WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher-risk prostate cancer

  1. Obesity is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of obesity on prostate cancer detection, as measured by the body mass index (BMI) in a Korean biopsy population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1213 men who underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy at our institution. Biopsy outcomes were analysed with respect to various variables, including patient age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, digital rectal examination (DRE) findings and obesity, defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) , an Asian BMI category. Among 1213 men, 408 (33.6%) were obese and 344 (28.4%) had a positive biopsy. Obese men were younger (65.5 vs 67.1 years, P = 0.003), had a larger prostate (49.2 vs 42.9 mL, P obese men. In the multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection in men undergoing biopsy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.446, P = 0.024). In addition, obesity was significantly associated with a higher rate of biopsy-detected high grade (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) disease, and this association remained after multivariate adjustment (OR = 1.498, P = 0.039). Obese men were younger, had a larger prostate, and had less tendency to have an abnormality on DRE than non-obese men. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection as an independent factor, including high grade prostate cancer in a Korean biopsy population. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  2. Men with family history of prostate cancer have a higher risk of disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalgott, Mark; Kron, Martina; Brath, Johannes M; Ankerst, Donna P; Thompson, Ian M; Gschwend, Juergen E; Herkommer, Kathleen

    2017-11-21

    We aimed to determine if family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PC) influenced cancer control after radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients were evaluated in a prospectively-collected PC family database: The focus was on hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) defined by Johns Hopkins criteria and sporadic prostate cancer (SPC), rigorously defined by absence of prostate cancer in ≥ 2 brothers aged ≥ 60 years. Additionally, patients with first-degree (FPC) and non-first-degree PC (non-FPC) were assessed. Endpoints were biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS). Finally, clinico-pathological characteristics were compared and multiple proportional hazards regression was used to identify prognostic factors. In total 11,654 patients were included (807 HPC, 2251 FPC, 8072 non-FPC and 524 SPC). Familial imposition (HPC/FPC) was associated with a younger age at diagnosis. Thus, HPC patients were diagnosed 2.9 years earlier than SPC patients with more locally advanced tumors (≥ pT3). With a median follow up of 6.2 years (range 0-31.5) BRFS was significantly different when stratified by FH. In pairwise analyses BRFS differed significantly for HPC compared to SPC (HR = 1.27). Consecutively FH was identified as prognostic factor for BRFS (p = 0.021) together with age, PSA, pathologic characteristics and adjuvant androgen deprivation. Analyses of CSS did not show a difference. Patients with FH of PC are likely to be diagnosed earlier and present a higher proportion of locally advanced disease. In addition, men with FH are at higher risk of biochemical recurrence after surgery but reveal similar outcomes regarding prostate cancer-specific survival.

  3. Poor glycemic control of diabetes mellitus is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhyun Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM on prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,368 men who underwent prostate biopsy at our institution. We divided our biopsy population into three groups according to their history of DM, and their Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level: a no-DM (DM- group; a good glycemic control (DM+GC group (HbA1c <6.5%; and a poor glycemic control (DM+PC group (HbA1c ≥6.5%. For sub-analyses, the DM+PC group was divided into a moderately poor glycemic control (DM+mPC group (6.5≤ HbA1c <7.5% and a severely poor glycemic control (DM+sPC group (HbA1c ≥7.5%.Among 1,368 men, 338 (24.7% had a history of DM, and 393 (28.7% had a positive biopsy. There was a significant difference in prostatic specific antigen density (PSAD (P = 0.037 and the frequency of abnormal DRE findings (P = 0.031 among three groups. The occurrence rate of overall prostate cancer (P<0.001 and high-grade prostate cancer (P = 0.016 also presented with a significantly difference. In the multivariate analysis, the DM+PC group was significantly associated with a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection in biopsy subjects compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.313, P = 0.001 but the DM+PC group was not associated with a higher rate of high-grade (Gleason score ≥7 diseases detected during the biopsy (OR = 1.297, P = 0.376. However, in subgroup analysis, DM+sPC group was significantly related to a higher risk of high-grade diseases compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.446, P = 0.048.Poor glycemic control of DM was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection, including high-grade disease, in the biopsy population.

  4. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  5. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  6. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  7. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  8. Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... castrate-resistant prostate cancer or CRPC) Metastatic prostate cancer Prostate cancer is metastatic if it has spread to: • ... first diagnosis, but it does happen. Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is when ...

  9. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  10. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the ... in front of the rectum. Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  11. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures with your doctor. How common is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  12. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  13. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... semen Discomfort in the pelvic area Bone pain Erectile dysfunction When to see a doctor Make an appointment ... Treatment options may include medications, catheters and surgery. Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or ...

  14. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  15. Women with alopecia exhibit a higher risk for thyroid cancer: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between alopecia and prostate cancer. However, little information is available regarding the relationship between alopecia and the risk of cancers in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible association between alopecia and thyroid cancer among Taiwanese women. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The alopecia cohort comprised 4534 women, and each woman was randomly frequency matched by age, index month, and index year with 4 women from the general population without alopecia. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with Bonferroni correction was conducted to estimate the effects of alopecia on the risk of thyroid cancer. In women with alopecia, the overall risk for developing cancer was 22% higher than for subjects without alopecia, but the difference was not significant [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22, 97.5% confidence interval (97.5% CI) = 0.87-1.70]. However, the risk for developing thyroid cancer among women with alopecia was significantly higher (HR = 2.39, 97.5% CI = 1.05-5.42). Further analyses determined that the alopecia group had a higher incidence of Graves' disease, but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although alopecia did not significantly increase cancer risks in women, we found that Taiwanese women with alopecia had a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer that is unlikely to be related to underlying thyroid diseases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About the ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  17. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  18. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that makes ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when men who are being treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) see their PSA levels begin to... ... fight against prostate cancer today. Donate Terms of use Privacy Policy © Prostate Cancer Foundation, 2018 Understanding Prostate ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  2. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  4. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  5. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  6. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  7. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  8. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  9. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  10. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively....... FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  11. Prostate cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  13. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  14. Psychological distress in men with prostate cancer and their partners before and after cancer diagnosis: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Akira; Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Hasumi, Masaru; Takechi, Hiroyuki; Arai, Seiji; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2017-08-01

    To examine the relative risk of psychological distress of men with prostate cancer and their partners during the period before and after prostate cancer diagnosis compared with men without prostate cancer and their partners. The participants reported questionnaires on psychological distress at four time points: before prostate cancer biopsy, and at 1, 3 and 6 months following prostate cancer diagnosis. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relative risk of psychological distress. A total of 115 couples answered the questionnaires at all four time points. Men with prostate cancer showed a significantly higher risk of psychological distress compared to men without prostate cancer at 1 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-13.1), 3 (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1-10.2) and 6 months following prostate cancer diagnosis (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.3-25.7). Their partners showed a significantly higher risk of psychological distress compared to the partners of men without prostate cancer at 1 month following prostate cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6). Men with prostate cancer showed psychological distress during the 6 months following the cancer diagnosis. Their partners also showed psychological distress at 1 month following the cancer diagnosis. Inviting both men with prostate cancer and their partners to speak to their concerns, empathizing with them, finding the solutions together and monitoring of their psychological status regularly should be regarded as important following prostate cancer diagnosis.

  15. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  16. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  17. [Sexuality and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droupy, S; Al Said, B; Lechevallier, E; Colson, M-H; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    All treatments for prostate cancer have a negative impact on sexuality. The objective of this review is to highlight recent developments in the management of sexual dysfunction associated with prostate cancer. We performed a literature search in the Pubmed database to select relevant articles. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of sexual, urinary, bowel and general quality of life, according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintenance of a satisfying sex life is a major concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatments. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before treating prostate cancer in order to deliver comprehensive information and consider early therapeutic solutions adapted to the couple's expectations. The results of randomized studies show that robotic radical prostatectomy allows a faster recovery of natural erections compared to classic laparoscopy. Active pharmacological erectile rehabilitation (intracavernous injections or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors [PDE5i] on demand, during the month following surgery) or passive (daily PDE5i after surgery) might improve the quality of erections especially in response to PDE5i. Unimpaired aspects of sexual response (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, represent an alternative allowing the couple to preserve intimacy and complicity. Androgen blockade is a major barrier to maintain or return to a satisfying sex. After the treatment of prostate cancer, one specific support sometimes assisted by networking will optimize satisfying sex life recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  19. Prostate cancer markers: An update

    OpenAIRE

    PENTYALA, SRINIVAS; WHYARD, TERRY; PENTYALA, SAHANA; MULLER, JOHN; PFAIL, JOHN; PARMAR, SUNJIT; HELGUERO, CARLOS G.; KHAN, SARDAR

    2016-01-01

    As the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men, prostate cancer currently accounts for 29% of all diagnosed cancers, and ranks second as the cause of cancer fatality in American men. Prostatic cancer is rarely symptomatic early in its course and therefore disease presentation often implies local extension or even metastatic disease. Thus, it is extremely critical to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in its earliest stages, often prior to the presentation of symptoms. Three of th...

  20. Delaying Renal Transplant after Radical Prostatectomy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçelik, Ümit; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Karakayalı, Feza; Moray, Gökhan; Demirağ, Alp

    2015-11-01

    To minimize the recurrence of a previously treated neoplasm in organ recipients, a period of 2 to 5 years without recurrence is advocated for most malignancies. However, prostate cancer is different because of its biological properties, diagnosis, and treatment. Most prostate cancers are detected at a low stage and demonstrate slow growth after detection. Definitive treatment with radical prostatectomy affords excellent results. Renal transplant candidates with early-stage prostate cancer have a higher risk of dying on dialysis than dying from prostate cancer; therefore, renal transplant candidates with organ-confined prostate cancer should be immediately considered for transplant.

  1. Prostate cancer markers: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentyala, Srinivas; Whyard, Terry; Pentyala, Sahana; Muller, John; Pfail, John; Parmar, Sunjit; Helguero, Carlos G; Khan, Sardar

    2016-03-01

    As the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men, prostate cancer currently accounts for 29% of all diagnosed cancers, and ranks second as the cause of cancer fatality in American men. Prostatic cancer is rarely symptomatic early in its course and therefore disease presentation often implies local extension or even metastatic disease. Thus, it is extremely critical to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in its earliest stages, often prior to the presentation of symptoms. Three of the most common techniques used to detect prostate cancer are the digital rectal exam, the transrectal ultrasound, and the use of biomarkers. This review presents an update regarding the field of prostate cancer biomarkers and comments on future biomarkers. Although there is not a lack of research in the field of prostate cancer biomarkers, the discovery of a novel biomarker that may have the advantage of being more specific and effective warrants future scientific inquiry.

  2. Proteoglycans in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Iris J

    2012-02-21

    The complexity and diversity of proteoglycan structure means that they have a range of functions that regulate cell behavior. Through multiple interactions of their core proteins and glycosaminoglycans with extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors and chemokines, proteoglycans affect cell signaling, motility, adhesion, growth and apoptosis. Progressive changes in proteoglycans occur in the tumor microenvironment, but neither the source nor consequences of those changes are well understood. Proteoglycans studied in prostate cancer include versican--a hyalectan regulator of cell adhesion and migration-and the small leucine-rich proteoglycans decorin, biglycan and lumican, which have roles in cell signaling and tissue organization. Studies support an inhibitory role in prostate cancer for decorin and lumican. Conversely, the basement membrane proteoglycan perlecan might be a tumor promoter through upregulation of sonic hedgehog signaling. Loss of the growth-inhibitory cell-surface proteoglycans syndecan-1 and betaglycan in early prostate cancer might facilitate progression, but syndecan-1 effects are pleiotropic and its renewed expression in advanced tumors might adversely affect outcome. Importantly, cellular changes and enzymatic activity in the developing tumor can alter proteoglycan composition and structure to modify their function. Emerging studies suggest that cancers, including those of the prostate, use these changes to promote their own survival, growth, and spread.

  3. Characterising Castrate Tolerant Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ASHLEE KATE CLARK

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease in aging males. This thesis explores prostate cancer cells that escape current therapy and give rise to end-stage disease. Using sophisticated experimental approaches, this important cancer cell population was identified and characterised in human prostate cancer tissues.  Our discoveries will eventually lead to improved cancer treatments for men with prostate cancer.

  4. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  5. Cabazitaxel Plus Prednisone With Octreotide For Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Previously Treated With Docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Diarrhea; Hormone-resistant Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  6. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Biorepository at the University of Washington joined the Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (PCBN) September 30th 2014. The purpose of this...Cancer Biorepository at the University of Washington joined the Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (PCBN) September 30th 2014. The UW Prostate...outcomes for the project include tissue acquisition, PDX development, and TMA construction , and specimen distribution are already discussed under

  7. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0062 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bettina F. Drake, MPH, PhD CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Biospecimen...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  8. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0056 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D... Pathology Resource Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0056 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D. Betty...The Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (which has since been renamed the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network or PCBN) is a collaboration

  9. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  10. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the BTG2 tumor suppressor protein diminish during the transition of normal prostate epithelial cells into prostate cancer cells and restoration of BTG2 expression in prostate cancer cells...

  11. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...... registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main...

  12. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    achieve this goal, we cultured high-invasive prostate cancer PC3 cells and treated them with the drugs/inhibitors that were proposed to target WASF3...groups (treated by DMSO), either treated by 100 μM CYT997 or 10 μM Dasatinib suppressed the cells to spread throughout the fish body (Fig. 4). As...have scr eened t he e f fect s o f mor e t han 40 drugs on invasion using cul tur ed prost ate cancer cells and f ound t hat tar geting multiple

  13. Hereditary aspects of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, D. L.; Norman, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current literature on the hereditary aspects of prostate cancer and to evaluate the importance of family history in history taking and screening for prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for articles in English or French published between Jan. 1, 1956, and Oct. 31, 1994, with the use of MeSH headings "prostatic neoplasms," "genetics" and "chromosomes." Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of articles found during the search. STUDY SELE...

  14. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...

  15. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  16. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  17. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING IN GHANA -

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellnlar carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific anti- gen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  18. Multidrug Resistance in Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Brussel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced hormone refractory prostate cancer constitutes a therapeutic challenge, because all available treatment strategies have failed to substantially increase cancer specific survival. Among these strategies, a multitude of chemotherapeutic approaches did not offer a superior life

  19. New drugs in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard primary treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy since the 1940s. However, prostate cancer inevitably progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC after a median duration of 18 months of androgen deprivation therapy. In patients with CRPC, docetaxel has been regarded as the standard treatment. However, survival advantages of docetaxel over other treatments are slim, and the need for new agents persists. In recent years, novel agents, including abiraterone, enzalutamide, cabazitaxel, radium-223, and sipuleucel-T, have been approved for the treatment of CRPC, and more such agents based on diverse mechanisms are under investigation or evaluation. In this article, the authors reviewed the current literature on recent advances in medical treatment of prostate cancer, especially CRPC. In addition, the authors elaborated on novel drugs for prostate cancer currently undergoing investigation and their mechanisms.

  20. Collection of Prostate Cancer Families and Mapping Additional Hereditary Prostate Cancer Genes (HPC2, HPC3..)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs, William

    2001-01-01

    Segregation analyses of familial prostate cancer have provided evidence for the existence of dominantly-acting prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, with such genes being estimated to be responsible...

  1. Collection of Prostate Cancer Families and Mapping Additional Hereditary Prostate Cancer Genes (HPC2, HPC3,...)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs, William

    2000-01-01

    Segregation analyses of familial prostate cancer have provided evidence for the existence of dominantly-acting prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, with such genes being estimated to be responsible...

  2. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  3. Prevalent mutations in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Tang

    2006-02-15

    Quantitative and structural genetic alterations cause the development and progression of prostate cancer. A number of genes have been implicated in prostate cancer by genetic alterations and functional consequences of the genetic alterations. These include the ELAC2 (HPC2), MSR1, and RNASEL (HPC1) genes that have germline mutations in familial prostate cancer; AR, ATBF1, EPHB2 (ERK), KLF6, mitochondria DNA, p53, PTEN, and RAS that have somatic mutations in sporadic prostate cancer; AR, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 (RAD53), CYP17, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, PON1, SRD5A2, and VDR that have germline genetic variants associated with either hereditary and/or sporadic prostate cancer; and ANXA7 (ANX7), KLF5, NKX3-1 (NKX3.1), CDKN1B (p27), and MYC that have genomic copy number changes affecting gene function. More genes relevant to prostate cancer remain to be identified in each of these gene groups. For the genes that have been identified, most need additional genetic, functional, and/or biochemical examination. Identification and characterization of these genes will be a key step for improving the detection and treatment of prostate cancer. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Testosterone levels in benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearini, Luigi; Costantini, Elisabetta; Zucchi, Alessandro; Mearini, Ettore; Bini, Vittorio; Cottini, Emanuele; Porena, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Although hormones play fundamental roles in prostate growth, their clinical significance is not completely clear. In the present study we assessed whether serum hormone levels are markers of prostate disease. In 128 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were correlated with disease. In patients with prostate cancer, the hormone levels were also correlated with prognostic factors. Predictive values were assessed for prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels only, using multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. The testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer than in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy and were also significantly lower in patients with advanced-stage disease than in patients with organ-confined disease. Testosterone appears to be an independent predictor of disease and enhances the predictive accuracy for benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. This study supports experimental findings that prostate cancer is frequently associated with low testosterone concentrations. In the diagnostic workup for prostate cancer, associating prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels may improve the predictive accuracy of prostate disease tests.

  5. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  6. Overdetection, overtreatment and costs in prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); A. der Kinderen (Arno); E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has shown to reduce prostate cancer mortality in the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial. Overdetection and overtreatment are substantial unfavourable side effects with

  7. Glutathione S-transferases as risk factors in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Judith; Thomassen, L.H.; Olsen, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    of cancer. In a case-control study (153 cases and 288 controls) the effect of these genetic polymorphisms on the risk of prostate cancer was investigated. Homozygote deletion of either GSTM1 or GSTT1 was not associated with a statistically significant increased risk, odds ratio (OR) 1.3; 95% confidence...... that lack either GSTM1 or GSTT1 activity had a slightly higher risk of prostatic cancer than smokers expressing the genes, OR 1.4 (95% CI 0.6-3.3) and 1.6 (0.6-3.9), respectively. Our results show that differences in enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens slightly modify prostate cancer risk...

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA test result turns out to have prostate cancer. Some prostate cancers, particularly those that grow quickly, may not ... and prevention. Cancer.Net. http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/prostate-cancer/risk-factors-and-prevention. Accessed Aug. 2, ...

  9. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  10. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  11. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  12. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age 65 and older. Family history. Having a father, brother, or son with prostate cancer increases your ... Experts are still looking at things like diet, obesity, smoking, and other factors to see how they ...

  13. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  14. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF copy of the Prostate Cancer Patient Guide Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Understanding ... Identity Guides Receive PCF news in your inbox Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty EIN # ...

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Campbell L. Prevalence of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen in rural Nigeria. Int J Urol. Jun 2003; 10(6):315-. 22. PubMed | Google Scholar. 17. Rabah DM, Arafa MA. Prostate cancer screening in a Saudi population: an explanatory trial study. Prostate Cancer. Prostatic Dis. Jun 2010; 13(2):191-4. PubMed | Google.

  16. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: Results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bancroft (Elizabeth); E. Page (Elizabeth); E. Castro (Elena); H. Lilja (Hans); A.J. Vickers (Andrew); D. Sjoberg (Daniel); M. Assel (Matthias); C.S. Foster; G. Mitchell (Gillian); K. Drew (Kate); L. Maehle; K. Axcrona; D.G. Evans (Gareth); B. Bulman; D. Eccles (Diana); D. McBride (Donna); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); H. Vasen (Hans); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); J. Ringelberg (Janneke); C. Cybulski (Cezary); D. Wokolorczyk (Dominika); C.G. Selkirk (Christina); P.J. Hulick (Peter); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); A.-B. Skytte (Anne-Bine); J. Lam (Jimmy); L. Taylor (Lorne); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); R.G.H.M. Cremers; G. Verhaegh (Gerald); W.A. van Zelst-Stams; J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); I. Blanco (Ignacio); M. Salinas; J. Cook (Jackie); K. Rosario (Karyna); S.S. Buys (Saundra); T. Conner (Tom); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); K.-R. Ong (Kai-Ren); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); S.M. Domchek (Susan); J. Powers (Jacquelyn); P.J. Teixeira; S. Maia (Sofia); W.D. Foulkes (William); N. Taherian (Nassim); M.W.G. Ruijs (Marielle); A.T.H.-V. den Enden (Apollonia T. Helderman-Van); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); M.A. Adank (Muriel); L.J. Walker (Lisa); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); K. Tucker (Kathryn); J. Kirk (Judy); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); M. Harris (Marion); F. Douglas (Fiona); G.J. Lindeman; J. Zgajnar (Janez); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); V. Clowes; R. Susman (Rachel); T. Ramon Y Cajal; N. Patcher (Nicholas); N. Gadea (Neus); A. Spigelman; T.A.M. van Os (Theo); A. Liljegren (Annelie); L. Side (Lucy); C. Brewer (Carole); A.F. Brady (Angela); A. Donaldson (Alan); V. Stefansdottir (Vigdis); E. Friedman (Eitan); R. Chen-Shtoyerman (Rakefet); D. Amor (David); L. Copakova (Lucia); J. Barwell (Julian); V.N. Giri (Veda); A.C. Murthy (Adeline C.); N. Nicolai (Nicola); S.-H. Teo; T. Greenhalgh (Trisha); S. Strom; A. Henderson (Alex); J. McGrath (John); D. Gallagher (David); N.K. Aaronson (Neil); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); C.H. Bangma (Chris); D. Dearnaley (David); A. Costello (Anthony); J. Eyfjord; J. Rothwell (Jeanette); A. Falconer; H. Grönberg (Henrik); F. Hamdy (Freddie); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); V. Khoo; Z. Kote-Jarai; J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Axcrona; J. Melia; E.T. McKinley (Enid); A. Mitra (Anita); C. Moynihan; G. Rennert (Gad); M. Suri (Mohnish); P. Wilson; S.R. Killick; S.M. Moss (Sue); R. Eeles (Rosalind)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted

  17. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Maehle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia T.; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A.; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E.; Susman, Rachel; Ramon y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F.; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J.; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N.; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V.; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    Background: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in

  18. Targeted Prostate Cancer Screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Initial Screening Round of the IMPACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S.; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; Mæhle, Lovise; Axcrona, Karol; Evans, D. Gareth; Bulman, Barbara; Eccles, Diana; McBride, Donna; van Asperen, Christi; Vasen, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Ringelberg, Janneke; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Selkirk, Christina; Hulick, Peter J.; Bojesen, Anders; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Lam, Jimmy; Taylor, Louise; Oldenburg, Rogier; Cremers, Ruben; Verhaegh, Gerald; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Monica; Cook, Jackie; Rosario, Derek J.; Buys, Saundra; Conner, Tom; Ausems, Margreet G.; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Domchek, Susan; Powers, Jacquelyn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Maia, Sofia; Foulkes, William D.; Taherian, Nassim; Ruijs, Marielle; Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia T.; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Adank, Muriel A.; Walker, Lisa; Schmutzler, Rita; Tucker, Kathy; Kirk, Judy; Hodgson, Shirley; Harris, Marion; Douglas, Fiona; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Zgajnar, Janez; Tischkowitz, Marc; Clowes, Virginia E.; Susman, Rachel; Ramón Y Cajal, Teresa; Patcher, Nicholas; Gadea, Neus; Spigelman, Allan; van Os, Theo; Liljegren, Annelie; Side, Lucy; Brewer, Carole; Brady, Angela F.; Donaldson, Alan; Stefansdottir, Vigdis; Friedman, Eitan; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Amor, David J.; Copakova, Lucia; Barwell, Julian; Giri, Veda N.; Murthy, Vedang; Nicolai, Nicola; teo, Soo-Hwang; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Strom, Sara; Henderson, Alex; McGrath, John; Gallagher, David; Aaronson, Neil; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Bangma, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Costello, Philandra; Eyfjord, Jorunn; Rothwell, Jeanette; Falconer, Alison; Gronberg, Henrik; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Johannsson, Oskar; Khoo, Vincent; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Lubinski, Jan; Axcrona, Ulrika; Melia, Jane; McKinley, Joanne; Mitra, Anita V.; Moynihan, Clare; Rennert, Gad; Suri, Mohnish; Wilson, Penny; Killick, Emma; Moss, Sue; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Eeles, Rosalind; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Page, Elizabeth; Taylor, Natalie; Pope, Jenny; Saya, Sibel; Martin, Sue; Keating, Diana; Petelin, Lara; Murphy, Morgan; Doherty, Rebecca; Pratt, Sarah; Murphy, Declan; Cleeve, Laurence; Miller, Cathy; Stapleton, Alan; Chong, Michael; Suthers, Graeme; Tucker, Katherine; Andrews, Lesley; Duffy, Jessica; Millard, Richard; Ward, Robyn; Williams, Rachel; Stricker, Phillip; Bowman, Michelle; Patel, Manish; O'Connell, Shona; Hunt, Clare; Smyth, Courtney; Frydenberg, Mark; Lindeman, Geoffrey; Shackleton, Kylie; McGaughran, Julie; Boon, Melanie; Pachter, Nicholas; Townshend, Sharron; Schofield, Lyn; Gleeson, Margaret; Scott, Rodney; Amor, David; Burke, Jo; Patterson, Briony; Bacic, Sonya; Swindle, Peter; Foulkes, William; Aprikian, Armen; Bojeson, Anders; Cruger, Dorthe; Osther, Palle; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Luedtke-Heckenkamp, Kerstin; Ochsendorf, Nicole; Fiddike, Kerstin; Sarin, Rajiv; Awatagiri, Kasturi; Ghonge, Sujata; Kowtal, Pradnya; Mulgund, Gouri; Bambury, Richard; Farrell, Michael; Gallagher, Fergal; Ben-Yehoshua, Sagi Josefsberg; Nissani, Rachel; Appelman, Zvi; Moriel, Evyatar; Radice, Paolo; Valdagni, Riccardo; Magnani, Tiziana; teo, Soo Hwang; Tan, Hui Meng; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Kiemeney, Bart; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Maehle, Lovise; Moller, Pal; Brennhovd, Bjorn; Medvik, Heidi; Hanslien, Eldbjørg; Ruijs, Mariëlle W. G.; Helderman- van den Enden, A. Paula T. J. M.; Teixeira, Manuel; Peixoto, Ana; Henrique, Rui; Oliveira, Jorge; Gonçalves, Nuno; Araújo, Luís; Seixas, Manuela; Souto, João Paulo; Nogueira, Pedro; Krajc, Mateja; Vrecar, Alenka; Salinas, Mónica; Capella, Gabriel; Fisas, David; Balmaña, Judith; Morote, Juan; Hjälm-Eriksson, Marie; Ekdahl, Karl-Johan; Carlsson, Stefan; Hanson, Helen; Shanley, Susan; Goh, Chee; Wiggins, Jennifer; Kohut, Kelly; van As, Nicholas; Thompson, Alan; Ogden, Chris; Borley, Nigel; Woodhouse, Christopher; Kumar, Pardeep; Mercer, Catherine; Paterson, Joan; Clowes, Virginia; Taylor, Amy; Newcombe, Barbara; Halliday, Dorothy; Stayner, Barbara; Fleming-Brown, D.; Brice, Glen; Homfray, Tessa; Hammond, Carrie; Potter, Alison; Renton, Caroline; Searle, Anne; Hill, Kathryn; Goodman, Selina; Garcia, Lynda; Devlin, Gemma; Everest, Sarah; Nadolski, Maria; Jobson, Irene; Paez, Edgar; Tomkins, Sue; Pichert, Gabriella; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Weston, Michelle; Brady, Angela; Dorkins, Huw; Melville, Athalie; Kosicka-Slawinska, Monika; Cummings, Carole; Kiesel, Vicki; Bartlett, Marion; Randhawa, Kashmir; Ellery, Natalie; Male, Alison; Simon, Kate; Rees, Katie; Compton, Cecilia; Tidey, Lizzie; Nevitt, Louise; Ingram, Stuart; Rosario, Derek; Catto, James; Howson, Joanne; Chapman, Cyril; Cole, Trevor; Heaton, Tricia; Burgess, Lucy; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Cathy; Duncan, Alexis; Kockelbergh, Roger; Sattar, Ayisha; Kaemba, Beckie; Sidat, Zahirah; Patel, Nafisa; Siguake, Kas; Birt, Angela; Poultney, Una; Umez-Eronini, Nkem; Mom, Jaswant; Roberts, Gillian; Woodward, Anthony; Sutton, Vivienne; Cornford, Philip; Treherne, Katy; Griffiths, Julie; Cogley, Lyn; Hulick, Peter; Rubinstein, Wendy; Brendler, Charles; Helfand, Brian; McGuire, Michael; Kaul, Karen; Shevrin, Daniel; Weissman, Scott; Newlin, Anna; Vogel, Kristen; Weiss, Shelly; Goldgar, David; Venne, Vickie; Stephenson, Robert; Dechet, Christopher; Arun, Banu; Davis, John W.; Yamamura, Yuko; Giri, Veda; Gross, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in

  19. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  20. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Risk factors for prostate cancer include family history, age and race; but new ...

  1. Identifying Early Diagnosis Markers of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shuang

    2004-01-01

    .... We reasoned that the success and accuracy in early diagnosis of prostate cancer may be significantly improved if a panel of prostate cancer-specific markers can be identified and used in combination...

  2. Prostate Cancer Gene Discovery Using ROMA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs, William B

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that a subset of men who develop prostate cancer (PCa) do so as a result of an inherited chromosomal deletion or amplification affecting the function of one or more critical prostate cancer susceptibility genes...

  3. Wnt Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Pten, Estrous Cycle MCB - 11 THE EFFECT OF HDACI (AR-42) ON CANINE PROSTATE CANCER METASTASIS. S. Elshafae1, N. Kohart1, L... canine prostate cancer overexpressing Dkk-1 was used in this study to investigate how enhanced Wnt/JNK signaling could alter tumor growth, metastasis and...metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer. Ace-1-Dkk-1, a canine prostate cancer overexpressing human Dkk-1, previously developed in our lab was used in

  4. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer . The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer . During

  5. Epigenetics of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tawnya C; Tricoli, James V

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of novel technologies that can be applied to the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of human cancer has allowed for new insights into the mechanisms associated with tumor development and progression. They have also advanced the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. These technologies include microarray and other analysis methods for the generation of large-scale gene expression data on both mRNA and miRNA, next-generation DNA sequencing technologies utilizing a number of platforms to perform whole genome, whole exome, or targeted DNA sequencing to determine somatic mutational differences and gene rearrangements, and a variety of proteomic analysis platforms including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to survey alterations in protein profiles in tumors. One other important advancement has been our current ability to survey the methylome of human tumors in a comprehensive fashion through the use of sequence-based and array-based methylation analysis (Bock et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1106-1114, 2010; Harris et al., Nat Biotechnol 28:1097-1105, 2010). The focus of this chapter is to present and discuss the evidence for key genes involved in prostate tumor development, progression, or resistance to therapy that are regulated by methylation-induced silencing.

