear factor HNF4alpha. To better understand the molecular events associated with cyclosporine induced hypertension, we investigated the effect of cyclosporine on HNF4alpha expression and activity and searched for novel HNF4alpha target genes among members of the RAS cascade. Using bioinformatic algorithm and EMSA bandshift assays we identified angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as genes targeted by HNF4alpha. Notably, cyclosporine represses HNF4alpha gene and protein expression and its DNA-binding activity at consensus sequences to AGT, AGTR1, ACE, and ACE2. Consequently, the gene expression of AGT, AGTR1, and ACE2 was significantly reduced as evidenced by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. While RAS is composed of a sophisticated interplay between multiple factors we propose a decrease of ACE2 to enforce AngII signaling via AGTR1 to ultimately result in vasoconstriction and hypertension. Taken collectively we demonstrate cyclosporine to repress HNF4alpha activity through calcineurin inhibitor mediated inhibition of nuclear

  4. HNF4alpha dysfunction as a molecular rational for cyclosporine induced hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Niehof

    Full Text Available Induction of tolerance against grafted organs is achieved by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine, a prominent member of the calcineurin inhibitors. Unfortunately, its lifetime use is associated with hypertension and nephrotoxicity. Several mechanism for cyclosporine induced hypertension have been proposed, i.e. activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endothelin-mediated systemic vasoconstriction, impaired vasodilatation secondary to reduction in prostaglandin and nitric oxide, altered cytosolic calcium translocation, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. In this regard the molecular basis for undue RAS activation and an increased signaling of the vasoactive oligopeptide angiotensin II (AngII remain elusive. Notably, angiotensinogen (AGT is the precursor of AngII and transcriptional regulation of AGT is controlled by the hepatic nuclear factor HNF4alpha. To better understand the molecular events associated with cyclosporine induced hypertension, we investigated the effect of cyclosporine on HNF4alpha expression and activity and searched for novel HNF4alpha target genes among members of the RAS cascade. Using bioinformatic algorithm and EMSA bandshift assays we identified angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE, and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 as genes targeted by HNF4alpha. Notably, cyclosporine represses HNF4alpha gene and protein expression and its DNA-binding activity at consensus sequences to AGT, AGTR1, ACE, and ACE2. Consequently, the gene expression of AGT, AGTR1, and ACE2 was significantly reduced as evidenced by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. While RAS is composed of a sophisticated interplay between multiple factors we propose a decrease of ACE2 to enforce AngII signaling via AGTR1 to ultimately result in vasoconstriction and hypertension. Taken collectively we demonstrate cyclosporine to repress HNF4alpha activity through calcineurin inhibitor mediated inhibition

  5. Selective inhibition of sheep kidney 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoform 2 activity by 5 alpha-reduced (but not 5 beta) derivatives of adrenocorticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, S A; Sheff, M F; Ribeiro, C E; Morris, D J

    1997-02-01

    We have previously reported that 5 alpha and 5 beta pathways of steroid metabolism are controlled in vivo by dietary Na+ and glycyrrhetinic acid, see Gorsline et al. 1988; Latif et al. 1990. The present investigations provide evidence supporting the suggestion that endogenous substances may regulate the glucocorticoid inactivating isoenzymes, 11 beta-HSD (hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) 1 (liver) and 11 beta-HSD2 (kidney). The activity of 11 beta-HSD is impaired in essential hypertension, following licorice ingestion, and in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess where 11 beta-HSD2 is particularly affected. In all three conditions, excretion of the less common 5 alpha metabolites is elevated in urine. We now report on the differential abilities of a series of Ring A reduced (5 alpha and 5 beta) adrenocorticosteroid and progesterone metabolites to inhibit these isoenzymes. Using liver microsomes with NADP+ as co-factor (11 beta-HSD1), and sheep kidney microsomes with NAD+ as co-factor (11 beta-HSD2), we have systematically investigated the abilities of a number of adrenocorticosteroids and their derivatives to inhibit the individual isoforms of 11 beta-HSD. A striking feature is the differential sensitivity of the two isoenzymes to inhibition by 5 alpha and 5 beta derivatives. 11 beta-HSD1 is inhibited by both 5 alpha and certain 5 beta derivatives. 11 beta-HSD-2 was selectively inhibited only by 5 alpha derivatives: 5 beta derivatives were without inhibitory activity toward this isoform of 11 beta-HSD. These results indicate the importance of the structural conformation of the A and B Rings in conferring specific inhibitory properties on these compounds. In addition, we discuss the effects of additions or substitutions of other functional groups on the inhibitory potency of these steroid molecules against 11 beta-HSD1 and 11 beta-HSD2.

  6. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: zhongxia1977@126.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: wenhuashenghuo1@163.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  7. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schaerer, Daniel [CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  8. A fragment of alpha-actinin promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luikart, S; Wahl, D; Hinkel, T; Masri, M; Oegema, T

    1999-02-01

    Conditioned media (CM) from cultures of HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells grown on extracellular bone marrow matrix contains a factor that induces macrophage-like maturation of HL-60 cells. This factor was purified from the CM of HL-60 cells grown on bone marrow stroma by ammonium sulfate precipitation, then sequential chromatography on DEAE, affi-gel blue affinity, gel exclusion, and wheat germ affinity columns, followed by C-4 reverse phase HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. The maturation promoting activity of the CM was identified in a single 31 kD protein. Amino acid sequence analysis of four internal tryptic peptides of this protein confirmed significant homology with amino acid residues 48-60, 138-147, 215-220, and 221-236 of human cytoskeletal alpha-actinin. An immunoaffinity purified rabbit polyclonal anti-chicken alpha-actinin inhibited the activity of HL-60 conditioned media. A 27 kD amino-terminal fragment of alpha-actinin produced by thermolysin digestion of chicken gizzard alpha-actinin, but not intact alpha-actinin, had maturation promoting activity on several cell types, including blood monocytes, as measured by lysozyme secretion and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We conclude that an extracellular alpha-actinin fragment can promote monocyte/macrophage maturation. This represents the first example of a fragment of a cytoskeletal component, which may be released during tissue remodeling and repair, playing a role in phagocyte maturation.

