WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher water availability

  1. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumano, H; Hernandez, L; Gutierrez, L; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2005-02-01

    (1) In order to make trimethoprim (TMP) available to broilers throughout the day, a sustained release formulation (SRF) of the drug in the form of granules was added to the water tank that supplies drinking water. (2) Broilers were initially dosed with sulphachloropiridazine-TMP (SCP-TMP 5:1) and then further medicated throughout the day, achieving in the end a dose of 30 mg/kg each of SCP and TMP (group A). Group B received a preparation with the same dose of SCP and TMP (1:1) as group A, but administered as a single dose without the SRF of TMP. Group C received the customary SCP-TMP 5:1 preparation (30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively). Water tanks were completely consumed in 3 to 4 h. (3) Broilers were bled at different times and concentration of antibacterial activity in serum determined by correlating the composite antibacterial activity of SCP and TMP with actual concentrations of these drugs by means of a microbiological agar diffusion assay. (4) Time vs serum concentrations of activity were higher in group B; the increments in the maximum serum concentration for group B over groups A and C being 39 and 67%, respectively. (5) However, the sustained concentration of activity over time, measured as the area under the cu)rve, was highest in group A. Group B had higher values for area under the curve than group C. (6) An additional dose of TMP to achieve 30 mg/kg of both SCP and TMP improves the serum concentration of this combination over the customary 5:1 proportion. The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results.

  2. Water availability and trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    West, S.; Lynch, M.; Turner, V.; Munoz, B.; Rapoza, P.; Mmbaga, B. B.; Taylor, H. R.

    1989-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological survey of risk factors for trachoma in 20 villages in the United Republic of Tanzania, we investigated the relationship of village water pumps, distance to water source, and quantity of household water to the risk of inflammatory trachoma. We also evaluated whether there was an association between the cleanliness of children's faces and these water variables. No association was found between the presence of a village water supply and the prevalence of trachoma. H...

  3. Water availability and trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S; Lynch, M; Turner, V; Munoz, B; Rapoza, P; Mmbaga, B B; Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological survey of risk factors for trachoma in 20 villages in the United Republic of Tanzania, we investigated the relationship of village water pumps, distance to water source, and quantity of household water to the risk of inflammatory trachoma. We also evaluated whether there was an association between the cleanliness of children's faces and these water variables. No association was found between the presence of a village water supply and the prevalence of trachoma. However, the risk of trachoma in the household increased with the distance to a water source--although there was no association with the estimated daily amount of water brought into the house. Likewise, children were more likely to have unclean faces if they lived more than 30 minutes from a water source, but whether they had clean faces was not associated with the daily quantity of water brought into the household. The effect of the distance to water supply on trachoma may well reflect the value placed on water within the family, and this determines the priority for its use for hygiene purposes. The results of the study suggest that changing the access to water per se may be insufficient to alter the prevalence of trachoma without also a concomitant effort to change the perception of how water should be utilized in the home.

  4. Water availability pollution and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water has played a very important role in the development of human society. Resources of water have shaped the development of people and nations. Management of water gave the birth to innovations and technologies. Our complex metropolitan civilization and advanced technologies have generated new demands for water. Its importance to society and government has never diminished. The growing concern over resources availability and a rapid spread of water pollution, the link between water supply and water quality have become more apparent. The global management of water demands economy in use, restricted chemical and sanitation emissions, population control, discouragement of urbanization and water pollution awareness can greatly assist in averting the water holocaust that the world is expecting to face in the years to come. The scientific community in Pakistan is required to diagnose these problems in a systematic way to give advance warning of expected water scarcity, water pollution, water related land degradation, urban growth and population to assure the water cycle integrity of our world. (author)

  5. Fuel and heavy water availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The general guidelines for the Working Group's evaluation of the availability of nuclear fuel and heavy water were set at the Organizing Conference of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), which was held in Washington, United States of America, 19-21 October 1977. The agreed technical and economic scope for the evaluation was to: (1) Estimate needs for nuclear energy and correlated needs for uranium and heavy water according to different fuel cycle strategies; (2) Review uranium availability with specific regard to: Assessment of resources and production capacities; policies and incentives for encouraging exploration and production including joint ventures; marketing policies and/or guarantees of sales for companies investing in exploration and production; marketing policies and/or guarantees of supply for utilities; technical development of exploration, mining and milling methods; (3) Review heavy water availability; (4) Review thorium availability; (5) Consider special needs of developing countries. The illustrations of availability and requirements developed in this report do provide a useful framework for considering future options and alternatives for the development of nuclear power

  6. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  7. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  8. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    of sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance...... decreases. However, the addition of surfactants such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the water mobility, leading to higher water availability, and ultimately higher glucose production. More specifically, the higher water availability boosts the activity of processive cellulases. Thus, water...... availability is vital for efficient hydrolysis, especially at high dry matter content where water availability is low. At high dry matter content, cellulase activity changes water interactions with biomass, affecting the water mobility. While swelling and fiber loosening also take place during hydrolysis...

  9. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under ... model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage.

  10. Water availability and management for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security is directly linked to water security for food production. Water availability for crop production will be dependent upon precipitation or irrigation, soil water holding capacity, and crop water demand. The linkages among these components in rainfed agricultural systems shows the impact ...

  11. Substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Baptista Gordin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Niger is an oleaginous species whose cultivation has been spreading, but there is not much information on the adverse conditions during its seedling establishment. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination. Seeds were moistened using the humid atmosphere method for 0; 24; 48; and 72 hours, obtaining the water contents of 7.0 %, 12.8 %, 16.8 % and 32.2 %. Then, they were sown in substrate moistened with PEG 6000 solutions with different osmotic potentials: 0.0 MPa (control, -0.1 MPa, -0.2 MPa, -0.3 MPa and -0.4 MPa. A completely randomized design, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (water content x osmotic potential, with four replications of 50 seeds, was used. First count and germination percentage, germination speed index and mean time, shoot and root length and seedlings dry weight were evaluated. The reduction in the substrate osmotic potential decreases the niger seed germination and seedling growth, regardless of water content, but with a higher evidence in seed water contents below 32.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively.

  12. Regional Responses to Constrained Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Hejazi, M. I.; Clarke, L.; Kim, S. H.; Patel, P.

    2017-12-01

    There have been many concerns about water as a constraint to agricultural production, electricity generation, and many other human activities in the coming decades. Nevertheless, how different countries/economies would respond to such constraints has not been explored. Here, we examine the responding mechanism of binding water availability constraints at the water basin level and across a wide range of socioeconomic, climate and energy technology scenarios. Specifically, we look at the change in water withdrawals between energy, land-use and other sectors within an integrated framework, by using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) that also endogenizes water use and allocation decisions based on costs. We find that, when water is taken into account as part of the production decision-making, countries/basins in general fall into three different categories, depending on the change of water withdrawals and water re-allocation between sectors. First, water is not a constraining factor for most of the basins. Second, advancements in water-saving technologies of the electricity generation cooling systems are sufficient of reducing water withdrawals to meet binding water availability constraints, such as in China and the EU-15. Third, water-saving in the electricity sector alone is not sufficient and thus cannot make up the lowered water availability from the binding case; for example, many basins in Pakistan, Middle East and India have to largely reduce irrigated water withdrawals by either switching to rain-fed agriculture or reducing production. The dominant responding strategy for individual countries/basins is quite robust across the range of alternate scenarios that we test. The relative size of water withdrawals between energy and agriculture sectors is one of the most important factors that affect the dominant mechanism.

  13. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  14. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zemlick, Katie M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  15. Water Availability in a Warming World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzade, Jennifer

    As climate warms during the 21st century, the resultant changes in water availability are a vital issue for society, perhaps even more important than the magnitude of warming itself. Yet our climate models disagree in their forecasts of water availability, limiting our ability to plan accordingly. This thesis investigates future water availability projections from Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Models (GCMs), primarily using two water availability measures: soil moisture and the Supply Demand Drought Index (SDDI). Chapter One introduces methods of measuring water availability and explores some of the fundamental differences between soil moisture, SDDI and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). SDDI and PDSI tend to predict more severe future drought conditions than soil moisture; 21st century projections of SDDI show conditions rivaling North American historic mega-droughts. We compare multiple potential evapotranspiration (EP) methods in New York using input from the GISS Model ER GCM and local station data from Rochester, NY, and find that they compare favorably with local pan evaporation measurements. We calculate SDDI and PDSI values using various EP methods, and show that changes in future projections are largest when using EP methods most sensitive to global warming, not necessarily methods producing EP values with the largest magnitudes. Chapter Two explores the characteristics and biases of the five GCMs and their 20th and 21st century climate projections. We compare atmospheric variables that drive water availability changes globally, zonally, and geographically among models. All models show increases in both dry and wet extremes for SDDI and soil moisture, but increases are largest for extreme drying conditions using SDDI. The percentage of gridboxes that agree on the sign of change of soil moisture and SDDI between models is very low, but does increase in the 21st century. Still, differences between models are smaller than differences

  16. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... enhanced understanding of the system, thereby enabling the formulation of a quantitative model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the formulation of logical quantitative definitions for crop-ecotope specific upper and lower limits of available water; the identification of the harmful rootzone ...