  6. Low Risk Prostate Cancer and Active Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bul (Meelan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe first part of this thesis comprises an introduction to prostate cancer and screening (chapter 1). The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown an effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality in favor of the screening population, however,

  7. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polish (polski) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Urdu (اردو) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open ... Cancer Screening - español (Spanish) PDF American Cancer Society Urdu (اردو) Expand Section It's No Big Deal - Prostate ...

  9. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    cell quiescence, cancer recurrence 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...limit to 20 words). GAS6 Growth arrest specific 6 HSC Hematopoietic stem cells HSC Niche Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche PC3 Prostate...distributions of cancer cells in the Hematopoietic Stem cell niche* (Timepoints throughout 1-7 months will be examined) 1-7 months Optimization

  10. Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Rosalind A; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Benlloch, Sara; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Ghoussaini, Maya; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Dadaev, Tokhir; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen J; Berndt, Sonja I; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Hayes, Richard B; Pharoah, Paul DP; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet; Ostrander, Elaine A; Signorello, Lisa B; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda B; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Dunning, Alison; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Maranian, Melanie J; Ahmed, Shahana; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Sawyer, Emma J; Morgan, Angela; Dearnaley, David P; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A; Khoo, Vincent S; Parker, Christopher C; Van As, Nicholas J; Woodhouse, J; Thompson, Alan; Dudderidge, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Cox, Angela; Southey, Melissa; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Aly, Markus; Adolfsson, Jan; Xu, Jiangfeng; Zheng, Siqun; Yeager, Meredith; Kaaks, Rudolf; Diver, W Ryan; Gaudet, Mia M; Stern, Mariana; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D; Shahabi, Ahva; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo J; Auvinen, Anssi; Virtamo, Jarmo; Klarskov, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Røder, Andreas; Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Siddiq, Afshan; FitzGerald, Liesel; Kolb, Suzanne; Kwon, Erika; Karyadi, Danielle; Blot, William J; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; McDonnell, Shannon K; Rinckleb, Antje; Drake, Bettina; Colditz, Graham; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Stephenson, Robert A; Teerlink, Craig; Muller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitev, Vanio; Lose, Felicity; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Maia, Sofia; Paulo, Paula; Lange, Ethan; Cooney, Kathleen A; Antoniou, Antonis; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Easton, Douglas F

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ~30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies. PMID:23535732

  11. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...

  12. Primary care variability in patients at higher risk for colorectal cancer: evaluation of screening and preventive care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastien; Swagel, Eric; Fugaro, Steven; Paculdo, David; Tran, Mary

    2018-01-21

    Sub-optimal colorectal cancer (CRC) evaluations have been attributed to both physician and patient factors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate physician practice variation in patients with a higher risk of CRC. We wanted to identify the physician characteristics and the types of patients that were associated with missed screening opportunities; we also explored whether screening for CRC served as a proxy for better preventive care practices. A total of 213 board-certified family and internal medicine physicians participated in the study, conducted between September and December 2016. We used Clinical Performance and Value (CPV®) vignettes, simulated patients, to collect data on CRC screening. The CPV patients presented with a typical range of signs and symptoms of potential CRC. The care provided to the simulated patients was scored against explicit evidence-based criteria. The main outcome measure was rate a diagnostic CRC workup was ordered. This data quantified the clinical practice variability for CRC screening in high risk patients and other preventive and screening practices. A total of 81% of participants ordered appropriate CRC workup in patients at risk for CRC, with a majority (71%) selecting diagnostic colonoscopy over FIT/FOBT. Only 6% of physicians ordering CRC workup, however, counseled patients on their higher risk for CRC. The most commonly recognized symptoms prompting testing were unexplained weight loss or inadequate screening history, while the least recognized symptoms of CRC risk were abdominal discomfort found on review of systems. This study shows that primary care physician screening of CRC varies widely. Those physicians who successfully screened for CRC were more likely to complete other prevention and screening practices.

  13. Emerging drugs for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul H; Gayed, Bishoy A; Thoreson, Gregory R; Raj, Ganesh V

    2013-12-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay treatment for patients with prostate cancer who are not candidates for definitive treatment, are diagnosed with advanced disease on initial presentation or progress after primary treatment. Patients who stop responding to androgen deprivation therapy develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Emerging drugs undergoing clinical evaluation and drugs that have recently received FDA approval for the treatment of CRPC are reviewed. As the natural history and signaling pathways of prostate cancer are better understood, new treatments and targeted therapies will be developed. The FDA recently approved 5 medications that increase survival in patients with CRPC. Additional medications and drug classes are being explored that may eventually lead to new treatment options. Articles were identified using a PubMed database search. Recent FDA medication approvals and the development of emerging treatments are promising for the future of patients with prostate cancer. The addition of new medications challenges physicians to identify the optimal sequence and/or combination in which newer and older medications should be administered. Physicians treating patients with prostate cancer have a growing responsibility to keep pace with these new medications so that they may counsel and treat patients appropriately.

  14. KLK-targeted Therapies for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu, Koistinen; Johanna, Mattsson; Ulf-H?kan, Stenman

    2014-01-01

    Alternative treatments are urgently needed for prostate cancer, especially to address the aggressive metastatic castration-resistant disease. Proteolytic enzymes are involved in cancer growth and progression. The prostate produces several proteases, the most abundant ones being two members of the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and KLK2. Despite the wide use of PSA as a clinical marker, the function(s) of PSA and other KLKs in prostate cancer are poo...

  15. Metastatic Prostate Cancer of Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Nagano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue metastases of prostate cancer to other sites are extremely rare, and, to our best knowledge, there have been no reports of metastasis to soft tissue of the hand. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with prostatic cancer. During treatment, bone and soft tissue metastases to the right hand, appearing in the first web space, were observed. The tumor was resected, along with both the first and second metacarpal bones. The thumb was reconstructed by pollicization of the remaining index finger, enabling the patient to use the pollicized thumb for activities of daily living. This is the first case report of prostate cancer metastasizing to the soft tissue in hand. After wide resection, pollicization was able to reconstruct a functional hand and thumb.

  16. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  17. Gene expression profiling of prostate tissue identifies chromatin regulation as a potential link between obesity and lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebot, Ericka M; Gerke, Travis; Labbé, David P; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Zadra, Giorgia; Rider, Jennifer R; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Wilson, Kathryn M; Kelly, Rachel S; Shui, Irene M; Loda, Massimo; Kantoff, Philip W; Finn, Stephen; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Brown, Myles; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2017-11-01

    Obese men are at higher risk of advanced prostate cancer and cancer-specific mortality; however, the biology underlying this association remains unclear. This study examined gene expression profiles of prostate tissue to identify biological processes differentially expressed by obesity status and lethal prostate cancer. Gene expression profiling was performed on tumor (n = 402) and adjacent normal (n = 200) prostate tissue from participants in 2 prospective cohorts who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1982 to 2005. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the questionnaire immediately preceding cancer diagnosis. Men were followed for metastases or prostate cancer-specific death (lethal disease) through 2011. Gene Ontology biological processes differentially expressed by BMI were identified using gene set enrichment analysis. Pathway scores were computed by averaging the signal intensities of member genes. Odds ratios (ORs) for lethal prostate cancer were estimated with logistic regression. Among 402 men, 48% were healthy weight, 31% were overweight, and 21% were very overweight/obese. Fifteen gene sets were enriched in tumor tissue, but not normal tissue, of very overweight/obese men versus healthy-weight men; 5 of these were related to chromatin modification and remodeling (false-discovery rate 7, 41% vs 17%; P = 2 × 10 -4 ) and an increased risk of lethal disease that was independent of grade and stage (OR, 5.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-12.25). This study improves our understanding of the biology of aggressive prostate cancer and identifies a potential mechanistic link between obesity and prostate cancer death that warrants further study. Cancer 2017;123:4130-4138. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Integrin Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maylein C. Juan-Rivera; Magaly Martínez-Ferrer

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the U.S. The development of chemotherapeutic agents that can bind PCa tumor cells with high specificity is critical in order to increase treatment effectiveness. Integrin receptors and their corresponding ligands have different expression patterns in PCa cells. They have been identified as promising targets to inhibit pathways involved in PCa progression. Currently, sev...

  19. Mediterranean diet adherence and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guarnido, Olga; Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesus; Saiz, Maria; Lozano, David; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Pascual, Manrique; Cozar, Jose Manuel; Rivas, Ana

    2014-10-31

    Countries following the traditional Mediterranean Diet, particularly Southern European countries, have lower prostate cancer incidence and mortality compared to other European regions. The beneficial effect has been attributed to a specific eating pattern. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence to date on the effects of adherence to a Mediterranean Diet on prostate cancer risk; and to identify which elements of the Mediterranean diet are likely to protect against prostate cancer. The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet", "adherence", "fruit and vegetable", "olive oil", "fish" "legume", "cereal" "alcohol" "milk", "dairy product","prostate cancer", and combinations, such as "Mediterranean diet and prostate cancer" or "Olive oil and prostate cancer". There is strong evidence supporting associations between foods that are typical of a Mediterranean eating pattern and reduced prostate cancer risk. However, there are few studies that have assessed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on cancer prostate incidence. Recent data do not support associations to adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and risk of prostate cancer or disease progression. However, Mediterranean eating pattern after diagnosis of nonmetastatatic cancer was associated with lower overall mortality. Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of Mediterranean diet on prostate health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of prostate cancer. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    S.A. (2008). Androgen-independent prostate cancer cells acquire the complete steroidogenic potential of synthesizing testosterone from cholesterol...Prostate  Cancer Metastasis J. Mott  UNMC  MicroRNA in growth regulation and  therapy  E. Rogan UNMC Metabolism  of Dietary and  Environmental Chemicals...nitrocellulose membrane. β‐actin is used for normalization of  samples  • Quantitative  real‐time PCR analysis of alcohol  metabolizing  enzymes:  mRNAs of

  1. Regulating Cancer Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT There is an urgent need to develop both new approaches to the treatment of prostate cancer. Analysis of human prostate...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-09-01

    -overexpressed tumor had a significantly higher risk of developing distant metastasis (P<0.0001 and shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. Overexpression of ETV4 protein was an independent predictor of short disease-free survival of TNBC patients (P=0.021. Conclusion: Overexpression of ETV4 protein increases risk of developing distant metastasis and results in a poor prognosis for TNBC patients. Thus, ETV4 might be a novel target for developing an alternative therapeutic strategy for prevention of TNBC distant metastasis. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, ETS translocation variant 4, ETV4, prognosis

  3. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and it is becoming an increasing public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa. In our practice, we identified that prostate cancer co-existed with other primary cancers even in noncontiguous regions of the body and this co-existence impacted ...

  4. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  6. Risk of Second Primary Cancer among Prostate Cancer Patients in Korea: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Young; Lim, Jiwon; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Cho, Hyunsoon; Kim, Sung Han; Seo, Ho Kyung; Park, Weon Seo; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Won, Young-Joo

    2015-01-01

    As patients with prostate cancer have a long life expectancy, there is increasing interest in predicting the risk of development of a second primary cancer (SPC), and we therefore designed this study to estimate the overall risk of developing SPCs among Korean prostate cancer patients. We used a population-based cohort from the Korean Central Cancer Registry composed of 55,378 men diagnosed with a first primary prostate cancer between 1993 and 2011. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPCs were analyzed by age at diagnosis, latency period, period of diagnosis, and type of initial treatment. Survival analysis was stratified by development of SPC. Men with primary prostate cancer had an overall lower risk of developing an SPC [SIR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72-0.78], which was significant for SPCs of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, larynx, lung, and bronchus. In contrast, there were significant increases in the risk of bladder and thyroid cancers, which tended to decrease after longer follow-up. Patients who received initial radiation therapy had an increased risk of subsequent rectal cancer, although this was still lower than that of the general male population. Other urinary tract cancers including those of the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter tended to be associated with a higher risk of developing an SPC, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The patients with prostate cancer and SPC had lower overall survival rates than those with one primary prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that men with prostate cancer have a 25% lower risk of developing an SPC in Korea, but a higher risk of developing subsequent bladder and thyroid cancers, which suggests the need for continued cancer surveillance among prostate cancer survivors.

  7. Prostate-specific antigen, prostate cancer, and disorders of hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2009-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in men and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Disorders of hemostasis are commonplace in patients with prostate cancer and include disseminated intravascular coagulation, venous thromboembolism, acute coronary syndrome, and postsurgical bleeding. These hemostatic disorders contribute to the mortality and morbidity of prostate cancer. The leading mechanisms proposed to underlie prostate cancer-related coagulopathies are thought to be a hyperexpression of tissue factor, cancer procoagulant, and platelet-activating factor, which is then accompanied by release of large amounts of both prothrombotic and profibrinolytic substances into the bloodstream. Given the generally accepted notion that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) represents an important biomarker in prostate cancer diagnostics, large population screenings were initiated for early detection of cancer. However, recent clinical and economic drawbacks have been recently raised, including evidence that screening exposes patients to a significant risk of both overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence suggest that PSA may have tumor-suppressing activities. Despite being a member of the vast kallikrein family, which actively interplays with the coagulation cascade, the role of PSA in the pathogenesis of hemostatic disorders observed in prostate cancer patients remains circumstantial and speculative. However, observations that the levels of this cancer marker tend to correlate positively with those of several markers of thrombin generation, and with postsurgical bleeding as well as with coronary atherosclerosis and negative outcomes of myocardial infarction, raise a new and intriguing scenario regarding the pathophysiological role of this serine protease. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov] There are companies that will soon be marketing and selling genetic tests that will predict a ... enzyme made by the prostate gland, and a digital rectal examination (DRE) are two tests that are ...

  9. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  10. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  11. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson; Brodersen, John

    Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer Sigrid Brisson Nielsen & John Brodersen Introduction In Denmark there are approximately 4400 men diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and nearly 1200 men dies of this disease yearly. The incidence of prostate cancer has increased...... for the past twenty years and make up 24 % of all cancer incidents in men. However, the mortality of prostate cancer has not changed in line with this increase. Empirical evidence shows that the increase in incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark without an increase in the mortality is mostly caused...... by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...

  12. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  13. Commentary on "identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array." COGS-Cancer Research UK GWAS-ELLIPSE (part of GAME-ON) Initiative; Australian Prostate Cancer Bioresource; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association, of Urological Surgeons' Section of Oncology; UK ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olumi, Aria F; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international...... PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (Pcancer susceptibility loci, explaining ~30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred...... by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies....

  14. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  15. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    PCBN is a public bioresource that provides tissue and other biospecimens to all prostate cancer investigators through an application process (http...number (RIN) was assessed by 2100 bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies ). Additional information regarding PCBN SOPs for DNA and RNA extraction can be found

  16. Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0505 TITLE: Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Ittmann MD PhD...CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0505 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...ABSTRACT Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer -related death for men in the United States. Recent

  17. Molecular Characterization of Indolent Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    prostate-specific antigen ( PSA ) test, and treated aggressively following diagnosis, leading to the contemporary problem of prostate cancer over-diagnosis... PSA ᝺ng/m; Gleason score <=6; and no more than 2 cores containing cancer, and <=50% of core involved with cancer; PSA density ɘ.15ng/ml/g). A...Applications: Title: Reducing Prostate Cancer Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment (NIH P01, PI : Pienta) Supporting Agency: NIH/NCI Performance Period

  18. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  19. Can microfocal prostate cancer be regarded as low-risk prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Based on higher rates of Gleason score upgrading or stage upgrading cases in microfocal prostate cancer group, compared with nonmicrofocal prostate cancer group, active surveillance should be cautiously applied to these patients.

  20. Alcohol intake, drinking patterns, and prostate cancer risk and mortality: a 30-year prospective cohort study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Markt, Sarah Coseo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol intake may be associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer is inconsistent. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife alcohol intake and drinking patterns with future prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,372 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Alcohol consumption was assessed by questionnaires administered at two time points over follow-up. Over the study period, 601 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between weekly alcohol intake and binge drinking patterns with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were performed to control for potential confounding by shared genetic and early environmental factors. Compared to light drinkers (≤3 drinks/week; non-abstainers), heavy drinkers (>14 drinks/week) were at a 1.46-fold higher risk (HR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.91) of prostate cancer, adjusting for important confounders. Among current drinkers, binge drinkers were at a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (HR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.55) compared to non-binge drinkers. Abstainers were at a 1.90-fold higher risk (HR 1.90; 95 % CI 1.04, 3.47) of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light drinkers, but no other significant associations for mortality were found. Co-twin analyses suggested that alcohol consumption may be associated with prostate cancer risk independent of early environmental and genetic factors. Heavy regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking patterns may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk, while abstinence may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light alcohol consumption.

  1. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  2. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  3. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...in the African American community in Nebraska and Mississippi. Family history of prostate and other cancers is being recorded with the purpose of...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  4. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0487 TITLE: Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Darryl Martin...Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0487 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Darryl...claudin-3 and claudin-4 are expressed in subsets of aggressive prostate cancer. Finally, we produced our first two batches of nanoparticles during year

  5. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    hereditary prostate cancer syndrome. This will be possible through the recruitment of a total of 800 African Americans who have been diagnosed with...community in Nebraska and Mississippi. Family history of prostate and other cancers is being recorded with the purpose of identifying any hereditary ...Omaha, their geographic area of most concentration in Nebraska. Information on prostate cancer predisposing genes in African Americans are partially

  6. Prostate cancer screening: tests and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the concept of early detection of cancer sounds intuitively logical it is not automatically so in the case of prostate cancer despite the fact that the data on incidence and mortality show that it is an important health problem. The fact that prostate cancer is in general a

  7. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  8. Microsatellite instability in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, A.L.; Wick, M.J.; Persons, D.L. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Microsatellite instability (MIN) has been documented in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as well as in sporadic forms of human cancers. Two of the genes which appear to be responsible for this particular tumor phenotype, hMSH2 and hMLH1, have now been identified. To determine the potential role of these mutator genes in prostate cancer, we have examined 95 prostate adenocarcinomas (40 paraffin embedded and 55 fresh frozen) for the presence of genetic instability at four microsatellite markers. The markers are localized to chromosome arms 5q(APC-CA1), 8p(Mfd 210Z), 15q(635/636), and 17q(p53-CA). Patients from whom paraffin embedded material was obtained were divided into short term (<3 years, n=18), and long term (>3 years, n=22) survivors. Of the 95 tumors examined, only four tumors (4%) demonstrated MIN: two tumors demonstrated MIN at 3 loci (p53-CA, APC-CA1, 635/636), one tumor demonstrated MIN at 2 loci (APC-CA1 and 635/636), and one tumor demonstrated instability at 635/636 only. All tumors exhibiting MIN had Gleason scores of {ge} 4+4. A correlation between MIN and survival was not observed. Information on family history was limited. However, of the two patients demonstrating MIN at three loci, one patient was diagnosed with a second malignancy (TCC of the ureter), but otherwise had a negative family history, while the second patient had one first degree relative with esophageal cancer. The patient demonstrating MIN at two loci had a negative family history, while the remaining patient had two first degree relatives with cancer (prostate and stomach). These results suggest that hMSH2 and hMLH1 (as reflected by the small percentage of tumors displaying MIN) do not play a prominent role in the process of prostate tumorigenesis.

  9. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict...

  10. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    cells. J. of Immunol., 150 :1458, 1993 15. Aoki, T, Tashiro K, Miyatake S, et al. Expression of murine interleukin 7 in a murine glioma cell in...antigen in patients with prostate cancer. Urology 51: 150 -157, 1998 30. Correale P, Walmsley K, Zaremba S, et al. Generation of human cytolytic T... Proteinuria Possibly AP010 GU 21 Proteinuria No AP016 GU 172 Left nephrolithiasis No AP016 GU 183 New primary tumor – papillary bladder No AP019 GU 1

  11. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    suddenly prior to study treatment. And one patient previously reported as a screen failure became eligible a nd was trea ted. This subject was not...of three study injections on the 08/12/10. Had a history of periodontal disease, ear pain, a bunion, ankle pain, kidn ey stones and prostate cancer...did not infor m the research unit nursing staff in the inpatient unit about this, but instead revealed this to the study team in the morning prior

  12. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    will be those that exhibit more aggressive disease . In more aggressive cancer tissues, we expect to find metabolic signatures of enhanced fatty acid...using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the prediction of prostate disease aggressiveness. Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase...design we will recruit 50 men with low- grade and 50 men with high grade prostate cancer post- diagnosis as determined prior to prostatectomy. Each

  13. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  14. Utility of Digital Rectal Examination as an Adjunct to Prostate Specific Antigen in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joshua A; Oromendia, Clara; Shoag, Jonathan E; Mittal, Sameer; Cosiano, Michael F; Ballman, Karla V; Vickers, Andrew J; Hu, Jim C

    2017-10-20

    Guidelines from NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) advocate digital rectal examination screening only in men with elevated prostate specific antigen. We investigated the effect of prostate specific antigen on the association of digital rectal examination and clinically significant prostate cancer in a large American cohort. We evaluated the records of the 35,350 men who underwent digital rectal examination in the screening arm of the PLCO (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian) Cancer Screening trial for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 or greater). Followup was 343,273 person-years. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer among men with vs without suspicious digital rectal examination. We performed competing risks regression to evaluate the interaction between time varying suspicious digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. A total of 1,713 clinically significant prostate cancers were detected with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 5.9% (95% CI 5.6-6.2). Higher risk was seen for suspicious vs nonsuspicious digital rectal examinations. Increases in absolute risk were small and clinically irrelevant for normal (less than 2 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (1.5% vs 0.7% risk of clinically significant prostate cancer at 10 years), clinically relevant for elevated (3 ng/ml or greater) prostate specific antigen (23.0% vs 13.7%) and modest clinical relevance for equivocal (2 to 3 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (6.5% vs 3.5%). Digital rectal examination demonstrated prognostic usefulness when prostate specific antigen was greater than 3 ng/ml, limited usefulness for less than 2 ng/ml and marginal usefulness for 2 to 3 ng/ml. These findings support the restriction of digital rectal examination to men with higher prostate specific antigen as a reflex test to improve specificity. It should not be used as a primary screening modality to improve sensitivity. Copyright

  15. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  16. The Metabolic Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eidelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Cancer metabolism has emerged as a contemporary topic of great interest for improved mechanistic understanding of tumorigenesis. Prostate cancer is a disease model of great interest from a metabolic perspective. Prostatic tissue exhibits unique metabolic activity under baseline conditions. Benign prostate cells accumulate zinc, and this excess zinc inhibits citrate oxidation and metabolism within the citric acid cycle, effectively resulting in citrate production. Malignant cells, however, actively oxidize citrate and resume more typical citric acid cycle function. Of further interest, prostate cancer does not exhibit the Warburg effect, an increase in glucose uptake, seen in many other cancers. These cellular metabolic differences and others are of clinical interest as they present a variety of potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, understanding of the metabolic profile differences between benign prostate versus low- and high-grade prostate cancers also represents an avenue to better understand cancer progression and potentially develop new diagnostic testing. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge on the metabolic phenotypes of prostate cancer.

  17. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  18. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  19. Dietary Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Terrence M.; Su, Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Several studies have examined the relationship between prostate cancer and antioxidants; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. This article provides a systematic review of studies on prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from diet and supplements. Tea and coffee appear to offer protection against advanced prostate cancer. Different forms of vitamin E appear to exert different effects on prostate cancer, with alpha-tocopherol potentially increasing and gamma-tocopherol potentially decreasing risk of the disease. There is no strong evidence for a beneficial effect of selenium, vitamin C, or beta-carotene, while lycopene appears to be negatively associated with risk of the disease. The effect of dietary antioxidants on prostate cancer remains undefined and inconclusive, with different antioxidants affecting prostate cancer risk differentially. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between antioxidants and prostate cancer risk and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:23909722

  20. Selenium status and risk of prostate cancer in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Low-Se status may be associated with a higher risk of notably advanced prostate cancer. In a Danish population with a relatively low Se intake, we investigated the association between pre-diagnostic Se status and (1) the risk of total, advanced and high-grade prostate cancer and (2) all......-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men with prostate cancer. Within the Danish ‘Diet, Cancer and Health’ cohort, including 27 179 men, we identified 784 cases with incident prostate cancer through 2007. Each case was risk set-matched to one control. Two-thirds (n 525) of the cases had advanced...... disease at the time of diagnosis, and among these 170 had high-grade disease; 305 cases died (n 212 from prostate cancer) during follow-up through 2012. Plasma Se was not associated with total or advanced prostate cancer risk, but higher Se levels were associated with a lower risk of high-grade disease...

  1. KLK-targeted Therapies for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, Koistinen; Johanna, Mattsson; Ulf-Håkan, Stenman

    2014-09-01

    Alternative treatments are urgently needed for prostate cancer, especially to address the aggressive metastatic castration-resistant disease. Proteolytic enzymes are involved in cancer growth and progression. The prostate produces several proteases, the most abundant ones being two members of the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and KLK2. Despite the wide use of PSA as a clinical marker, the function(s) of PSA and other KLKs in prostate cancer are poorly known. Hypothetic roles of KLKs in prostate cancer include activities that may both promote and inhibit cancer growth and metastasis, including the antiangiogenic activity of PSA. Thus it may be possible to control prostate cancer growth by modulating the proteolytic activities of KLKs. PSA and KLK2 are especially attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment because of their proposed roles in tumor development and inhibition of angiogenesis in combination with their prostate selective expression. So far the number of molecules affecting selectively the activity of KLKs is limited and none of these are used to treat prostate cancer. Prodrugs that, after cleavage of the peptide part by PSA or KLK2, release active drug molecules, and PSA-targeted therapeutic vaccines have already been tested clinically in humans and the first results have been encouraging. Although KLKs are attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment, much remains to be done before their potential can be fully elucidated. The objective of this review is to address the current state of the KLKs as novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer treatment.

  2. Predicting Prostate Cancer Progression At Time of Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Increasing age was also associated with increased risk of adverse pathology , and UW cases had a 1.4-fold higher risk of minor upgrade/upstage (p=0.12) and...box plot of GEMCaP scores by final pathology On binomial regression analyses, the CCP score was associated with minor upgrade/upstage (OR 4.2, 95...prostatectomy for clinically low risk prostate cancer with known pathologic outcome information. In aim 1, the marker panel will be assessed for its

  3. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  4. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In advanced prostate cancer (APC), successful drug development as well as advances in imaging and molecular characterisation have resulted in multiple areas where there is lack of evidence or low level of evidence. The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2017 address...

  5. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity “Incidence rate” means how many men out of a given number ...

  6. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  7. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration-resistant...

  8. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T

    2011-06-01

    Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.

  9. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natur...

  10. Novel Oncogene Induced Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Define Human Prostate Cancer Progression Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiaoming; Ertel, Adam; Casimiro, Mathew; Yu, Zuoren; Meng, Hui; McCue, Peter A.; Walters, Rhonda; Fortina, Paolo; Lisanti, Michael P.; Pestell, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, murine prostate cancer cell lines, generated via selective transduction with a single oncogene (c-Myc, Ha-Ras, and v-Src), demonstrated oncogene-specific prostate cancer molecular signatures that were recapitulated in human prostate cancer, and developed lung metastasis in immune competent mice. Interrogation of two independent retrospective cohorts of patient samples using the oncogene signature demonstrated an ability to distinguish tumor from normal prostate with a predictive value for prostate cancer of 98 – 99%. In a blinded study, the signature algorithm demonstrated independent substratification of reduced recurrence free survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The generation of new oncogene-specific prostate cancer cell lines that recapitulate human prostate cancer gene expression, that metastasize in immune-competent mice, are a valuable new resource for testing targeted therapy while the molecular signatures identified herein provides further value over current gene signature markers of prediction and outcome. PMID:23204233

  11. Stem cells in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Francesca; Fernandez, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Tumors constitute complex ecosystems with multiple interactions among neoplastic cells displaying various phenotypes and functions and where the tumoral niche is built with an active participation of the host environment that also impacts the malignant progression of the tumor cells. Irrespective of the cell of origin of prostate adenocarcinoma, mounting evidences support the existence of a hierarchy within neoplastic prostate cells that contributes to the heterogeneity of these tumors. At the origin of this hierarchy are small populations of tumor cells with high self-renewal potential and also capable of generating progeny tumor cells that lose self-renewal properties as they acquire more differentiated phenotypes. These cancer stem cells (CSC) depend on active gene networks that confer them with their self-renewal capacity through symmetrical divisions whereas they can also undergo asymmetrical division and differentiation either as stochastic events or in response to environmental cues. Although new experimental evidences indicate that this is can be a reversible process, thus blurring the distinction between CSCs and non-CSCs, the former are considered as the drivers of tumor growth and evolution, and thus a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Of particular importance in prostate cancer, CSCs may constitute the repository population of androgen-insensitive and chemotherapy-resistant tumor cells responsible for castration-resistant and chemotherapy-insensitive tumors, thus their identification and quantification in primary and metastatic neoplasms could play important roles in the management of this disease.

  12. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...

  13. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... only way to confirm a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment Prostate cancer treatment depends on how serious the cancer ...

  14. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  15. Salvage prostate cryoablation for recurrent localized prostate cancer after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ji-Yuen Siu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvage prostate cryoablation (SCA for recurrent localized prostate cancer after radiotherapy has been studied in Western countries for more than a decade. We present our experience of SCA in a Taiwanese medical center. We performed four cases of SCA for recurrent localized prostate cancer after radiotherapy. The data recorded included age, cancer stage, prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, Gleason score, prostate volume and patient outcome. The median follow-up period was 17 months. All cases were biopsy-proven to have residual cancer before cryoablation. After SCA, 25% of the patients reached undetectable PSA levels, 50% showed response but did not reach undetectable levels, and 25% showed no decrease in PSA. The median recurrence-free duration after SCA was 18 months in the patients who experienced a decrease in PSA. ADT was initiated after SCA for the patient who did not show any response, and bone metastasis was later diagnosed in that patient. Most patients experienced obstructive voiding problems after SCA, which improved over time. SCA is a safe salvage option for prostate cancer patients with local recurrence after RT. The preliminary results are encouraging. More extensive imagery to exclude extra-glandular disease is warranted before SCA. A longer follow-up period and larger sample size are necessary to delineate the benefits more conclusively.