  9. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activity of alpha radionuclides was determined in biological samples. The biological samples were chosen in kinds of fish, concretely mackerels, herrings and haddocks. Experimental data were presented on the poster

  10. Alpha-Band Brain Oscillations Shape the Processing of Perceptible as well as Imperceptible Somatosensory Stimuli during Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forschack, Norman; Nierhaus, Till; Müller, Matthias M; Villringer, Arno

    2017-07-19

    Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger. The task was to detect stimulation at the randomly alternated cued index finger. Under attention, amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potentials increased 50-60 ms after stimulation (P1) for both suprathreshold and subthreshold events. Prestimulus amplitude of peri-Rolandic alpha, that is mu, showed an inverse relationship to P1 amplitude during attention compared to when the finger was unattended. Interestingly, intermediate and high amplitudes of mu rhythm were associated with the highest P1 amplitudes during attention and smallest P1 during lack of attention, that is, these levels of alpha rhythm seemed to optimally support the behavioral goal ("detect" stimuli at the cued finger while ignoring the other finger). Our results show that attention enhances neural processing for both suprathreshold and subthreshold stimuli and they highlight a rather complex interaction between attention, Rolandic alpha activity, and their effects on stimulus processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attention is crucial in prioritizing processing of relevant perceptible (suprathreshold) stimuli: it filters and weights sensory input. The present study investigates the controversially discussed question whether this attention effect extends to imperceptible (subthreshold) stimuli as well. We found noninvasive EEG signatures for attentional modulation of neural events following perceptible and imperceptible somatosensory stimulation in human participants. Specifically

  11. Feasibility studies of colorless LR 115 SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.F.; Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F.; Yu, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using the active layer of the colorless LR 115 SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments was studied. The track revelation time on the bottom side (the side attached to the polyester base) was much longer than that on the top side (the side not attached to the polyester base) of the active layer so track formation on the top side was more desirable. In relation to this, culture of HeLa cells on the bottom side of the active layer was found feasible although the cultured cell number was relatively smaller. The feasibility of using this SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments was demonstrated by culturing cells on the bottom side while performing alpha-particle irradiation and chemical etching on the top side, and by taking photographs of the cells and alpha-particle tracks together under the optical microscope

  12. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  13. Mechanisms of activation of muscle branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase during exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; MacLean, D A; Saltin, B

    1996-01-01

    1. Exercise leads to activation (dephosphorylation) of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH). Here we investigate the effect of low pre-exercise muscle glycogen content and of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) ingestion on the activity of BCKADH at rest and after 90 min of one......-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65% maximal one-leg power output in five subjects. 2. Pre-exercise BCAA ingestion (308 mg BCAAs (kg body wt)-1) caused an increased muscle BCAA uptake, a higher intramuscular BCAA concentration and activation of BCKADH both at rest (9 +/- 1 versus 25 +/- 5% for the control...... and BCAA test, respectively) and after exercise (27 +/- 4 versus 54 +/- 7%). 3. At rest the percentage active BCKADH was not different, 6 +/- 2% versus 5 +/- 1%, in the normal and low glycogen content leg (392 +/- 21 and 147 +/- 34 mumol glycosyl units (g dry muscle)-1, respectively). The post...

  14. H(alpha) Proxies for EIT Crinkles: Further Evidence for Preflare "Breakout"-Type Activity in an Ejective Solar Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Qiu, Jiong; Wang, Haimin; Moore, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    We present H(alpha) observations from Big Bear Solar Observatory of an eruptive flare in NOAA Active Region 8210, occurring near 22:30 UT on 1998 May 1. Previously, using the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, we found that a pattern of transient, localized brightenings, which we call 'EIT crinkles,' appears in the neighborhood of the eruption near the time of flare onset. These EIT crinkles occur at a location in the active region well separated from the sheared core magnetic fields, which is where the most intense features of the eruption are concentrated. We also previously found that high-cadence images from the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh indicate that soft X-ray intensity enhancements in the core begin after the start of the EIT crinkles. With the H(alpha) data, we find remote flare brightening counterparts to the EIT crinkles. Light curves as functions of time of various areas of the active region show that several of the remote flare brightenings undergo intensity increases prior to the onset of principal brightenings in the core region, consistent with our earlier findings from EIT and SXT data. These timing relationships are consistent with the eruption onset mechanism known as the breakout model, introduced by Antiochos and colleagues, which proposes that eruptions begin with reconnection at a magnetic null high above the core region. Our observations are also consistent with other proposed mechanisms that do not involve early reconnection in the core region. As a corollary, our observations are not consistent with the so-called tether-cutting models, which say that the eruption begins with reconnection in the core. The H(alpha) data further show that a filament in the core region becomes activated near the time of EIT crinkle onset, but little if any of the filament actually erupts, despite the presence of a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with this event.