  17. Lunchtime School Water Availability and Water Consumption Among California Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Babey, Susan H; Patel, Anisha I; Wang, Pan; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the potential impact of California SB 1413, which required school districts to provide free, fresh drinking water during mealtimes in food service areas by July 1, 2011, on greater water consumption among California adolescents. Data were drawn from the 2012 and 2013 state-representative California Health Interview Survey. A total of 2,665 adolescents aged 12-17 years were interviewed regarding their water consumption and availability of free water during lunchtime at their school. Three-fourths reported that their school provided free water at lunchtime, mainly via fountains. In a multivariate model that controlled for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and school type, adolescents in schools that provided free water consumed significantly more water than adolescents who reported that water was not available, bivariate (standard error) = .67 (.28), p = .02. School water access did not significantly vary across the 2 years. Lunchtime school water availability was related to water consumption, but a quarter of adolescents reported that their school did not provide free water at lunch. Future research should explore what supports and inducements might facilitate provision of drinking water during school mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. The Top Questions of the Higher Education: Openness, Availability, Elitism

    OpenAIRE

    Solodovnikova, Olga; Tsoy, Galina

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the main features of the university education and their transformation after appearance of commercialisation in the university activities. The changes combined with the globalisation of the higher education and new ways of managing the system of higher education are pointed.

  19. Assessment of water availability in Chindwinn catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyu Oo Khin; Ohn Gyaw

    2001-01-01

    A study of water balance over Chindwinn Catchment has been carried out by using three decades of available climatological and hydrological data (i.e. from 1967). The study was based on the monthly, annual and normal values. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) computed by as well as on the using Penman (1963) as well as Hargreaves (1985) methods. Some of the reliable data of evaporation at the stations were also used to estimate actual evaporation with the pancoefficient value 0.7. The values of actual evapotranspiration estimated by Hargreaves method was lower than the values estimated by Penman, but most followed the same significant trend. The soil moisture deficiency generally occurs during November and April. A few cases of soil moisture deficiency do occur in August, September and October. However, on the overall availability of water in the catchment is quite promising. The residual resulted from the water balance estimation may be assumed as soil moisture in the catchment by neglecting some losses from the catchment. (author)

  20. Water Availability Indices – A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Fresh water is a critical resource for humanity and the ecosystem. In general, water resources can be partitioned into two major categories: blue water and green water (Falkenmark and Rockström 2006). Precipitation that runs off or percolates into the deep aquifer is defined as blue water, and precipitation that filtrates into soil, which eventually returns to the atmosphere as evaporation, is called green water (Hoekstra et al. 2011). For human purposes, green water is almost exclusively used for agricultural production, but blue water can be used for multiple competing sectors, such as irrigation and municipal water.

  1. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Young Hong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively. Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  2. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  3. Topical and working papers on heavy water requirements and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documents included in this report are: Heavy water requirements and availability; technological infrastructure for heavy water plants; heavy water plant siting; hydrogen and methane availability; economics of heavy water production; monothermal, water fed heavy water process based on the ammonia/hydrogen isotopic exchange; production strategies to meet demand projections; hydrogen availability; deuterium sources; the independent UHDE heavy water process

  4. availability analysis of chemicals for water treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    In most countries, chemicals are generally recognized as being vital in the production of potable water and will ... industries and water utility ventures are being started in Nigeria ... are being dumped into rivers thereby polluting them the more.

  5. Higher Resolution for Water Resources Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth system science community is providing an increasing range of science results for the benefit of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In addressing questions such as reducing poverty and hunger, achieving sustainable global development, or by defining adaptation strategies for climate change, one of the key issues will be the quantitative description and understanding of the global water cycle, which will allow useful projections of available future water resources for several decades ahead. The quantities of global water cycle elements that we observe today - and deal with in hydrologic and atmospheric modeling - are already very different from the natural flows as human influence on the water cycle by storage, consumption and edifice has been going on for millennia, and climate change is expected to add more uncertainty. In this case Tony Blair’s comment that perhaps the most worrying problem is climate change does not cover the full story. We shall also have to quantify how the human demand for water resources and alterations of the various elements of the water cycle may proceed in the future: will there be enough of the precious water resource to sustain current and future demands by the various sectors involved? The topics that stakeholders and decision makers concerned with managing water resources are interested in cover a variety of human uses such as agriculture, energy production, ecological flow requirements to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, or human cultural aspects, recreation and human well-being - all typically most relevant at the regional or local scales, this being quite different from the relatively large-scale that the IPCC assessment addresses. Halfway through the Millennium process, the knowledge base of the global water cycle is still limited. The sustainability of regional water resources is best assessed through a research program that combines high-resolution climate and hydrologic models for expected

  6. Plant-available soil water capacity: estimation methods and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant-available water capacity of the soil is defined as the water content between field capacity and wilting point, and has wide practical application in planning the land use. In a representative profile of the Cerrado Oxisol, methods for estimating the wilting point were studied and compared, using a WP4-T psychrometer and Richards chamber for undisturbed and disturbed samples. In addition, the field capacity was estimated by the water content at 6, 10, 33 kPa and by the inflection point of the water retention curve, calculated by the van Genuchten and cubic polynomial models. We found that the field capacity moisture determined at the inflection point was higher than by the other methods, and that even at the inflection point the estimates differed, according to the model used. By the WP4-T psychrometer, the water content was significantly lower found the estimate of the permanent wilting point. We concluded that the estimation of the available water holding capacity is markedly influenced by the estimation methods, which has to be taken into consideration because of the practical importance of this parameter.

  7. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-13

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  8. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  9. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  10. Water availability in Almería

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides information on production and marketing of greenhouse products (mainly vegetables) in the Almeria area in south-east Spain. Also the status of higher education, research and consultancy is presented and discussed. In Almeria greenhouse horticulture is the main economic activity

  11. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9811-4] Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of EPA's action identifying water quality limited segments and associated...

  12. Climate change and water availability for vulnerable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, Nicolas; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2017-04-01

    Climatic projections for the Mediterranean basin indicate that the area will suffer a decrease in water resources due to climate change. The key climatic trends identified for the Mediterranean region are continuous temperature increase, further drying with precipitation decrease and the accentuation of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves and/or forest fires, which are expected to have a profound effect on agriculture. Indeed, the impact of climate variability on agricultural production is important at local, regional, national, as well as global scales. Agriculture of any kind is strongly influenced by the availability of water. Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation, runoff, and soil moisture storage patterns. Changes in total seasonal precipitation or in its pattern of variability are both important. Similarly, with higher temperatures, the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and evaporation into the atmosphere increase, and this favors increased climate variability, with more intense precipitation and more droughts. As a result, crop yields are affected by variations in climatic factors, such as air temperature and precipitation, and the frequency and severity of the above mentioned extreme events. The aim of this work is to briefly present the main effects of climate change and variability on water resources with respect to water availability for vulnerable agriculture, namely in the Mediterranean region. Results of undertaken studies in Greece on precipitation patterns and drought assessment using historical data records are presented. Based on precipitation frequency analysis, evidence of precipitation reductions is shown. Drought is assessed through an agricultural drought index, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI), in Thessaly, a drought-prone region in central Greece. The results justify the importance of water availability for vulnerable agriculture and the need for drought monitoring in the Mediterranean basin as part of

  13. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section... notice to announce when water is actually available for lands in private ownership under the project and...

  14. Water on Mars - Volatile history and resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the available deposits of water in the near-surface region of Mars which will be available to human exploration missions. The Martian seasonal water cycle is reviewed, and geochemical and geological constraints on the availability of water are examined. It is concluded that the only sure source of water in amounts significant as a resource are in the polar ice deposits.

  15. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9724-6] Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions... notice announces EPA's decision to identify certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2) on New York's list of impaired...