  16. Nutrition and prostate cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Venita H

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing evidence for a link between nutrition, lifestyle and prostate cancer development. There is also growing interest from patients, with significant numbers of men using complementary and alternative medicines, such as vitamins and types of diet. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for prostate cancer and their management is key. The amount and type of fats consumed are also clearly related to prostate cancer risk. Saturated fats and trans fats are identified as having a negative impact. Nutraceuticals and supplements, particularly antioxidants, polyphenols and soy have evidence for benefit for prevention of prostate cancer and progression of the disease. A selection of nutrients is highlighted in this article. Nutritional therapists advise patients on how to incorporate these beneficial nutrients into their diet and guide them on supplement use. Further research is required to elucidate the connection between diet, nutrients and prostate cancer, including the field of nutrigenetics.

  17. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  18. Targeting the Neural Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    expected , GFRα1 is present in the conditioned media (CM) of DRG in cultures (Fig 7A). CM from DRG was able to significantly enhance proliferation...ABSTRACT Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Recent...Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. The

  19. [Active surveillance for prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefen, M; Ahyai, S; Heuer, R; Salomon, G; Schlomm, T; Isbarn, H; Budäus, L; Heinzer, H; Huland, H

    2008-03-01

    Active surveillance is a valuable treatment option in patients with newly diagnosed low-risk prostate cancer. Studies considering a watchful waiting approach showed favourable cancer-specific survival rates in such patients and it is assumed that patients benefit from a definitive therapy if life expectancy exceeds 10-15 years. Therefore active surveillance is especially valuable in older men and in patients with an elevated comorbidity profile. Precise identification of histologically and clinically insignificant prostate cancers is still not possible today. Active surveillance includes regular PSA measurements combined with follow-up biopsies; however, no standardized protocol exists so far. Histological progression in the follow-up biopsy and PSA elevation are the most important criteria for initiating definitive therapy. Today only a minority of low-risk patients join an active surveillance protocol and a substantial proportion of these men leave such a protocol early without evidence of progression. The psychological burden of living with an untreated cancer seems to be responsible for this. Active surveillance has the potential to lead to undertreatment as there is some evidence that prolonged treatment delay might adversely affect outcome of definitive therapy.

  20. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of biomarkers for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis has the potential to improve the clinical management of the patients. Owing to inherent limitations of the biomarker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), intensive efforts are currently directed towards a search for alternative prostate cancer biomarkers, particularly those that can predict disease aggressiveness and drive better treatment decisions. Methods A literature search of Medline articles focused on recent and emerging advances in prostate cancer biomarkers was performed. The most promising biomarkers that have the potential to meet the unmet clinical needs in prostate cancer patient management and/or that are clinically implemented were selected. Conclusions With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an improved sensitivity and specificity over PSA. The new generation of biomarkers can be tested via serum, urine, or tissue-based assays that have either received regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration or are available as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-based laboratory developed tests. Additional emerging novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cells, microRNAs and exosomes, are still in their infancy. Together, these biomarkers provide actionable guidance for prostate cancer risk assessment, and are expected to lead to an era of personalized medicine. PMID:26790878

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer that are being studied include the following: Digital rectal exam Digital rectal exam (DRE) is an exam of the ... lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Enlarge Digital rectal exam (DRE). The doctor inserts a gloved, ...

  2. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  3. No association of plasma levels of adiponectin and c-peptide with risk of aggressive prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L; Jacobs, Eric J; Sun, Juzhong; Gapstur, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer and alters circulating levels of insulin and adiponectin, two hormones that influence biologic processes implicated in carcinogenesis. Results of some studies showed associations of circulating levels of adiponectin, insulin, and c-peptide (a marker of insulin secretion) with aggressive prostate cancer, but the size of these studies was limited. A nested case-control study of 272 aggressive prostate cancer cases [Gleason score ≥ 7 (4+3) or T3-T4] and 272 age- and race-matched controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort was conducted to determine the associations of prediagnostic plasma levels of c-peptide and adiponectin with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Neither circulating adiponectin nor c-peptide was associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. In analyses of the highest-risk aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8 or T3-T4), the highest quartile of c-peptide, compared with the lowest, was associated with an OR of 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-2.78]. Our findings provide no support for the hypothesis that adiponectin is associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer but a possible association of high levels of c-peptide with particularly high-risk prostate cancer cannot be ruled out. These results indicate that changes in circulating levels of adiponectin and c-peptide do not play an important role in risk of aggressive prostate cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  4. Integrin Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylein C. Juan-Rivera

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the U.S. The development of chemotherapeutic agents that can bind PCa tumor cells with high specificity is critical in order to increase treatment effectiveness. Integrin receptors and their corresponding ligands have different expression patterns in PCa cells. They have been identified as promising targets to inhibit pathways involved in PCa progression. Currently, several compounds have proven to target specific integrins and their subunits in PCa cells. In this article, we review the role of integrins inhibitors in PCa and their potential as therapeutic targets for PCa treatments. We have discussed the following: natural compounds, monoclonal antibodies, statins, campothecins analog, aptamers, d-aminoacid, and snake venom. Recent studies have shown that their mechanisms of action result in decrease cell migration, cell invasion, cell proliferation, and metastasis of PCa cells.

  5. Constitutive and inducible expression of cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) in normal prostate and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kenneth M; Cutroneo, Kenneth R

    2004-02-01

    Constitutive and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) inducible expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in prostate cancer and normal prostate epithelial cells were examined by immunoblotting. Androgen independent prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 have constitutive expression of CYP1A and CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, respectively. Four micromolar B[a]P did not appear to induce CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 expression in DU145 or PC3 cells. The androgen dependent prostate cancer cell line, LnCap, also has constitutive expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. However, both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are induced by treatment of LnCap cells with 4 microM B[a]P. Untreated normal prostate and primary prostate tumor cells have no detectable CYP1A1 expression. Treatment with 4 microM B[a]P induced CYP1A1 expression in both normal and primary tumor prostate cells. Constitutive CYP1A2 expression was detected in normal prostate cells with little or no induction by exposure to 4 microM B[a]P. Primary prostate tumor cells did not show constitutive expression of CYP1A2. However, CYP1A2 was induced by 4 microM B[a]P in primary prostate tumor cells. These observations indicate that hormonal and cancer specific factors affect the expression and induction of the phase I metabolic enzymes, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in prostate cells. These observations may be related to the potential smoking-linked higher risk of prostate cancer development and morbidity of prostate cancer patients who smoke. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cabazitaxel for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Dirk P J; Braeckman, Johan G; Denis, Louis

    2011-04-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequently diagnosed male cancer. In men presenting locally advanced or metastatic disease, the mainstay of treatment is hormonal suppression. Despite the castrate levels of testosterone, with time, prostate cancer gradually evolves into a castration-refractory state. Chemotherapeutic agents are able to influence the natural history of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Docetaxel is a clinically relevant, FDA-approved taxane. Today, it is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent in castration-refractory prostate cancer (CRPC). There is no standard second-line chemotherapeutic regimen. This review provides information on the efficacy of cabazitaxel as a second-line treatment for CRPC. The medline database was searched for clinical trials on chemotherapeutical treatment options of castration-resistant prostate cancer. All available data on the efficacy of cabazitaxel are summarized. New treatment strategies for castration-resistant prostate cancer should primarily focus on quality of life. In this view, vaccination therapy seems promising because of the acceptable level of toxicity. However, more research is needed to prove their efficacy in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cabazitaxel seems to be a promising second-line therapy in CRPC.

  8. Prostate-specific antigen screening and mortality from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Stephen W; Rhoads, George G; Carson, Jeffrey L; Merlino, Frances; Wilcox, Homer

    2008-03-01

    There is no available evidence from randomized trials that early detection of prostate cancer improves health outcomes, but the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is commonly used to screen men for prostate cancer. The objective of the study is to see if screening with PSA decreases mortality from prostate cancer. This is a case-control study using one-to-one matching on race, age, and time of availability of exposure to PSA screening. Decedents, 380, from New Jersey Vital Statistics 1997 to 2000 inclusive, 55-79 years of age at diagnosis were matched to living controls without metastatic prostate cancer. Medical records were obtained from all providers, and we abstracted information about PSA tests from 1989 to the time of diagnosis in each index case. Measurements consist of a comparison of screening (yes, no) between cases and controls. Measure of association was the odds ratio. Eligible cases were diagnosed each year from 1989 to 1999 with the median year being 1993. PSA screening was evident in 23.2-29.2% of cases and 21.8-26.1% of controls depending on the screening criteria. The unadjusted, matched odds ratio for dying of prostate cancer if ever screened was 1.09 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.60) for the most restrictive criteria and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.66) for the least restrictive. Adjustment for comorbidity and education level made no significant differences in these values. There were no significant interactions by age or race. PSA screening using an ever/never tabulation for tests from 1989 until 2000 did not protect New Jersey men from prostate cancer mortality.

  9. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  11. The role of obesity and related metabolic disturbances in cancers of the colon, prostate, and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Recent evidence indicates that obesity and related metabolic abnormalities are associated with increased incidence or mortality for a number of cancers, including those of the colon, prostate, and pancreas. Obesity, physical inactivity, visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia are relatively consistent risk factors for colon cancer and adenoma. Also, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of colon cancer. For prostate cancer, the relationship to obesity appears more complex. Obesity seems to contribute to a greater risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer but perhaps to a lower risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer. Furthermore, men with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at lower risk of developing prostate cancer. Long-standing type 2 diabetes increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by approximately 50%. Furthermore, over the past 6 years, a large number of cohort studies have reported positive associations between obesity and pancreatic cancer. Together with data from prediagnostic blood specimens showing positive associations between glucose levels and pancreatic cancer up to 25 years later, sufficient evidence now supports a strong role for diabetes and obesity in pancreatic cancer etiology. The mechanisms for these associations, however, remain speculative and deserve further study. Hyperinsulinemia may be important, but the role of oxidative stress initiated by hyperglycemia also deserves further attention.

  12. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  13. Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    cancer or a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hypertrophy are excluded. Somewhat surprisingly...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0451 TITLE: Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer...29 September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance 5b

  14. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0212 TITLE: Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Takeda CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0212 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Takeda 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  15. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0062 TITLE: Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Atish Choudhury...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: July 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army...Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0062 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Atish

  16. AR Alternative Splicing and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2009;69:2912–8. 15. Culig Z, Bartsch G. Androgen axis in prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem...such as MLPA are useful for identifying deletions or duplications that involve probe-binding sites, this study has illustrated that unbiased...the AR locus is illustrated at the top. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped to the hg19 build of the human genome using Burrows --Wheeler Alignment

  17. Targeting Neuroendocrine Differentiation for Prostate Cancer Radiosensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    advanced prostate cancer. Nat Rev Urol. 2010;7:31-38. [3] Cooperberg MR, Broering JM, Litwin MS, Lubeck DP, Mehta SS, Henning JM, and Carroll PR. The...2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012, 62:220-241. [6] Kuban DA, Thames HD, Levy LB, Horwitz EM, Kupelian PA, Martinez AA, Michalski JM, Pisansky TM, Sandler...Agarwal PK, Sadetsky N, Konety BR, Resnick MI, and Carroll PR. Treatment failure after primary and salvage therapy for prostate cancer: likelihood

  18. Promoter-Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    based on induced cancer-specific expression of reporter or therapeutic proteins . 1. KEYWORDS: tumor-specific promoter, molecular-genetic imaging...system to treat hepatocellular carcinoma .  IL Minn Ended Title: Promoter-based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer Time commitments: 0.60...new molecular-genetic expression vectors for efficient, non-invasive diagnosis and targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy of prostate cancer (PC). The

  19. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  20. Inorganic Arsenic and Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We critically evaluated the etiologic role of inorganic arsenic in human prostate cancer. Data sources We assessed data from relevant epidemiologic studies concerning environmental inorganic arsenic exposure. Whole animal studies were evaluated as were in vitro model systems of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in the prostate. Data synthesis Multiple studies in humans reveal an association between environmental inorganic arsenic exposure and prostate cancer mortality or incidence. Many of these human studies provide clear evidence of a dose–response relationship. Relevant whole animal models showing a relationship between inorganic arsenic and prostate cancer are not available. However, cellular model systems indicate arsenic can induce malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. Arsenic also appears to impact prostate cancer cell progression by precipitating events leading to androgen independence in vitro. Conclusion Available evidence in human populations and human cells in vitro indicates that the prostate is a target for inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis. A role for this common environmental contaminant in human prostate cancer initiation and/or progression would be very important. PMID:18288312

  1. Prostate MRI can reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Taneja, Samir S

    2015-08-01

    The contemporary management of prostate cancer (PCa) has been criticized as fostering overdetection and overtreatment of indolent disease. In particular, the historical inability to identify those men with an elevated PSA who truly warrant biopsy, and, for those needing biopsy, to localize aggressive tumors within the prostate, has contributed to suboptimal diagnosis and treatment strategies. This article describes how modern multi-parametric MRI of the prostate addresses such challenges and reduces both overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The central role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in contributing to MRI's current impact is described. Prostate MRI incorporating DWI achieves higher sensitivity than standard systematic biopsy for intermediate-to-high risk tumor, while having lower sensitivity for low-grade tumors that are unlikely to impact longevity. Particular applications of prostate MRI that are explored include selection of a subset of men with clinical suspicion of PCa to undergo biopsy as well as reliable confirmation of only low-risk disease in active surveillance patients. Various challenges to redefining the standard of care to incorporate solely MRI-targeted cores, without concomitant standard systematic cores, are identified. These include needs for further technical optimization of current systems for performing MRI-targeted biopsies, enhanced education and expertise in prostate MRI among radiologists, greater standardization in prostate MRI reporting across centers, and recognition of the roles of pre-biopsy MRI and MRI-targeted biopsy by payers. Ultimately, it is hoped that the medical community in the United States will embrace prostate MRI and MRI-targeted biopsy, allowing all patients with known or suspected prostate cancer to benefit from this approach. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resonance sensor technology for detection of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jalkanen, Ville

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in Europe and the USA. Some prostate tumours are regarded as stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue, and therefore it is of interest to be able to reliably measure prostate tissue stiffness. The methods presently used to detect prostate cancer are inexact, and new techniques are needed. In this licentiate thesis resonance sensor technology, with its ability to measure tissue stiffness, was applied to normal and cancerous prostate ti...

  3. [Stereotactic radiotherapy for prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, L; Hennequin, C

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy is a new option in the treatment of prostate cancer. However, only retrospective series and a few prospective phase II trials are available at this moment, including a few thousands of patients with a short follow-up. Most of the protocols delivered 33 to 38 Gy in four or five fractions. Acute toxicity seems to be similar to the one observed after conventional radiotherapy. Late toxicity is less evaluable because of the short follow-up: the rate of radiation-induced proctitis seems low in the published series. Urinary toxicities are not properly evaluated: some series reported a high incidence of urinary complications grade or higher. Most of the patients belong to the D'Amico's favourable group: biochemical controls are equivalent to those observed after conventional irradiation, but the follow-up is often shorter than 5 years and no definitive conclusion could be made about the efficiency of the technique. Data for the intermediate and high risk groups are not mature. In conclusion, stereotactic radiotherapy could strongly modified the management of prostate cancer: some phase III trials have started to confirm the good results reported in preliminary series. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  5. What Prostate Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Prostate Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis The Impact of Prostate Cancer The National Cancer ... Management Strategies Resources For Your Information Facts About Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become ...

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...... to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study...

  7. Role of Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    We have established a GH-deficient prostate cancer model (Tag/Ghdr/dr rat) indicating that a reduction in GH and/or IGF-I can significantly inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in this model in contrast to GH wild-type controls...

  8. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-?-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and the...

  9. Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Florida Department of Corrections (FDOC) as a model for elucidating the genetic, epigenetic , and socio-environmental etiologies of prostate cancer. 9 | P... smoking habits, dietary intake, physical activity levels, anthropometrics, sun exposure, frequency of general health care utilization and prostate

  10. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Serum Autoantibodies in Chronic Prostate Inflammation in Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Schlick

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens.Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70 were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63 using the Luminex-bead protein array technology.Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin, STX18 (Syntaxin 18 and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein. Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT, RAB11B and

  12. Serum Autoantibodies in Chronic Prostate Inflammation in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Bettina; Massoner, Petra; Lueking, Angelika; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Blattner, Mirjam; Schaefer, Georg; Marquart, Klaus; Theek, Carmen; Amersdorfer, Peter; Zielinski, Dirk; Kirchner, Matthias; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Rubin, Mark A.; Müllner, Stefan; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Klocker, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens. Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70) were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63) using the Luminex-bead protein array technology. Results Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin), STX18 (Syntaxin 18) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein). Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT

  13. Adjuvant radiotherapy for a prostate cancer after renal transplantation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detti, Beatrice; Scoccianti, Silvia; Franceschini, Davide; Villari, Donata; Greto, Daniela; Cipressi, Samantha; Sardaro, Angela; Zanassi, Maria; Cai, Tommaso; Biti, Giampaolo

    2011-11-01

    Renal transplant recipients are a population usually considered at a higher risk of malignancies, mostly skin cancer and lymphoproliferative disorder. In recent years, prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients has been becoming more frequent. This is probably due to the growing age and the longer survival of the transplanted patients. We report the case of a 50-year-old man with prostate cancer and renal allograft, who received radiotherapy after prostatectomy at the Institute of Radiotherapy of the University of Florence. Radiotherapy is part of the standard treatment for many cases of prostate cancer. According to the few series reported in the literature and also to our experience, radiation therapy is feasible also in renal transplant recipients with accurate treatment planning.

  14. Is prostate cancer different in black men? Answers from 3 natural history models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodikov, Alex; Gulati, Roman; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel A; Mariotto, Angela B; de Koning, Harry J; Etzioni, Ruth

    2017-06-15

    Black men in the United States have substantially higher prostate cancer incidence rates than the general population. The extent to which this incidence disparity is because prostate cancer is more prevalent, more aggressive, and/or more frequently diagnosed in black men is unknown. The authors estimated 3 independently developed models of prostate cancer natural history in black men and in the general population using an updated reconstruction of prostate-specific antigen screening, based on the National Health Interview Survey in 2005 and on prostate cancer incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program during 1975 through 2000. By using the estimated models, the natural history of prostate cancer was compared between black men and the general population. The models projected that from 30% to 43% (range across models) of black men develop preclinical prostate cancer by age 85 years, a risk that is (relatively) 28% to 56% higher than that in the general population. Among men who had preclinical disease onset, black men had a similar risk of diagnosis (range, 35%-49%) compared with the general population (32%-44%), but their risk of progression to metastatic disease by the time of diagnosis was from 44% to 75% higher than that in the general population. Prostate cancer incidence patterns implicate higher incidence of preclinical disease and higher risk of metastatic progression among black men. The findings suggest screening black men earlier than white men and support further research into the benefit-harm tradeoffs of more aggressive screening policies for black men. Cancer 2017;123:2312-2319. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Farming, reported pesticide use, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragin, Camille; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Tadesse, Helina; Daniels, Dennis; Bunker, Clareann H; Jackson, Maria; Ferguson, Trevor S; Patrick, Alan L; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Taioli, Emanuela

    2013-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed in American men and is the second leading cancer diagnosed in men worldwide. Although studies have been conducted to investigate the association between prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides and/or farming, the results have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association of farming and prostate cancer. The PubMed database was searched to identify all published case-control studies that evaluated farming as an occupational exposure by questionnaire or interview and prostate cancer. Ten published and two unpublished studies were included in this analysis, yielding 3,978 cases and 7,393 controls. Prostate cancer cases were almost four times more likely to be farmers compared with controls with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH; meta odds ratio [OR], crude = 3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-7.48, Q-test p value = .352; two studies); similar results were obtained when non-BPH controls were considered, but with moderate heterogeneity between studies (meta OR crude = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.16-1.64, Q-test p value = .216, I (2) = 31% [95% CI = 0-73]; five studies). Reported pesticide exposure was inversely associated with prostate cancer (meta OR crude = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96, Q-test p value = .331; four studies), whereas no association with exposure to fertilizers was observed. Our findings confirm that farming is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but this increased risk may not be due to exposure to pesticides.

  16. Multidimensional approaches in dealing with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safdar; Ali, Sher

    2008-02-29

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide affecting the human male population. Different case-control, cohort or twin studies and segregation analyses point towards the presence of prostate cancer-susceptibility genes in the population. The studies have shown linkage of prostate susceptibility genes to multiple loci on chromosome 1 and single locus each on chromosomes 4, 8, 16, 17, 19, 20 and X chromosome. However, differences right from the mode of inheritance (autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive) to the target genes exist. There have been reports supporting no or weak linkage to these loci as well. Also, region (environmental factors), age and dietary habits have implications in different aspects of the disease. The important targets for treating prostate cancer are androgens and estrogen (synthesized from androgens by the action of enzyme aromatase) owing to their involvement in development and progression of prostate cancer. Further, prostate gland needs androgens (male hormones) for its normal maintenance and functioning. Besides, radiation therapy and surgical methods have also been used. The emerging areas include identifying and preparing successful vaccines from candidate peptides and gene therapy in several forms. This review deals with the paradox of linkage analyses and the various approaches in practice for treatment and management of prostate cancer.

  17. EMBOLIZATION AND CHEMOEMBOLIZATION PROSTATIC ARTERIES OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Tabynbaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the use of embolization of prostatic arteries in benign prostatic hyperplasia in 3 patients, two of whom have been with suprapubic drainage of the bladder. The patient was 120 ml without suprapubic drainage of the bladder residual urine. The age of patients was 68 to 70 years. According TRUS, the average prostate volume was 86.0 ± 12.6 cm3 . 4 patients» superselective prostatic artery chemoembolization was performed in prostate cancer. Chemicals for carrying out this procedure served adriamycin at a dose of 50 mg. Two of the four patients with prostate cancer was hormone-resistant form. Three patients had PCa T3b N0M0 stage T2bN0M0 histologically verified number Gleason 7, 7, 8, 9. All four had difficulty urinating, the amount of residual urine was 54 to 98 ml. As a source of transportation used chemotherapy microspheres (gepasfery size of 300–500 microns. Treatment outcomes assessed at one month. The efficiency of the methods for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in the form of return of spontaneous urination, decrease in residual urine, reducing the prostate-specific antigen. 

  18. Lipid degradation promotes prostate cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Harri M; Brown, Michael; Urbanucci, Alfonso; Tredwell, Gregory; Lau, Chung Ho; Barfeld, Stefan; Hart, Claire; Guldvik, Ingrid J.; Takhar, Mandeep; Heemers, Hannelore V.; Erho, Nicholas; Bloch, Katarzyna; Davicioni, Elai; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Mohler, James L.; Clarke, Noel; Swinnen, Johan V.; Keun, Hector C.; Rekvig, Ole P.; Mills, Ian G.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer and androgen receptor (AR) is the major driver of the disease. Here we show that Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) is a novel AR-target that promotes prostate cancer cell survival. Increased ECI2 expression predicts mortality in prostate cancer patients (p = 0.0086). ECI2 encodes for an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and we use multiple metabolite profiling platforms and RNA-seq to show that inhibition of ECI2 expression leads to decreased glucose utilization, accumulation of fatty acids and down-regulation of cell cycle related genes. In normal cells, decrease in fatty acid degradation is compensated by increased consumption of glucose, and here we demonstrate that prostate cancer cells are not able to respond to decreased fatty acid degradation. Instead, prostate cancer cells activate incomplete autophagy, which is followed by activation of the cell death response. Finally, we identified a clinically approved compound, perhexiline, which inhibits fatty acid degradation, and replicates the major findings for ECI2 knockdown. This work shows that prostate cancer cells require lipid degradation for survival and identifies a small molecule inhibitor with therapeutic potential. PMID:28415728

  19. Who dies from prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikidou, A; Loriot, Y; Eymard, J-C; Albiges, L; Massard, C; Ileana, E; Di Palma, M; Escudier, B; Fizazi, K

    2014-12-01

    During the last 30 years, there has been a major shift in initial staging in prostate cancer (CaP) in Western countries, with the incidence of metastases at diagnosis decreasing from over 50% in the 1970s to currently less than 10%. Yet, CaP is still the second cause of cancer death in men. We used two monthly curated databases of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to describe the natural history of patients dying of CaP in the modern era. The outcome of 190 men with metastatic CRPC treated from 2008 to 2011 was studied. The characteristics of the patients who died from CaP (n = 113 patients, 61%) were analyzed. All 113 patients who died of CaP were assessable for the presence of metastases at diagnosis. Sixty-three patients (56%) had detectable metastases at diagnosis: 67%, 11% and 43% had bone, visceral and lymph node metastases, respectively. The median time to CRPC was 16 months and median overall survival (OS) was 5.2 years.Among the patients with localized CaP at diagnosis (n = 50, 44%), 46% had T stage ⩾ 3 and 38% had a Gleason score ⩾ 8. Overall, 64% of patients were classified as having a high-risk CaP. Only 26% who died from CaP had a Gleason score ⩽ 6. Median OS was 8.8 years. In the modern era, approximately half of the patients who die from CaP have metastases at diagnosis. The paradigm of progression from localized disease to metastasis and eventually death is only represented in the other half, although possible initial screening and staging errors ought to be taken into consideration. More efforts are needed to conduct trials in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic CaP.

  20. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  1. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, Shawn E; Elmore, Lynne W

    2005-01-01

    ... increased telomerase activity. In order to determine the importance of the chaperone increase during prostate cancer progression, we have taken a 2-pronged approach, using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches...

  3. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  4. Molecular Markers and Prostate Cancer Radiation Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ritter, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Two cohorts of relatively early stage prostate cancer patients, one treated with radiation therapy and the other with surgery have been identified and have been shown to have similar 5-year disease...

  5. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  6. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  7. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  8. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and ... tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited ..... Seretis C, Seretis F, Liakos N. Multidisciplinary approach to.

  9. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  10. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Cindy H; Price, Douglas K; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L; Hsing, Ann W; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L; Schenk, Jeannette M; Reichardt, Juergen K V; Thompson, Ian M; Figg, William D

    2015-01-01

    In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  11. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-02

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  12. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    African Americans and whites revealed increased risks among men who reported a history of gonorrhea or syphilis or who had positive serology for...cancer, of 1.49 to 2.64 for syphilis, and 1.16 to 1.50 for gonorrhea .16 The meta-analysis also found an association be- tween prostate cancer and...tients with prostatitis include Chlamydia trachoma- tis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Neisseria gonorrhea , Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and

  13. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0178 TITLE: Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David M. Lubaroff, PhD CONTRACTING...Prostate Cancer Research Training Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0178 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David M...Distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The HBCU Summer Research Training Program accepted a total of 8 students from Lincoln

  14. Updates of prostate cancer staging: Prostate-specific membrane antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan J Sathianathen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately stage prostate cancer in both the primary and secondary staging setting can have a major impact on management. Until recently radiological staging has relied on computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear bone scans to evaluate the extent of disease. However, the utility of these imaging technologies has been limited by their sensitivity and specificity especially in detecting early recurrence. Functional imaging using positron-emission tomography with a radiolabeled ligand targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen has transformed the prostate cancer imaging landscape. Initial results suggest that it is a substantial improvement over conventional imaging in the setting of recurrence following primary therapy by having a superior ability to detect disease and to do so at an earlier stage. Additionally, it appears that the benefits seen in the secondary staging setting may also exist in the primary staging setting.

  15. Association of a TFAM haplotype with aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Jesús Benítez; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Feria-Bernal, Guillermo; García-García, Eduardo; Tejeda, María Elena; Rojano-Mejía, David; Tapia, André; Canto, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the development of cancer and obesity, being prostate cancer more aggressive in obese men. It has been suggested that the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) plays a central role in these events. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, with the development of aggressive prostate cancer in overweight or obese Mexican Mestizo men. A total of 257 unrelated men with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, of Mexican Mestizo ethnic origin, were included. Body mass index was determined and the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness was demarcated by the D'Amico classification. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. The rs1937, rs1049432, and rs11006132, as well as their haplotypes, were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated; haplotype analysis was performed. A higher risk (D'Amico classification) was documented in 56 patients (21.8%). We did not find a significant association among those polymorphisms analyzed; however, one haplotype was significantly associated with cancer aggressiveness. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first study regarding the relationship of 3 TFAM polymorphisms, as well as their haplotypes, and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer in overweight or obese men; the most frequent haplotype was associated with cancer aggressiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    immune checkpoint blockade, local CTLA-4 modulation, prostate cancer immunotherapy, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), RNA-based vaccines 16...immune checkpoint blockade, local CTLA4 modulation, prostate cancer immunotherapy, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and RNA-based vaccines OVERALL...months): Harvest tumors from 30-week old mice to analyze tumor weight , tumor grade, tumor apoptosis and immune infiltrates and harvest mouse organs

  17. Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM...blocked by the addition of Pim inhibitors. These results suggest that the Pim protein kinase can regulate stromal cell biology to modulate epithelial

  18. Diagnostic characteristics of lethal prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, John Thomas; Røder, Martin Andreas; Klemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic characteristics of men who eventually die from prostate cancer (PCa) and the extent to which early diagnostic strategies have affected these characteristics are unclear. We aimed to investigate trends in survival and clinical presentation at diagnosis in men who...... eventually died from PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on the national database, the Danish Prostate Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based study of all 19,487 men who died from PCa in Denmark between 1995 and 2013 was conducted. Trends in median survival and trends in age, prostate-specific antigen...

  19. Radioisotopes in management of metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Raval

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Over the last decade, the treatment landscape for patients with castrate-resistant disease has drastically changed, with several novel agents demonstrating an improvement in overall survival in large, multi-institutional randomized trials. Traditional treatment with radioisotopes has largely been in the palliative setting. However, the first in class radiopharmaceutical radium-223 has emerged as the only bone-directed treatment option demonstrating an improvement in overall survival. Methods: Medline publications from 1990 to 2016 were searched and reviewed to assess the use of currently approved radioisotopes in the management of prostate cancer including emerging data regarding integration with novel systemic therapies. New positron emission tomography-based radiotracers for advanced molecular imaging of prostate cancer were also queried. Results: Radioisotopes play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the definitive and metastatic setting. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer and theranostics are currently being investigated in the clinical arena. Conclusions: The use of modern radioisotopes in selected patients with mCRPC is associated with improvements in overall survival, pain control, and quality of life.