  15. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs

  16. Determination of uranium and thorium isotopes by solid phase extraction and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.; Kovacova, M.; Strisovska, J.; Galanda, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the modified method suitable for the separation of isotopes of uranium and thorium samples of rocks, including gold ore and gold concentrate using of extraction chromatography method, after digestion of the sample, concentrating, separate the isotopes of uranium and thorium isotopes to prepare sources for the measurement of alpha spectra. Samples of rocks, gold ore and gold concentrate were digered in microwave decomposition in the environment of hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid. For the separation of uranium and thorium the vacuum box with cartridges DGA Resin and Resin(R) UTEVA (Triskem International, France) was used. Both sorbents allow separation of uranium from thorium. The results confirmed that the both sorbents give the same results within expanded uncertainty. The mass activity of monitored uranium and thorium radioisotopes was determined by alpha spectrometry method. The yields of separation were determined using uranium-232 as a tracer radionuclide; the activity of 232 U was 0.1438 Bq. Alpha spectra were measured on the Alpha spectrometer EG and G ORTEC 576A with the software MAESTRO, MCA Emulator and Gamma Vision-32 for Windows, USA. Mass activities of radionuclides were converted to mass concentration of isotopes 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th. The highest concentration of 238 U was sampled in granodiorite (Tunnel S-XIV-2, southwards, mining of Cu ore, not working there since 1990), where m( 238 U) = (0.81 ± 0.09) mg kg -1 (DGA Resin) and m( 238 U) = (0.90 ± 0.09) mg kg -1 (UTEVA(R) Resin), as well as m( 232 Th) = (18.8 ± 1.7) mg kg -1 (DGA Resin) and m( 232 Th) = (17.8 ± 1.5) mg kg -1 (UTEVA(R) Resin). In other samples of rocks, gold ore and gold concentrates have specific masses of isotopes of uranium and thorium two-to ten-folds lower. It can be concluded that the rocks, gold ores and concentrates of gold from the 'Rozalia' mine contain lower concentrations of uranium several times against

  17. Whole blood assay for NK activity in splenectomized and non-splenectomized hairy cell leukemia patients during IFN-alpha-2b treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Hokland, P; Ellegaard, J

    1989-01-01

    Natural killer cell (NK) activity in peripheral blood (PB) was followed longitudinally for up to 2 yr after initiation of low-dose IFN-alpha-2b therapy in nine hairy cell leukemia (HCL) patients. A whole blood NK (WB-NK) assay was employed in order to measure the NK activity per unit blood. The p...

  18. Activation of the alpha-globin gene expression correlates with dramatic upregulation of nearby non-globin genes and changes in local and large-scale chromatin spatial structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Sergey V; Galitsyna, Aleksandra A; Flyamer, Ilya M; Golov, Arkadiy K; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Imakaev, Maxim V; Abdennur, Nezar A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Razin, Sergey V

    2017-07-11

    In homeotherms, the alpha-globin gene clusters are located within permanently open genome regions enriched in housekeeping genes. Terminal erythroid differentiation results in dramatic upregulation of alpha-globin genes making their expression comparable to the rRNA transcriptional output. Little is known about the influence of the erythroid-specific alpha-globin gene transcription outburst on adjacent, widely expressed genes and large-scale chromatin organization. Here, we have analyzed the total transcription output, the overall chromatin contact profile, and CTCF binding within the 2.7 Mb segment of chicken chromosome 14 harboring the alpha-globin gene cluster in cultured lymphoid cells and cultured erythroid cells before and after induction of terminal erythroid differentiation. We found that, similarly to mammalian genome, the chicken genomes is organized in TADs and compartments. Full activation of the alpha-globin gene transcription in differentiated erythroid cells is correlated with upregulation of several adjacent housekeeping genes and the emergence of abundant intergenic transcription. An extended chromosome region encompassing the alpha-globin cluster becomes significantly decompacted in differentiated erythroid cells, and depleted in CTCF binding and CTCF-anchored chromatin loops, while the sub-TAD harboring alpha-globin gene cluster and the upstream major regulatory element (MRE) becomes highly enriched with chromatin interactions as compared to lymphoid and proliferating erythroid cells. The alpha-globin gene domain and the neighboring loci reside within the A-like chromatin compartment in both lymphoid and erythroid cells and become further segregated from the upstream gene desert upon terminal erythroid differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of tissue-specific transcription activation are not restricted to the host genomic locus but affect the overall chromatin structure and transcriptional output of the encompassing

  19. Structure and kinetic investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes family GH38 alpha-mannosidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D L Suits

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of alpha-mannosides is catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases (GH, termed alpha-mannosidases. These enzymes are found in different GH sequence-based families. Considerable research has probed the role of higher eukaryotic "GH38" alpha-mannosides that play a key role in the modification and diversification of hybrid N-glycans; processes with strong cellular links to cancer and autoimmune disease. The most extensively studied of these enzymes is the Drosophila GH38 alpha-mannosidase II, which has been shown to be a retaining alpha-mannosidase that targets both alpha-1,3 and alpha-1,6 mannosyl linkages, an activity that enables the enzyme to process GlcNAc(Man(5(GlcNAc(2 hybrid N-glycans to GlcNAc(Man(3(GlcNAc(2. Far less well understood is the observation that many bacterial species, predominantly but not exclusively pathogens and symbionts, also possess putative GH38 alpha-mannosidases whose activity and specificity is unknown.Here we show that the Streptococcus pyogenes (M1 GAS SF370 GH38 enzyme (Spy1604; hereafter SpGH38 is an alpha-mannosidase with specificity for alpha-1,3 mannosidic linkages. The 3D X-ray structure of SpGH38, obtained in native form at 1.9 A resolution and in complex with the inhibitor swainsonine (K(i 18 microM at 2.6 A, reveals a canonical GH38 five-domain structure in which the catalytic "-1" subsite shows high similarity with the Drosophila enzyme, including the catalytic Zn(2+ ion. In contrast, the "leaving group" subsites of SpGH38 display considerable differences to the higher eukaryotic GH38s; features that contribute to their apparent specificity.Although the in vivo function of this streptococcal GH38 alpha-mannosidase remains unknown, it is shown to be an alpha-mannosidase active on N-glycans. SpGH38 lies on an operon that also contains the GH84 hexosaminidase (Spy1600 and an additional putative glycosidase. The activity of SpGH38, together with its genomic context, strongly hints at a function