  16. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    processes in the soil, has greatly enhanced understanding of the system, ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage. ... risk clay and duplex soils and high runoff losses, in-field rainwater harvesting ...

  17. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall be...

  18. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9646-9] Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Availability and Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA...

  19. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9798-8] Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions.... SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States periodically submit, and EPA approve or disapprove... are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water quality standards and for which total...

  20. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  1. Frameworks for Assessing Human Influence on Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Mehran, A.; Mazdiyasni, O.; Ashraf, B.

    2016-12-01

    The water cycle is tightly coupled with water management and human water use behavior. Human activities and water use behavior can intensify the effects of a meteorological drought (a notion referred to as Anthropogenic Drought). In this presentation, we provide a general definition of anthropogenic drought. We then briefly review two different methods for assessing human influence on water availability: (1) a data-driven multivariate approach that links the information on inflow and surface reservoir storage to water demand; (2) A model-based framework that brings a top-down and bottom-up approach to provide localized water assessment based on local available infrastructure and projected water demands. Finally, we will show how the proposed methods can be used for water management scenario analysis (e.g., local water availability based on different human water demands scenarios). This presentation is primarily based on Mehran et al (Mehran A., Mazdiyasni O., AghaKouchak A., 2015, A Hybrid Framework for Assessing Socioeconomic Drought: Linking Climate Variability, Local Resilience, and Demand, Journal of Geophysical Research, 120 (15), 7520-7533, doi: 10.1002/2015JD023147.) and AghaKouchak et al (AghaKouchak A., Feldman D., Hoerling M., Huxman T., Lund J., 2015, Recognize Anthropogenic Drought, Nature, 524 (7566), 409-4011, doi:10.1038/524409a).

  2. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9840-5] Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of EPA's Responsiveness Summary Concerning EPA's May 9, 2013 Public Notice of...

  3. Global Water Availability and Requirements for Future Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Hoff, H.; Biemans, H.; Fader, M.; Waha, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares, spatially explicitly and at global scale, per capita water availability and water requirements for food production presently (1971-2000) and in the future given climate and population change (2070-99). A vegetation and hydrology model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) was

  4. Water and land availability for energy farming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooley, F.A.; Mara, S.J.; Mendel, D.A.; Meagher, P.C.; So, E.C.

    1979-10-01

    The physical and economic availability of land and water resources for energy farming were determined. Ten water subbasins possessing favorable land and water availabilities were ranked according to their overall potential for biomass production. The study results clearly identify the Southeast as a favorable area for biomass farming. The Northwest and North-Central United States should also be considered on the basis of their highly favorable environmental characteristics. Both high and low estimates of water availability for 1985 and 2000 in each of 99 subbasins were prepared. Subbasins in which surface water consumption was more than 50% of surface water supply were eliminated from the land availability analysis, leaving 71 subbasins to be examined. The amount of acreage potentially available for biomass production in these subbasins was determined through a comparison of estimated average annual net returns developed for conventional agriculture and forestry with net returns for several biomass production options. In addition to a computerized method of ranking subbasins according to their overall potential for biomass production, a methodology for evaluating future energy farm locations was developed. This methodology included a general area selection procedure as well as specific site analysis recommendations. Thirty-five general factors and a five-step site-specific analysis procedure are described.

  5. Availability and quality of water related to western energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the nation's energy resources is contained in seven states of the western United States. Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota contain 40% of the nation's coal and 90% of its uranium and shale oil. Although rich in energy resources, these states are chronically deficient in water. Coal mining and subsequent land reclamation require relatively small amounts of water. Plans that require large quantities of water to transport and convert the coal to energy include the operation of coal-slurry pipelines, thermal-electric power generation, and coal gasification. Production of oil from shale by conventional mining techniques may require about three or four unit volumes of water for each unit volume of shale oil produced. Nearly half of this water would be needed to reestablish vegetation on waste material. In-situ extraction of oil would require substantially less water. Extracting and processing uranium require relatively small amounts of water. There may be problems of the quality of local groundwater where solution mining is practiced and where uranium ore is removed from water-saturated rocks that are then exposed to oxidation. Estimates of amounts of water required to support the development of western energy resources are highly variable and depend on the conversion technology, the level of anticipated development, and the quality of the water required by any given use or process. Conservative estimates exceed 2000 cu hm/year by the year 2000. Although water supplies in the amounts anticipated as being needed for energy development are available within the seven states, their availability locally may depend on satisfying environmental objections, modifying legal and institutional arrangements that presently control water distribution and use, and constructing additional reservoirs and distribution systems

  6. Reduction of Turbidity of Water Using Locally Available Natural Coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Hossain, Md. Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed. PMID:23724307

  7. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral water available in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible

  8. Dealing with variability in water availability: the case of the Verde Grande River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Collischonn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a water resources management strategy developed by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA to cope with the conflicts between water users in the Verde Grande River basin, located at the southern border of the Brazilian semi-arid region. The basin is dominated by water-demanding fruit irrigation agriculture, which has grown significantly and without adequate water use control, over the last 30 years. The current water demand for irrigation exceeds water availability (understood as a 95 % percentile of the flow duration curve in a ratio of three to one, meaning that downstream water users are experiencing more frequent water shortages than upstream ones. The management strategy implemented in 2008 has the objective of equalizing risk for all water users and consists of a set of rules designed to restrict water withdrawals according to current river water level (indicative of water availability and water demand. Under that rule, larger farmers have proportionally larger reductions in water use, preserving small subsistence irrigators. Moreover, dry season streamflow is forecasted at strategic points by the end of every rainy season, providing evaluation of shortage risk. Thus, water users are informed about the forecasts and corresponding restrictions well in advance, allowing for anticipated planning of irrigated areas and practices. In order to enforce restriction rules, water meters were installed in all larger water users and inefficient farmers were obligated to improve their irrigation systems’ performance. Finally, increases in irrigated area are only allowed in the case of annual crops and during months of higher water availability (November to June. The strategy differs from convectional approached based only on water use priority and has been successful in dealing with natural variability of water availability, allowing more water to be used in wet years and managing risk in an isonomic manner during dry years.

  9. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, Niel; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  10. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  11. Inundation Mapping Tidal Surface - Mean Higher High Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a derived product of the NOAA VDatum tool and they extend the tool's Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) tidal datum conversion inland beyond its original...

  12. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  13. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Compounding Impacts of Human-Induced Water Stress and Climate Change on Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Stewardson, Michael J.; Peel, Murray C.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Wada, Yoshihide; Ravalico, Jakin K.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial phase of the water cycle can be seriously impacted by water management and human water use behavior (e.g., reservoir operation, and irrigation withdrawals). Here we outline a method for assessing water availability in a changing climate, while explicitly considering anthropogenic water demand scenarios and water supply infrastructure designed to cope with climatic extremes. The framework brings a top-down and bottom-up approach to provide localized water assessment based on local water supply infrastructure and projected water demands. When our framework is applied to southeastern Australia we find that, for some combinations of climatic change and water demand, the region could experience water stress similar or worse than the epic Millennium Drought. We show considering only the influence of future climate on water supply, and neglecting future changes in water demand and water storage augmentation might lead to opposing perspectives on future water availability. While human water use can significantly exacerbate climate change impacts on water availability, if managed well, it allows societies to react and adapt to a changing climate. The methodology we present offers a unique avenue for linking climatic and hydrologic processes to water resource supply and demand management and other human interactions.

  15. Appraisal of the Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in the Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuozobe, J. E.; Okeke, Emeka Paul

    2014-01-01

    The availability and functionality of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) provides a productive academic platform for both students and staff of institutions of higher learning. ICT use for educational purposes has enhanced teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive and engaging academic course content. In application, it…

  16. Performance of commercially available solar and heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.R.; Kerr, A.S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries are using policy incentives to encourage the adoption of energy-efficient hot water heating as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such policies rely heavily on assumed performance factors for such systems. In-situ performance data for solar and heat pump hot water systems, however, are not copious in the literature. Otago University has been testing some systems available in New Zealand for a number of years. The results obtained are compared to international studies of in-situ performance of solar hot water systems and heat pump hot water systems, by converting the results from the international studies into a single index suitable for both solar and heat pump systems (COP). Variability in the international data is investigated as well as comparisons to model results. The conclusions suggest that there is not too much difference in performance between solar systems that have a permanently connected electric boost backup and heat pump systems over a wide range of environmental temperatures. The energy payback time was also calculated for electric boost solar flat plate systems as a function of both COP and hot water usage for a given value of embodied energy. The calculations generally bode well for solar systems but ensuring adequate system performance is paramount. In addition, such systems generally favour high usage rates to obtain good energy payback times

  17. Prediction of Availability Indicator of Water Pipes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Kutyłowska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of artificial neural networks application to the availability indicator prediction. The forecasted results indicate that artificial networks may be used to model the reliability level of the water supply systems. The network was trained using 147 and 173 operational data from one Polish medium-sized city (distribution pipes and house connections, respectively). 50% of all data was chosen for learning, 25% for testing and 25% for validation. In prognosis phase, t...