  20. Tomato phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica K; Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Lindshield, Brian L; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2004-12-01

    Mounting evidence over the past decade suggests that the consumption of fresh and processed tomato products is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. The emerging hypothesis is that lycopene, the primary red carotenoid in tomatoes, may be the principle phytochemical responsible for this reduction in risk. A number of potential mechanisms by which lycopene may act have emerged, including serving as an important in vivo antioxidant, enhancing cell-to-cell communication via increasing gap junctions between cells, and modulating cell-cycle progression. Although the effect of lycopene is biologically relevant, the tomato is also an excellent source of nutrients, including folate, vitamin C, and various other carotenoids and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, which also may be associated with lower cancer risk. Tomatoes also contain significant quantities of potassium, as well as some vitamin A and vitamin E. Our laboratory has been interested in identifying specific components or combination of components in tomatoes that are responsible for reducing prostate cancer risk. We carried out cell culture trials to evaluate the effects of tomato carotenoids and tomato polyphenols on growth of prostate cancer cells. We also evaluated the ability of freeze-dried whole-tomato powder or lycopene alone to reduce growth of prostate tumors in rats. This paper reviews the epidemiological evidence, evaluating the relationship between prostate cancer risk and tomato consumption, and presents experimental data from this and other laboratories that support the hypothesis that whole tomato and its phytochemical components reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

  1. [Radiation therapy of locally advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hegemann, N-S; Li, M; Eze, C; Belka, C; Ganswindt, U

    2017-11-01

    The risk classification for localized prostate cancer is based on the groups "low", "intermediate", and "high-risk" prostate cancer. Following this established risk group definition, locally advanced prostate cancer (cT3/4N0M0) has to be classified as "high-risk" prostate cancer. Radical prostatectomy or high-dose radiotherapy, which is combined with androgen deprivation, are the only curative standard treatments for locally advanced prostate cancer. Particularly adequate radiation doses, modern radiotherapy techniques like IMRT/IGRT, as well as long-term androgen suppression are essential for an optimal treatment outcome. In combination with definitive radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy should be started neoadjuvant/simultaneous to radiotherapy and is recommended to be continued after radiotherapy. Previous data suggest that 2‑year long-term androgen deprivation in this setting may not be inferior to 3‑year long-term androgen deprivation in high-risk patients. An additional radiation therapy of the lymphatic pathways in men with cN0 locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer is still a matter of research. Ongoing trials may define selected subgroups with a suggested benefit at its best.

  2. Docetaxel Resistance in Prostate Cancer: Taking It Up a Notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Armstrong, Andrew J

    2015-10-15

    Notch signaling is implicated in prostate cancer progression and docetaxel resistance. Cui and colleagues describe the additive efficacy and mechanisms of a γ-secretase inhibitor, PF-03084014, and docetaxel in preclinical models of prostate cancer, suggesting the need for further clinical development of Notch pathway modulators in men with metastatic prostate cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Multiparametric MRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, Jurgen J. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

  4. Mosaic loss of chromosome Y in peripheral blood is associated with shorter survival and higher risk of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Lars A.; Rasi, Chiara; Malmqvist, Niklas; Davies, Hanna; Pasupulati, Saichand; Pakalapati, Geeta; Sandgren, Johanna; de Ståhl, Teresita Diaz; Zaghlool, Ammar; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Lannfelt, Lars; Score, Joannah; Cross, Nicholas C.P.; Absher, Devin; Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Dumanski, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Incidence and mortality for sex-unspecific cancers is higher among men and is largely unexplained1,2. Furthermore, age-related loss of chromosome Y (LOY) is frequent in normal haematopoietic cells3,4, but the phenotypic consequences of LOY have been elusive5–10. From analysis of 1153 elderly men, we report that LOY was associated with risks of all-cause mortality (HR=1.91, 95% CI=1.17-3.13, events=637) and non-haematological cancer mortality (HR=3.62, CI=1.56-8.41, events=132). LOY affected at least 8.2% of subjects in this cohort and median survival among men with LOY was 5.5 years shorter. Risk of all-cause mortality and LOY was validated in an independent cohort (HR=3.66), in which 20.5% of subjects displayed LOY. These results illustrate the impact of post-zygotic mosaicism on disease risk, could explain why males are more frequently affected by cancer and suggest that chromosome Y is important in processes beyond sex determination. LOY in blood could become a predictive biomarker of male carcinogenesis. PMID:24777449

  5. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  6. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  7. Hedgehog Signaling in Prostate Development, Regeneration and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Bushman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prostate is a developmental model system study of prostate growth regulation. Historically the research focus was on androgen regulation of development and growth and instructive interactions between the mesenchyme and epithelium. The study of Hh signaling in prostate development revealed important roles in ductal morphogenesis and in epithelial growth regulation that appear to be recapitulated in prostate cancer. This overview of Hh signaling in the prostate will address the well-described role of paracrine signaling prostate development as well as new evidence suggesting a role for autocrine signaling, the role of Hh signaling in prostate regeneration and reiterative activities in prostate cancer.

  8. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  9. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  10. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  11. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: pathologic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Madden, John F

    2009-03-01

    To summarize pathologic features of low-volume, low-risk prostate cancer relevant to the development of patient selection criteria and treatment strategies for focal therapy of prostate cancer, as an alternative to whole-gland radical treatments. Prostate cancer characteristically presents as a multifocal lesion within the prostate gland. Diagnosis of prostate cancer at an early stage has led to a recognition of subsets of patients whose disease may be either unifocal or multifocal, yet is unilateral or of small aggregate volume. Parenchyma-preserving partial-gland ablation may become a potentially feasible option in future treatment of early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Even for moderately selective protocols such as hemiablation, however, appropriate patient selection will be challenging because of the imperfect correlation among unifocality, unilaterality, low volume and low grade. Extended multicore biopsy protocols under imaging guidance may be required to map the tumor process with sufficient accuracy for treatment planning. Further research in molecular determinants and more precise imaging techniques should be pursued to optimize selection and treatment.

  12. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s..

  13. Micrornas in prostate cancer: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; D'Aniello, Carmine; Di Franco, Rossella; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Montanari, Micaela; La Mantia, Elvira; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Nocerino, Flavia; Cappuccio, Francesca; Grimaldi, Giovanni; Izzo, Alessandro; Castaldo, Luigi; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Iovane, Gelsomina; Ametrano, Gianluca; Stiuso, Paola; Quagliuolo, Lucio; Barberio, Daniela; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Montella, Maurizio; Maiolino, Piera; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Botti, Gerardo; Caraglia, Michele; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second highest cause of cancer mortality after lung tumours. In USA it affects about 2.8 million men and the incidence increases with age in many countries. Therefore, early diagnosis is a very important step for patient clinical evaluation and for a selective and efficient therapy. The study of miRNAs' functions and molecular mechanisms has brought new knowledge in biological processes of cancer. In prostate cancer there is a deregulation of several miRNAs that may function as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. The aim of this review is to analyze the progress made to our understanding of the role of miRNA dysregulation in prostate cancer tumourigenesis. PMID:28445135

  14. Weight change, obesity and risk of prostate cancer progression among men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Ahearn, Thomas U; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Nguyen, Paul L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Bicalutamide monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The current evidence is considered to support 150 mg of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide for early stage prostate cancer.......The current evidence is considered to support 150 mg of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide for early stage prostate cancer....

  16. 'Observation' Best Option for Most Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 'Observation' Best Option for Most Low-Risk Prostate Cancer 20-year study found little difference in death ... 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Men with early stage prostate cancer who have surgery to remove their tumor do ...

  17. Are Big Men More Prone to Aggressive Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Are Big Men More Prone to Aggressive Prostate Cancer? Study found taller, heavier males were more likely ... his risk of getting and dying from aggressive prostate cancer, a new study suggests. Every additional 4 inches ...

  18. Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening Among Native African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening Among Native African Urban Population in Nigeria. ... Methods: It is a cross-sectional study involving 156 respondents. ... respondents are ready to pay for prostate cancer screening test by PSA assay.

  19. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with certain gene mutations (variants) are at risk for inherited prostate cancer. Learn about the hereditary prostate cancer genes, genetic testing, clinical management, psychosocial issues, and genetic counseling in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Tumor Microenvironment Inflammation and Obesity in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    of prostate cancer in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 161(1):63–69 3. Freedland S, Banez L, Sun L...mass index, weight change, and risk of prostate cancer in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 161(1):63...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0064 TITLE: Tumor Microenvironment Inflammation and Obesity in Advanced Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  1. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  2. Inflammation in Benign Prostate Tissue and Prostate Cancer in the Finasteride Arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J; Gurel, Bora; Umbehr, Martin; Lucia, M Scott; Thompson, Ian M; Goodman, Phyllis J; Kristal, Alan R; Parnes, Howard L; Lippman, Scott M; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Peskoe, Sarah B; Barber, John R; Drake, Charles G; Nelson, William G; De Marzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    A previous analysis of the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) reported 82% overall prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation and identified a link between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer and serum PSA. Here, we studied these associations in the PCPT finasteride arm. Prostate cancer cases (N = 197) detected either on a clinically indicated biopsy or on protocol-directed end-of-study biopsy, and frequency-matched controls (N = 248) with no cancer on an end-of-study biopsy were sampled from the finasteride arm. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue was visually assessed using digital images of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. In the finasteride arm, 91.6% of prostate cancer cases and 92.4% of controls had at least one biopsy core with inflammation in benign areas (P finasteride than placebo arm of the PCPT, with no association with higher-grade prostate cancer. Finasteride may attenuate the association between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer. Moreover, the missing link between intraprostatic inflammation and PSA suggests that finasteride may reduce inflammation-associated PSA elevation. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, William H; Zhu, Chunfang; Clark, Curtis; Christensen, James G; Sun, Zijie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR) signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, we directly asses...

  4. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Masko, Elizabeth M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) affect substantial proportions of Western society. Mounting evidence, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, for an association between the two is of public health interest. An improved understanding of the role of this modifiable risk factor in PCa etiology is imperative to optimize screening, treatment, and prevention. To consolidate and evaluate the evidence for an epidemiologic link between obesity and PCa, in addition to examining the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms. A PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1991 and July 2012 was performed by combining the following terms: obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer risk, prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy, androgen-deprivation therapy, external-beam radiation, brachytherapy, prostate cancer and quality of life, prostate cancer and active surveillance, in addition to obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer and insulin, insulin-like growth factor, androgen, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6. Articles were selected based on content, date of publication, and relevancy, and their references were also searched for relevant articles. Increasing evidence suggests obesity is associated with elevated incidence of aggressive PCa, increased risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy, higher frequency of complications following androgen-deprivation therapy, and increased PCa-specific mortality, although perhaps a lower overall PCa incidence. These results may in part relate to difficulties in detecting and treating obese men. However, multiple molecular mechanisms could explain these associations as well. Weight loss slows PCa in animal models but has yet to be fully tested in human trials. Obesity appears to be linked with aggressive PCa. We suggest clinical tips to better diagnose and treat obese men with PCa. Whether reversing obesity slows PCa growth is

  5. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  6. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  7. Prostate cancer screening practices in a large, integrated health system: 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Hu, Bo; Klein, Eric A; Stephenson, Andrew; Taksler, Glen B; Kattan, Michael W; Rothberg, Michael B

    2017-08-01

    To assess prostate cancer screening practices in primary care since the initial United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for older men, and to assess primary provider variation associated with prostate cancer screening. Our study population included 160 211 men aged ≥40 years with at least one visit to a primary care clinic in any of the study years in a large, integrated health system. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical record data from January 2007 to December 2014. Yearly rates of screening PSA testing by primary care providers (PCPs), rates of re-screening, and rates of prostate biopsies were assessed. Annual PSA-screening testing declined from 2007 to 2014 in all age groups, as did biennial and quadrennial screening. Yearly rates declined for men aged ≥70 years, from 22.8% to 8.9%; ages 50-69 years, from 39.2% to 20%; and ages 40-49 years, from 11% to 4.6%. Overall rates were lower for African-American (A-A) men vs non-A-A men; for men with a family history of prostate cancer, rates were similar or slightly higher than for those without a family history. PCP variation associated with ordering of PSA testing did not substantially change after the USPSTF recommendations. While the number of men screened and rates of follow-up prostate cancer screening declined in 2011-2014 compared to 2007-2010, similar re-screening rates were noted for men aged 45-75 years with initial PSA levels of 75 years with initial PSA levels of screened in both cohorts, follow-up screening rates were similar. Rates of prostate biopsy declined for men aged ≥70 years in 2014 compared to 2007. For men who had PSA screening, rates of first prostate biopsy increased in later years for A-A men and men with a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer screening declined from 2007 to 2014 even in higher-risk groups and follow-up screening rates were not related to previous

  8. Bisphosphonates for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherey, Sascha; Monsef, Ina; Jahn, Franziska; Jordan, Karin; Yuen, Kwok Keung; Heidenreich, Axel; Skoetz, Nicole

    2017-12-26

    The prevalence and incidence of pain and skeletal complications of metastatic bone disease such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia is high and an important contributor to morbidity, poor performance status and decreased quality of life. Moreover, pathologic fractures are associated with increased risk of death in people with disseminated malignancies. Therefore, prevention of pain and fractures are important goals in men with prostate cancer at risk for skeletal complications. To assess the effects of bisphosphonates in men with bone metastases from prostate cancer. We identified studies by electronic search of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and MEDLINE on 13 July 2017 and trial registries. We handsearched the Proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology (to July 2017) and reference lists of all eligible trials identified. This is an update of a review last published in 2006. We included randomized controlled studies comparing the effectiveness of bisphosphonates in men with bone metastases from prostate cancer. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of trials. We defined the proportion of participants with pain response as the primary end point; secondary outcomes were skeletal-related events, mortality, quality of life, adverse events, analgesic consumption and disease progression. We assessed the quality of the evidence for the main outcomes using the GRADE approach. We included 18 trials reporting on 4843 participants comparing the effect of bisphosphonate administration to control regimens. there was no clear difference in the proportion of participants with pain response (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.43; P = 0.20; I2 = 0%; 3 trials; 876 participants; low quality evidence). In absolute terms, bisphosphonates resulted in a pain response in 40 more participants per 1000 (19 fewer to 114 more). bisphosphonates probably reduced the incidence of

  9. Neck mass: An unusual presentation of prostate cancer metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate cancer is a disease of public health importance and it is most common among men between 60 to 70 years of age. Distant primaries involving supraclavicular nodes secondary to prostate cancer is very rare. This report is a case of an unusual presentation of prostate cancer manifesting as a huge neck ...

  10. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. METHODS: We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases ...

  11. 75 FR 54453 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... and resources about the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of prostate and other cancers. Until we... early detection and possible treatment. I encourage men to talk with their doctors about risk factors... supporting prostate cancer research and treatment, including research to help determine why prostate cancer...

  12. Population based screening for prostate cancer : tumor characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.W. van der Cruijsen (Ingrid W)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is a multi-centre randomized controlled trial to examine whether screening for prostate cancer has an effect on prostate cancer mortality. The total study cohort consists of 268.000 men in eight

  13. Expression of KLK2 gene in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Shafai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The expression of KLK2 gene in people with prostate cancer is the higher than the healthy person; finally, according to the results, it could be mentioned that the KLK2 gene considered as a useful factor in prostate cancer, whose expression is associated with progression and development of the prostate cancer.

  14. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thobe, Megan N.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.; Clark, Robert J.; Bainer, Russell O; Prasad, Sandip M.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules ...

  15. Tactile sensing of prostate cancer : a resonance sensor method evaluated using human prostate tissue in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jalkanen, Ville

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in men in Europe and the USA. The methods presently used to detect and diagnose prostate cancer are inexact, and new techniques are needed. Prostate tumours can be regarded as harder than the surrounding normal healthy glandular tissue, and therefore it is of interest to be able to reliably measure prostate tissue stiffness. In this dissertation the approach was to evaluate tactile resonance sensor technology and its ability to measure mecha...

  16. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...

  17. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue and prostate cancer in the finasteride arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J.; Gurel, Bora; Umbehr, Martin; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Kristal, Alan R.; Parnes, Howard L.; Lippman, Scott M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Barber, John R.; Drake, Charles G.; Nelson, William G.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A previous analysis of the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) reported 82% overall prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation and identified a link between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer and serum PSA. Here we studied these associations in the PCPT finasteride arm. Methods Prostate cancer cases (N=197) detected either on a clinically indicated biopsy or on protocol-directed end-of-study biopsy, and frequency-matched controls (N=248) with no cancer on an end-of-study biopsy were sampled from the finasteride arm. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue was visually assessed using digital images of H&E stained sections. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results In the finasteride arm, 91.6% of prostate cancer cases and 92.4% of controls had at least one biopsy core with inflammation in benign areas; p finasteride than placebo arm of the PCPT, with no association with higher-grade prostate cancer. Impact Finasteride may attenuate the association between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer. Moreover, the missing link between intraprostatic inflammation and PSA suggests that finasteride may reduce inflammation-associated PSA elevation. PMID:26715424

  18. The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Di Sebastiano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of co-morbidities, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We aim to examine dietary fat throughout the prostate cancer treatment trajectory, including risk, cancer development and survivorship. Focusing on one specific nutrient throughout the prostate cancer trajectory provides a unique perspective of dietary fat in prostate cancer and the mechanisms that may exacerbate prostate cancer risk, progression and recurrence. Through this approach, we noted that high intake of dietary fat, especially, high intake of animal and saturated fats, may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. In contrast, a low-fat diet, specifically low in saturated fat, may be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors by reducing tumor angiogenesis and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF/Akt signaling pathway appears to be the key pathway moderating dietary fat intake and prostate cancer development and progression.

  19. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  1. Beta Catenin in Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-03

    p rostate cancer cells to determine whether this path way operates in other prostate cancer cells and is a generali zed event. In addition, si nce...Sun, Z. (2002) J Biol Chem 277, 11336-11344 10. Mulholland, D. J., Cheng, H., Reid, K., Rennie, P. S., and Nelson , C. C. (2002) J Biol Chem 277

  2. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  3. Selenium supplementation and prostate cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; DuPre, Natalie; Stampfer, Meir J; L Giovannucci, Edward; Chan, June M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the relation between selenium supplementation after diagnosis and prostate cancer outcomes. We prospectively followed 4459 men initially diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study from 1988 through 2010 and examined whether selenium supplement use (from selenium-specific supplements and multivitamins) after diagnosis was associated with risk of biochemical recurrence, prostate cancer mortality, and, secondarily, cardiovascular disease mortality and overall mortality, using Cox proportional hazards models. All P values were from two-sided tests. We documented 965 deaths, 226 (23.4%) because of prostate cancer and 267 (27.7%) because of cardiovascular disease, during a median follow-up of 8.9 years. In the biochemical recurrence analysis, we documented 762 recurrences during a median follow-up of 7.8 years. Crude rates per 1000 person-years for prostate cancer death were 5.6 among selenium nonusers and 10.5 among men who consumed 140 or more μg/day. Crude rates per 1000 person-years were 28.2 vs 23.5 for all-cause mortality and 28.4 vs 29.3 for biochemical recurrence, for nonuse vs highest-dose categories, respectively. In multivariable analyses, men who consumed 1 to 24 μg/day, 25 to 139 μg/day, and 140 or more μg/day of supplemental selenium had a 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.91), 1.33 (95% CI = 0.77 to 2.30), and 2.60-fold (95% CI = 1.44 to 4.70) greater risk of prostate cancer mortality compared with nonusers, respectively, P trend = .001. There was no statistically significant association between selenium supplement use and biochemical recurrence, cardiovascular disease mortality, or overall mortality. Selenium supplementation of 140 or more μg/day after diagnosis of nonmetastatic prostate cancer may increase risk of prostate cancer mortality. Caution is warranted regarding usage of such supplements among men with prostate cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by

  4. Selenium Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; DuPre, Natalie; Stampfer, Meir J.; L. Giovannucci, Edward; Chan, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the relation between selenium supplementation after diagnosis and prostate cancer outcomes. Methods: We prospectively followed 4459 men initially diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study from 1988 through 2010 and examined whether selenium supplement use (from selenium-specific supplements and multivitamins) after diagnosis was associated with risk of biochemical recurrence, prostate cancer mortality, and, secondarily, cardiovascular disease mortality and overall mortality, using Cox proportional hazards models. All P values were from two-sided tests. Results: We documented 965 deaths, 226 (23.4%) because of prostate cancer and 267 (27.7%) because of cardiovascular disease, during a median follow-up of 8.9 years. In the biochemical recurrence analysis, we documented 762 recurrences during a median follow-up of 7.8 years. Crude rates per 1000 person-years for prostate cancer death were 5.6 among selenium nonusers and 10.5 among men who consumed 140 or more μg/day. Crude rates per 1000 person-years were 28.2 vs 23.5 for all-cause mortality and 28.4 vs 29.3 for biochemical recurrence, for nonuse vs highest-dose categories, respectively. In multivariable analyses, men who consumed 1 to 24 μg/day, 25 to 139 μg/day, and 140 or more μg/day of supplemental selenium had a 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.91), 1.33 (95% CI = 0.77 to 2.30), and 2.60-fold (95% CI = 1.44 to 4.70) greater risk of prostate cancer mortality compared with nonusers, respectively, P trend = .001. There was no statistically significant association between selenium supplement use and biochemical recurrence, cardiovascular disease mortality, or overall mortality. Conclusion: Selenium supplementation of 140 or more μg/day after diagnosis of nonmetastatic prostate cancer may increase risk of prostate cancer mortality. Caution is warranted regarding usage of such supplements among men with prostate

  5. The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. Nature 2012; 487: 239–43. 12 Kumar A, White TA, MacKenzie AP et al. Exome...patient’s muta- tional landscape and expression signature. The recent rise of sequencing of PCa genomes has significantly increased our understanding...We demon- strate that fixation of prostates with PAXgene results in preservation of high quality DNA and RNA with preserved tissue architecture and

  6. Efficacy and safety of photoselective vaporization of the prostate in patients with prostatic obstruction induced by advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Tso Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that PVP is a safe and effective procedure for relieving prostatic obstruction without intraoperative blood transfusion, water intoxication, or other complications in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  7. Drug discovery in prostate cancer mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an important, though imperfect, organism with which to model human disease and to discover and test novel drugs in a preclinical setting. Many experimental strategies have been used to discover new biological and molecular targets in the mouse, with the hopes of translating these discoveries into novel drugs to treat prostate cancer in humans. Modeling prostate cancer in the mouse, however, has been challenging, and often drugs that work in mice have failed in human trials. The authors discuss the similarities and differences between mice and men; the types of mouse models that exist to model prostate cancer; practical questions one must ask when using a mouse as a model; and potential reasons that drugs do not often translate to humans. They also discuss the current value in using mouse models for drug discovery to treat prostate cancer and what needs are still unmet in field. With proper planning and following practical guidelines by the researcher, the mouse is a powerful experimental tool. The field lacks genetically engineered metastatic models, and xenograft models do not allow for the study of the immune system during the metastatic process. There remain several important limitations to discovering and testing novel drugs in mice for eventual human use, but these can often be overcome. Overall, mouse modeling is an essential part of prostate cancer research and drug discovery. Emerging technologies and better and ever-increasing forms of communication are moving the field in a hopeful direction.

  8. Bone health in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana, B; Cózar, J M; Alcaraz, A; Morote, J; Gómez-Veiga, F J; Solsona, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; Carballido, J

    2014-12-01

    In patients with prostate cancer, bone health is compromised by advanced age at diagnosis, androgen suppression treatments and the developmentofbone metastases. In this paper the medical literature is reviewed in order to update the state of the art on their incidence, prevention and management. A literature review about bone involvement in patients with prostate cancer in different clinical settings is performed. Decreased bone mineral density is higher in patients diagnosed of prostate cancer before starting treatment than in healthy men with the same age. During the first year of treatment, a severe loss bone density is reported due to androgen suppression therapy. From then on, loss bone density seems to slow down, persisting at long-term. It is important to know the starting point and the dynamics of loss bone in order to prevent its progression. The skeletal events have an important impact on quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Both Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid have proven effective in reducing loss bone. The prevention and management of bone involvement in patients with prostate cancer is critical to quality of life in these patients and requires an individualized approach. Before starting a prolonged androgen deprivation, baseline risk of fracture should be evaluated in order to adopt the proper protective measures. In patients with metastases, early treatments reducing the risk of bone events should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Current aspects of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalón Monzón, A; Escaf Barmadah, S; Viña Alonso, L M; Jalón Monzón, M

    Screening programs for prostate cancer based on the determination of serum prostate specific antigen has led to overdiagnosis, and consequently overtreatment. A percentage of men diagnosed with prostate cancer have a tumour that will not progress, or do so slowly (overdiagnosis or pseudo-disease). This overdiagnosis rate ranges from 17-50%. Mass screening is defined as the systematic examination of asymptomatic men. Early detection or opportunistic screening involves the pursuit of individual cases being initiated by the doctor or the patient. In the case of a patient who requests a prostate specific antigen from their general practitioner, a number of issues on overdiagnosis, over-treatment and possible damage from the biopsy, should be explained to him. With data from randomised studies on prostate specific antigen and prostate cancer screening, population screening is not recommended by any urological society. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Telomeres and telomerase in prostate cancer development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mindy Kim; Meeker, Alan

    2017-10-01

    Aberrations in telomere biology are among the earliest events in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and continue during tumour progression. Substantial telomere shortening occurs in prostate cancer cells and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Not all mechanisms of telomere shortening are understood, but oxidative stress from local inflammation might accelerate prostatic telomere loss. Critically short telomeres can drive the accumulation of tumour-promoting genomic alterations; however, continued telomere erosion is unsustainable and must be mitigated to ensure cancer cell survival and unlimited replication potential. Prostate cancers predominantly maintain telomeres by activating telomerase, but alternative mechanisms of telomere extension can occur in metastatic disease. Telomerase activity and telomere length assessment might be useful in prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Telomere shortening in normal stromal cells has been associated with prostate cancer, whereas variable telomere lengths in prostate cancer cells and telomere shortening in cancer-associated stromal cells correlated with lethal disease. Single-agent telomerase-targeted treatments for solid cancers were ineffective in clinical trials but have not been investigated in prostate cancer and might be useful in combination with established regimens. Telomere-directed strategies have not been explored as extensively. Telomere deprotection strategies have the advantage of being effective in both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent cancers. Disruption of androgen receptor function in prostate cancer cells results in telomere dysfunction, indicating telomeres and telomerase as potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.

  11. [Expression and significance of CD147 protein in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Chan; Han, Zhao-Dong; Dai, Qi-Shan; Zou, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Ye, Yong-Kang; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhong, Wei-De

    2009-07-14

    To investigate the expression of CD147 in prostate cancer and discuss its diagnostic value in prostate cancer. The method of immunohistochemical SP was employed to detect the expression of CD147 in 101 cases of prostate cancer, 90 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, 36 cases of normal prostate and 15 cases of embryonic prostate by so as to evaluate its clinical significance in the histological classification and prognosis of prostate cancer. The CD147 expression was positively expressed in 67/101 (66.3%) of prostate cancer, 21/90 (23.3%) of benign prostatic hypertrophy, 2/36 (5.6%) of normal prostate and 0/15 (0.0) of embryonic prostate respectively. A positive expression of CD147 was dramatically associated with TNM stage (P prostatic capsule invasion (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.006). The detection of CD147 is helpful to raise the early diagnosis rate of prostate cancer. It will become a tumor marker of reflecting the malignant degree and predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer.

  12. Screening for Prostate Cancer Starting at Age 50-54 Years. A Population-based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid; Assel, Melissa; Ulmert, David; Gerdtsson, Axel; Hugosson, Jonas; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Current prostate cancer screening guidelines conflict with respect to the age at which to initiate screening. To evaluate the effect of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening versus zero screening, starting at age 50-54 yr, on prostate cancer mortality. This is a population-based cohort study comparing 3479 men aged 50 yr through 54 yr randomized to PSA-screening in the Göteborg population-based prostate cancer screening trial, initiated in 1995, versus 4060 unscreened men aged 51-55 yr providing cryopreserved blood in the population-based Malmö Preventive Project in the pre-PSA era, during 1982-1985. Cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios of prostate cancer diagnosis, metastasis, and prostate cancer death. At 17 yr, regular PSA-screening in Göteborg of men in their early 50s carried a more than two-fold higher risk of prostate cancer diagnosis compared with the unscreened men in Malmö (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18, 3.02), but resulted in a substantial decrease in the risk of metastases (IRR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22, 0.79) and prostate cancer death (IRR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11, 0.67). There were 57 fewer prostate cancer deaths per 10000 men (95% CI 22, 92) in the screened group. At 17 yr, the number needed to invite to PSA-screening and the number needed to diagnose to prevent one prostate cancer death was 176 and 16, respectively. The study is limited by lack of treatment information and the comparison of the two different birth cohorts. PSA screening for prostate cancer can decrease prostate cancer mortality among men aged 50-54 yr, with the number needed to invite and number needed to detect to prevent one prostate cancer death comparable to those previously reported from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer for men aged 55-69 yr, at a similar follow-up. Guideline groups could consider whether guidelines for PSA screening should recommend starting no later than at ages 50-54 yr. Guideline

  13. Impact of Individual Risk Assessment on Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Vugt (Heidi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCurrent prostate-specific antigen screening practice leads to two important unwanted side effects; first of all screening induces many unnecessary prostate biopsies and secondly it leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer. The large amount of unnecessary prostate

  14. Primary Cilia Are Lost in Preinvasive and Invasive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassounah, Nadia B.; Nagle, Ray; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Dalkin, Bruce L.; McDermott, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion)) were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human prostate cancer, and

  15. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia B Hassounah

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human

  16. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassounah, Nadia B; Nagle, Ray; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J; Dalkin, Bruce L; McDermott, Kimberly M

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion)) were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human prostate cancer, and

  17. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  18. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan N. Thobe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1 characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2 chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3 current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies.

  19. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thobe, Megan N. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Clark, Robert J. [Department of Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bainer, Russell O. [Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W., E-mail: crinkers@uchicago.edu [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-01-27

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies.

  20. Empirical estimates of prostate cancer overdiagnosis by age and prostate-specific antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vickers (Andrew); D. Sjoberg (Daniel); D. Ulmert (David); E. Vertosick (Emily); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); I.M. Thompson (Ian); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry); C. Atoria-Swartz (Coral); P.T. Scardino (Peter); H. Lilja (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prostate cancer screening depends on a careful balance of benefits, in terms of reduced prostate cancer mortality, and harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We aimed to estimate the effect on overdiagnosis of restricting prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing

  1. Role of PARP-1 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhanraj; Qiu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent attachment of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) moieties on itself and its target proteins. PARP1 activity is frequently deregulated in various cancers and therefore it has emerged as a new drug target for cancer therapy. The role of PARP-1 in DNA repair has been well documented and BRCA mutations are implicated for determining the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Recent studies also point to a role of PARP-1 in transcription regulation which may contribute to oncogenic signaling and cancer progression. Given that efficacy of PARP inhibitors are also seen in patients not harboring BRCA mutations, some other mechanisms might also be involved. In the present review, we highlight the mechanisms by which PARP-1 regulates gene expression in prostate cancer and provide an overview of the ongoing clinical trials using PARP inhibitors in various cancers including prostate cancer.