  20. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  1. {alpha} counting device with pulse ionization chamber; Ensemble de comptage {alpha} a chambre d'ionisation a impulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelman, J; Guillon, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    This device has been achieved more especially in view of the control, by measure of activity {alpha}, of chemical separations. The sought-after features were the following: - simple handling; possibility to do some measures fast and frequent. It imposed the choice of an ionization chamber at air pressure; - possibility to count {alpha} in presence of a continuous {beta} background noise, which imposed a resolution time as short as possible; - absence of micro-phonics, which imposed a study of suspension of the room; - great safety of use. (author) [French] Cet appareil a ete realise plus particulierement en vue du controle, par mesure d'activite {alpha}, de separations chimiques. Les caracteristiques recherchees etaient les suivantes: - maniement simple; possibilite d'effectuer des mesures rapides et frequentes. Cela imposait le choix d'une chambre d'ionisation a air a pression atmospherique; - possibilite de compter des {alpha} en presence d'un fond continu de {beta}, ce qui imposait un temps de resolution aussi court que possible; - absence de microphonie, ce qui demandait une etude du mode de suspension de la chambre; - grande securite de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  2. Estrogen increases smooth muscle expression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors and cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, A H; Maiti, K; Mitra, S; Chotani, M A; Flavahan, S; Bailey, S R; Thompson-Torgerson, C S; Flavahan, N A

    2007-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women compared with men. Cold-induced constriction is mediated in part by enhanced activity of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2C)-ARs) located on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMs). Experiments were therefore performed to determine whether 17beta-estradiol regulates alpha(2C)-AR expression and function in cutaneous VSMs. 17beta-Estradiol (0.01-10 nmol/l) increased expression of the alpha(2C)-AR protein and the activity of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter in human cultured dermal VSMs, which was assessed following transient transfection of the cells with a promoter-reporter construct. The effect of 17beta-estradiol was associated with increased accumulation of cAMP and activation of the cAMP-responsive Rap2 GTP-binding protein. Transient transfection of VSMs with a dominant-negative mutant of Rap2 inhibited the 17beta-estradiol-induced activation of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter, whereas a constitutively active mutant of Rap2 increased alpha(2C)-AR promoter activity. The effects of 17beta-estradiol were inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182780 (1 micromol/l), and were mimicked by a cell-impermeable form of the hormone (estrogen:BSA) or by the selective ER-alpha receptor agonist 4,4',4'''-(4-propyl-[(1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT; 10 nmol/l) or the selective ER-beta receptor agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; 10 nmol/l). Therefore, 17beta-estradiol increased expression of alpha(2C)-ARs by interacting with cell surface receptors to cause a cAMP/Rap2-dependent increase in alpha(2C)-AR transcription. In mouse tail arteries, 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/l) increased alpha(2C)-AR expression and selectively increased the cold-induced amplification of alpha(2)-AR constriction, which is mediated by alpha(2C)-ARs. An estrogen-dependent increase in expression of cold-sensitive alpha(2C)-ARs may contribute

  3. Self-absorption and self-scattering in emitter source of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results on spectrometric analysis and activity measurements of alpha-emitting sources prepared by evaporation on mylar. The measurements were made with a Si surface barrier detector. By the analysis of the angular distribuition of the alpha particles emitted, it was possible to observe that the width of the spectrum low energy tail increases with the emission angle θ, due to the energy degradation in the source material, which affects the measured particles energy. The source activity was also measured from detection solid angles of approx. 10 -1 and aprox. 10 -3 Sr, as a function of θ. The absolute activity of the alpha source was determined and a discussion is present on the ideal conditions necessary for such measurements. (author) [pt

  4. Characterization of high specific activity [16 alpha-123I]Iodo-17 beta-estradiol as an estrogen receptor-specific radioligand capable of imaging estrogen receptor-positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, E.J.; Nelson, K.; Gallion, H.H.; van Nagell, J.R. Jr.; Donaldson, E.S.; Shih, W.J.; Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Baranczuk, R.J.; Kenady, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    16 alpha-[123I]Iodo-17 beta-estradiol (16 alpha-[123I]E2) has been characterized for use as a selective radioligand for estrogen receptor (ERc) that is capable of generating in situ images of ERc-positive tumors. High specific activity 16 alpha-[123I]E2 (7,500-10,000 Ci/mmol) was used in all determinations. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography, and the selectivity of radioligand for ERc was evaluated using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography on ERc prepared from rodent uteri. Efficiencies of radioidination approaching 100% were achieved, and excellent receptor selectivity was obtained even when the efficiency of radioiodination was as low as 10%. Low radiochemical purity was always associated with poor selectivity for ERc. No new radioligand species was generated during the course of radiodecay; however, reduced binding over time, even when increased activity was used to compensate for radiodecay, indicated that the formation of a radioinert competitor does occur. 16 alpha-[123I]E2 demonstrated stable, high affinity binding to ERc and was concentrated by ERc-positive tissues. After injecting 16 alpha-[123I]E2 in vivo, images of ERc-containing tissues were obtained, including rabbit reproductive tract and dimethylbenzanthracene-induced tumors. The demonstrations of ERc selectivity and image formation both indicate that 16 alpha-[123I]E2 should have promise as a useful new radiopharmaceutical for imaging ERc-positive cancers