  18. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  19. Water quality audits can improve availability and reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorin, R.S.; Schlesinger, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Water Quality Audit (WQA) is an independent, detailed review and thorough analysis of an operating plant's water technology control systems and operator education (as distinguished from operator training). The need for such an audit and its role in improving the reliability and availability of both nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants is discussed. Instances of how the failure of either system hardware or operational control has caused injection of seawater, acid, caustic, or ion exchange resin into the condensate-feedwater system and steam generator are revealed. The systems to be audited are described, and the stage-wise nature of the audit explained. The potential savings of an audit are outlined and the timing and range of costs of a WQA are given

  20. Global assessment of predictability of water availability: A bivariate probabilistic Budyko analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguang; Fu, Jianyu

    2018-02-01

    Estimating continental water availability is of great importance for water resources management, in terms of maintaining ecosystem integrity and sustaining society development. To more accurately quantify the predictability of water availability, on the basis of univariate probabilistic Budyko framework, a bivariate probabilistic Budyko approach was developed using copula-based joint distribution model for considering the dependence between parameter ω of Wang-Tang's equation and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and was applied globally. The results indicate the predictive performance in global water availability is conditional on the climatic condition. In comparison with simple univariate distribution, the bivariate one produces the lower interquartile range under the same global dataset, especially in the regions with higher NDVI values, highlighting the importance of developing the joint distribution by taking into account the dependence structure of parameter ω and NDVI, which can provide more accurate probabilistic evaluation of water availability.

  1. Proposing water balance method for water availability estimation in Indonesian regional spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniati, A. T.; Sutjiningsih, D.; Soeryantono, H.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2018-01-01

    The water availability (WA) of a region is one of important consideration in both the formulation of spatial plans and the evaluation of the effectiveness of actual land use in providing sustainable water resources. Information on land-water needs vis-a-vis their availability in a region determines the state of the surplus or deficit to inform effective land use utilization. How to calculate water availability have been described in the Guideline in Determining the Carrying Capacity of the Environment in Regional Spatial Planning. However, the method of determining the supply and demand of water on these guidelines is debatable since the determination of WA in this guideline used a rational method. The rational method is developed the basis for storm drain design practice and it is essentially a peak discharge method peak discharge calculation method. This paper review the literature in methods of water availability estimation which is described descriptively, and present arguments to claim that water balance method is a more fundamental and appropriate tool in water availability estimation. A better water availability estimation method would serve to improve the practice in preparing formulations of Regional Spatial Plan (RSP) as well as evaluating land use capacity in providing sustainable water resources.

  2. Predicting residential energy and water demand using publicly available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoşgör, Enes; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We built regression models using publicly available data as independent variables. • These models were used to predict monthly utility usage. • Such models can empower demand-side management program design, implementation and evaluation. • As well as planning for changes in energy and water demand. - Abstract: The overarching objective behind this work is to merge publicly available data with utility consumption histories and extract statistically significant insight on utility usage for a group of houses (n = 7022) in Gainesville, USA. This study investigates the statistical descriptive power of publicly available information for modeling utility usage. We first examine the deviations that arise from monthly utility usage reading dates as reading dates tend to shift and reading periods tend to vary across different months. Then we run regression models for individual months which in turn we compare to a yearly regression model which accounts for months as a dummy variable to understand whether a monthly model or a yearly model has a larger statistical power. It is shown that publicly available data can be used to model residential utility usage in the absence of highly private utility data. The obtained results are helpful for utilities for two reasons: (1) using the models to predict the monthly changes in demand; and (2) predicting utility usage can be translated into energy-use intensity as a first-cut metric for energy efficiency targeting in their service territory to meet their state demand reduction targets

  3. Prediction of Availability Indicator of Water Pipes Using Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutyłowska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of artificial neural networks application to the availability indicator prediction. The forecasted results indicate that artificial networks may be used to model the reliability level of the water supply systems. The network was trained using 147 and 173 operational data from one Polish medium-sized city (distribution pipes and house connections, respectively. 50% of all data was chosen for learning, 25% for testing and 25% for validation. In prognosis phase, the best created network used 100% of 114 and 133 values for testing. Following functions were used to activate neurons in hidden and output layers: linear, logistic, hyperbolic tangent, exponential. The learning of the artificial network was performed using following input parameters: material, total length, diameter. In the optimal models hyperbolic tangent was chosen to activate the hidden and output neurons in modeling the availability indicator of house connections during 68 epochs of training. Hidden and output neurons were activated (20 epochs of learning respectively by hyperbolic tangent and linear function during the prediction of availability indicator of distribution pipes. The maximum relative errors in learning and prognosis step were equal to 0.10% and 1.20% as well as 0.27% and 1.15% for distribution pipes and house connections, respectively.

  4. Water on Mars: Volatile history and resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of water on Mars is undisputed today. Measurements of atmospheric water vapor have shown that the abundance varies with location and season in a systematic way which depends on processes of exchange with the polar caps, regolith, and atmosphere. Channels, which give the appearance of having been carved by water or of having had water involved in their formation, appear in various locations on the surface; some were formed by catastrophic outflow of water from beneath the surface, while others form valley networks which give the appearance of having formed over long periods of time primarily early in the planet's history. The north polar residual cap consists of water ice, possibly containing an amount of water equivalent to a global layer several tens of meters thick. Finally, water is observed within the regolith, as adsorbed water or as water of hydration.

  5. Global monthly water scarcity: Blue water footprints versus blue water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Chapagain, Ashok; Mathews, R.E.; Richter, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than

  6. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Hagen; Voegele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  7. Impacts of fresh and aged biochars on plant available water and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of soils to hold sufficient plant available water (PAW) between rainfall events is critical to crop productivity. Most studies indicate that biochar amendments decrease soil bulk density and increase soil water retention. However, limited knowledge exists regarding biochars ability to in...

  8. Urban water metabolism efficiency assessment: integrated analysis of available and virtual water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Long; Vause, Jonathan; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Resolving the complex environmental problems of water pollution and shortage which occur during urbanization requires the systematic assessment of urban water metabolism efficiency (WME). While previous research has tended to focus on either available or virtual water metabolism, here we argue that the systematic problems arising during urbanization require an integrated assessment of available and virtual WME, using an indicator system based on material flow analysis (MFA) results. Future research should focus on the following areas: 1) analysis of available and virtual water flow patterns and processes through urban districts in different urbanization phases in years with varying amounts of rainfall, and their environmental effects; 2) based on the optimization of social, economic and environmental benefits, establishment of an indicator system for urban WME assessment using MFA results; 3) integrated assessment of available and virtual WME in districts with different urbanization levels, to facilitate study of the interactions between the natural and social water cycles; 4) analysis of mechanisms driving differences in WME between districts with different urbanization levels, and the selection of dominant social and economic driving indicators, especially those impacting water resource consumption. Combinations of these driving indicators could then be used to design efficient water resource metabolism solutions, and integrated management policies for reduced water consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Chapagain, Ashok K; Mathews, Ruth E; Richter, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996-2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity--as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins--can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption.