  2. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... causal estimates, we examined the role of pubertal development in prostate cancer using genetic polymorphisms associated with Tanner stage in adolescent boys in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: We derived a weighted genetic risk score for pubertal development, combining 13 SNPs...... associated with male Tanner stage. A higher score indicated a later puberty onset. We examined the association of this score with prostate cancer risk, stage and grade in the UK-based ProtecT case-control study (n = 2,927), and used the PRACTICAL consortium (n = 43,737) as a replication sample. RESULTS...

  3. Focal therapy for prostate cancer. Alternative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Veiga, F; Martínez-Breijo, S; Solsona-Narbón, E; Hernández, C; Ciudin, A; Ribal, M J; Dickinson, L; Moore, C; Ahmed, H; Rodríguez Antolín, A; Breda, A; Gaya, J; Portela-Pereira, P; Emberton, M

    2014-09-01

    The great controversy surrounding the treatment of localized prostate cancer is related with its possibilities of radical treatment or active surveillance. The objective of this paper is to analyze the rationale selection among current focal therapy modalities regarding tumor and patient selection. Current articles about advantages and disadvantages on the treatment of localized prostate cancer as well as information about focal therapy regarding tumour selection, characteristics and indications cited in MEDLINE search were reviewed. Focal therapy standardized criteria must be: low risk tumors, PSA15. Focal therapy is an alternative for localized prostate cancer treatment. However, some aspects of their diagnosis and selection criteria should be defined by prospective studies which should provide knowledge about the indication for focal therapy. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  5. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sherer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

  6. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Benjamin A; Warrior, Krishnan; Godlewski, Karl; Hertl, Martin; Olaitan, Oyedolamu; Nehra, Ajay; Deane, Leslie Allan

    2017-01-01

    As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs) being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP) is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immunosuppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.J.G. van Alewijk (Dirk)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human prostate has the size of a chestnut and envelops the urethra as it exits the bladder, below the bladder neck. It is the largest of the male accessory sex glands, which also include the seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral gland. The prostate is composed of

  8. Female white-collar workers remain at higher risk of breast cancer after adjustments for individual risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Selander, Jenny; Albin, Maria; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Gustavsson, Per

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the variation in risk of breast cancer between occupational groups with a focus on white-collar and blue-collar workers and to investigate to what extent the differences were explained by risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Between 1991 and 1996, 14 119 women born between 1923 and 1950 and residents of Malmö, Sweden, were included in this cohort study. Individual data on risk factors (eg, age, parity, age at first child, months of breast feeding per child, hormonal replacement therapy, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, height and body mass index) and occupational history were assessed using a questionnaire. First-time diagnoses of invasive breast cancer were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry up until 31 December 2013. A total of 897 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Analyses adjusted for age showed an increased risk for white-collar workers compared with blue-collar workers and indicated higher risks in the occupational categories: professionals, administrative and bookkeeping than among women in sales, transportation, production and service work. This difference was only marginally attenuated after adjustment for an extensive set of risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Reproductive and lifestyle factors explain only a minor part of the increased risk of breast cancer in white-collar workers. Further studies are needed to investigate the remaining factors for the difference in risk between occupational groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  10. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  11. NEEDLE BIOPSY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATIC CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joseph J.; Rosenthal, Milton; Goodwin, Willard E.

    1954-01-01

    Four methods available for the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate—digital rectal evaluation, prostatic smear, needle biopsy and open perineal or transurethral biopsy—were studied and correlated. One hundred ten patients with clinical indications of cancer of the prostate were subjected to needle biopsy and open perineal or transurethral biopsy. Seventy of the same patients had prostatic smear examination. Using the open perineal biopsy or the positive transurethral biopsy as the standard, the accuracy of prostatic palpation, prostatic smear and needle biopsy were obtained. A high degree of correlation (74 per cent) was demonstrated between digital rectal evaluation and positive surgical biopsies in both early and late cases. There were 17 false positive clinical diagnoses. The prostatic smear showed an overall correlation of 45 per cent when compared with the results of positive surgical biopsy. The overall accuracy of needle biopsy was 73 per cent. However, in the last 39 cases, including eight in which the carcinomas were of groups A and B (curable), the needle accuracy was 100 per cent. When there is clinical indication of malignant disease of the prostate, needle biopsy of the lesion is warranted and should be done before definitive or palliative treatment is undertaken. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13209358

  12. Alcohol consumption, finasteride, and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Kristal, Alan R; Schenk, Jeannette M; Tangen, Catherine M; Goodman, Phyllis J; Thompson, Ian M

    2009-08-15

    Current research is inconclusive regarding the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk. In this study, the authors examined the associations of total alcohol, type of alcoholic beverage, and drinking pattern with the risk of total, low-grade, and high-grade prostate cancer. Data for this study came from the 2129 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) who had cancer detected during the 7-year trial and 8791 men who were determined by biopsy to be free of cancer at the trial end. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations of alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk. Associations of drinking with high-grade disease did not differ by treatment arm. In combined arms, heavy alcohol consumption (> or =50 g of alcohol daily) and regular heavy drinking (> or =4 drinks daily on > or =5 days per week) were associated with increased risks of high-grade prostate cancer (RR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.33-3.05] and 2.17 [95% CI, 1.42-3.30], respectively); less heavy drinking was not associated with risk. Associations of drinking with low-grade cancer differed by treatment arm. In the placebo arm, there was no association of drinking with risk of low-grade cancer. In the finasteride arm, drinking > or =50 g of alcohol daily was associated with an increased risk of low-grade disease (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.39-2.56); this finding was because of a 43% reduction in the risk of low-grade cancer attributable to finasteride treatment in men who drank or =50 g of alcohol daily (P(interaction) = .03). Heavy, daily drinking increased the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Heavy drinking made finasteride ineffective for reducing prostate cancer risk.

  13. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cynthia C; Blanchard, Chris M; Mummery, W Kerry; Courneya, Kerry

    2015-03-01

    To identify and compare the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
 Cross-sectional, descriptive survey.
 Nova Scotia, Canada.
 741 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
. A stratified sample of 2,063 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors diagnosed from 2003-2011 were identified and mailed a questionnaire. Descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine any correlations among the main research variables. 
 Strength exercise behavior; medical, demographic, and motivational correlates using the Theory of Planned Behavior.
 Of 741 respondents, 23% were meeting the strength exercise guidelines of two or more days per week. Cancer survivors were more likely to meet guidelines if they were younger, more educated, had a higher income, better perceived general health, fewer than two comorbidities, and a healthy body weight. In addition, those meeting guidelines had significantly more favorable affective attitude, instrumental attitude, injunctive norm, perceived behavioral control, planning, and intention. The correlates of strength exercise did not differ by cancer site.
 The prevalence of strength exercise is low among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia and the correlates are consistent across those survivor groups. 
. Nurses should take an active role in promoting strength exercise among cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior, particularly among those survivors at higher risk of not performing strength exercise. 


  15. The psychosocial aspects of sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Northouse, L; Foley, S; Gilbert, S; Wood, D P; Balon, R; Montie, J E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects one in six American men. Erectile and sexual dysfunctions are long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment. PubMed database was searched for papers on prostate cancer-related sexual recovery for men and couples. The search yielded articles on (1) the treatment of erectile dysfunction, (2) men's psychological and culturally diverse adaptation to the sexual side effects; (3) the impact of prostate cancer on couples' relationships; and (4) interventions to promote sexual function. Erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment has been widely studied. Research on the sexual recovery of men and couples or understanding it in a cultural context is scarce. Greater focus on the impact of sexual sequelae of prostate cancer treatment on men as well as couples in diverse groups is needed. Clinical implications for treating sexual dysfunction and promoting sexual recovery for prostate cancer survivors and their partners are discussed. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  16. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of all...... deaths occurring in Greenland and found only one invasive prostate cancer. Histological data were available for 27 autopsies and revealed no latent carcinoma. Our results suggest that in situ carcinoma is rare among Inuit and that their traditional diet, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  17. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  18. SPANXB2 and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    stoma $co<culture$model$II$–$Organoids$ A...C B    Figure  10:    SPANXB  expression  in  Prostate  cancer  cells  / stoma  co-­‐culture  model  II...Organoids    A)  is  the  cartoon  model  of  the  epithelial-­‐ stoma  interaction  Organoid.    Prostate  cancer  cells

  19. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Ly M, Mann BF, Marx K, Mechref Y, Meyer B, Moginger U, Neusubeta C, Nilsson J, Novotny MV, Nyalwidhe JO, Packer NH, Pompach P, Reiz B, Resemann A...Immunohistochemistry Assay Is Associated with Worse Recurrence-free Survival in Prostate Cancer Tamara L. Lotana,b,*, Wei Weic, Carlos L. Moraisa, Sarah T...Immunohistochemistry Assay in Prostate Cancer by Comparison to PTEN FISH Tamara L. Lotan1,2, Wei Wei3, Olga Ludkovski4, Carlos L. Morais1, Liana B. Guedes1, Tamara

  20. Ethnicity and Prostate Cancer: Vitamin D Genetic and Sociodemographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Buring JE, Levine RS, Gaziano JM. History of diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in physicians. Am J Epidemiol 2004;159:978-982. 13. Sakr...Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:388-95. 44. Gilliland FD, Hunt WC, Key CR. Ethnic variation in prostate cancer survival in New Mexico . Cancer...aged men.11 A history of diabetes may be associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, especially late stage tumors.12 Many other environmental

  1. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  2. Gonorrhea infection increases the risk of prostate cancer in Asian population: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-C; Chung, C-H; Chen, J-H; Chiang, M-H; Ti-Yin; Tsao, C-H; Lin, F-H; Chien, W-C; Shang, S-T; Chang, F-Y

    2017-05-01

    This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of developing prostate cancer among patients with gonorrhea. We identified cases of newly diagnosed gonorrhea in men between 2000 and 2010 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient with gonorrhea was matched to four controls, based on age and index year. All subjects were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2010. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the risk of prostate cancer. A total of 355 men were included in the study group, and 1,420 age-matched subjects without gonorrhea were included in the control group. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, urbanization level, hospital level, and monthly income, gonorrhea was significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.66, 95% confidence interval = 1.36-23.52). Men aged 45-70 years and those with lower monthly income were more strongly associated with prostate cancer in the study group than the control group. The higher risk for developing prostate cancer were also found in those without syphilis, without genital warts, without diabetes mellitus, without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, without benign prostatic hypertrophy, without chronic prostatitis, and without alcoholism. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed the risk of prostate cancer was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Gonorrhea may be involved in the development of prostate cancer. More intensive screening and prevention interventions for prostate cancer should be recommended in men with gonorrhea.

  3. Management and survival in advances prostate cancer in Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the management and survival of patients with advanced prostate cancer in this locality. Design: A prospective case study. Setting: Kenyatta National Referral Hospital and the Nairobi and Mater Hospitals. Patients: Fifty nine patients with advanced cancer of prostate (extra prostatic locally advanced ...

  4. Prostate cancer metastasis to the mandible: case report | Parkins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is recognised to be the commonest type of malignancy in the male in many parts of the world. Prostate cancer has a propensity to metastasize to bone, however metastasis to the jaw is uncommon and indeed among metastatic tumours of the jaws which are a rarity, only about 9% originate from a prostatic ...

  5. Functional Implications of Neuroendocrine Differentiated Cells in Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jongsma (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on NE differentiation in prostate cancer, especially in prostate cancer models. We studied the effects of androgen depletion on the NE differentiated status of in vivo and in vitro prostatic tumor models. Knowledge concerning the function of NE cells in the normal

  6. Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dybkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  7. Dietary acrylamide and risk of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide has been designated by IARC as a “probable human carcinogen.” High levels are formed during cooking of many commonly consumed foods including French fries, potato chips, breakfast cereal, and coffee. Two prospective cohort studies and two case-control studies in Europe found no association between acrylamide intake and prostate cancer. We examined this association in a large prospective cohort of 47,896 U.S. men in the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, using updated dietary acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, and 2002. From 1986 through 2006, we documented 5025 cases of prostate cancer, and 642 lethal cancers. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide intake from diet and prostate cancer risk overall as well as risk of advanced or lethal cancer. Acrylamide intake ranged from a mean of 10.5 mcg/day in the lowest quintile to 40.1 mcg/day in the highest quintile; coffee and potato products were largest contributors to intake. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of prostate cancer was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.92–1.13) for the highest versus lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (p-value for trend=0.90). Results were similar when restricted to never smokers and to men who had PSA tests. There was no significant association for dietary acrylamide and risk of lethal, advanced, or high-grade disease, or for different latency periods ranging from 0–4 years to 12–16 years. We found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of U.S. diets, is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:21866549

  8. Risk Analysis of Prostate Cancer in PRACTICAL, a Multinational Consortium, Using 25 Known Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2015-01-01

    prostate cancer susceptibility loci in 40,414 individuals and derived a polygenic risk score (PRS). We estimated empirical odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer associated with different risk strata defined by PRS and derived age-specific absolute risks of developing prostate cancer by PRS stratum......BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with prostate cancer risk which explain a substantial proportion of familial relative risk. These variants can be used to stratify individuals by their risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 25...... and family history. RESULTS: The prostate cancer risk for men in the top 1% of the PRS distribution was 30.6 (95% CI, 16.4-57.3) fold compared with men in the bottom 1%, and 4.2 (95% CI, 3.2-5.5) fold compared with the median risk. The absolute risk of prostate cancer by age of 85 years was 65.8% for a man...

  9. Urinary prostate cancer 3 test: toward the age of reason?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie; Ruffion, Alain; André, Jean; Devonec, Marian; Paparel, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    The prostate cancer 3 (PCA3) gene was discovered in 1999, on the basis of differential expression between cancer and noncancerous prostate tissue. Including the first study published in 2003, 11 clinical studies have evaluated its utility for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by measuring the number of PCA3 RNA copies in urine enriched with prostate cells. Although the sensitivity of the PCA3 test was less than that of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), its specificity appeared to be much better, particularly in patients with a previous negative biopsy. Recent studies also have suggested that this test could be used to predict cancer prognosis. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  11. Role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rita; El Amm, Joelle; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2017-10-20

    Chemotherapy in prostate cancer (PCa) has undergone dramatic landscape changes. While earlier studies utilized varying chemotherapy regimens which were found to be largely palliative in nature and hardly resulted in durable or meaningful responses, docetaxel resulted in the first chemotherapy agent that showed improvement in overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, combination chemotherapy or any agents added to docetaxel have failed to yield incremental benefits. The improvement in overall survival as well as secondary endpoints of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and time to recurrence when using docetaxel in the metastatic hormone-sensitive state has changed the standard of care for treatment of newly diagnosed de novo metastatic PCa. There are also promising results in locally advanced PCa and high-risk PCa in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. This review summarizes the historical as well as the more contemporary use of chemotherapeutic agents in PCa in varying states and phases of disease.

  12. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; McCullough, Marjorie L; Mondul, Alison M; Jacobs, Eric J; Chao, Ann; Patel, Alpa V; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2006-02-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested that intake of red meat may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Few studies, however, have examined these associations by race. We examined intake of red meat, processed meat, and poultry in relation to incident prostate cancer among Black and White men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Participants in the study completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, medical history, and lifestyle in 1992 to 1993. After excluding men with a history of cancer and incomplete dietary information, 692 Black and 64,856 White men were included in the cohort. During follow-up through August 31, 2001, we documented 85 and 5,028 cases of incident prostate cancer among Black and White men, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). No measure of meat consumption was associated with risk of prostate cancer among White men. Among Black men, total red meat intake (processed plus unprocessed red meat) was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.2 for highest versus lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.05); this increase in risk was mainly due to risk associated with consumption of cooked processed meats (sausages, bacon, and hot dogs; RR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.3 for highest versus lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.008). This study suggests that high consumption of cooked processed meats may contribute to prostate cancer risk among Black men in the United States.

  13. [Importance of repeat laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy for detection of prostate cancer in high-risk patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiciūnas, Kestutis; Auskalnis, Stasys; Matjosaitis, Aivaras; Mickevicius, Antanas; Mickevicius, Ramūnas; Trumbeckas, Darius; Jievaltas, Mindaugas

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relevance of repeat laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy for detection of prostate cancer in high-risk patients. Our study included 195 men at high risk for prostate cancer (elevated prostate-specific antigen level and/or abnormal prostate detected by digital rectal examination). We consulted the patients in outpatient department of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital during 2003-2007. We performed transrectal ultrasound-guided laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy in every patient. For the patients with benign histological findings and increased risk of prostate cancer, laterally directed sextant biopsies were repeated. Prostate cancer was detected in 30.3% of patients (59/195) on the first prostate biopsy, in 13.1% (11/84) on the second prostate biopsy, in 10.3% (4/39) on the third, and in 7.7% (1/13) on the forth biopsy. After all biopsies, prostate cancer was detected in 38.5% (75/195) of patients, and it differed significantly from the percentage of prostate cancer cases detected on the first biopsy (30.3%, P=0.04). We detected 78.7% (59/75) of all prostate cancer cases by the first laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy. The rest 21.3% (16/75) of cases we detected by repeat biopsies. The second laterally directed sextant prostate biopsy revealed additional 14.6% (n=11) of prostate cancer cases and increased the detection of prostate cancer to 93.3% (70/75). At the time of the first prostate biopsy, prostate cancer was diagnosed most frequently when patients had both risk factors: elevated prostate-specific antigen level and abnormal digital prostate examination; prostate cancer was diagnosed in 45.3% of these patients. The odds ratio to detect prostate cancer by the first biopsy in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen level and abnormal digital prostate examination was 3.7, and odds ratio to detect prostate cancer by repeat biopsies was 4.7. Repeat ultrasound-guided laterally directed sextant

  14. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  15. Proto-oncogene PML and Tumor Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Pan

    2001-01-01

    ...) to study the immune regulation and immune tolerance in prostate cancer. In the past funding period, we have shown that thymic clonal deletion is a major mechanism for immune tolerance to tumor antigens that previously regarded as prostate specific...

  16. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  17. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  18. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  19. Prostate Cancer Case Finding In Patients With Lower Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... At present, prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men in the United States and the second most common cause of cancer death. Blacks living in the USA have a higher incidence rate of clinical prostate cancer than white men of similar education and socio-economic classes at all ages2.

  20. Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening Among Native African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the must commonlydiagnosed cancer in men worldwide and ranked second as the cause of death in cancer-related diseases. Objective: To evaluate the awareness and attitude of the populace to screening for cancer of the prostate. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study involving 156 ...

  1. Unraveling of the major genetic defects in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G.L. Hermans (Karin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn developed countries, prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and a major cause of cancer-related death (1). In The Netherlands 93 new cases per 100,000 men were detected in 2003 (The Netherlands Cancer Registry). Prostate cancer incidence varies between different ethnic

  2. PKC Epsilon: A Novel Oncogenic Player in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    regulated in metastatic prostate cancer. As PKC plays an important role in prostate cancer cell survival and cooperates with other oncogenic insults ...is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the US. The American Cancer Society estimates 230,000 new cases and nearly 30,000

  3. Liposomal nanomedicines in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, J.; Metselaar, Josbert Maarten; Storm, Gerrit; Pluijm, G.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer type and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males. In most cases, no curative treatment options are available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer as these tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapy. Targeted drug delivery,

  4. Heteronormativity and prostate cancer: A discursive paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel; Sakellariou, Dikaios; Fry, Sarah; Vougioukalou, Sofia

    2017-04-05

    To discuss the risks that heteronormative assumptions play in prostate cancer care and how these may be addressed. There is international evidence to support the case that LGBT patients with cancer are less likely to report poor health or self-disclose sexual orientation. Gender-specific cancers, such as prostate cancer, require particular interventions in terms of supportive care. These may include advice about side-effect management (such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction), treatment choices and social and emotional issues. In this paper, we discuss and analyse the heteronormative assumptions and culture that exist around this cancer. We argue that this situation may act as a barrier to effective supportive care for all Lesbian women, Gay, Transgender and Bisexual patients, in this case men who have sex with men. [Correction added on 21 September 2017, after first online publication: The first sentence of the Background section has been revised for clarity in this current version.] DESIGN: Theoretical exploration of heteronormativity considered against the clinical context of prostate cancer. Identification and inclusion of relevant international evidence combined with clinical discussion. This paper posits a number of questions around heteronormativity in relation to prostate cancer information provision, supportive care and male sexuality. While assumptions regarding sexual orientation should be avoided in clinical encounters, this may be difficult when heteronormative assumptions dominate. Existing research supports the assertion that patient experience, including the needs of LGBT patients, should be central to service developments. Assumptions about sexual orientation should be avoided and recorded accurately and sensitively, and relational models of care should be promoted at the start of cancer treatment in an appropriate manner. These may assist in reducing the risks of embarrassment or offence to nonheterosexual patients, or to professionals who

  5. Accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [{sup 11}C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV{sub 6-10} {sub min} by the SUV {sub 16-20min}, were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ {sup 11}C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 {+-}0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 {+-}0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 {+-}0.3) (P <0.0001 in each case). The SUV of the normal prostate of subjects aged <50 years (3.4 {+-}0.7) was significantly higher than both the SUV for the normal prostate of subjects aged {>=}50 years (2.3 {+-}0.7) and that of subjects with BPH (2.1 {+-}0.6) (P <0.01 in each case). The primary prostate cancer in six cases was visualised by [ {sup 11}C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 {+-}0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate (0.98 {+-}0.04) or BPH (0.96 {+-}0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 {+-}0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age

  6. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up to in...

  7. The impact of obesity on prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G. van; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity in many parts of the world emphasizes the importance of learning more about the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer (PC). The present paper reviews the impact of obesity on PC using knowledge obtained from the available literature. Search of published

  8. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    will plan to validate hits using CRISPR - Cas9 technology as an orthogonal system. The CRISPR - Cas9 system was not available at the time of the...in prostate cancer cells. We will complete validation candidate kinases that modulate the ERG signature using shRNA and new CRISPR technology as an

  9. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  10. Climacturia after definitive treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Brock B; Presson, Angela; Gannon, John; Stephenson, Robert A; Lowrance, William; Dechet, Christopher B; Tward, Jonathan D; Myers, Jeremy B; Brant, William O

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment results in several sexually related side effects beyond the well studied erectile dysfunction. Climacturia (leakage of urine during orgasm) has been reported after prostatectomy but studies have been limited by multiple factors. In this study we examine the prevalence, causes and impact on orgasm function of climacturia after definitive treatment of prostate cancer with surgery or radiation. A total of 906 anonymous surveys were sent to patients with prostate cancer treated with surgery and/or radiation. Respondents were asked about the presence of urinary leakage, climacturia and various elements related to sexual and orgasmic function. We estimated the prevalence of climacturia, evaluated the differences between those with and without climacturia, and assessed the impact of climacturia on orgasmic function. Overall 412 surveys were returned and available for analysis, and of these respondents 75.2% were sexually active or experiencing orgasms. Climacturia was reported by 22.6% of these respondents, and by 28.3%, 5.2% and 28.6% of those treated with surgery, radiation, or both, respectively (p orgasmic function and satisfaction. Climacturia is experienced by a substantial proportion of men after undergoing definitive treatment of prostate cancer. We found a complex relationship between stress urinary incontinence and climacturia, and noted that the presence of climacturia does not necessarily negatively impact sexual satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain c...

  12. The Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Biorepository Network (PCBN) is a public bioresource that provides high quality, well annotated specimens that can be used by prostate cancer researchers...will no longer attempt collection unless an effective technology for the identification and isolation of intact CTC becomes available. Serum and

  13. Validation of molecular targets in prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalken, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    As prostate cancer is not a single disease, it is important to identify the pivotal pathway in the patient being treated. The molecular environment is the site of current oncological research to define new therapeutic targets for hormone-refractory disease, offering the potential to eventually

  14. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  15. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    prostate cancer is the development of biomarkers that predict occult or incipient aggressive disease in the low-risk population. To address this...8-10 vs. <=6 5.13 1.92 13.75 0.001 6. P27 is not significantly associated with RFS after adjusting for clinical predictors (Manuscript in

  16. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  17. Beta Catenin in Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    C., Jacquin, M. A., Marchetti, S., Munoz- Pinedo, C., Auberger, P., Pende, M., and Ricci, J. E. (2010) Glycolysis inhibition sensitizes tumor cells...for TRAIL-TZD-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. AMPK is a family of serine/threonine protein kinase and is highly conserved from yeast to

  18. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer pati...

  19. Telomeres and telomerase in prostate cancer development and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Mindy Kim; Meeker, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Aberrations in telomere biology are among the earliest events in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and continue during tumour progression. Substantial telomere shortening occurs in prostate cancer cells and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Not all mechanisms of telomere shortening are understood, but oxidative stress from local inflammation might accelerate prostatic telomere loss. Critically short telomeres can drive the accumulation of tumour-promoting genomic alterations; howeve...

  20. Conventional treatments of localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbib, Marc; Zelefsky, Michael J; Higano, Celestia S; Carroll, Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Established therapeutic approaches for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting (active surveillance), radical prostatectomy, and radiotherapy. The risk of progression during surveillance is related to the initial cancer stage and grade; reasonable evidence has supported the safety and feasibility, during a period of 5-10 years, of an active surveillance regimen for men with low-risk prostate cancer. The progression rates at >10 years have not yet been studied in modern trials. Patients with low-risk tumor characteristics can be actively monitored without sacrificing the possibility of cure and without being exposed to an undue risk of disease progression, although some patients will not accept the emotional burden of living with an untreated cancer. Focal ablation might be an attractive alternative to active surveillance for some patients with low-risk cancer, if it proves to have minimal adverse effects on their quality of life. Radical prostatectomy is an effective form of therapy for patients with clinically significant prostate cancer; however, outcomes are highly sensitive to variations in surgical technique. Because of the risks of perioperative complications and urinary and sexual dysfunction, which appear to be as great with robotic-assisted prostatectomy as with any other technique, patients with low-risk cancer, especially those >60 years, might be attracted to more conservative alternatives, including active surveillance, radiotherapy, and focal ablation. External beam radiotherapy is an effective, noninvasive form of therapy, but it carries the long-term risks of troublesome bowel and sexual and urinary dysfunction. It might be too aggressive for many low-risk cancers detected in screened populations. For more aggressive cancers, local recurrence after radiotherapy carries substantial morbidity and low rates of long-term cancer control. Brachytherapy, a convenient, effective form of radiotherapy, is targeted at selected patients

  1. Molecular Indicators of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    testosterone (អ ng per deciliter [1.73 nmol per liter]) with continued androgen- deprivation therapy, and documented metastases, as confirmed on...clinical trials for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone : recommendations of the Prostate Cancer Clinical... metabolism in metastatic prostate cancer tumors. Cancer Res 2012; 72:6142-52. 26. Efstathiou E, Titus M, Wen S, et al. Molecular characterization of

  2. A Neighborhood-Based Intervention to Reduce Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    addresses to the census-tract level, multiple maps of the data were created to indicate prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Using SEER data...identify geographic areas with higher than expected prostate cancer incidence and mortality and more aggressive disease patterns. Figure 3 shows the...examine prostate cancer trends by race for Philadelphia. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the PA Cancer Registry website

  3. Nitric oxide donors for the treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nortcliffe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Chapter One provides a general introduction into the biology and chemistry of nitric oxide, with particular focus on the role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular disease, cancer and hypoxia. It also details the types of organic functional groups used as nitric oxide donors, with detailed discussion of nitrate esters, furoxans and sydnonimines. Chapter Two discusses prostate cancer. It provides an overview into the development of prostate cancer, prostate cancer staging, and treatment. The ke...

  4. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  5. Preoperative erectile function and the pathologic features of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We evaluated whether preoperative erectile function is associated with pathologic features in the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 1,743 men who underwent RP from November 2003 through May 2012. Of these, 50 patients who had prior hormone therapy and 272 patients who had lacking data of International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 were excluded. Men whose IIEF-5 was in the lower 25 percentile were assigned as Low Erectile Function group and the others were assigned as Control group. We compared pathologic features using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis between two groups. Results A total of 1,421 patients were included in the analysis. Patients’ age was 65.8 ± 6.7 years and prostate-specific antigen (PSA was 12.8±16.1 ng/mL. Median and low 25 percentile of IIEF-5 were 14 and 8, respectively. Low Erectile Function group (IIEF-5<8 had higher risk to have high Gleason score (≥7(4+3, odds ratio (OR 1.642, p<0.001 and large tumor volume (≥5 mL, OR 1.292, p=0.042. Even after adjusting age, year of surgery, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, PSA, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score, Low Erectile Function group still had higher risk of high Gleason score (OR 1.910, p<0.001 and large tumor volume (OR 1.390, p=0.04 by multivariable logistic regressions. Conclusions Lower erectile function before RP was associated with higher Gleason’s score and larger tumor volume in final pathology. Thus, erectile function could be a surrogate barometer for prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  6. Validation study of genes with hypermethylated promoter regions associated with prostate cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Zhao, Shanshan; Wright, Jonathan L; Kolb, Suzanne; Bibikova, Marina; Klotzle, Brandy; Ostrander, Elaine A; Fan, Jian-Bing; Feng, Ziding; Stanford, Janet L

    2014-07-01

    One challenge in prostate cancer is distinguishing indolent from aggressive disease at diagnosis. DNA promoter hypermethylation is a frequent epigenetic event in prostate cancer, but few studies of DNA methylation in relation to features of more aggressive tumors or prostate cancer recurrence have been completed. We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to assess DNA methylation in tumor tissue from 407 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. Recurrence status was determined by follow-up patient surveys, medical record review, and linkage with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. The methylation status of 14 genes for which promoter hypermethylation was previously correlated with advanced disease or biochemical recurrence was evaluated. Average methylation level for promoter region CpGs in patients who recurred compared with those with no evidence of recurrence was analyzed. For two genes with differential methylation, time to recurrence was examined. During an average follow-up of 11.7 years, 104 (26%) patients recurred. Significant promoter hypermethylation in at least 50% of CpG sites in two genes, ABHD9 and HOXD3, was found in tumors from patients who recurred compared with those without recurrence. Evidence was strongest for HOXD3 (lowest P = 9.46 × 10(-6)), with higher average methylation across promoter region CpGs associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (P = 2 × 10(-4)). DNA methylation profiles did not differ by recurrence status for the other genes. These results validate the association between promoter hypermethylation of ADHB9 and HOXD3 and prostate cancer recurrence. Tumor DNA methylation profiling may help to distinguish patients with prostate cancer at higher risk for disease recurrence. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. One-carbon metabolism–related nutrients and prostate cancer survival123

    OpenAIRE

    Julie L Kasperzyk; Fall, Katja; Mucci, Lorelei A; Håkansson, Niclas; Wolk, Alicja; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Background: Folate and other one-carbon metabolism nutrients may influence prostate cancer pathogenesis. Prior studies of these nutrients in relation to prostate cancer incidence have been inconclusive, and none have explored prostate cancer survival.