  5. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  6. Study of the peak shape in alpha spectra measured by liquid scintillation

    CERN Document Server

    Vera-Tome, F; Martin-Sanchez, A

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-scintillation counting allows the measurement of alpha and beta activities jointly or only of the alpha-emitting nuclides in a sample. Although the resolution of the alpha spectra is poorer than that attained with semiconductor detectors, it is still an attractive alternative. We describe here attempts to fit a peak shape to experimental liquid-scintillation alpha spectra and discuss the parameters affecting this shape, such as the PSA (pulse-shape analyser) level, vial type, shaking the sample, etc. Spectral analysis has been applied for complex alpha spectra.

  7. Analysis of Prescriptions of Alpha-Blockers and Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors from the Urology Department and Other Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyuk Kang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe analyzed the prescriptions of alpha-blockers and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is in the urology department as well as in other departments of the general hospital.MethodsWe investigated the frequency of prescription of alpha-blockers and PDE5Is from 3 general hospitals from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009. For alpha-blockers, data were collected from patients to whom alpha-blockers were prescribed from among patients recorded as having benign prostatic hyperplasia according to the 5th Korean Standard Classification of Diseases. For PDE5Is, data were collected from patients to whom PDE5Is were prescribed by the urology department and by other departments. Alpha-blockers were classified into tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin, and terazosin, whereas PDE5Is were classified into sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, udenafil, and mirodenafil.ResultsAlpha-blockers were prescribed to 11,436 patients in total over 3 years, and the total frequency of prescriptions was 68,565. Among other departments, the nephrology department had the highest frequency of prescription of 3,225 (4.7%, followed by the cardiology (3,101, 4.5%, neurology (2,576, 3.8%, endocrinology (2,400, 3.5%, pulmonology (1,102, 1.6%, and family medicine (915, 1.3% departments in order. PDE5Is were prescribed to 2,854 patients in total over 3 years, and the total frequency of prescriptions was 10,558. The prescription frequency from the urology department was 4,900 (46.4%. Among other departments, the endocrinology department showed the highest prescription frequency of 3,488 (33.0%, followed by the neurology (542, 5.1%, cardiology (467, 4.4%, and family medicine (407, 3.9% departments in order.ConclusionsA high percentage of prescriptions of alpha-blockers and PDE5Is were from other departments. For more specialized medical care by urologists is required in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction.

  8. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  9. PREVAIL-EPL alpha tool electron optics subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Hans C.; Dhaliwal, Rajinder S.; Golladay, Steven D.; Doran, Samuel K.; Gordon, Michael S.; Kendall, Rodney A.; Lieberman, Jon E.; Pinckney, David J.; Quickle, Robert J.; Robinson, Christopher F.; Rockrohr, James D.; Stickel, Werner; Tressler, Eileen V.

    2001-08-01

    The IBM/Nikon alliance is continuing pursuit of an EPL stepper alpha tool based on the PREVAIL technology. This paper provides a status report of the alliance activity with particular focus on the Electron Optical Subsystem developed at IBM. We have previously reported on design features of the PREVAIL alpha system. The new state-of-the-art e-beam lithography concepts have since been reduced to practice and turned into functional building blocks of a production level lithography tool. The electron optical alpha tool subsystem has been designed, build, assembled and tested at IBM's Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC) in East Fishkill, New York. After demonstrating subsystem functionality, the electron optical column and all associated control electronics hardware and software have been shipped during January 2001 to Nikon's facility in Kumagaya, Japan, for integration into the Nikon commercial e-beam stepper alpha tool. Early pre-shipment results obtained with this electron optical subsystem are presented.

  10. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM [3H]testosterone [( 3 H]T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. [ 3 H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone [( 3 H]DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, [ 3 H]DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT

  11. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  12. PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passard, Christian; Mariani, Alain; Jallu, Fanny; Romeyer-Dherbey, Jacques; Recroix, Herve; Rodriguez, Michel; Loridon, Joel; Denis, Caroline; Toubon, Herve

    2002-01-01

    The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[α] (about 50 μg Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective 239 Pu in total active neutron counting, and 0.08 mg of effective 239 Pu coincident active neutron counting, may currently be detected (empty cavity, measurement time of 15 min, neutron generator emission of 1.6 x 10 8 s -1 [4π]). The most limiting parameters in terms of performances are the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl...), its density, and its heterogeneity degree - and the localization and self-shielding properties of the contaminant

  13. Activity, splice variants, conserved peptide motifs, and phylogeny of two new alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase families (FUT10 and FUT11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Rosella; Moore, Stuart E H; Bovin, Nicolai; Garcia-Rosasco, Marcela; Candelier, Jean-Jacques; Martinez-Duncker, Iván; Oriol, Rafael