  10. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensiy or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant covers is the main factor that controls the soil erosion (Haregeweyn, 2013). Plant cover is the main factor of soil erosion processes as the vegetation control the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012). Vegetation cover acts in a complex way in influencing on the one hand on runoff and soil loss and on the other hand on the amount and the way that rainfall reaches the soil surface. In arid and semiarid regions, where erosion is one of the main degradation processes and water is a scant resource, a minimum percentage of vegetation coverage is necessary to protect the soil from erosion, but without compromising the availability of water (Belmonte Serrato and Romero Diaz, 1998). This is mainly controlled by the vegetation distribution (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). Land abandonment is common in Mediterranean region under extensive land use (Cerdà, 1997b; García-Ruiz, 2010). Abandoned lands typically have a rolling landscape with steep slopes, and are dominated by herbaceous communities that grow on pasture land interspersed by shrubs. Land abandonment use to trigger an increase in soil erosion, but the vegetation recovery reduces the impact of the vegetation. The goal of this work is to assess the effects of different Mediterranean shrub species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Medicago strasseri, Colutea arborescens L., Retama sphaerocarpa, L., Pistacia Lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) on soil protection (runoff and soil losses) and on rainfall reaching soil surface (rainfall partitioning fluxes). To characterize the effects of shrub vegetation and to evaluate their effects on soil protection, two field experiments were carried out. The presence of shrub vegetation reduced runoff by

  11. FINANCING ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE FOR SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many small and very small drinking water systems require repair and upgrading if they are to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and its amendments. Often, dispersed population makes infracstructure expensive on a per-capita basis. Funding shortages at the federal, ...

  12. Safeguarding water availability for food and ecosystems under global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastor, Amandine V.

    2017-01-01

    In a context of future population increase and intensification of water cycle by climate change, water demand for irrigation is projected to double. However, freshwater resources have been degraded the last decades especially in rivers via fragmentation, dam contraction and pollution. Flow

  13. An assessment of impacts of climate change on available water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is the first sector to be affected by changes in climate. The prediction is that with climate change, the climate will be more variable with more intense storms which will increase the risks of flooding and droughts. Attaining and sustaining water security will therefore be more challenging than it has been up to now.

  14. Water-scarcity patterns : spatiotemporal interdependencies between water use and water availability in a semi-arid river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the interdependencies between water use and water availability and describes a model that has been developed to improve understanding of the processes that drive changes and variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in a semi-arid river basin. These

  15. Effects of soil water and nitrogen availability on photosynthesis and water use efficiency of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiping; Fan, Yangyang; Long, Junxia; Wei, Ruifeng; Kjelgren, Roger; Gong, Chunmei; Zhao, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The efficient use of water and nitrogen (N) to promote growth and increase yield of fruit trees and crops is well studied. However, little is known about their effects on woody plants growing in arid and semiarid areas with limited water and N availability. To examine the effects of water and N supply on early growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of trees on dry soils, one-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia were exposed to three soil water contents (non-limiting, medium drought, and severe drought) as well as to low and high N levels, for four months. Photosynthetic parameters, leaf instantaneous WUE (WUEi) and whole tree WUE (WUEb) were determined. Results showed that, independent of N levels, increasing soil water content enhanced the tree transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), maximum net assimilation rate (Amax), apparent quantum yield (AQY), the range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) due to both reduced light compensation point and enhanced light saturation point, and dark respiration rate (Rd), resulting in a higher net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and a significantly increased whole tree biomass. Consequently, WUEi and WUEb were reduced at low N, whereas WUEi was enhanced at high N levels. Irrespective of soil water availability, N supply enhanced Pn in association with an increase of Gs and Ci and a decrease of the stomatal limitation value (Ls), while Tr remained unchanged. Biomass and WUEi increased under non-limiting water conditions and medium drought, as well as WUEb under all water conditions; but under severe drought, WUEi and biomass were not affected by N application. In conclusion, increasing soil water availability improves photosynthetic capacity and biomass accumulation under low and high N levels, but its effects on WUE vary with soil N levels. N supply increased Pn and WUE, but under severe drought, N supply did not enhance WUEi and biomass.

  16. Topographic, edaphic, and vegetative controls on plant-available water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salli F. Dymond; John B. Bradford; Paul V. Bolstad; Randall K. Kolka; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Thomas M. DeSutter

    2017-01-01

    Soil moisture varies within landscapes in response to vegetative, physiographic, and climatic drivers, which makes quantifying soil moisture over time and space difficult. Nevertheless, understanding soil moisture dynamics for different ecosystems is critical, as the amount of water in a soil determines a myriad ecosystem services and processes such as net primary...

  17. Trends in land and water available for outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Thomas Rumpf

    1980-01-01

    A data base for assessing the availability of land for outdoor recreation does not exist. Information on related issues such as vandalism, easements, and land posting is scanty. Construction of a data base for assessing land availability should be a high priority for USFS and HCRS, and for SCORP's and the RPA and RCA assessments.

  18. Climate change impacts on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Özdoğan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of projected climate change on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC macro scale hydrologic model and a set of regional climate-change outputs from 13 global circulation models (GCMs forced with two greenhouse gas emission scenarios for two time periods in the 21st century (2050 and 2090. The hydrologic model produces a reasonable simulation of seasonal and spatial variation in snow cover and associated snow water equivalent (SWE in the mountainous areas of the basin, although its performance is poorer at marginal snow cover sites. While there is great variation across GCM outputs influencing snow water availability, the majority of models and scenarios suggest a significant decline (between 10 and 60 percent in available snow water, particularly under the high-impact A2 climate change scenario and later in the 21st century. The changes in SWE are more stable when multi-model ensemble GCM outputs are used to minimize inter-model variability, suggesting a consistent and significant decrease in snow-covered areas and associated water availability in the headwaters of the Euphrates-Tigris basin. Detailed analysis of future climatic conditions point to the combined effects of reduced precipitation and increased temperatures as primary drivers of reduced snowpack. Results also indicate a more rapid decline in snow cover in the lower elevation zones than the higher areas in a changing climate but these findings also contain a larger uncertainty. The simulated changes in snow water availability have important implications for the future of water resources and associated hydropower generation and land-use management and planning in a region already ripe for interstate water conflict. While the changes in the frequency and intensity of snow-bearing circulation systems or the interannual variability related to climate were not considered, the simulated

  19. Impacts of Saharan dust on downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical approach was used to quantify the modification of the underwater light field in amplitude (magnitude effect and spectral distribution (spectral effect by different atmospheric conditions altering the incident light. The approach based on an optical model in connection with radiation measurements in the area off Northwest Africa. Key inputs of the model were parameterized magnitude and spectral effects. Various atmospheric conditions were considered: clear sky, dusty sky without clouds, cloudy sky without dust and skies with different ratios of dust and clouds. Their impacts were investigated concerning the modification of the downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. The impact on downward irradiance depended on the wavelength, the water depth, the optical water properties, the dust and cloud properties, and the ratio of clouds to dust. The influence of clouds on the amplitude can be much higher than that of dust. Saharan dust reduced the photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. Ocean regions were more influenced than coastal areas. Compensations of the magnitude and spectral effects were observed at special water depths in ocean regions and at atmospheric conditions with definite cloud to dust ratios.

  20. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

    2014-06-24

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

  1. Potential climate change impacts on water availability and cooling water demand in the Lusatian Lignite Mining Region, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Grünewald, Uwe; Kaltofen, Michael; Redetzky, Michael

    2014-05-01

    water availability in the region, were simulated by SWIM and WBalMo respectively. Next to changing climate conditions, also the different mining scenarios have considerable impacts on natural and managed discharges. Using the dynamic approach for cooling water demand, the simulated water demands are lower in winter, but higher in summer compared to the static approach. As a consequence of changes in the seasonal pattern of the cooling water demand of the power plants, lower summer discharges downstream of the thermal power plants are simulated using the dynamical approach. Due to the complex water management system in the region included in the water management model WBalMo, also the simulation of reservoir releases and volumes is impacted by the choice of either the static or the dynamic approach for calculating the cooling water demand of the thermal power plants.

  2. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hagemann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three and hydrological models (eight were used to systematically assess the hydrological response to climate change and project the future state of global water resources. This multi-model ensemble allows us to investigate how the hydrology models contribute to the uncertainty in projected hydrological changes compared to the climate models. Due to their systematic biases, GCM outputs cannot be used directly in hydrological impact studies, so a statistical bias correction has been applied. The results show a large spread in projected changes in water resources within the climate–hydrology modelling chain for some regions. They clearly demonstrate that climate models are not the only source of uncertainty for hydrological change, and that the spread resulting from the choice of the hydrology model is larger than the spread originating from the climate models over many areas. But there are also areas showing a robust change signal, such as at high latitudes and in some midlatitude regions, where the models agree on the sign of projected hydrological changes, indicative of higher confidence in this ensemble mean signal. In many catchments an increase of available water resources is expected but there are some severe decreases in Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East, the Mississippi River basin, southern Africa, southern China and south-eastern Australia.