  8. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk.......15 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.32]. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of height at 13 years on the risk of prostate cancer was not entirely mediated through adult height, suggesting that child height and adult height may be associated with prostate cancer through different pathways.......PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...

  9. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ... the scanner, the radioactive material is detected and images are made on a computer ... areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance ...

  10. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  11. Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer (Cancer Care Ontario Guideline): American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ronald C; Rumble, R Bryan; Loblaw, D Andrew; Finelli, Antonio; Ehdaie, Behfar; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Morgan, Scott C; Tyldesley, Scott; Haluschak, John J; Tan, Winston; Justman, Stewart; Jain, Suneil

    2016-06-20

    To endorse Cancer Care Ontario's guideline on Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines developed by other professional organizations. The Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. The ASCO Endorsement Panel then reviewed the content and the recommendations. The ASCO Endorsement Panel determined that the recommendations from the Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer guideline, published in May 2015, are clear, thorough, and based upon the most relevant scientific evidence. ASCO endorsed the Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer guideline with added qualifying statements. The Cancer Care Ontario recommendation regarding 5-alpha reductase inhibitors was not endorsed by the ASCO panel. For most patients with low-risk (Gleason score ≤ 6) localized prostate cancer, active surveillance is the recommended disease management strategy. Factors including younger age, prostate cancer volume, patient preference, and ethnicity should be taken into account when making management decisions. Select patients with low-volume, intermediate-risk (Gleason 3 + 4 = 7) prostate cancer may be offered active surveillance. Active surveillance protocols should include prostate-specific antigen testing, digital rectal examinations, and serial prostate biopsies. Ancillary radiologic and genomic tests are investigational but may have a role in patients with discordant clinical and/or pathologic findings. Patients who are reclassified to a higher-risk category (Gleason score ≥ 7) or who have significant increases in tumor volume on subsequent biopsies should be offered active therapy. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  13. Comparison of Two Prostate Cancer Risk Calculators that Include the Prostate Health Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); M.M. Vedder (Moniek); D. Nieboer (Daan); A. Houlgatte (Alain); S. Vincendeau (Sébastien); M. Lazzeri (Massimo); G. Guazzoni (Giorgio); C. Stephan (Carsten); A. Semjonow (Axel); A. Haese (Alexander); M. Graefen (Markus); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Risk prediction models for prostate cancer (PCa) have become important tools in reducing unnecessary prostate biopsies. The Prostate Health Index (PHI) may increase the predictive accuracy of such models. Objectives: To compare two PCa risk calculators (RCs) that include PHI.

  14. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  15. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory...... and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications...

  16. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Mathias; Thomsen, Frederik B; Iversen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent...... risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies...

  17. Pomegranate and its components as alternative treatment for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-08-25

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as "nature's power fruit". Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) and/or pomegranate extracts (PE) significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis.

  18. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as “nature’s power fruit”. Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ and/or pomegranate extracts (PE significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis.

  19. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as “nature’s power fruit”. Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) and/or pomegranate extracts (PE) significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis. PMID:25158234

  20. Methods to Predict and Lower the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ercole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention for prostate cancer (PCa continues to generate interest from both physicians and the patient population. The goal of chemoprevention is to stop the malignant transformation of prostate cells into cancer. Multiple studies on different substances ranging from supplements to medical therapy have been undertaken. Thus far, only the studies on 5α-reductase inhibitors (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events [REDUCE] trial have demonstrated a reduction in the risk of PCa, while results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT concluded no decreased risk for PCa with selenium or vitamin E.

  1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Micaela; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; D'Aniello, Carmine; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Vanacore, Daniela; Franco, Rossella Di; Mantia, Elvira La; Iovane, Gelsomina; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Muscariello, Raffaele; Berretta, Massimiliano; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Bianchi, Attilio Antonio Montano; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a main urological disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy are potentially curative for localized prostate cancer, while androgen deprivation therapy is the initial systemic therapy for metastatic prostate disease. However, despite temporary response, most patients relapse and evolve into castration resistant cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex gradual process that occurs during embryonic development and/or tumor progression. During this process, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire mesenchymal features. Increasing evidences indicate that EMT promotes prostate cancer metastatic progression and it is closely correlated with increased stemness and drug resistance. In this review, we discuss the main molecular events that directly or indirectly govern the EMT program in prostate cancer, in order to better define the role and the mechanisms underlying this process in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. PMID:28430640

  2. Should docetaxel be administered earlier in prostate cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Julie N; Beer, Tomasz M

    2015-01-01

    Three randomized studies examining docetaxel early in metastatic prostate cancer were recently reported. The CHAARTED and STAMPEDE studies showed a survival benefit for docetaxel when started with androgen suppression therapy in men with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. The STAMPEDE study also included men with biochemically relapsed prostate cancer. The benefit was a median of 13.6 months in the CHAARTED study and 10 months in STAMPEDE. The survival benefit in CHAARTED was stronger in those with high volume disease. The benefit in STAMPEDE was greater in metastatic, rather than biochemically relapsed, prostate cancer. The third study, GETUG-AFU 15, was a smaller study without a survival benefit. These data have changed how we treat metastatic prostate cancer at our centers, as we now offer all men with metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer docetaxel chemotherapy upfront.

  3. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen James G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Therefore, we directly assessed the efficacy of c-Met inhibition during androgen ablation on the growth and progression of prostate cancer. Methods We tested two c-Met small molecule inhibitors, PHA-665752 and PF-2341066, for anti-proliferative activity by MTS assay and cell proliferation assay on human prostate cancer cell lines with different levels of androgen sensitivity. We also used renal subcapsular and castrated orthotopic xenograft mouse models to assess the effect of the inhibitors on prostate tumor formation and progression. Results We demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of PHA-665752 and PF-2341066 on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The effect on cell proliferation was stronger in androgen insensitive cells. The c-Met inhibitor, PF-2341066, significantly reduced growth of prostate tumor cells in the renal subcapsular mouse model and the castrated orthotopic mouse model. The effect on cell proliferation was greater following castration. Conclusions The c-Met inhibitors demonstrated anti-proliferative efficacy when combined with androgen ablation therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

  4. Extended pattern prostate biopsy does not minimize the volume-grade bias in prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah M; Lockwood, Gina; Toi, Ants; Kulkarni, Girish S; Evans, Andres; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil

    2008-04-01

    The higher number of high grade cancers noted in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial may have arisen due to a previously unknown association between prostate volume and sextant biopsy derived grade, rendering it more difficult to detect high grade cancer in men with a larger prostate (volume-grade bias). A basic tenet of measurement theory is that repeat measurement improves validity. We determined whether an extended pattern prostate biopsy technique could overcome this bias. We reviewed the record of 679 patients who underwent systematic extended (10 cores or greater) biopsy with isoechoic prostate transrectal ultrasound and prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml. Since specimens were separately labeled, we were able to compare the grade of the first 6 cores vs that of the extended pattern. We determined the highest grade achieved using traditional sextant biopsy and the change induced by marginal samples across volume tertiles, hypothesizing that if upgrading did not occur by volume, additional biopsies would be ineffective for minimizing this bias. Prostate cancer detected using a 6-core technique revealed 179 of 679 cancers (26.4%) vs 240 of 679 (35.4%) using the extended core technique (p <0.001). The marginal cancer detection rate increased significantly as prostate volume increased. Cancer detection rates for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd tertiles of prostate volume were increased by 16 of 227, 17 of 226 and 28 of 226 cases, respectively (p = 0.05). With respect to Gleason score, upgrading from Gleason 6 to 7 was observed in 14 patients (7.9%) due to the additional procured cores (p <0.001). However there was no association among the various prostate volumes (p = 0.87). Although more high grade cancers are detected with extended pattern biopsy, there is no differential upgrading with respect to prostate volume. Based on these observations extended prostate sampling in trials of agents that decrease prostate volume would have minimal impact on volume

  5. Superficial Urothelial Cancer in the Prostatic Urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Kirkali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU. The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12—40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  6. Superficial urothelial cancer in the prostatic urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkali, Ziya; Canda, A Erdem

    2006-02-28

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU). The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12-40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  7. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  8. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  9. The prostate cancer conundrum revisited: treatment changes and prostate cancer mortality declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, Ruth; Gulati, Roman; Tsodikov, Alex; Wever, Elisabeth M; Penson, David F; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Katcher, Jeffrey; Draisma, Gerrit; Feuer, Eric J; de Koning, Harry J; Mariotto, Angela B

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer mortality rates in the United States declined by >40% between 1991 and 2005. The impact of changes in primary treatment and adjuvant and neoadjuvant hormone therapy on this decline is unknown. The authors applied 3 independently developed models of prostate cancer natural history and disease detection under common assumptions about treatment patterns, treatment efficacy, and survival in the population. Primary treatment patterns were derived from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; data on the frequency of hormone therapy were obtained from the CaPSURE (Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor) database; and treatment efficacy was based on estimates from randomized trials and comparative effectiveness studies of treatment alternatives. The models projected prostate cancer mortality without prostate-specific antigen screening and in the presence and absence of treatment benefit. The impact of primary treatment was expressed as a fraction of the difference between observed mortality and projected mortality in the absence of treatment benefit. The 3 models projected that changes in treatment explained 22% to 33% of the mortality decline by 2005. These contributions were accounted for mostly by surgery and radiation therapy, which increased in frequency until the 1990s, whereas hormone therapies contributed little to the mortality decline by 2005. Assuming that treatment benefit was less for older men, changes in treatment explained only 16% to 23% of the mortality decline by 2005. Changes in primary treatment explained a minority of the observed decline in prostate cancer mortality. The remainder of the decline probably was because of other interventions, such as prostate-specific antigen screening and advances in the treatment of recurrent and progressive disease. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  10. Racial Disparities in the Quality of Prostate Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0540 TITLE: Racial Disparities in the Quality of Prostate Cancer Care PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nina Bickell CONTRACTING...11-1-0540 Racial Disparities in the Quality of Prostate Cancer Care 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC101939 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...the quality of prostate cancer care delivered may be contributing to the racial disparity in mortality. While it is clear that physician

  11. P52 Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0437 TITLE: p52 Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Allen C Gao, MD, PhD...Activation and Enzalutamide Therapy in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0437 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...advances that provide temporary respite, almost all patients will go on to die from progressive and resistant prostate cancer . Therefore, there is

  12. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity-specific markers of prostate...cancer Primary Aim #3: Identify methylation Quantitative Trait Loci In the U.S., there are pronounced racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence...vary by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity-specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  13. Prostate cancer biomarkers: Are we hitting the mark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon McGrath

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The accurate diagnosis and risk stratification of prostate cancer is critical to ensure appropriate intervention. The development of non-invasive biomarkers can add to the information provided by current screening practices and allows for individualised risk stratification of patients. The use of these biomarkers appears to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of prostate cancer. Further studies are necessary to define the appropriate use and time points of each biomarker and their effect on the management algorithm of prostate cancer.

  14. Focal therapy in prostate cancer: the current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome-Pita, FX; Sánchez-Salas, R; Barret, E.; Amaruch, N; Gonzalez-Enguita, C.; Cathelineau, X

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection. Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients. In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a ...

  15. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...... is demonstrated to cause significant morbidity. Furthermore, the patients suffered significant excess mortality and loss of life expectancy....

  16. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site:Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    targeted therapy on the efficacy of cabazitaxel in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer R. Van Soest1, A. Nieuweboer2, E. De...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0159 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  17. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    diet, lifestyle behaviors, medical history , and disease outcomes • Medical records and pathology reports were reviewed to confirm prostate cancer ...Shah, T. E. Eling, P. A. Wade, Obesity, rather than diet, drives epigenomic alterations in colonic epithelium resembling cancer progression. Cell...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0250 TITLE: Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ericka

  18. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  19. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  20. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer and the skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men in the UK. Androgen ablation with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRH agonists) alone, or in combination with anti-androgens is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, despite maximal

  1. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  2. Focal Therapy in the Management of Prostate Cancer: An Emerging Approach for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nomura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA has led increased diagnosis of localized prostate cancer along with a reduction in the proportion of advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. Over the past decade, interest in focal therapy as a less morbid option for the treatment of localized low-risk prostate cancer has recently been renewed due to downward stage migration. Focal therapy stands midway between active surveillance and radical treatments, combining minimal morbidity with cancer control. Several techniques of focal therapy have potential for isolated ablation of a tumor focus with sparing of uninvolved surround tissue demonstrating excellent short-term cancer control and a favorable patient’s quality of life. However, to date, tissue ablation has mostly used for near-whole prostate gland ablation without taking advantage of accompanying the technological capabilities. The available ablative technologies include cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, and vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP. Despite the interest in focal therapy, this technology has not yet been a well-established procedure nor provided sufficient data, because of the lack of randomized trial comparing the efficacy and morbidity of the standard treatment options. In this paper we briefly summarize the recent data regarding focal therapy for prostate cancer and these new therapeutic modalities.

  3. Diagnosis of prostate cancer with needle biopsy: Should all cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The triad of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound‑guided prostate biopsy is used in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). It is recommended that all cases of PCa should be diagnosed with needle biopsy before treatment. The exclusion criteria for those ...

  4. Prognostic Implications of Important Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Boormans (Joost)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe prostate is a walnut-sized gland that is located caudally from the urinary bladder. It excretes fluid as a part of the semen of men. Prostatic neoplasia is common; in Western developed countries prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in men and it is the

  5. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material

  6. Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer: A Concise Synopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jadvar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and continues to be a major public health problem. Imaging of prostate cancer remains particularly challenging owing to disease heterogeneity. Molecular imaging can provide unprecedented opportunities for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development and natural progression of prostate cancer from a localized process to the hormone-refractory metastatic disease. Such understanding will be the key for targeted imaging and therapy and for predicting and evaluating treatment response and prognosis. In this article, we review briefly the contribution of multimodality molecular imaging methods for the in vivo characterization of the pathophysiology of prostate cancer.

  7. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  8. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  9. Integrative clinical genomics of advanced prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Robinson; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Wu, Yi-Mi; Schultz, Nikolaus; Lonigro, Robert J.; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Montgomery, Bruce; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Pritchard, Colin C; Attard, Gerhardt; Beltran, Himisha; Abida, Wassim M.; Bradley, Robert K.; Vinson, Jake; Cao, Xuhong; Vats, Pankaj; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Hussain, Maha; Feng, Felix Y.; Tomlins, Scott A.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Smith, David C.; Brennan, Christine; Siddiqui, Javed; Mehra, Rohit; Chen, Yu; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Morris, Michael J.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Reuter, Victor E.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Gao, Jianjiong; Loda, Massimo; Lis, Rosina T.; Bowden, Michaela; Balk, Stephen P.; Gaviola, Glenn; Sougnez, Carrie; Gupta, Manaswi; Yu, Evan Y.; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Cheng, Heather H.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; True, Lawrence D.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Dvinge, Heidi; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Flohr, Penny; Miranda, Susana; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Tunariu, Nina; Mateo, Joaquin; Lopez, Raquel Perez; Demichelis, Francesca; Robinson, Brian D.; Schiffman, Marc A.; Nanus, David M.; Tagawa, Scott T.; Sigaras, Alexandros; Eng, Kenneth W.; Elemento, Olivier; Sboner, Andrea; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Scher, Howard I.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kantoff, Philip; de Bono, Johann S.; Rubin, Mark A.; Nelson, Peter S.; Garraway, Levi A.; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toward development of a precision medicine framework for metastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we established a multi-institutional clinical sequencing infrastructure to conduct prospective whole exome and transcriptome sequencing of bone or soft tissue tumor biopsies from a cohort of 150 mCRPC affected individuals. Aberrations of AR, ETS genes, TP53 and PTEN were frequent (40–60% of cases), with TP53 and AR alterations enriched in mCRPC compared to primary prostate cancer. We identified novel genomic alterations in PIK3CA/B, R-spondin, BRAF/RAF1, APC, β-catenin and ZBTB16/PLZF. Aberrations of BRCA2, BRCA1 and ATM were observed at substantially higher frequencies (19.3% overall) than seen in primary prostate cancers. 89% of affected individuals harbored a clinically actionable aberration including 62.7% with aberrations in AR, 65% in other cancer-related genes, and 8% with actionable pathogenic germline alterations. This cohort study provides evidence that clinical sequencing in mCRPC is feasible and could impact treatment decisions in significant numbers of affected individuals. PMID:26000489

  10. Virus, Oncolytic Virus and Human Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang Bin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lifang; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), a disease, is characterized by abnormal cell growth in the prostate - a gland in the male reproductive system. Although older age and a family history of the disease have been recognized as the risk factors of PCa, the cause of this cancer remains unclear. Currently, PCa is one of the leading causes of cancer death among men of all races. In this review study, we first discuss the controversy of the contribution of virus infection to PCa, and subsequently summarize the development of oncolytic virotherapy for PCa in the past several years. Mounting evidence suggests that infections with various viruses are causally linked to PCa pathogenesis. Published studies have provided strong evidence that at least two viruses (RXMV and HPV) contribute to prostate tumourigenicity and impact on the survival of patients with malignant PCa. Traditional therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy are unable to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, which are a significant drawback and leads to toxicities for PCa patients undergoing treatment. So far, few other options are available for treating patients with advanced PCa. For PCa treatment, oncolytic virotherapy appears to be much more attractive, which uses live viruses to selectively kill cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can be genetically engineered to induce cancer cell lysis through virus replication and expression of cytotoxic proteins. Virotherapy is being developed to be a novel therapy for cancers, which uses oncotropic and oncolytic viruses with their abilities to find and destroy malignant cells in the body. As oncolytic viruses are a relatively new class of anti-cancer immunotherapy agents, several important barriers still exist on the road to the use of oncolytic viruses for PCa therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Metabolic Alterations in Renal and Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Massari, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Piva, Francesco; Conti, Alessandro; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Tortora, Giampaolo; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metabolism is emerging as a promising research area in genitourinary tumors. Both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and prostate cancer (PCa) cells exhibit marked alterations of their metabolism. These changes include increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), increased protein and DNA synthesis and de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying such alterations will represent a major step forward in cancer research. Indeed, reprogramming cancer cell energy metabolism represents a promising hallmark of cancer and may pave the way for novel personalized approaches. PubMed databases were searched for articles published about cancer metabolism in genitourinary tumors. This review is focused on the metabolic alterations that occur in RCC and PCa and describes the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes.

  12. Epigenetics in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cutting-edge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy.

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy-guided transperineal prostate biopsy and brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Agnieszka Szot; Haker, Steven J; Mulkern, Robert V; So, Minna; D'Amico, Anthony V; Tempany, Clare M

    2005-12-01

    Brachytherapy targeted to the peripheral zone with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance is a prostate cancer treatment option with potentially fewer complications than other treatments. Follow-up MRI when failure is suspected is, however, difficult because of radiation-induced changes. Furthermore, MR spectroscopy (MRS) is compromised by susceptibility artifacts from radioactive seeds in the peripheral zone. We report a case in which combined MRI/MRS was useful for the detection of prostate cancer in the transitional zone in patients previously treated with MR-guided brachytherapy. We propose that MRI/MRS can help detect recurrent prostate cancer, guide prostate biopsy, and help manage salvage treatment decisions.

  14. [The incidence, mortality and risk factors of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvadba, M; Cmorej, P; Mamova, A; Slowik, O

    Prostate cancer is a serious oncological disease in males. There has been a significant escalation in the incidence of this malignancy in the Czech Republic and in developed countries of Europe recently. Conversely, in countries with an altered health system, a minor increase in new cases of this disease is recorded. The causes of the high incidence of prostate cancer in developed countries appear to be the introduction of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and prostate biopsy, an aging population, and the consequent increased risk of cancer. The possible contribution of physical and chemical carcinogens associated with environmental pollution and negative lifestyle changes should not be forgotten either. The mortality rate for prostate cancer remains stable, with a slight decline in recent years. The article provides an overview of trends in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in the Czech Republic and Europe.

  15. The Case for Tailored Prostate Cancer Screening: An NCCN Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michelle L; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2015-12-01

    A preponderance of clinical evidence supports a significant public health benefit for screening and early detection of prostate cancer in selected men. The challenge lies in maximizing early diagnosis of potentially aggressive but curable disease while minimizing diagnosis and treatment of indolent disease. A tailored approach to population screening in appropriately counseled men, using an evidence-based strategy with judicious prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, will reduce prostate-cancer mortality yet limit overdetection of clinically insignificant disease. Use of newer biomarkers that increase specificity for prostate cancer detection, including percentage of free PSA, 4Kscore, prostate health index, prostate cancer antigen 3, and multiparametric MRI may be considered under certain circumstances. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  16. Prostatic MR imaging. Accuracy in differentiating cancer from other prostatic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, S.; Kivisaari, L.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Radiology; Vehmas, T. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Taari, K.; Rannikko, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of MR imaging in differentiating between cancer and other prostatic disorders, and evaluated the diagnostic criteria for various prostatic diseases. Material and Methods: A total of 74 endorectal coil MR studies were performed on 72 patients. Twenty patients had prostatic cancer, 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 acute bacterial prostatitis, 5 chronic bacterial prostatitis (2 also belonging to the previous category), 19 chronic non-bacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and 6 were symptomless voluntary controls. All studies were interpreted by two experienced radiologists in random order. Radiologists were blinded to all clinical data including the age of the patients. Based on MR findings, both radiologists filled in a form covering diagnostic criteria and diagnosis. Results: Accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer was 74%. Sensitivity was 50% and specificity 83%, and positive and negative predictive values were 53 and 82%, respectively. Bacterial prostatitis showed some features similar to carcinoma. Abundant BPH rendered cancer detection more difficult. No diagnostic criterion was clearly better than the others. Interobserver agreement on the MR diagnosis ranged from moderate to good. Conclusion: Without knowledge of accurate clinical data, MR seems to be too insensitive in detecting prostate cancer to be used as a primary diagnostic tool.

  17. Metastatic Prostate Cancer in Men Initially Treated with Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Musunuru, Bindu; Vesprini, Danny; Zhang, Liying; Ghanem, Gabriella; Loblaw, Andrew; Klotz, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Active surveillance is an approach to low and low intermediate risk prostate cancer that is designed to decrease overtreatment. Despite close monitoring a small subset of patients progress to metastatic disease. We analyzed the clinical and pathological correlates of surveillance in patients who eventually experienced metastasis. This was a single center, prospective cohort study. Eligible patients were treated with an expectant approach. The main outcome measure was metastasis-free survival. Predictive factors for metastasis were identified. Metastasis developed in 30 of 980 patients, of whom 211 were classified at intermediate risk, including 14 who progressed to metastatic disease. Median followup was 6.3 years, median age was 70 years, median prostate specific antigen was 6.2 ng/ml and median time to metastasis was 8.9 years. Metastases developed in bone in 18 patients (60%) and in lymph nodes in 13 (43%). Prostate specific antigen doubling time less than 3 years (HR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.4, p = 0.0006), Gleason score 7 (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3, p = 0.0018) and a total of 3 or more positive cores (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.8, p = 0.0028) were independent predictors of metastasis. Although the intermediate risk group was at higher risk for metastasis, those with Gleason score 6 and prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml were not at increased risk for metastasis. Metastasis developed in only 2 patients with Gleason score 6 and neither had surgical pathology grading. Active surveillance appears safe in patients at low risk and in select patients at intermediate risk, particularly those with Gleason score 6 and prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml. Patients with elements of Gleason pattern 4 on diagnostic biopsy are at increased risk for eventual metastasis when treated with an initial conservative approach. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Management Options for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L

    2017-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in men worldwide. Treatment with surgery and radiation can be curative in organ-confined disease. Unfortunately, about one third of men develop biochemically recurrent disease based only on rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the absence of visible disease on conventional imaging. For these patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, there is no uniform guideline for subsequent management. Based on available data, it seems prudent that biochemical recurrent prostate cancer should initially be evaluated for salvage radiation or prostatectomy, with curative intent. In selected cases, high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy may be considered in patients that meet very narrow criteria as defined by non-randomized trials. If salvage options are not practical or unsuccessful, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard option for disease control. While some patients prefer ADT to manage the disease immediately, others defer treatment because of the associated toxicity. In the absence of definitive randomized data, patients may be followed using PSA doubling time as a trigger to initiate ADT. Based on retrospective data, a PSA doubling time of less than 3-6 months has been associated with near-term development of metastasis and thus could be used signal to initiate ADT. Once treatment is begun, patients and their providers can choose between an intermittent and continuous ADT strategy. The intermittent approach may limit side effects but in patients with metastatic disease studies could not exclude a 20% greater risk of death. In men with biochemical recurrence, large studies have shown that intermittent therapy is non-inferior to continuous therapy, thus making this a reasonable option. Since biochemically recurrent prostate cancer is defined by technological limitations of radiographic detection, as new imaging (i.e., PSMA) strategies are developed, it may alter how the disease is

  19. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.

  20. Screening for prostate cancer: the current evidence and guidelines controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomella, Leonard G; Liu, Xiaolong S; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Kelly, Wm Kevin; Myers, Ronald; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam; Wender, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Prostate cancer presents a global public health dilemma. While screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than in previous years, the potential for negative effects from over-diagnosis and treatment cannot be ignored. We reviewed Medline for recent articles that discuss clinical trials, evidence based recommendations and guidelines from major medical organizations in the United States and worldwide concerning prostate cancer screening. Results from the European Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, and Göteborg Swedish trials regarding prostate screening are controversial with the ERSPC and Göteborg showing a reduction in prostate cancer mortality and the PLCO trial showing no benefit. Recommendations from the American Urological Association (AUA), Japanese Urological Association (JUA), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) have recommended that all men obtain a baseline PSA beginning at age 40. The American Cancer Society (ACS) stratifies screening recommendations based on age and risk, but states that screening should take place only after an informed discussion between provider and patient. The United States Preventative Health Service Task Force (USPSTF) states that evidence is insufficient to assess the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening in men younger than 75 years. Other major international health organizations offer a similar reserved approach or recommend against screening for prostate cancer. Most groups indicate that screening to determine who should undergo prostate biopsy typically includes both a serum PSA and digital rectal examination, with the latest ACS publications noting that the rectal exam is optional. A common theme from all groups is that an informed discussion with the patients is strongly recommended and that screening does increase the number of men diagnosed with non

  1. Prostate cancer detection at rebiopsy after an initial benign diagnosis: results using sextant extended prostate biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Ramos Moreira Leite; Luiz Heraldo Camara-Lopes; José Cury; Marcos F. Dall'Oglio; Adriana Sañudo; Miguel Srougi

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sextant prostate biopsy remains the standard technique for the detection of prostate cancer. It is well known that after a diagnosis of small acinar proliferation (ASAP) or high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the possibility of finding cancer is approximately 40% and 30%, respectively. OBJECTIVE: We aim to analyze follow-up biopsies on patients who initially received a benign diagnosis after exclusion of HGPIN and ASAP. METHODS: From July 2000 to December 2003...

  2. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Broyles, Dennis L; Wei, John T; Sanda, Martin; Klee, George; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W; Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; Catalona, William J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the use of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a continuous variable in multivariable risk assessment for aggressive prostate cancer in a large multicentre US study. The study population included 728 men, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 2-10 ng/mL and a negative digital rectal examination, enrolled in a prospective, multi-site early detection trial. The primary endpoint was aggressive prostate cancer, defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. First, we evaluated whether the addition of PHI improves the performance of currently available risk calculators (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC] risk calculators). We also designed and internally validated a new PHI-based multivariable predictive model, and created a nomogram. Of 728 men undergoing biopsy, 118 (16.2%) had aggressive prostate cancer. The PHI predicted the risk of aggressive prostate cancer across the spectrum of values. Adding PHI significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators for aggressive disease. A new model was created using age, previous biopsy, prostate volume, PSA and PHI, with an area under the curve of 0.746. The bootstrap-corrected model showed good calibration with observed risk for aggressive prostate cancer and had net benefit on decision-curve analysis. Using PHI as part of multivariable risk assessment leads to a significant improvement in the detection of aggressive prostate cancer, potentially reducing harms from unnecessary prostate biopsy and overdiagnosis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen doubling time as prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zharinov, Gennady M.; Bogomolov, Oleg A.; Neklasova, Natalia N.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum level commonly uses as tumor marker in diagnosis of prostate cancer, it seems that PSA doubling time (PSADT) could be more useful indicator of tumor behavior and of prognosis for patients. The results of hormone and radiation therapy were evaluated for 912 prostate cancer having at least 2 PSA tests before the treatment was started. Clustering procedure (selection of homogenous group) was performed by using PSADT as the classification marker. ...

  4. Androgen Receptor Mutations and Polymorphisms in African American Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Buckles, Erick; Shourideh, Mojgan; Hu, SiYi; Chandra, Dhyan; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Attwood, Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans...

  5. Current early diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.

  6. High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are present in benign prostate tissues before development of HPV associated prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Ngan, Christopher C; Amos, Timothy G; Edwards, Richard J; Swift, Joshua; Lutze-Mann, Louise; Shang, Fei; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2017-01-01

    Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in prostate cancer. The aims are (i) to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and (ii) to determine if HPVs are biologically active. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify HPVs in specimens from 52 Australian men with benign prostate biopsies who 1 to 10 years later developed prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins, cytokeratin and prostate specific antigen (PSA). We used RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify possible HPV RNA sequences in prostate cancer. HPV screening using standard PCR was conducted on 28 of the 52 sets of benign and later prostate cancers. HPV L1 genes were identified in 13 (46%) benign and 8 (29%) of 28 later prostate cancers in the same patients. HPV E7 genes were identified in 23 (82%) benign and 19 (68%) of 28 subsequent prostate cancers in the same patients. The same HPV types were present in both the benign and subsequent prostate cancers in 9 sets of specimens. HPV type 16 was identified in 15% of benign and 3% of prostate cancers. HPV type 18 was identified in 26% of benign and 16% of prostate cancers. Small numbers of HPV types 45, 47, 76 and 115 were also identified. High confidence RNA-Seq evidence for high risk HPV types 16 and 18 was identified in 12 (2%) of the 502 TCGA prostate cancer transcriptomes. High risk HPV E7 oncoprotein was positively expressed in 23 (82%) of 28 benign prostate specimens but only in 8 (29%) of 28 of the later prostate cancer specimens. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was more highly expressed in 26

  7. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Simon, Ronald; Aguiar, Jennifer A.; Alkallas, Rached; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Zhang, Junyan; Watson, John D.; Chua, Melvin L. K.; Fraser, Michael; Favero, Francesco; Lawerenz, Chris; Plass, Christoph; Sauter, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer patients, and identify a median of one mitochondrial single-nucleotide variant (mtSNV) per patient. Some of these mtSNVs occur in recurrent mutational hotspots and associate with aggressive disease. Young...