    2009-02-13

    We report the cloning of three splice variants of the FUT10 gene, encoding for active alpha-l-fucosyltransferase-isoforms of 391, 419, and 479 amino acids, and two splice variants of the FUT11 gene, encoding for two related alpha-l-fucosyltransferases of 476 and 492 amino acids. The FUT10 and FUT11 appeared 830 million years ago, whereas the other alpha1,3-fucosyltransferases emerged 450 million years ago. FUT10-391 and FUT10-419 were expressed in human embryos, whereas FUT10-479 was cloned from adult brain and was not found in embryos. Recombinant FUT10-419 and FUT10-479 have a type II trans-membrane topology and are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a membrane retention signal at their NH(2) termini. The FUT10-479 has, in addition, a COOH-ER membrane retention signal. The FUT10-391 is a soluble protein without a trans-membrane domain or ER retention signal that transiently localizes to the Golgi and then is routed to the lysosome. After transfection in COS7 cells, the three FUT10s and at least one FUT11, link alpha-l-fucose onto conalbumin glycopeptides and biantennary N-glycan acceptors but not onto short lactosaminyl acceptor substrates as do classical monoexonic alpha1,3-fucosyltransferases. Modifications of the innermost core GlcNAc of the N-glycan, by substitution with ManNAc or with an opened GlcNAc ring or by the addition of an alpha1,6-fucose, suggest that the FUT10 transfer is performed on the innermost GlcNAc of the core chitobiose. We can exclude alpha1,3-fucosylation of the two peripheral GlcNAcs linked to the trimannosyl core of the acceptor, because the FUT10 fucosylated biantennary N-glycan product loses both terminal GlcNAc residues after digestion with human placenta alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase.

  14. The tree-alpha Faddeev calculation on 12C bound states with a Pauli correct alpha-alpha potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroyuki; Oryu, Shinsho

    1986-01-01

    The three-alpha model of 12 C is investigated by the Faddeev formalism with the UIM alpha-alpha potential, in which the Pauli effect between two-alpha system was taken into account adequately. The potential can reproduce the on- and off-shell effects of the alpha-alpha interaction by the rank-4 separable type for the S-wave, the rank-3 one for the D-wave, and the rank-2 one for the G-wave, in which two of the ranks in the S-wave, and one in the D-wave are prepared to eliminate the Pauli forbidden states. We obtained three even states J π = 0 + , 2 + , 4 + , and two odd states 1 - , 3 - , below the alpha- 8 Be(0 + g.s) threshold energy. The even parity states gain larger binding energies than those which have been obtained by former Faddeev calculation with the rank-1 Kukulin and Neudatchin (KN) potential. On the other hand, for the odd parity states, we obtained smaller binding energies than the former one. It is found that our Faddeev calculation with the UIM potential does not miss any important low-lying levels of 12 C, in which any spurious states do not appear. (author)

  15. Rapid determination of radionuclide activity concentrations in contaminated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, P.; Ryan, B.; Bollhofer, A.; Martin, P.; International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

    2007-01-01

    As a result of an incident at the Ranger Uranium mine in which drinking water was contaminated with process water, it was necessary to perform quick analysis for naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclide activity concentrations, including 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, U and Th isotopes. The methods which were subsequently used are presented here. The techniques used were high-resolution gamma spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and high-resolution alpha spectrometry. Routine methods were modified to allow for rapid analyses on priority samples in 1-2 days, with some results for highest priority samples available in less than 1 day. Comparison of initial results obtained through standard procedures, is discussed. An emphasis is placed on high-resolution alpha spectrometry of major alpha-emitting nuclides, specifically 226Ra, 230Th and 238U. The range of uranium concentrations in the samples investigated was from background levels to 6.6ppm. Implications for radiological dose assessment in contamination incidents involving process water are presented. The worst-case scenario for the incident at Ranger Uranium Mine indicates that the maximum committed effective dose to workers was well below the ICRP limit for worker-related dose and below the dose limit for a member of the public, with 230Th being the highest contributor

  16. Enhanced diffusion under alpha self-irradiation in spent nuclear fuel: Theoretical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, Cecile; Lovera, Patrick; Poinssot, Christophe; Garcia, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches have been developed in order to estimate the enhanced diffusion coefficient of fission products under alpha self-irradiation in spent nuclear fuel. These simplified models calculate the effects of alpha particles and recoil atoms on mobility of uranium atoms in UO 2 . They lead to a diffusion coefficient which is proportional to the volume alpha activity with a proportionality factor of about 10 -44 (m 5 ). However, the same models applied for fission lead to a radiation-enhanced diffusion coefficient which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than values reported in literature for U and Pu. Other models are based on an extrapolation of radiation-enhanced diffusion measured either in reactors or under heavy ion bombardment. These models lead to a proportionality factor between the alpha self-irradiation enhanced diffusion coefficient and the volume alpha activity of 2 x 10 -41 (m 5 )

  17. Radon compensation for alpha air monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.M.; Rising, F.L.; Zuerner, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous alpha air monitors, employing solid state detectors and single channel analyzers, for the detection of alpha particles of a specific energy have been available commercially for several years. The single channel pulse height analyzers provide good sensitivity to the isotope of interest and reject much of the unwanted activity from other isotopes such as naturally occurring radon and daughters. A small percentage of the radon daughters are degraded in energy by the air between the collecting filter and the diode to the extent that they coincide with energy of the isotope being measured and are counted as unwanted background. When 239 Pu is the isotope being measured the activity in the Pu channel resulting from radon is typically 2 percent of the total radon background. The majority of this unwanted background results from the degradation of the 6.0 MeV 218 Po (RaA) peak. This background is sufficient to cause instrument alarms during periods of radon activity. In attempts to reduce the frequency of false alarms, background subtraction circuits have been added as standard equipment to most of the alpha air monitors available on the market for the past several years. A method for calibrating these background subtraction circuits using a radon generator is described. (U.S.)