  3. CSIR Technologies and Interventions to maximise the availability of water for Scenarios of Industrial Growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, Pienaar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available disasters (WEF, 2017). 6 (UN Water Report, 2016 - McKinsey Global Institute). 7 Power source: hydro, wave cooling Carrier: steam turbines Hydraulic tool: fracking Growth requirement: biofuels New treatment: desalination Waste water... treatment Raw water treatment Distribution Abstraction WATER ENERGY At the same time, climate change is likely to result in reduction of surface water availability, shifts in the seasonality of rainfall and runoff, growing water use demands...

  4. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.

    2013-05-01

    used in a "kind of" crop factor manner for all vegetation types (including agricultural fields). Finally, the model uses air temperature and humidity, both extracted from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) database. ET estimates were then compared to ground truth data from four sites where long-term Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements of ET were conducted. This approach was developed and applied in Northern Mexico. Emphasis was placed on trying to minimize the large uncertainties that still remained on the temporal evolution and the spatial repartition of ET. Results show good agreement with ground data (with r2 greater than 0.7 on daily ET estimates) from the four sites evaluated using different vegetation types hence reducing the spatial uncertainties. Estimates of total annual ET were used in a water balance, assessing ground water availability for eleven aquifers in the state of Chihuahua. Annual ET in a four-year analysis period, ranged from 200 to 280 mm/year, representing 63 to 83 % of total annual precipitation, which reflects the importance of this component in the water balance. A GIS tool kit is under development to support decision makers at CONAGUA.

  5. Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Booij, Martijn J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on water scarcity has mainly focussed on blue water (ground- and surface water), but green water (soil moisture returning to the atmosphere through evaporation) is also scarce, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Crop production, grazing

  6. Availability of water resources in the rio Bermudez micro-basin. Central Region of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando Echevarria, L.; Orozco Montoya, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Bermudez micro-basin makes up part of the principal hydrological resource area in the Central Region of Costa Rica. For this reason a study was done to determine the availability of hydrological resources in said micro-basin to identify areas with potential water availability problems. A monthly water balance was calculated using land use, geomorphology and climate parameters. From these water balance studies, the amount of available water was calculated and classified into four categories, however, in this micro-basin, only three categories were identified: high, medium and moderate water availability. No areas were identified with low water availability, indicating availability is sufficient; however, there is increasing demand on water resources because over half of the micro-basin area is classified as having moderate water availability. (Author)

  7. Availability of ground water in the Blackstone River area Rhode Island and Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Herbert E.; Dickerman, David C.

    1974-01-01

    The Blackstone River study area covers 83 square miles of northern Rhode Island and 5 square miles of adjacent Massachusetts (fig. 1). It includes parts of the Blackstone, Moshassuck, and Tenmile River basins, and a coastal area that drains to the brackish Seekonk and Providence Rivers. In Rhode Island, all or parts of the suburban towns of Cumberland, Lincoln, North Smithfield, and Smithfield and all or parts of the cities of Central Falls, East Povidence, Pawtucket, Providence, and Woonsocket are within the study area. Also included are parts of the towns Attleboro and North Attleborough in Massachusetts. In 1970, total population was about 240,000, which was equivalent to about one-fourth of the total population of Rhode Island. Fresh water usage in 1970 by public-supply systems and self-supplied industry was about 33 mgd (million gallons per day), which was equal to 22 percent of total fresh water use in Rhode Island for all purposes except generation of electric power (fig. 2). Anticipated increases in population and per capita water requirements are likely to cause the demand for water to more than double within the next 50 years. A significant part of this demand can be met from wells that tap the principal streams. This aquifer yielded an average of 10 mgd in 1970 and is capable of sustaining a much higher yield. The primary objectives of the study were to determine and map the saturated thickness and transmissivity of the stratified-drift aquifer and to assess the potential sustained yield of those parts of the aquifer favorable for large-scale development of water. A secondary objective was to describe ground-water quality and to evaluate the impact of induced infiltration of polluted stream water on the quality of native ground water. This report is based on analysis of drillers' records of more than 700 wells and borings which include 462 lithologic logs; 35 specific-capacity determinations; 12 aquifer tests, including detailed tests at two sites to

  8. Water availability reconstructions using tree-rings in the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, Rocio; Pena, M P; Christie, Duncan A; Lara, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Water availability can be considered as one of the main restrictions for future development in South-Central Chile, due to the reported decreasing trends in precipitation in the last decades and the increasing demand for this resource. This issue makes the study of past water availability fundamental for the understanding of present and future variations. This paper presents a comparison of two water availability reconstructions within the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion (35 0 -48 0 S), one corresponding to a precipitation (37 0 -39.5 0 S) and the other to a streamflow reconstruction (41 0 S). This study shows that there are fundamental differences between them especially in the long term variability. However, there are also coincidences, mainly at higher frequency variations, such as at a bidecadal, decadal and annual scale. Another important finding is that these reconstructions show significant correlations with different climatic forcings in this area. The northern reconstruction presents a significant relationship with ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation), while the southern does the same with the AAO (Antarctic Oscillation Index).

  9. Perceptions about availability and adequacy of drinking water in a large California school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha I; Bogart, Laura M; Uyeda, Kimberly E; Rabin, Alexa; Schuster, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    Concerns about the influence of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on obesity have led experts to recommend that water be freely available in schools. We explored perceptions about the adequacy of drinking water provision in a large California school district to develop policies and programs to encourage student water consumption. From March to September 2007, we used semistructured interviews to ask 26 California key stakeholders - including school administrators and staff, health and nutrition agency representatives, and families - about school drinking water accessibility; attitudes about, facilitators of, and barriers to drinking water provision; and ideas for increasing water consumption. Interviews were analyzed to determine common themes. Although stakeholders said that water was available from school drinking fountains, they expressed concerns about the appeal, taste, appearance, and safety of fountain water and worried about the affordability and environmental effect of bottled water sold in schools. Stakeholders supported efforts to improve free drinking water availability in schools, but perceived barriers (eg, cost) and mistaken beliefs that regulations and beverage contracts prohibit serving free water may prevent schools from doing so. Some schools provide water through cold-filtered water dispensers and self-serve water coolers. This is the first study to explore stakeholder perceptions about the adequacy of drinking water in US schools. Although limited in scope, our study suggests that water available in at least some schools may be inadequate. Collaborative efforts among schools, communities, and policy makers are needed to improve school drinking water provision.

  10. Case Study Analysis of the Impacts of Water Acquisition for Hydraulic Fracturing on Local Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is used to develop unconventional gas reserves, but the technology requires large volumes of water, placing demands on local water resources and potentially creating conflict with other users and ecosystems. This study examines the balance between water ...

  11. Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Frederick C. Meinzer; Maria E. Arce

    2009-01-01

    We studied the water economy of nine woody species differing in rooting depth in a Patagonian shrub steppe from southern Argentina to understand how soil water availability and rooting depth determine their hydraulic architecture. Soil water content and potentials, leaf water potentials (Leaf) hydraulic conductivity, wood density (Pw), rooting depth, and specific leaf...

  12. 75 FR 52735 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9189-7] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List...: This notice announces the availability of EPA's decision identifying 12 water quality limited waterbodies and associated pollutants in South Dakota to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303...

  13. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, Pieter R.; Carlos de Araújo, José

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts

  14. 76 FR 20664 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9294-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List... notice announces the availability of EPA's action identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for...

  15. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethea De Guzman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. Methods: A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analyzed using Epi Info. Results: There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%. Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–8.5 and having toilets located within 20 metres of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.3. In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09–0.49. Discussion: In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns.

  16. WATER AVAILABILITY IN SOUTHERN PORTUGAL FOR DIFFERENT CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS SUBJECTED TO BIAS CORRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mourato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional climate models provided precipitation and temperature time series for control (1961–1990 and scenario (2071–2100 periods. At southern Portu gal, the climate models in the control period systematically present higher temp eratures and lower precipitation than the observations. Therefore, the direct inpu t of climate model data into hydrological models might result in more severe scenarios for future water availability. Three bias correction methods (Delta Change, Dire ct Forcing and Hybrid are analysed and their performances in water availability impac t studies are assessed. The Delta Change method assumes that the observed series variab ility is maintained in the scenario period and is corrected by the evolution predicted by the climate models. The Direct Forcing method maintains the scenario series variabi lity, which is corrected by the bias found in the control period, and the Hybrid method maintains the control model series variability, which is corrected by the bias found in the control period and by the evolution predicted by the climate models. To assess the climate impacts in the water resources expected for the scenario period, a physically based spatially distributed hydrological model, SHETRAN, is used for runoff pro jections in a southern Portugal basin. The annual and seasonal runoff shows a runoff d ecrease in the scenario period, increasing the water shor tage that is already experienc ed. The overall annual reduction varies between –80% and –35%. In general, the results show that the runoff reductions obtained with climate models corrected with the Delt a Change method are highest but with a narrow range that varies between –80% and –5 2%.