  8. Regulation of the Prostate Cancer Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    of prostate cancer. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S100A9 Poly(I:C) HMGB-1 CpG Fo ld C ha ng e (E xp /C on tro l) WT KO Figure 2. Increased...1694–703 (2009). 4. Modlin, R. L. & Cheng, G. From plankton to pathogen recognition. Nat Med 10, 1173-4 (2004). 5. Ostrand-Rosenberg, S. & Sinha, P

  9. Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastases: Pathobiology and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    by vitamin D, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and cytokines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998;250(3):776-78 I. [20] Hofbauer LC, Heufelder AE...cancellous bone but not in osteoarthritis . J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(6): 1015-1027. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Prostate Cancer Skeletal...Costantini F. Interleukin-6 deficient mice are protected from bone loss caused by estrogen depletion. EMBO Journal 1994; 13(5):1 189-1196. [69] de

  10. Molecular Determinants of Radioresponse in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    was hired as the technician for the technical aspects of the grant as outlined in the original budget. She came to our lab from the private...As different laboratories may contain variants of original cell stocks, we initially determined the p53 status of the malignant prostate epithelial...542-547 28 Ambrosini, G, Adida , C & Altieri, DC. A novel anti-apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer and lymphoma. Nat Med 1997; 3: 917-921 29

  11. A recommender system for prostate cancer websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly; Chignell, Mark; Krahn, Murray

    2008-11-06

    One of the challenges for people seeking health information online is the difficulty in locating health Websites that are personally relevant, credible and useful. We developed a Web-based recommender system in order to help address this problem in the context of prostate cancer. We are conducting an online randomized controlled trial to evaluate the accuracy of its recommendations and to compare the efficacy of content-based and collaborative filtering.

  12. The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    the following courses: From year 1: Responsible Conduct of Research Ecology and Evolution : Principles of Population Genetics I 10 Ecology and...Statistical Methods and their Applications The Ecology and Evolution : Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution course from year 1, and Intro to Statistical...AWARD NUMBER: DoD Award W81XWH-13-1-0451 TITLE: The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David VanderWeele, M.D

  13. Targeting Neuromimicry in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    validate MAOA/NRP1- manipulated PCa cells with stable labeling of fluorescence protein and Luc for subsequently visualizing MAOA/NRP1-mediated PCa-nerve...prostate cancer cells which were further subjected to stable labeling of fluorescence protein and luciferase for subsequent visualization of MAOA...followed by genetic manipulation of MAOA and NRP1 expression by either plasmid-based overexpression or shRNA-mediated silencing. Months 1-4 Dr. Wu

  14. Imaging Prostate Cancer (PCa) Phenotype and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2016 TYPE OF REPORT...of mitochondrial aconitase, is an early change in carcinogenesis in the prostate. This change in metabolism is detectable by magnetic resonance. The... mitochondrial aconitase (m-Acon) activity. This has been associated with zinc-induced inhibition of m-Acon in the peripheral epithelial cells. Activation of m

  15. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mass and alter bone remodeling. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Macrophages, Efferocytosis, Prostate Cancer, Bone 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...cytokines, interfering with HIF-1 also promotes the generation of a specialized tumor- killing class of T cells - the so-called “cytotoxic T lymphocytes...cells possess higher killing capacity compared to WT cells (data not shown). 6 Summary: In summary, we have made considerable progress in our

  16. [Individualization of transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy for prostate cancer detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Qiu, Shao-Peng; Zheng, Ke-Li; Wu, Rong-Pei

    2007-05-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy technique was regarded as golden standard method for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Recently, many reports show that the detection rate of prostate cancer by sextant biopsy is not high, and suggest to take more cores to improve the detection rate. But there is no ideal protocol now. This study was to explore an appropriate prostate biopsy protocol for the detection of prostate cancer. Clinical data of 325 consecutive men with suspected prostate cancer were analyzed. All patients underwent 12-core biopsy protocol (first biopsy) with additional 1 or 2 cores at each suspicious area detected by TRUS. The sensitivity of different combinations of biopsy cores was analyzed. Of the 325 patients, 126 (38.8%) were positive for prostate cancer. The detection rate by 12-core protocol was significantly higher than maximal detection rate by 6-, 8-, and 10-core protocols (38.8% vs. 27.7%, 29.8%, and 35.4%, P60 ml, the detection rate by 12-core protocol was significantly higher than that by 10-core protocol (37.9% vs. 25.8%, P=0.049). Individual prostate biopsy protocol should be taken for the detection of prostate cancer. We recommend 8-core protocol for the patients with small prostate (60 ml, and add 1 or 2 cores or take focus biopsy protocol at suspicious areas detected by TRUS.

  17. New concepts in tissue specificity for prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marzo, A M; Coffey, D S; Nelson, W G

    1999-03-01

    Of the hundreds of species of mammals, all of which have prostate glands, only humans and dogs are known to suffer from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma. In humans, prostate carcinoma is common, yet carcinomas of other sex accessory tissues are rare. In addition, different anatomic regions within the prostate gland have very different rates of BPH and carcinoma. In this article, we explore ideas and potential mechanisms relating to these paradoxical findings that may help explain the species, organ, and zone specificity of BPH and prostate cancer. We present an evolutionary argument that attempts to relate a high-fat diet, with its potential for generating oxidative DNA damage, to the species selectivity of prostate cancer. In addition, we outline an argument based on our preliminary studies indicating that chronic inflammation and the associated increase in cell turnover in the setting of increased oxidative stress may help to account for the organ selectivity of genitourinary carcinomas.

  18. Baseline Prostate Atrophy is Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer in Men Undergoing Repeat Prostate Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniel M; Bostwick, David G; Andriole, Gerald L; Peterson, Bercedis L; Cohen, Harvey J; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated whether the presence and severity of baseline prostate atrophy in men with initial biopsy negative for prostate cancer was associated the risk of subsequent prostate cancer detection in a clinical trial with scheduled study mandated biopsies. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 3,084 men 50 to 75 years old with prostate specific antigen between 2.5 and 10 ng/ml, and a prior negative biopsy in the placebo arm of the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) study who completed at least 1 per-protocol biopsy. Prostate cancer (defined as present or absent) and prostate atrophy (graded as absent, mild or moderate/marked) was assessed by central pathology review. The association of baseline atrophy with positive 2 and 4-year repeat biopsies was evaluated with logistic regression, controlling for baseline covariates. Baseline prostate atrophy was detected in 2,143 men (70%) and graded as mild and moderate/marked in 1,843 (60%) and 300 (10%) baseline biopsies, respectively. Patients with atrophy were older and had a larger prostate, and more acute and chronic prostate inflammation. At 2-year biopsy the prostate cancer incidence was 17% (508 cases). Baseline atrophy was significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk (univariable and multivariable OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.50-0.74 and OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.83, p biopsy. These results were similar at the 4-year biopsy (univariable and multivariable OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.93 and OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97, p = 0.03, respectively). Relative to no atrophy the prostate cancer risk at the 2-year repeat biopsy was lower for mild atrophy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86) and moderate/marked atrophy (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, each p biopsy negative for prostate cancer was independently associated with subsequent lower prostate cancer detection. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T. (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-10-01

    In an attempt to clarify the effects of radiation therapy for prostatic cancer, the author studied 71 prostatic cancer patients with megavoltage radiation therapy at the Cancer Institute Hospital for the past 17 years between 1964 and 1980. Fifty nine out of 71 cases received combined treatment with hormone. Of 71, 28 patients were examined for remaining foci by transperineal needle biopsy at various times after irradiation. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 100% for stage A, 92% for stage B, 60.2% for stage C and 25.2% for stage D, respectively. Local control rates by digital rectal examination were 92.3% for stage B and 65.5% for stage C, whereas local atrophy rates were 61.5% for stage B and 31% for stage C cases. The positive rate of biopsy was 75%, negative rate was 20.8% and false negative rate was 4.2% within 1 year. The positive rate decreased to 63.6%, while negative rate increased to 31.8% and false positive rate was 4.6% after 1 year. Some cases, in whom the size of the prostate had decreased, showed good prognosis despite the presence of viable cells in biopsy specimens, therefore the waiting policy seemed indicated by frequent local palpation in future follow up to examine any regrowth in size of the lesion.

  20. [Management of ablative therapies in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, E; Sanchez-Salas, R; Galiano, M; Cathala, N; Mombet, A; Prapotnich, D; Rozet, F; Gangi, A; Lang, H; Cathelineau, X

    2017-11-01

    To describe the specific modalities of ablative therapies management in prostate cancer. A review of the scientific literature was performed in Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of keywords. Publications obtained were selected based on methodology, language and relevance. After selection, 61 articles were analysed. Development of innovations such as ablative therapies in prostate cancer induces specific modalities in their management, during pre-, per- and post-procedure. More than for classical and well-known treatments, the decision to propose an ablative therapy requires analysis and consensus of medical staff and patient's agreement. Patient's specificities and economical aspects must also be considered. Procedures and follow-up must be realized by referents actors. Indication, procedure and follow-up of ablative therapies in prostate cancer require specific modalities. They must be respected in order to optimize the results and to obtain a precise and objective evaluation for defining future indications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  2. Wnt/beta-Catenin, Foxa2, and CXCR4 Axis Controls Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    al. Spiculated periosteal response induced by intraosseous injection of 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells resembles subset of bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. Prostate 2005; 65(4): 347-54. Appendice None

  3. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salagierski, M.; Schalken, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Widespread prostate specific antigen screening together with the increase in the number of biopsy cores has led to increased prostate cancer incidence. Standard diagnostic tools still cannot unequivocally predict prostate cancer progression, which often results in a significant

  4. Low testosterone level is an independent risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer detection at biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung Bae; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between low testosterone levels and prostate cancer detection risk in a biopsy population. In all, 681 men who underwent initial 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy at our institution were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into groups with low (levels (≥300 ng/dL). Clinical and pathological data were analysed. Among 681 men, 86 men (12.6%) had low testosterone levels, 143 (32.7%) had a positive biopsy, and 99 (14.5%) had high-grade prostate cancer. The mean age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA density, body mass index (BMI), number of abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, and diabetes mellitus (DM) history were significantly different between the low and normal level testosterone groups. A low testosterone level was significantly associated with a higher risk of detection of overall prostate cancer than a normal testosterone level in univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] 2.545, P = 0.001), but not in multivariate analysis adjusting for parameters such as age, PSA, prostate volume, BMI, abnormal DRE findings and DM (OR 1.583, P = 0.277). Meanwhile, a low testosterone level was significantly related to a higher rate of high-grade prostate cancer compared with a normal testosterone level in univariate (OR 3.324, P level is an independent risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer detection at biopsy. Therefore, checking testosterone levels could help to determine whether prostate biopsy should be carried out. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. C-type natriuretic peptide in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Soeren Junge; Iversen, Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2009-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is expressed in the male reproductive organs in pigs. To examine whether the human prostate also expresses the CNP gene, we measured CNP and N-terminal proCNP in prostate cancer tissue extracts and performed immunohistochemical biopsy staining. Additionally, pro......CNP-derived peptides were quantitated in plasma from patients with prostate cancer. Blood was collected from healthy controls and patients before surgery for localized prostate cancer. Tissue extracts were prepared from tissue biopsies obtained from radical prostatectomy surgery. N-terminal proCNP, proCNP (1...... demonstrated the presence of the peptides in prostatic epithelial cells. The N-terminal proCNP concentrations in plasma were marginally lower in patients with localized prostate cancer compared with control subjects [13.8 pmol/l (11.0-17.2) vs. 15.1 pmol/l (10.4-23.2), p=0.002] but not enough to justify...

  6. Human prostate cancer ZIP1/zinc/citrate genetic/metabolic relationship in the TRAMP prostate cancer animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Leslie C; Franklin, Renty B; Zou, Jing; Feng, Pei; Bok, Robert; Swanson, Mark G; Kurhanewicz, John

    2011-12-15

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men. The availability of animal models that represent the events and factors that exist in the natural history and biology of human prostate cancer is essential in dealing with prostate cancer. In recent decades and presently, emphasis has been directed at the development and employment of prostate cancer induced in transgenic mice. However, the important consistent hallmark characteristic and event of decrease in zinc and citrate and downregulation of ZIP1 zinc transporter in prostate malignancy has not been studied or identified in any animal model. We investigated the status of these parameters in TRAMP tumors as compared with human prostate cancer. The results show that citrate levels are markedly decreased in the developing and advancing stages of malignancy in TRAMP. Zinc levels are also decreased and ZIP1 transporter is lost in TRAMP tumors. In vitro studies show that zinc treatment of TRAMP C2 cells exhibits cytotoxic effects. Collectively, these results mimic the ZIP1, zinc, and citrate status and relationship that exist in human prostate cancer. This is the first report that establishes the existence of the human prostate zinc/citrate hallmark characteristic and relationship in an animal model. It now appears that the TRAMP model will be suitable for studies relating to the implications and role of zinc- and citrate-related metabolism in the development and progression of human prostate cancer.

  7. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...... cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  8. Vitamin D and prostate cancer survival in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, Tatyana; Bailey, Beth A; Youssef, Dima; Manning, Todd; Grant, William B; Peiris, Alan N

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among the male population worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to prostate cancer and its aggressiveness. Herein, we initiated a retrospective study to evaluate vitamin D status and monitoring in veterans with prostate cancer, and to examine the potential link between vitamin D and survival status and length of survival in this population. We found that veterans who were initially vitamin D deficient were significantly less likely to survive than those who were not initially deficient, and that both initial and follow-up vitamin D deficiency were associated with decreased likelihood of survival after prostate cancer diagnosis. We recommend that vitamin D deficiency be replaced in veterans with prostate cancer. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    of more effective treatment modalities that could improve outcome. Prostate cancer represents an attractive target for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for several reasons, including pattern of metastatic spread (lymph nodes and bone marrow, sites with good access to circulating antibodies) and small volume......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  10. Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with fluctuating prostate-specific antigen levels on the repeat prostate biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Jung Keun; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Byung Ki; Lee, Sangchul; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the risk of prostate cancer was different according to the pattern of fluctuation in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients undergoing repeat transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx). Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 492 patients underwent repeat TRUS-Bx. The patients were stratified into 3 groups based on the PSA fluctuation pattern: group 1 (continuous elevation of PSA, n=169), group 2 (PSA fluctuation with PSA velocity [PSAV...

  11. IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of prostate cells is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveu B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Neveu*, Xavier Moreel*, Marie-Pier Deschênes-Rompré, Alain Bergeron, Hélène LaRue, Cherifa Ayari, Yves Fradet, Vincent FradetDepartment of Surgery, Laval University Cancer Research Centre, CHU de Quebec Research Centre, Quebec, QC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic inflammation is believed to be a major factor in prostate cancer initiation and promotion and has been studied using prostate cancer cells and immortalized cell lines. However, little is known about the contribution of normal cells to the prostatic microenvironment and inflammation. We aim to study the contribution of normal prostate epithelial cells to prostate inflammation and to link the inflammatory status of normal cells to prostate cancer aggressiveness.Materials and methods: Short-term primary cell cultures of normal epithelial prostate cells were derived from prostate biopsies from 25 men undergoing radical prostatectomy, cystoprostatectomy, or organ donation. Cells were treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, a mimic of double-stranded viral RNA and a potent inducer of the inflammatory response. Secretion of interleukin (IL-8 in the cell culture medium by untreated and treated cells was measured and we determined the association between IL-8 levels in these primary cell cultures and prostate cancer characteristics. The Fligner–Policello test was used to compare the groups.Results: Baseline and induced IL-8 secretion were highly variable between cultured cells from different patients. This variation was not related to drug use, past medical history, age, or preoperative prostate-specific antigen value. Nonetheless, an elevated secretion of IL-8 from normal cultured epithelial cells was associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness (P=0.0005.Conclusion: The baseline secretion of IL-8 from normal prostate epithelial cells in culture is strongly correlated with cancer aggressiveness and may drive prostate cancer

  12. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    have Methylselenol Generation been shown to cause G1 arrest in cancer epithelial Purified METase of Pseudomonas putida (catalog 4! cells [7-9] and in...methylselenol can reach the submicromolar with carcinoma of the skin: A randomized controlled trial. 120 WANG ETAL. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study... Nutrition and cancer prevention. New York: 229-236. Kluwer/Plenum Publishers, 2000. p 131-145. 19. Combs GF Jr, GrayWP. Chemopreventive agents: Selenium. 10

  13. Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Cells by Using Flexible Fluorescent Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K.; Guo, Bin; Friesner, Daniel L.; Mallik, Sanku

    2011-01-01

    Using water soluble, fluorescent, flexible polymers, we have devised a novel methodology for identification and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. By using a step-wise linear discriminant analysis we demonstrate that the differential modulations of the polymer emission intensities in the presence of conditioned cell culture media can be used to distinguish between prostate cancer subtypes and between cancerous and non-cancer cells. The differences in the compositions of the conditioned cell culture media are likely contributing to different fluorescence spectral patterns of the polymers. This in vitro approach may provide a novel platform for the development of an alternative prostate cancer diagnostic and subtyping technique. PMID:22148518

  14. EZH2, an epigenetic driver of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yeqing Angela; Yu, Jindan

    2013-05-01

    The histone methyltransferase EZH2 has been in the limelight of the field of cancer epigenetics for a decade now since it was first discovered to exhibit an elevated expression in metastatic prostate cancer. It persists to attract much scientific attention due to its important role in the process of cancer development and its potential of being an effective therapeutic target. Thus here we review the dysregulation of EZH2 in prostate cancer, its function, upstream regulators, downstream effectors, and current status of EZH2-targeting approaches. This review therefore provides a comprehensive overview of EZH2 in the context of prostate cancer.

  15. Prostate Cancer Detected by Screening in a Semi Urban Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-26

    Jan 26, 2016 ... Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence has been reported ... Screen detected prostate cancer in Southeast Nigeria: Correlations and asociations ... exercise for PCa. This was preceded by enlightenment talks on PCa on the local community radio station (Lion. FM). Information leaflets and posters were circulated.

  16. Evaluation Of Surgical Castration For Prostate Cancer At Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the average time of follow-up of patients with advanced prostate cancer after surgical castration and to assess the difficulties associated with follow-up of patients. Patients and Methods. 89 case notes of patients who had surgical castration for advanced prostate cancer were reviewed. Information on ...

  17. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Prostate cancer among different racial groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of prostate cancer varies worldwide, with the highest rates reported in the USA, and the lowest in parts of Asia. Prostate cancer incidence rates are 1.6 - 1.9 times higher, and mortality rates. 2 - 3 times higher, among African-American men (AAM) than. Caucasian-American men (CAM).1-6 AAM are younger at ...

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in prostate and bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Yiannis; Hadjipavlou, Marios; Khan, Shahid; Rane, Abhay

    2013-12-01

    To provide an overview of the scientific and clinical studies underlying the most common vitamin and herbal preparations used in prostate and bladder cancer and evaluate the evidence behind them. A literature search was undertaken on PubMed using various keywords relating to the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in prostate and bladder cancer.Vitamin E and selenium supplementation can potentially have adverse effects by increasing the risk of prostate cancer. Initial clinical studies of pomegranate and green tea, investigating their chemotherapeutic properties in prostate and bladder cancer have yielded encouraging results. Curcumin, resveratrol, and silibinin have potential anticancer properties through multiple molecular targets; their clinical effectiveness in prostate and bladder cancer is yet to be evaluated. Zyflamend, like PC-SPES, is a combined CAM therapy used in prostate cancer. Acupuncture is popular among patients experiencing hot flushes who are receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Conclusive evidence for the use of CAM in prostate and bladder cancer is lacking and not without risk.

  20. Prostate cancer among different racial groups in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. We aimed to compare the presenting features and management of prostate cancer among different racial groups. Patients and methods. We studied all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Urological Oncology Clinic, Tygerberg Hospital, from January 1995 to December 2005. Most presented ...

  1. Perceptions and knowledge about prostate cancer and attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. Yeboah-Asiamah

    2017-06-29

    Jun 29, 2017 ... [7] Grover PL, Martin FL. The initiation of breast and prostate cancer. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(7):1095–102. [8] Cobran EK, Wutoh AK, Lee E, Odedina FT, Ragin C, Aiken W, et al. Perceptions of prostate cancer fatalism and screening behavior between. United States-born and Caribbean-born Black males.

  2. Awareness and knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the prostate is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly male population. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin City, Nigeria. This cross sectional study included 402 men above 40 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to each ...

  3. Breast, prostate, and cervical cancer, melanoma, and neuro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast and prostate cancer. Bone scan. For 40 years a bone scan has been one of the most sensitive methods for the evaluation of the presence and localisation of skeletal metastases resulting from breast and prostate cancer. e accuracy of conventional bone scans is about 80%. e use of single photon emission computed ...

  4. Prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: features and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To present the clinical features and outcome of management of patients with prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with prostate cancer managed in 14 years at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Results: Of 154,594 men above 40 years old who ...

  5. Surgery for localized prostate cancer after renal transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafron, Jason; Fogarty, James D; Wiesen, Ari; Melman, Arnold

    2005-01-01

    ... encounter more renal transplant recipients with prostate cancer. The incidence of prostate cancer in the renal transplant population is difficult to interpret because most transplant registry data were obtained before the existence of systematic screening. In the last update of the Cincinnati Transplant Tumor Registry and the Australian and New Zeala...

  6. Features of members of a prostate cancer patients' association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Fischer, M.; Visser, A.; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: the objective of this study was to compare prostate cancer (PC) patients who are and who are not members of the Dutch Prostate Cancer Patients' Association (PCPA) with respect to demographic, medical and psychosocial characteristics. Methods: using a cross-sectional design, 88

  7. Features of members of a prostate cancer patients’ association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Fischer, M.; Visser, Adriaan; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare prostate cancer (PC) patients who are and who are not members of the Dutch prostate cancer patients’ association (PCPA) with respect to demographic, medical and psychosocial characteristics. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 88

  8. Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    cellular respiration , we measured oxygen consumption in prostate cancer cells after docetaxel treatment. The results showed that upon docetaxel...and cellular energy homeostasis. Analysis of patient data indicated that higher OXCT1 levels are associated with docetaxel chemotherapy resistance...Objectives To determine the role of OXCT1-mediated ketone body utilization in regulating prostate cancer cell response to docetaxel, cellular metabolism

  9. Utilizing a Narrative Approach to Increasing Intimacy after Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Megan; Stinson, Morgan A.; Bermudez, J. Maria; Gladney, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes about sexual intimacy are an important aspect of relationship satisfaction, especially for couples dealing with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer can have profound effects on men and their partners, and more research is needed to better understand potential sexual barriers for these couples. Five major themes identified in the literature…

  10. The role of GATA2 in lethal prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Carceles-Cordon, Marc; Hoshida, Yujin; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Galsky, Matthew D.; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is a classic example of the intractability and consequent lethality that characterizes metastatic carcinomas. Novel treatments have improved the survival of men with prostate cancer; however, advanced prostate cancer invariably becomes resistant to these therapies and ultimately progresses to a lethal metastatic stage. Consequently, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that control prostate cancer cell survival and progression towards this lethal stage of disease will benefit the development of new therapeutics. The transcription factor endothelial transcription factor GATA-2 (GATA2) has been reported to have a key role in driving prostate cancer aggressiveness. In addition to being a pioneer transcription factor that increases androgen receptor (AR) binding and activity, GATA2 regulates a core subset of clinically relevant genes in an AR-independent manner. Functionally, GATA2 overexpression in prostate cancer increases cellular motility and invasiveness, proliferation, tumorigenicity, and resistance to standard therapies. Thus, GATA2 has a multifaceted function in prostate cancer aggressiveness and is a highly attractive target in the development of novel treatments against lethal prostate cancer. PMID:27872477

  11. Reaching out in many directions: the fight against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    The National Prostate Cancer Coalition, Washington, D.C., reaches out to men across the country with its travelling screening van. It also reaches a audience through promotions with NASCAR, the National Baseball League, and Spike TV. Its partnerships and lobbying efforts have resulted in this year's unprecedented 500 million dollars federal funding of prostate cancer research.

  12. A RATIONALE FOR PROSTATE CANCER DETECTION IN A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screening program for prostate cancer with case findings among urologic patients. Patients 'and Methods: Two programs for prostate cancer detection were conducted based on PSA assay (cutoff value 4 ng/ml) and DRE for men aged 50 to 75 years. The. first one included 833 urologic patients. (Group I) and the second one ...

  13. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2008-01-01

    ...: Controlling for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidity, (1) analyze progression of cancer, HRQoL, incremental cost and satisfaction with care of prostate cancer patients across two ethnic groups, (2...

  14. MicroRNA Theranostics in Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matin, Farhana; Jeet, Varinder; Clements, Judith A; Yousef, George M; Batra, Jyotsna

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Theranostics, a combination of diagnostics and therapeutics, is an emerging concept in the field of precision medicine, and microRNAs (miRNAs...

  15. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2007-01-01

    ...: Controlling for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidity, (1) analyze progression of cancer, HRQoL, incremental cost and satisfaction with care of prostate cancer patients across two ethnic groups, (2...

  16. The evolving role of familial history for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloca, Giuseppe; Venturino, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    family history of prostate cancer is a risk factor for prostate cancer occurrence. Differently from other neoplasms no major predisposing gene has been identified. this review article presents the controversial results of studies about the prognostic and predictive role of family history in prostate cancer, reports the discovered predisposing genes, and biologic and pathologic findings. mortality from PC remains a significant health care problem, but no trial investigated if it changed in presence of positive family history. The largest family study yet published concluded that men with family history are diagnosed and die at earlier ages than men without it. However, it failed to stress the prognostic value of family history. Genome-wide association studies of prostate cancer have identified a number of genetic variants at different loci in different populations. Prostate neoplasms of patients with positive family history exhibit a different pattern of expression of genes related with estrogen and androgen metabolism within the tumor. High-penetrance and low-penetrance genes in diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer, difficulties to define a classification and to quantify relative risks of single genes, documented gene-environment interactions are discussed. family history stands for both shared genetic and environmental factors and their interaction. The availability of prostate-specific antigen test could explain partly the high familial risk, among brothers or shortly after the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Polymorphisms in genes associated with prostate cancer probably represent the most part of familial prostate cancer burden. An increasing knowledge of disregulated cellular pathways of lethal prostate cancer could define which of all genetic alterations have a role in defining new preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology, Molecular Biology and Genetics of Hereditary Prostate Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer.......A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer....

  18. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: prognostic findings of two subsequent screening rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Postma (Renske)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is nowadays the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the Western world. Since the introduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in the last decade, prostate cancer incidence increased dramatically. In addition, the population is aging, and prostate cancer

  19. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    degradable particle technology, CpG oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr. Salem’s laboratory also

  20. Influence of the neural microenvironment on prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coarfa, Christian; Florentin, Diego; Putluri, NagiReddy; Ding, Yi; Au, Jason; He, Dandan; Ragheb, Ahmed; Frolov, Anna; Michailidis, George; Lee, MinJae; Kadmon, Dov; Miles, Brian; Smith, Christopher; Ittmann, Michael; Rowley, David; Sreekumar, Arun; Creighton, Chad J; Ayala, Gustavo

    2018-02-01

    Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy. Bilateral denervation resulted in reduced tumor incidence and size in mice. Botox treatment in humans resulted in increased apoptosis of cancer cells in the Botox treated side. A similar denervation gene array profile was identified in tumors arising in denervated rodent prostates, in spinal cord injury patients and in the Botox treated side of patients. Denervation induced exhibited a signature gene profile, indicating translation and bioenergetic shutdown. Nerves also regulate basic cellular functions of non-neoplastic epithelial cells. Nerves play a role in the homeostasis of normal epithelial tissues and are involved in prostate cancer tumor survival. This study confirms that interactions between human cancer and nerves are essential to disease progression. This work may make a major impact in general cancer treatment strategies, as nerve/cancer interactions are likely important in other cancers as well. Targeting the neural microenvironment may represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of human prostate cancer. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prostate Cancer Probability Prediction By Machine Learning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Miljković, Milica; Ivanović, Miljan; Šaranović, Milena; Arsić, Milena

    2017-11-26

    The main goal of the study was to explore possibility of prostate cancer prediction by machine learning techniques. In order to improve the survival probability of the prostate cancer patients it is essential to make suitable prediction models of the prostate cancer. If one make relevant prediction of the prostate cancer it is easy to create suitable treatment based on the prediction results. Machine learning techniques are the most common techniques for the creation of the predictive models. Therefore in this study several machine techniques were applied and compared. The obtained results were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the machine learning techniques could be used for the relevant prediction of prostate cancer.

  2. A decade in prostate cancer: from NMR to metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Elita M; Wu, Chin-Lee; McDougal, W Scott; Cheng, Leo L

    2011-05-17

    Over the past 30 years, continuous progress in the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to the detection, diagnosis and characterization of human prostate cancer has turned what began as scientific curiosity into a useful clinical option. In vivo MRSI technology has been integrated into the daily care of prostate cancer patients, and innovations in ex vivo methods have helped to establish NMR-based prostate cancer metabolomics. Metabolomic and multimodality imaging could be the future of the prostate cancer clinic--particularly given the rationale that more accurate interrogation of a disease as complex as human prostate cancer is most likely to be achieved through paradigms involving multiple, instead of single and isolated, parameters. The research and clinical results achieved through in vivo MRSI and ex vivo NMR investigations during the first 11 years of the 21st century illustrate areas where these technologies can be best translated into clinical practice.