  18. Rhodocytin (aggretin) activates platelets lacking alpha(2)beta(1) integrin, glycoprotein VI, and the ligand-binding domain of glycoprotein Ibalpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmeier, W; Bouvard, D; Eble, J A

    2001-01-01

    Although alpha(2)beta(1) integrin (glycoprotein Ia/IIa) has been established as a platelet collagen receptor, its role in collagen-induced platelet activation has been controversial. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rhodocytin (also termed aggretin), a snake venom toxin purified from the v...

  19. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  20. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  1. Amylosucrase, a glucan-synthesizing enzyme from the alpha-amylase family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L K; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A

    2001-01-01

    Amylosucrase (E.C. 2.4.1.4) is a member of Family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases (the alpha-amylases), although its biological function is the synthesis of amylose-like polymers from sucrose. The structure of amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea is divided into five domains: an all helical N...... of amylosucrase is at the bottom of a pocket at the molecular surface. A substrate binding site resembling the amylase 2 subsite is not found in amylosucrase. The site is blocked by a salt bridge between residues in the second and eight loops of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. The result is an exo-acting enzyme. Loop......-terminal domain that is not similar to any known fold, a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel A-domain, B- and B'-domains displaying alpha/beta-structure, and a C-terminal eight-stranded beta-sheet domain. In contrast to other Family 13 hydrolases that have the active site in the bottom of a large cleft, the active site...

  2. Radiobiological long-term accumulation of environmental alpha radioactivity in extracted human teeth and animal bones in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almayahi, B.A.; Tajuddin, A.A.; Jaafar, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the radiobiological analysis of natural alpha emitters in extracted human teeth and animal bones from Malaysia was estimated. The microdistributions of alpha particles in tooth and bone samples were measured using CR-39 alpha-particle track detectors. The lowest and highest alpha emission rates in teeth in the Kedah and Perak states were 0.0080 ± 0.0005 mBq cm −2 and 0.061 ± 0.008 mBq cm −2 , whereas those of bones in the Perlis and Kedah states were 0.0140 ± 0.0001 mBq cm −2 and 0.7700 ± 0.0282 mBq cm −2 , respectively. The average alpha emission rate in male teeth was 0.0209 ± 0.0008 mBq cm −2 , whereas that of female teeth was 0.0199 ± 0.0010 mBq cm −2 . The alpha emission rate in teeth is higher in smokers (0.0228 ± 0.0008 mBq cm −2 ) than in non-smokers (0.0179 ± 0.0008 mBq cm −2 ). Such difference was found statistically significant (p < 0.01). - Highlights: • Alpha emission rates in teeth from smokers slightly higher than non-smokers. • Difference between alpha rates in male and female tooth not statistically significant. • Alpha particles have the same effect at any age. • Difference between alpha rates in bones was statistically significant

  3. K- and M-type dwarf stars within 25 parsecs of the sun. I. The age-chromospheric activity relations from H-alpha equivalent widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, O.J. (Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Totolo, La Serena (Chile))

    1990-02-01

    The available equivalent-width measurements of H-alpha in dwarf K and M stars within 25 pc of the sun indicate that, as a chromospheric diagnostic, the H-alpha decay rate is about t exp 0.5. The decay rate of line emission in Mg II h and k (Ca II H and K) is about t exp 0.3. The decay rates are derived from observations of members of a few stellar superclusters and groups, for which the consistency of results argues strongly for the importance of more data. The only major inconsistency encountered is for the unique HR 1614 group which, in the age/chromospheric-activity progression, gives different results from Mg II h and k and from WH-alpha. 63 refs.

  4. Autoradiography Imaging in Targeted Alpha Therapy with Timepix Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya AL Darwish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data related to activity uptake and particle track distribution in targeted alpha therapy. These data are required to estimate the absorbed dose on a cellular level as alpha particles have a limited range and traverse only a few cells. Tracking of individual alpha particles is possible using the Timepix semiconductor radiation detector. We investigated the feasibility of imaging alpha particle emissions in tumour sections from mice treated with Thorium-227 (using APOMAB, with and without prior chemotherapy and Timepix detector. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Timepix detector to monitor variations in tumour uptake based on the necrotic tissue volume was also studied. Compartmental analysis model was used, based on the obtained imaging data, to assess the Th-227 uptake. Results show that alpha particle, photon, electron, and muon tracks were detected and resolved by Timepix detector. The current study demonstrated that individual alpha particle emissions, resulting from targeted alpha therapy, can be visualised and quantified using Timepix detector. Furthermore, the variations in the uptake based on the tumour necrotic volume have been observed with four times higher uptake for tumours pretreated with chemotherapy than for those without chemotherapy.

  5. Estimated environmental loads of alpha-amylase from transgenic high-amylase maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Karaman, Sule [Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Environmental exposure of plants bioengineered to improve efficiencies of biofuel production is an important consideration for their adoption. High-amylase maize genetically engineered to produce thermostable alpha-amylase in seed endosperm is currently in development, and its successful adoption will entail >1000 km{sup 2} of annual production in the USA. Environmental exposure of thermostable amylase will occur in production fields from preharvest and harvest dropped grain, with minor additional contributions from stover and root biomass. Mass loadings of thermostable alpha-amylase are projected to be 16 kg km{sup -2} and represent a potential source of increased alpha-amylase activity in receiving soils. An understanding of the degradation, persistence, accumulation, and activity of thermostable alpha-amylase introduced from transgenic high-amylase maize will be necessary in order to effectively manage transgenic crop systems intended or biofeedstock production. (author)