  17. Climate change reduces water availability for agriculture by decreasing non-evaporative irrigation losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Adam, Jennifer C.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Peters, R. Troy

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity. However, the impacts of climate change on the efficiency of irrigation systems, particularly on the partitioning between evaporative and non-evaporative losses, have received little attention. In this study, we incorporated a process-based irrigation module into a coupled hydrologic/agricultural modeling framework (VIC-CropSyst). To understand how climate change may impact irrigation losses, we applied VIC-CropSyst over the Yakima River basin, an important agricultural region in Washington State, U.S. We compared the historical period of 1980-2010 to an ensemble of ten projections of climate for two future periods: 2030-2060 and 2060-2090. Results averaged over the watershed showed that a 9% increase in evaporative losses will be compensated by a reduction of non-evaporative losses. Therefore, overall changes in future efficiency are negligible (-0.4%) while the Evaporative Loss Ratio (ELR) (defined as the ratio of evaporative to non-evaporative irrigation losses) is enhanced by 10%. This higher ELR is associated with a reduction in return flows, thus negatively impacting downstream water availability. Results also indicate that the impact of climate change on irrigation losses depend on irrigation type and climate scenarios.

  18. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

    2014-05-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  19. Functional digital soil mapping for the prediction of available water capacity in Nigeria using legacy data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugbaje, S.U.; Reuter, H.I.

    2013-01-01

    Soil information, particularly water storage capacity, is of utmost importance for assessing and managing land resources for sustainable land management. We investigated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and digital soil functional mapping (DSFM) procedures to predict available water capacity (AWC)

  20. Assessment of the terrestrial water balance using the global water availability and use model WaterGAP - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Döll, Petra

    2017-04-01

    main reason for differing Q is varying precipitation (P, 111 600 km3 yr-1 vs. 110 900 km3 yr-1). The sensitivity of water balance components to alternative climate forcing data is high. Applying 5 state-of-the-art climate forcing data sets, long term average P differs globally by 8000 km3 yr-1, mainly due to different handling of precipitation undercatch correction (or neglecting it). AET differs by 5500 km3 yr-1 whereas Q varies by 3000 km3 yr-1. The sensitivity of human water consumption to alternative climate input data is only about 5%. WaterGAP's calibration approach forces simulated long-term river discharge to be approximately equal to observed values at 1319 gauging stations during the time period selected for calibration. This scheme greatly reduces the impact of uncertain climate input on simulated Q data in these upstream drainage basins (as well as downstream). In calibration areas, the Q variation among the climate input data is much lower (1.6%) than in non-calibrated areas (18.5%). However, variation of Q at the grid cell-level is still high (an average of 37% for Q in grid cells in calibration areas vs. 74% outside). Due to the closed water balance, variation of AET is higher in calibrated areas than in non-calibrated areas. Main challenges in assessing the world's water resources by GHMs like WaterGAP are 1) the need of consistent long-term climate forcing input data sets, especial considering a suitable handling of P undercatch, 2) the accessibility of in-situ data for river discharge or alternative calibration data for currently non-calibrated areas, and 3) an improved simulation in semi-arid and arid river basins. As an outlook, a multi-model, multi-forcing study of global water balance components within the frame of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project is proposed.

  1. Estimation of water retention and availability in soils of Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert,José Miguel; Albuquerque,Jackson Adriano; Kaiser,Douglas Rodrigo; Reinert,Dalvan José; Urach,Felipe Lavarda; Carlesso,Reimar

    2009-01-01

    Dispersed information on water retention and availability in soils may be compiled in databases to generate pedotransfer functions. The objectives of this study were: to generate pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water retention based on easily measurable soil properties; to evaluate the efficiency of existing pedotransfer functions for different geographical regions for the estimation of water retention in soils of Rio Grande do Sul (RS); and to estimate plant-available water capacity ...

  2. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Emily N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  3. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  4. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  5. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  6. 75 FR 71431 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9230-1] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List... Availability. SUMMARY: This action corrects a Federal Register notice that published on November 9, 2010 at 75 FR 68783 announcing the availability of EPA decisions identifying water quality limited segments and...

  7. 76 FR 74057 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9498-4] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of EPA's action identifying water quality limited segments and...

  8. 75 FR 78231 - Management of Energy and Water Efficiency in Federal Buildings: Availability of Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Water Efficiency in Federal Buildings: Availability of Guidance AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice of availability... regarding Federal agency implementation of energy and water efficiency requirements. The draft Guidance for...

  9. 75 FR 68783 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9223-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of EPA decisions identifying water quality limited segments and...

  10. Long term growth responses of loblolly pine to optimal nutrient and water resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Phillip M. Dougherty; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2004-01-01

    A factorial combination of four treatments (control (CW), optimal growing season water availability (IW), optimum nutrient availability (FW), and combined optimum water and nutrient availability (FIW)) in four replications were initiated in an 8-year- old Pinus taeda stand growing on a droughty, nutrient-poor, sandy site in Scotland County, NC and...

  11. Sensitivities and Tipping Points of Power System Operations to Fluctuations Caused by Water Availability and Fuel Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Macknick, J.; Voisin, N.; Fu, T.

    2017-12-01

    The western US electric grid is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operation. Hydropower and water-cooled thermoelectric technologies represent 67% of generating capacity in the western region of the US. While water resources provide a significant amount of generation and reliability for the grid, these same resources can represent vulnerabilities during times of drought or low flow conditions. A lack of water affects water-dependent technologies and can result in more expensive generators needing to run in order to meet electric grid demand, resulting in higher electricity prices and a higher cost to operate the grid. A companion study assesses the impact of changes in water availability and air temperatures on power operations by directly derating hydro and thermo-electric generators. In this study we assess the sensitivities and tipping points of water availability compared with higher fuel prices in electricity sector operations. We evaluate the impacts of varying electricity prices by modifying fuel prices for coal and natural gas. We then analyze the difference in simulation results between changes in fuel prices in combination with water availability and air temperature variability. We simulate three fuel price scenarios for a 2010 baseline scenario along with 100 historical and future hydro-climate conditions. We use the PLEXOS electricity production cost model to optimize power system dispatch and cost decisions under each combination of fuel price and water constraint. Some of the metrics evaluated are total production cost, generation type mix, emissions, transmission congestion, and reserve procurement. These metrics give insight to how strained the system is, how much flexibility it still has, and to what extent water resource availability or fuel prices drive changes in the electricity sector operations. This work will provide insights into current electricity operations as well as future cases of increased penetration of variable

  12. Assessment of water availability and its relationship with vegetation distribution over a tropical montane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streher, A. S.; Sobreiro, J. F. F.; Silva, T. S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability is one of the main drivers of vegetation distribution, but assessing it over mountainous regions is difficult given the effects of rugged topography on hydroclimatic dynamics (orographic rainfall, soil water, and runoff). We assessed how water availability may influence the distribution of vegetation types in the Espinhaço Range, a South American tropical mountain landscape comprised of savannas, grasslands, rock outcrops, cloud forests, and semi-deciduous/deciduous forests. For precipitation, we used CHIRPS monthly and daily products (1981- 2016) and 112 rain gauge ground stations, and assessed potential evapotranspiration (PET) using the MODIS MOD16A3 (2000-2013) product. Vegetation types were classified according to the Global Ecoregions by WWF. We show that rainfall has well-defined rainy and dry seasons with a strong latitudinal pattern, there is evidence for local orographic effects. Dry forests (907 mm/yr; 8% cv) and caatinga vegetation (795 mm/yr; 7% cv) had the lowest average annual precipitation and low variance, whilst Atlantic tropical forest in the southeast (1267 mm/yr; 15% cv), cerrado savanna vegetation in the west (1086 mm/yr; 15% cv) and rupestrian grasslands above 800m (1261 mm/yr; 20% cv) received the highest annual precipitation, with the largest observed variance due to their wide latitudinal distribution. Forests and rupestrian grasslands in the windward side of the mountain had a higher frequency of intense rainfall events (> 20mm), accounting for 6% of the CHIRPS daily time series, suggesting orographic effects on precipitation. Annual average PET was highest for dry forests (2437 mm/yr) and caatinga (2461 mm/yr), intermediate for cerrado (2264 mm/yr) and lowest for Atlantic tropical forest (2083 mm/yr) and rupestrian grasslands (2136 mm/yr). All vegetation types received less rainfall than its PET capacity based on yearly data, emphasizing the need for ecophysiological adaptations to water use. Climate change threatens