  3. Overcoming Autophagy to Induce Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0529 TITLE: Overcoming Autophagy to Induce Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...survival mechanism and led cells to undergo apoptosis . Survival mechanisms elicited by CRPC C4-2B cells when treated with Enza may be blocked by...Targeting cancer cell metabolism: the combination of metformin and 2-deoxyglucose induces p53-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cancer

  4. EZH2, an epigenetic driver of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yeqing Angela; Yu, Jindan

    2013-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase EZH2 has been in the limelight of the field of cancer epigenetics for a decade now since it was first discovered to exhibit an elevated expression in metastatic prostate cancer. It persists to attract much scientific attention due to its important role in the process of cancer development and its potential of being an effective therapeutic target. Thus here we review the dysregulation of EZH2 in prostate cancer, its function, upstream regulators, downstream effec...

  5. Prostate tumor DNA methylation is associated with cigarette smoking and adverse prostate cancer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Irene M; Wong, Chao-Jen; Zhao, Shanshan; Kolb, Suzanne; Ebot, Ericka M; Geybels, Milan S; Rubicz, Rohina; Wright, Jonathan L; Lin, Daniel W; Klotzle, Brandy; Bibikova, Marina; Fan, Jian-Bing; Ostrander, Elaine A; Feng, Ziding; Stanford, Janet L

    2016-07-15

    DNA methylation has been hypothesized as a mechanism for explaining the association between smoking and adverse prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. This study was aimed at assessing whether smoking is associated with prostate tumor DNA methylation and whether these alterations may explain in part the association of smoking with PCa recurrence and mortality. A total of 523 men had radical prostatectomy as their primary treatment, detailed smoking history data, long-term follow-up for PCa outcomes, and tumor tissue profiled for DNA methylation. Ninety percent of the men also had matched tumor gene expression data. A methylome-wide analysis was conducted to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) by smoking status. To select potential functionally relevant DMRs, their correlation with the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of corresponding genes was evaluated. Finally, a smoking-related methylation score based on the top-ranked DMRs was created to assess its association with PCa outcomes. Forty DMRs were associated with smoking status, and 10 of these were strongly correlated with mRNA expression (aldehyde oxidase 1 [AOX1], claudin 5 [CLDN5], early B-cell factor 1 [EBF1], homeobox A7 [HOXA7], lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 [LGALS3], microtubule-associated protein τ [MAPT], protocadherin γ A [PCDHGA]/protocadherin γ B [PCDHGB], paraoxonase 3 [PON3], synaptonemal complex protein 2 like [SYCP2L], and zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 12 [ZSCAN12]). Men who were in the highest tertile for the smoking-methylation score derived from these DMRs had a higher risk of recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-3.72) and lethal disease (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.65-11.78) in comparison with men in the lower 2 tertiles. This integrative molecular epidemiology study supports the hypothesis that smoking-associated tumor DNA methylation changes may explain at least part of the association between smoking and adverse PCa outcomes. Future studies

  6. The Proteome of Primary Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Wikström, Pernilla; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    low risk tumors. PATIENT SUMMARY: The identification of proteins whose expression change in prostate cancer provides novel mechanistic information related to the disease etiology. We hope that future studies will prove the value of this proteome dataset for development of novel therapies...... for disease aggressiveness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mass spectrometry was used for genome-scale quantitative proteomic profiling of 28 prostate tumors (Gleason score 6-9) and neighboring nonmalignant tissue in eight cases, obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy samples. Two...... with elevated oxidative phosphorylation capacity measured in situ. Molecular analysis indicated that some of the proteins overexpressed in tumors, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2, fatty acid transporter), coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, vesicle secretion), and mitogen- and stress...

  7. Carbohydrate structure and differential binding of prostate specific antigen to Maackia amurensis lectin between prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Chikara; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo; Oh-eda, Masayoshi; Yoshikawa, Kazuyuki; Habuchi, Tomonori; Arai, Yoichi; Fukuda, Minoru

    2004-08-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay is widely used for detection of prostate cancer. Because PSA is also synthesized from normal prostate, false positive diagnosis cannot be avoided by the conventional serum PSA test. To apply the cancer-associated carbohydrate alteration to the improvement of PSA assay, we first elucidated the structures of PSA purified from human seminal fluid. The predominant core structure of N-glycans of seminal fluid PSA was a complex type biantennary oligosaccharide and was consistent with the structure reported previously. However, we found the sialic acid alpha2-3 galactose linkage as an additional terminal carbohydrate structure on seminal fluid PSA. We then analyzed the carbohydrate moiety of serum PSA from the patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy using lectin affinity chromatography. Lectin binding was assessed by lectin affinity column chromatography followed by determining the amount of total and free PSA. Concanavalin A, Lens culinaris, Aleuria aurantia, Sambucus nigra, and Maackia amurensis lectins were tested for their binding to the carbohydrates on PSA. Among the lectins examined, the M. amurensis agglutinin-bound fraction of free serum PSA is increased in prostate cancer patients compared to benign prostate hypertrophy patients. The binding of PSA to M. amurensis agglutinin, which recognizes alpha2,3-linked sialic acid, was also confirmed by surface plasmon resonance analysis. These results suggest that the differential binding of free serum PSA to M. amurensis agglutinin lectin between prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy could be a potential measure for diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  8. DIETARY TERPENOIDS AND PROSTATE CANCER CHEMOPREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Thangaiyan; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals may be one of the most feasible approaches for cancer control. Phytochemicals obtained from vegetables, fruits, spices, teas, herbs and medicinal plants, such as terpenoids and other phenolic compounds, have been proven to suppress experimental carcinogenesis in various organs in pre-clinical models. Recent studies have indicated that mechanisms underlying chemopreventive potential may be a combination of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-enhancing, and hormone modulation effects, with modification of drug metabolizing enzymes, influence on cell cycle and cell differentiation, induction of apoptosis, suppression of proliferation and angiogenesis playing roles in the initiation and secondary modification stages of neoplastic development. Specific features of prostate cancer, such as high prevalence and long latency period provides ample opportunities for chemopreventive agents to work at various stages of disease progression. Finally, suitable populations with appropriate risk factors, including the presence of pre-malignant lesions and genetic predispositions, need to be well characterized for future chemopreventive interventions. Here we review naturally occurring dietary terpenoids as useful agents for prostate cancer chemoprevention with reference to their classes and sources. PMID:18508447

  9. Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Bas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome has gained increased attention in the last century after researchers identified its important role in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Despite limited research into the relationship between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer (PCa, the precise relationship has not been elucidated due to lack of research into the specific factors associated with PCa. To fill this research gap, we evaluated the incidence of PCa in patients with metabolic syndrome and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the parameters of PCa. Material and Method: We retrospectively evaluated the biochemical analyses of the serum parameters and pathological reports of 102 PCa patients diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound. After determining the incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients with PCa, we divided the patients into two groups, those with and without a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. We then compared the serum PSA level, age, total prostate volume, Gleason score, triglyceride (TG level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C, blood pressure, and fasting glucose level of the two groups. Results: We included 102 patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer in the present study. Among the 102 patients, 18 (17.6% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. While the PSA levels of the PCa patients were found to be significantly lower in those with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome (P=0.04, no difference was found between the groups regarding the other components of PCa (P>0.05. Discussion: Serum PSA level was found to be significantly lower in those with metabolic syndrome. This result leads us to consider whether prostate biopsy should be performed in patients with metabolic syndrome who have lower PSA levels than the levels currently specified for biopsy. Further research into the parameters of PCa needs to be conducted to confirm our findings.

  10. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    by the RCMI grant 2Gl2RR003062-22. S60 STRESS AND APOPTOTIC PROTEINS EXPRESSION IN ARSENIC TRIOXIDE-TREATED BREAST AND LUNG CANCER CELLS, Alice M...Robert Boissy Analysis 10:30 Vimla Band Breast Cancer 9:00 Arrival at Morrison Virology Building 9:15 Jack Morris- Welcome and outline of today’s...cycle progression through G 1. This interaction has been shown to regulate proliferation in human skin, neuronal (neural) and breast cancer cells

  11. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  12. Meat Consumption, Related Nutrients, Obesity and Risk of Prostate Cancer: a Case-Control Study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Eduardo De; Boffetta, Paolo L; Ronco, Alvaro; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the role of meat consumption and related nutrients in the etiology of prostate cancer we conducted a case-control study among Uruguayan men in the time period 1998-2007. The study included 464 cases and 472 controls, frequency matched for age and residence. Both series were drawn from the four major public hospitals in Montevideo. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of prostate cancer by quartiles of meat intake and related nutrients. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake of total meat (OR = 5.19, 95 % CI 3.46-7.81), red meat (OR = 4.64, 95 % CI 3.10-6.95), and processed meat (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22-2.59) were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Meat nutrients were directly associated with the risk of prostate cancer (OR for cholesterol 5.61, 95 % CI 3.75-8.50). Moreover, both total meat and red meat displayed higher risks among obese patients. This study suggests that total and red meat and meat nutrients may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer in Uruguay.

  13. Activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Frank

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hedgehog pathway plays a critical role in the development of prostate. However, the role of the hedgehog pathway in prostate cancer is not clear. Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death in American men. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer has significant clinical implications. Results Here we report that activation of the hedgehog pathway occurs frequently in advanced human prostate cancer. We find that high levels of hedgehog target genes, PTCH1 and hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP, are detected in over 70% of prostate tumors with Gleason scores 8–10, but in only 22% of tumors with Gleason scores 3–6. Furthermore, four available metastatic tumors all have high expression of PTCH1 and HIP. To identify the mechanism of the hedgehog signaling activation, we examine expression of Su(Fu protein, a negative regulator of the hedgehog pathway. We find that Su(Fu protein is undetectable in 11 of 27 PTCH1 positive tumors, two of them contain somatic loss-of-function mutations of Su(Fu. Furthermore, expression of sonic hedgehog protein is detected in majority of PTCH1 positive tumors (24 out of 27. High levels of hedgehog target genes are also detected in four prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, LN-Cap and PC3. We demonstrate that inhibition of hedgehog signaling by smoothened antagonist, cyclopamine, suppresses hedgehog signaling, down-regulates cell invasiveness and induces apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells expressing Gli1 under the CMV promoter are resistant to cyclopamine-mediated apoptosis. All these data suggest a significant role of the hedgehog pathway for cellular functions of prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that activation of the hedgehog pathway, through loss of Su(Fu or overexpression of sonic hedgehog, may involve tumor progression and metastases of prostate cancer. Thus, targeted inhibition of hedgehog signaling may have

  14. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer that are being studied include the following: Digital rectal exam Digital rectal exam (DRE) is an exam of the ... lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Enlarge Digital rectal exam (DRE). The doctor inserts a gloved, ...

  15. Advances of Liver X Receptor Signaling Pathways in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver X receptors (LXRs, a kind of ligand-activated transcription factors, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily (NRS, and function as central transcriptional regulators for lipid homeostasis, for which agonists have been developed as potential drugs for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. In sex hormone-dependent cancers, dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been manifested. Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer in males in Europe and a leading cause of cancer deaths, with similar proportion in other developed countries. A lot of studies have confirmed that both LXR and its agonists may play some roles in the progression of prostate cancer, and LXR signaling pathways may have a close association with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Hence, to investigate the signaling pathways mediated by LXR and its agonists and their effects in prostate cancer is favorable to optimization of new treatment methods.

  16. Analysis of Prostate Deformation during a Course of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Tateoka, Kunihiko; Saito, Yuichi; Abe, Tadanori; Yano, Masaki; Yaegashi, Yuji; Narimatsu, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Nakata, Akihiro; Nakata, Kensei; Someya, Masanori; Hori, Masakazu; Hareyama, Masato; Sakata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Accurate analysis of the correlation between deformation of the prostate and displacement of its center of gravity (CoG) is important for efficient radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this study, we addressed this problem by introducing a new analysis approach. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 7 repeat cone-beam CT scans during the course of treatment were obtained for 19 prostate cancer patients who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. A single observer contoured the prostate gland only. To evaluate the local deformation of the prostate, it was divided into 12 manually defined segments. Prostate deformation was calculated using in-house developed software. The correlation between the displacement of the CoG and the local deformation of the prostate was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. The mean value and standard deviation (SD) of the prostate deformation were 0.6 mm and 1.7 mm, respectively. For the majority of the patients, the local SD of the deformation was slightly lager in the superior and inferior segments. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the anterior-posterior displacement of the CoG of the prostate had a highly significant correlation with the deformations in the middle-anterior (p deformation of the prostate surface in other segments. Anterior-posterior displacement of the CoG of the prostate is highly correlated with deformation in its middle-anterior and posterior segments. In the radiation therapy for prostate cancer, it is necessary to optimize the internal margin for every position of the prostate measured using image-guided radiation therapy.

  17. Stage of diagnosis of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer in farm residents compared with other rural and urban residents in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depczynski, Julie; Dobbins, Timothy; Armstrong, Bruce; Lower, Tony

    2017-11-13

    To determine if stage at diagnosis of prostate, breast and colorectal cancers differs between farm, rural non-farm and urban residents. Data linkage of baseline survey information from a large cohort study, with state cancer registry records from 2006 to 2009. New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales residents enrolled in the 45 and Up Study cohort. Adjusted odds ratio of non-localised cancer stage was modelled using binary logistic regression, controlling for commonly known cancer risk factors. Overall differences in the odds ratios for later stage prostate, breast and colorectal cancer diagnosis in farm men and women compared with rural non-farm and urban counterparts were not statistically significant, although farm men had twice the odds of either group of being diagnosed at later stage colorectal cancer. The odds of later stage prostate cancer for farm and urban men were similar, but rural non-farm men were significantly less likely than urban men to be diagnosed at later stage. Higher household income was associated with later stage breast and prostate cancer; and private health insurance with extras was negatively associated with later stage prostate cancer. Differences in stage of cancer diagnosis, particularly between farm and rural non-farm men, remain unexplained but were not statistically significant. Farm men may be at higher risk of later stage colorectal cancer diagnosis, which if confirmed has implications for research on possible reasons, and for the delivery of appropriate cancer diagnostic services in rural areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Prostate specific antigen levels and prostate cancer detection rates in patients with end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Catherine J; Heldt, Jonathan P; Anderson, Kirk M; Ruckle, Herbert C; Agarwal, Gautum; Smith, Damien L; Schlaifer, Amy E; Richards, Gideon D; Arnold, Don C; Baldwin, D Duane

    2012-06-01

    Patients with end stage renal disease plus prostate cancer are ineligible to receive a renal transplant at most centers until an acceptable cancer-free period is demonstrated. To our knowledge previously established prostate specific antigen reference ranges have not been validated in patients with end stage renal disease. We determined age stratified 95th percentile prostate specific antigen reference ranges and the prostate cancer detection rate at specific prostate specific antigen intervals for patients with end stage renal disease. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 775 male patients with end stage renal disease on the waiting list for a renal transplant who had undergone a serum prostate specific antigen test. Prostate specific antigen was stratified by age at the time of the blood test and 95th percentile reference ranges were calculated for each decade. A total of 80 patients underwent prostate biopsy for increased prostate specific antigen and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. The cancer detection rate was calculated for specific prostate specific antigen reference ranges. The age specific 95th percentile prostate specific antigen references ranges were 0 to 4.0 ng/ml for ages 40 to 49 in 137 patients, 0 to 5.3 ng/ml for ages 50 to 59 in 257, 0 to 10.5 ng/ml for ages 60 to 69 in 265 and 0 to 16.6 ng/ml for ages 70 to 79 years in 69. The cancer detection rate was 44%, 38% and 67% for prostate specific antigen 2.5 to 4.0, 4 to 10 and greater than 10 ng/ml, respectively. In our study population of patients with end stage renal disease age stratified prostate specific antigen was higher than in the general population. The cancer detection rate was increased in our patients with end stage renal disease compared to that in patients with normal renal function at specific prostate specific antigen intervals. Lower prostate specific antigen cutoffs may be appropriate to recommend prostate biopsy in patients with end stage renal disease. Copyright

  19. Management of Biochemical Recurrence after Primary Localized Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama M. eDarwish

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically localized prostate cancer is typically managed by well established therapies like radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy. While many patients can be cured with definitive local therapy, some will have biochemical recurrence (BCR of disease detected by a rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Management of these patients is nuanced and controversial. The natural history indicates that a majority of patients with BCR will not die from prostate cancer but from other causes. Despite this, a vast majority of patients with BCR are empirically treated with non-curable systemic androgen deprivation therapy, with its myriad of real and potential side effects. In this review article, we examined the very definition of BCR after definitive local therapy, the current status of imaging studies in its evaluation, the need for additional therapies and the factors involved in the decision making in the choice of additional therapies. This review aims to help clinicians with the management of patients with BCR. The assessment of prognostic factors including absolute PSA level, time to recurrence, PSA kinetics, multivariable nomograms, imaging, and biopsy of the prostatic bed may help stratify the patients into localized or systemic recurrence. Patients with low risk of systemic disease may be cured by a salvage local therapy, while those with higher risk of systemic disease may be offered the option of androgen deprivation therapy or a clinical trial. An algorithm incorporating these factors is presented.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time and response to cabazitaxel in a hormone-resistant metastatic prostate cancer patient

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosn, Marwan; Dagher, Alain; El-Karak, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, who received prior treatment with docetaxel and was then given cabazitaxel as salvage therapy. The patient was monitored by prostate-specific antigen doubling time and prostate-specific antigen absolute value. The prostate-specific antigen doubling time was found to be a good response predictor in the patient.

  1. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time and response to cabazitaxel in a hormone-resistant metastatic prostate cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Marwan; Dagher, Alain; El-Karak, Fadi

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, who received prior treatment with docetaxel and was then given cabazitaxel as salvage therapy. The patient was monitored by prostate-specific antigen doubling time and prostate-specific antigen absolute value. The prostate-specific antigen doubling time was found to be a good response predictor in the patient.

  2. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J

    2015-12-15

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening detects many cancers that would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected prostate cancer, we reviewed 19 studies of prostate cancer discovered at autopsy among 6,024 men. Among men aged 70-79, tumor was found in 36% of Caucasians and 51% of African-Americans. This enormous prevalence, coupled with the high sensitivity of PSA screening, has led to the marked increase in the apparent incidence of prostate cancer. The impact of PSA screening on clinical practice is well-recognized, but its effect on epidemiologic research is less appreciated. Before screening, a larger proportion of incident prostate cancers had lethal potential and were diagnosed at advanced stage. However, in the PSA era, overall incident prostate cancer mainly is indolent disease, and often reflects the propensity to be screened and biopsied. Studies must therefore focus on cancers with lethal potential, and include long follow-up to accommodate the lead time induced by screening. Moreover, risk factor patterns differ markedly for potentially lethal and indolent disease, suggesting separate etiologies and distinct disease entities. Studies of total incident or indolent prostate cancer are of limited clinical utility, and the main focus of research should be on prostate cancers of lethal potential. © 2014 UICC.

  3. Differentiation of prostate cancer cells using flexible fluorescent polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K; Guo, Bin; Friesner, Daniel L; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-01-03

    Using water-soluble, fluorescent, flexible polymers, we have devised a novel methodology for identification and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis, we demonstrate that the differential modulations of the polymer emission intensities in the presence of conditioned cell culture media can be used to distinguish between prostate cancer subtypes and between cancerous and noncancer cells. The differences in the compositions of the conditioned cell culture media are likely contributing to different fluorescence spectral patterns of the polymers. This in vitro approach may provide a novel platform for the development of an alternative prostate cancer diagnostic and subtyping technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. When to perform bone scintigraphy in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer? a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiwei; Mao, Qiqi; Chen, Bin; Wang, Liujiang; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2017-06-12

    To determine when a bone scintigraphy investigation is appropriate in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa). We retrospectively reviewed 703 newly diagnosed PCa patients who were referred for bone scintigraphy. The association between age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score (GS) and bone scintigraphy result were investigated by series of crude or stratified analysis. Overall, 15.08% (106/703) patients had bone metastases. PSA and GS between positive bone scan group and negative bone scan group were significantly different, while age was not. The incidence of bone metastasis in patient with PSA bone scan. Patients with PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml or GS ≥ 8 were in higher risk of bone metastasis, bone scintigraphy was recommended. But a bone scintigraphy is of limited value in PCa patients with PSA ≤ 20 ng/ml and GS ≤ 7.

  5. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  6. Travel distance and stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahal, Brandon A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Sethi, Roshan V; Padilla, Oscar A; Yang, David D; Chavez, Janice; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Hu, Jim C; Feng, Felix Y; Hoffman, Karen E; Martin, Neil E; Spratt, Daniel E; Yu, James B; Orio, Peter F; Nguyen, Paul L

    2017-12-12

    Definitive stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents an emerging and debated treatment option for patients with prostate cancer, with potential economic savings and reports of short-term efficacy since 2006. The current study sought to define national trends in definitive prostate SBRT use and determine whether patterns vary by travel distance for treatment. The National Cancer Data Base identified 181,544 men with localized prostate cancer who were treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy from 2004 through 2012. Joinpoint regression analyzed definitive prostate SBRT trends over time, whereas multivariable logistic regression defined the odds for its receipt by travel distance for treatment. Definitive prostate SBRT use increased from 1.8% in 2004 to 5.9% in 2012 (P for trend 50 miles were associated with increasing adjusted odds of receipt of definitive prostate SBRT (1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.76] and 2.35 [95% confidence interval, 2.14-2.57], respectively; both P < .0001). Definitive prostate SBRT use increased more than 3-fold since 2004, with a significant increase in use coinciding with early reports of short-term efficacy. Long-distance travel for treatment was associated with greater than twice the odds of receipt of definitive prostate SBRT compared with short-distance travel, suggesting that treatment decisions with unknown long-term clinical implications may be strongly driven by sociodemographic factors. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Real-Time Motion Management of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias

    The aim of radiation therapy is to deliver a radiation dose to the tumour that is high enough for all cancer cells to be killed, while sparing healthy organs to such an extent that the side effects are as low as possible. Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in Denmark......, and for prostate cancer treatments, the proximity of the bladder and rectum makes radiotherapy treatment of this site a challenging task. Furthermore, the prostate may move during the radiation delivery and treatment margins are necessary to ensure that it is still receiving the intended dose. The main aim...... of this thesis is to manage prostate motion in real-time by aligning the radiation beam to the prostate using the novel dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking method. Specifically, the delivered dose with tracking was compared to the planned dose, and the impact of treatment plan complexity and limitations...

  8. Prostate-specific antigen-positive extramammary Paget's disease--association with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Hager, Henrik; Steiniche, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepidermal adenocarcinoma that primarily affects the anogenital region. Cases of EMPD reacting with PSA (prostate-specific antigen) have previously been associated with underlying prostate cancer. However, a recent case of EMPD in our department has...... led us to question the value of PSA as an indicator of underlying prostate cancer. Clinical and pathological data were obtained for 16 cases of EMPD. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from the primary skin lesions were investigated using PSA and other immunohistochemical markers. 5...... of the 16 cases of EMPD stained positive for PSA (2 women and 3 men). However, no reactivity was seen for the prostatic marker P501S. Three of the five patients had been diagnosed with internal malignant disease-two with prostate cancer, stage 1. Immunohistochemical investigations of the tumour specimens...

  9. Male pattern baldness and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, M; Saliou, M; De Rycke, Y; Hemery, C; Henni, M; Bachaud, J M; Thiounn, N; Cosset, J M; Giraud, P

    2011-08-01

    Androgens play a role in the development of both androgenic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, and prostate cancer. We set out to study if early-onset androgenic alopecia was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. A total of 669 subjects (388 with a history of prostate cancer and 281 without) were enrolled in this study. All subjects were asked to score their balding pattern at ages 20, 30 and 40. Statistical comparison was subsequently done between both groups of patients. Our study revealed that patients with prostate cancer were twice as likely to have androgenic alopecia at age 20 [odds ratio (OR) 2.01, P = 0.0285]. The pattern of hair loss was not a predictive factor for the development of cancer. There was no association between early-onset alopecia and an earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer or with the development of more aggressive tumors. This study shows an association between early-onset androgenic alopecia and the development of prostate cancer. Whether this population can benefit from routine prostate cancer screening or systematic use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as primary prevention remains to be determined.

  10. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer ... Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0595 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Dmitri Artemov, Ph.D. 5e...excellent targeting of PSMA- expressing prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. We investigated details of the mAb and therapeutic complexes

  11. Evaluation of metastatic potential of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Chihara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to establish a method for evaluating malignant potential of prostate cancer using prostatic core needle biopsy (PCNB before prostatectomy. If we can know the final pathological stage before treatment, we can select the most suitable therapeutic tactics. We then examined the expression of E-cadherin and type IV collagenase (MMP-9/-2, which play essential role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The expression ratio of MMP-9/-2 to E-cadherin (MER is revealed as the relevant marker correlated with the final pathological stage and Gleason score by prostatectomy specimens. We next confirmed the significance of MER in PCNB, which means PCNB MER enables the prediction of the final pathologic stage at the cancer diagnosis. However, the methodology measuring MER is complicated to produce an observer-to-observer deviation. We then establish a bicolor fluorescent ISH (bicolor FISH with a computerized fluorescence detector- based system. By this method, we can reduce an observer-to-observer deviation and a slide-to-slide deviation. The bicolor FISH-based MER is a useful tool for the preoperative evaluation of the final pathologic stage, by which we can assure a decision of prostatectomy indication.

  12. Aqueous extract of Urtica dioica makes significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase activity in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Ilker; Biri, Hasan; Devrim, Erdinç; Sözen, Sinan; Avci, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Investigation of possible effects of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaves on adenosine deaminase activity in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer. Ten prostate tissues from patients with pathologically proven localized prostate cancer (Gleason scores 4 to 7) were used in the study. In the tissues, ADA activities with and without preincubation with different amounts of Urtica dioica extracts were performed. Aqueous extract of Urtica dioica results in significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity of prostate tissue. ADA inhibition by Urtica dioica extract might be one of the mechanisms in the observed beneficial effect of Urtica dioica in prostate cancer.

  13. Impact of meat consumption, preparation, and mutagens on aggressive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoj Punnen

    Full Text Available The association between meat consumption and prostate cancer remains unclear, perhaps reflecting heterogeneity in the types of tumors studied and the method of meat preparation--which can impact the production of carcinogens.We address both issues in this case-control study focused on aggressive prostate cancer (470 cases and 512 controls, where men reported not only their meat intake but also their meat preparation and doneness level on a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between overall and grilled meat consumption, doneness level, ensuing carcinogens and aggressive prostate cancer were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.Higher consumption of any ground beef or processed meats were positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, with ground beef showing the strongest association (OR = 2.30, 95% CI:1.39-3.81; P-trend = 0.002. This association primarily reflected intake of grilled or barbequed meat, with more well-done meat conferring a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Comparing high and low consumptions of well/very well cooked ground beef to no consumption gave OR's of 2.04 (95% CI:1.41-2.96 and 1.51 (95% CI:1.06-2.14, respectively. In contrast, consumption of rare/medium cooked ground beef was not associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Looking at meat mutagens produced by cooking at high temperatures, we detected an increased risk with 2-amino-3,8-Dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]Quinolaxine (MelQx and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-fqunioxaline (DiMelQx, when comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake: OR = 1.69 (95% CI:1.08-2.64;P-trend = 0.02 and OR = 1.53 (95% CI:1.00-2.35; P-trend = 0.005, respectively.Higher intake of well-done grilled or barbequed red meat and ensuing carcinogens could increase the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

  14. Role of Obesity in Prostate Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Western blot analysis . Representative staining from the immunohistochemistry is shown in Figure 6. Expression of AdipoR1 was found in all prostate tumor...with goat serum instead of primary antibody was negative (Fig 6D). Western blot analysis of frozen tissue from the same mice was also performed and...TRAMP) model. Cancer Res., 57, 3325-3330. 41. Williams,T.M., Hassan,G.S., Li,J., Cohen,A.W., Medina,F., Frank,P.G., Pestell ,R.G., Di Vizio,D., and

  15. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Site. The PCBN is a public bioresource that provides tissue and other biospecimens to all prostate cancer investigators. It is supported in part by the...Cell Signaling Technology (CST) and the membrane was re-probed with DDR1 Ab, D1G6, from CST for total DDR1. As shown in Figure 1, RO6849889 Ab but...disciplines? Nothing to Report. ▪ What was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to Report. ▪ What was the impact on society

  16. Prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen testing in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David P; Supramaniam, Rajah; Marshall, Villis R; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2008-09-15

    To describe trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, prostate cancer incidence and mortality in New South Wales. Descriptive analysis using routinely collected data of observed trends in PSA testing from 1989 to 2006, and prostate cancer cases and deaths from 1972 to 2005 in NSW. Age-standardised and age-specific rates and joinpoint regression to identify changes in trends; projected trends observed before the introduction of PSA testing to quantify its impact on incidence and mortality rates. The number of PSA tests per year more than doubled between 1994 and 2006. Age-standardised incidence of prostate cancer peaked in 1994, fell by 10.0% per year to 1998 and then increased by 4.9% per year from 2001 to 2005. An estimated 19 602 (43%) more men than expected from preceding trends were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1989 and 2005 after PSA testing was introduced. The incidence of recorded advanced prostate cancer at diagnosis fell from 13.0 per 100,000 men in 1987-1991 to 7.0 per 100,000 men in 2002-2005. The age-standardised mortality from prostate cancer increased by 3.6% per year between 1984 and 1990 and then fell by 2.0% per year to 2005. There was a sustained increase in prostate cancer incidence in NSW after PSA testing was introduced. While falls in the incidence of advanced disease at diagnosis and mortality from prostate cancer after 1993 are consistent with a benefit from PSA testing, other explanations cannot be excluded.

  17. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin

  18. [Sexual problems in patients with prostate cancer and those with benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, J E; Marilov, V V; Brukhin, A E

    2011-03-23

    We use the word "tumour" both for a benign prostatic hypertrophy and for a prostatic cancer. The psycho-emotional reactions from a man suffering from these illnesses could be different depending on the kind of tumour, but could be similar especially concerning sexual problems connected with the specific affliction. Hence the necessity also to consider beneficial a psychotherapeutic and sexotherapeutic intervention.

  19. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population: the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Li, Yu-Lin; Wu, Shan; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Zhang, Ling; Tateno, Hiroo; Sato, Ikuro; Kuwahara, Masaaki; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). A total of 12027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen tPSA test (by Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was > 4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Of the 12027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were 4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  20. Lowering T Cell Activation Thresholds and Deregulating Homeostasis to Facilitate Immunotherapeutic Responses to Treat Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Eugene D

    2006-01-01

    ... to develop immune-based therapies for prostate cancer Hence, relatively straightforward manipulations that induce specific T cell responses against prostate tumors or epithelial tissues, especially...