  6. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  7. How we can Transform the Constant Alpha Value into a Variable Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta P, C.F.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    For the cost-benefit analysis used in the quantitative decision aiding techniques the alpha value is the aim of the question, because it is the alpha value that, directly or indirectly determines the analytical solution Y, consequently, the workers doses distribution involved with ionizing radiation source. Currently, each country adopts a single alpha value that can be linked to the annual gross product (GNP) per capita. Otherwise, the risks due to the ionizing radiation practices Y the ultimate objective, that is, to decrease the doses to admissible levels, are the same in any place of the world. In this case, it seems reasonable to think that the alpha value would be the same in every country. With this view, this paper has the objective to present, as suggestion, how it is possible to make a variable of the alpha value. To achieve this goal using a rigorous mathematical model, the protection options were linked by a curve selected among several curves that best fit in place of the straight line as the ICRP does. The curve selection was applied to the small uranium mine example provide by ICRP in publication number 55. Introducing a variable alpha value as function of the highest individual dose, their values will not depend on the GNP per capita anymore, but on the maximum individual dose distribution Y the length of time necessary to comprise, if possible, the aim of 1/10 of the annual dose limits for workers foreseen in the successive optimizations, that is, to range the individual dose zone considered acceptable. (Author)

  8. How we can Transform the Constant Alpha Value into a Variable Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta P, C.F.; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: cani@osite.com.br

    2006-07-01

    For the cost-benefit analysis used in the quantitative decision aiding techniques the alpha value is the aim of the question, because it is the alpha value that, directly or indirectly determines the analytical solution Y, consequently, the workers doses distribution involved with ionizing radiation source. Currently, each country adopts a single alpha value that can be linked to the annual gross product (GNP) per capita. Otherwise, the risks due to the ionizing radiation practices Y the ultimate objective, that is, to decrease the doses to admissible levels, are the same in any place of the world. In this case, it seems reasonable to think that the alpha value would be the same in every country. With this view, this paper has the objective to present, as suggestion, how it is possible to make a variable of the alpha value. To achieve this goal using a rigorous mathematical model, the protection options were linked by a curve selected among several curves that best fit in place of the straight line as the ICRP does. The curve selection was applied to the small uranium mine example provide by ICRP in publication number 55. Introducing a variable alpha value as function of the highest individual dose, their values will not depend on the GNP per capita anymore, but on the maximum individual dose distribution Y the length of time necessary to comprise, if possible, the aim of 1/10 of the annual dose limits for workers foreseen in the successive optimizations, that is, to range the individual dose zone considered acceptable. (Author)

  9. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma; Aktywnosc alfa-amylazy sliniankowej w surowicy i moczu chorych na gruczolakoraka pluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewska, I.; Wolska, K.; Koput, A. [Zaklad Laboratoryjnej Diagnostyki Klinicznej, Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  10. Effect of communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on degradation of 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol by nitrifying activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpiyakorn, T.; Sermwaraphan, P.; Kurisu, F.

    2009-07-01

    An endocrine disrupting compound, 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is a synthetic estrogen used as a key ingredient in oral contraceptives pill. this persistent organic pollutant, no biodegradable by most microorganisms, is discharged via municipal waste streams to natural receiving waters. Recently, it was found that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) enriched with high ammonium loads can degrade EE2 via co-metabolism during ammonia oxidation. (Author)

  11. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  12. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from 210Pb-supported 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedepo, A.C.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ( 210 Pb/ 210 Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. 210 Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed 210 Pb/ 210 Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g -1 wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g -1 at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone 210 Pb/ 210 Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg -1 with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 ± 0.05 Bq kg -1 for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0.0046 Bq g -1 of Ca. 6) A decreasing Ca content of adult vertebrae with increasing age from 40 - 95 years, from ∼ 14 to 5 g 100 g-1, but no correlation with age for adult rib Ca content of 10 - 30 g

  13. Music perception and imagery in EEG: Alpha band effects of task and stimulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, R.S.; Vlek, R.J.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that mental imagination of sound generally elicits an increase of alpha band activity (8-12Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In addition, alpha activity has been shown to be related to music processing. In the current study, EEG signatures were investigated for

  14. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M

    2006-01-01

    of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain...... of strychnine and brucine, none of the analogues displayed significant selectivity between the alpha1 and alpha1beta subtypes. The structure-activity relationships for the compounds at the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera were significantly different from those at the glycine receptors. Most strikingly, quaternization...... of strychnine and brucine with substituents possessing different steric and electronic properties completely eliminated the activity at the glycine receptors, whereas binding affinity to the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera was retained for the majority of the quaternary analogues. This study provides an insight...

  15. The delta-opioid receptor agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[alpha(R)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl]-(3-methoxybenzyl)-N,N-diethylbenzamide] synergistically enhances the locomotor-activating effects of some psychomotor stimulants, but not direct dopamine agonists, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Folk, John E; Rice, Kenner C; Woods, James H

    2008-02-01

    The nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[alpha(R)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl]-(3-methoxybenzyl)-N,N-diethylbenzamide] produces many stimulant-like behavioral effects in rodents and monkeys, such as locomotor stimulation, generalization to cocaine in discrimination procedures, and antiparkinsonian effects. Tolerance to the locomotor-stimulating effects of SNC80 develops after a single administration of SNC80 in rats; it is not known whether cross-tolerance develops to the effects of other stimulant compounds. In the initial studies to determine whether SNC80 produced cross-tolerance to other stimulant compounds, it was discovered that amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity was greatly enhanced in SNC80-pretreated rats. This study evaluated acute cross-tolerance between delta-opioid agonists and other locomotor-stimulating drugs. Locomotor activity was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotransmitters, and <