  13. Effect of readily available water deficit in soil on maize yield and evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out at Rimski Šančevi experiment field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad on calcareous chernozem soil on the loess terrace, in the period 2000-2007, and included irrigated variant (T1 and non-irrigated i.e. control variant (T0. NS-640, maize hybrid from the FAO maturity group 600, was analyzed. Readily available soil water deficit (RASWD in the layer of 60 cm in the course of growing season and actual evapotranspiration (ETa were calculated by the water balance method. Water consumption for potential evapotranspiration (ETm in individual months and the growing season were calculated by the bioclimatic procedure, using hydrophytothermic indexes. The correlation analysis revealed highly significant dependences of maize yield (Y on RASWD (r = -0.941 and the amount of precipitation (P in August (r = 0.931. Statistically significant dependence was also found between Y and RASWD (r = -0.765 and P (r = 0.768 in July and August. The obtained results indicate that maize production in Vojvodina under the rainfed conditions is unreliable, and that it is correlated with weather conditions, especially with the amount and distribution of precipitation. The statistically significant correlation obtained between Y and ETa (r = 0.755 confirms that water supply is the basic prerequisite which allows the other production factors to be realized. Significantly higher maize yields in the T1 variant (13.517 t ha-1 in relation to the T0 variant (11.210 t ha-1 indicate clearly that under the climatic conditions of Vojvodina high and stable yields of maize can be achieved only in irrigation. .

  14. Higher household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home are associated with higher waist circumference in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A; Cohen, Daniel D; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-02-07

    The current "epidemic" of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family's ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  15. Survival of Mycobacterium avium in drinking water biofilms as affected by water flow velocity, availability of phosphorus, and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvinen, Eila; Lehtola, Markku J; Martikainen, Pertti J; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2007-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a potential pathogen occurring in drinking water systems. It is a slowly growing bacterium producing a thick cell wall containing mycolic acids, and it is known to resist chlorine better than many other microbes. Several studies have shown that pathogenic bacteria survive better in biofilms than in water. By using Propella biofilm reactors, we studied how factors generally influencing the growth of biofilms (flow rate, phosphorus concentration, and temperature) influence the survival of M. avium in drinking water biofilms. The growth of biofilms was followed by culture and DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, and concentrations of M. avium were determined by culture and fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. The spiked M. avium survived in biofilms for the 4-week study period without a dramatic decline in concentration. The addition of phosphorus (10 microg/liter) increased the number of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilms but decreased the culturability of M. avium. The reason for this result is probably that phosphorus increased competition with other microbes. An increase in flow velocity had no effect on the survival of M. avium, although it increased the growth of biofilms. A higher temperature (20 degrees C versus 7 degrees C) increased both the number of heterotrophic bacteria and the survival of M. avium in biofilms. In conclusion, the results show that in terms of affecting the survival of slowly growing M. avium in biofilms, temperature is a more important factor than the availability of nutrients like phosphorus.

  16. Does limited data availability prevent adequate water use estimates on farm scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatz, Benjamin; Kuster, Benjamin; Percy, Barbara; Hillier, Jonathan; Freese, Dirk; Wattenbach, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Increasing food production for a growing world population and at the same time mitigating climate change as well as adapting to its consequences is one of the key global challenges. Therefore producing crops with fewer resources such as water and fertilizers and less emissions of greenhouse gases is an important question that has to be answered on farm scale. The cool farm tool (CFT) is a farm scale emission calculator and was developed in 2010 to help farmers to reduce their carbon footprint. In order to adapt to future climate change an easy to use and at the same time robust water footprinting tool is needed for the CFT to take a more holistic approach on environmental sustainability. However data on farm level is often scarce. We investigated the effect of limited data on actual evapotranspiration using the FAO56 standard to assess the quality of farm water footprint estimates. Calculations are based on various agricultural sites from the Fluxnet database and estimates are compared to eddy covariance measurements. Results show that higher data availability is not directly linked to more accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration. Estimates based only on temperature and relative humidity are still able to reproduce daily patterns. However cumulative values over one growing season show a considerable offset to eddy covariance observations for all data input levels. Finding the optimum between data requirements and an accuracy that fulfills farmer needs is crucial. Engagement of farmers and using a global network as the Fluxnet database will help to achieve this goal.

  17. Stochastic estimation of plant-available soil water under fluctuating water table depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Dani; Groeneveld, David P.

    1994-12-01

    Preservation of native valley-floor phreatophytes while pumping groundwater for export from Owens Valley, California, requires reliable predictions of plant water use. These predictions are compared with stored soil water within well field regions and serve as a basis for managing groundwater resources. Soil water measurement errors, variable recharge, unpredictable climatic conditions affecting plant water use, and modeling errors make soil water predictions uncertain and error-prone. We developed and tested a scheme based on soil water balance coupled with implementation of Kalman filtering (KF) for (1) providing physically based soil water storage predictions with prediction errors projected from the statistics of the various inputs, and (2) reducing the overall uncertainty in both estimates and predictions. The proposed KF-based scheme was tested using experimental data collected at a location on the Owens Valley floor where the water table was artificially lowered by groundwater pumping and later allowed to recover. Vegetation composition and per cent cover, climatic data, and soil water information were collected and used for developing a soil water balance. Predictions and updates of soil water storage under different types of vegetation were obtained for a period of 5 years. The main results show that: (1) the proposed predictive model provides reliable and resilient soil water estimates under a wide range of external conditions; (2) the predicted soil water storage and the error bounds provided by the model offer a realistic and rational basis for decisions such as when to curtail well field operation to ensure plant survival. The predictive model offers a practical means for accommodating simple aspects of spatial variability by considering the additional source of uncertainty as part of modeling or measurement uncertainty.

  18. Distribution and Availability of State and Areawide Water Quality Reports in Oklahoma Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Million, Anne

    This report examines the distribution and availability of water quality reports in the state of Oklahoma. Based on legislation from the Clean Water Act and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency's "Public Participation Handbook for Water Quality Management," depository libraries must be established to provide citizen access to…

  19. Implications of Upstream Flow Availability for Watershed Surface Water Supply Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the availability of upstream flow (AUF) affects downstream water supply, its significance has not been rigorously categorized and quantified at fine resolutions. This study aims to fill this gap by providing a nationwide inventory of AUF and local water resource, and assessing their roles in securing water supply across the 2,099 8-...

  20. 77 FR 27770 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9670-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List...: This notice announces EPA's decision identifying certain water quality limited waterbodies, and the associated pollutant, in Utah to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests...

  1. 76 FR 62061 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9475-4] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List... three waterbodies. These three waterbodies were added by EPA because the applicable numeric water... be obtained at EPA Region 6's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm...

  2. Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.

  3. Assessing water availability over peninsular Malaysia using public domain satellite data products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M I; Hashim, M; Zin, H S M

    2014-01-01

    Water availability monitoring is an essential task for water resource sustainability and security. In this paper, the assessment of satellite remote sensing technique for determining water availability is reported. The water-balance analysis is used to compute the spatio-temporal water availability with main inputs; the precipitation and actual evapotranspiration rate (AET), both fully derived from public-domain satellite products of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and MODIS, respectively. Both these satellite products were first subjected to calibration to suit corresponding selected local precipitation and AET samples. Multi-temporal data sets acquired 2000-2010 were used in this study. The results of study, indicated strong agreement of monthly water availability with the basin flow rate (r 2 = 0.5, p < 0.001). Similar agreements were also noted between the estimated annual average water availability with the in-situ measurement. It is therefore concluded that the method devised in this study provide a new alternative for water availability mapping over large area, hence offers the only timely and cost-effective method apart from providing comprehensive spatio-temporal patterns, crucial in water resource planning to ensure water security

  4. Higher-Order Hamiltonian Model for Unidirectional Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, J. L.; Carvajal, X.; Panthee, M.; Scialom, M.

    2018-04-01

    Formally second-order correct, mathematical descriptions of long-crested water waves propagating mainly in one direction are derived. These equations are analogous to the first-order approximations of KdV- or BBM-type. The advantage of these more complex equations is that their solutions corresponding to physically relevant initial perturbations of the rest state may be accurate on a much longer timescale. The initial value problem for the class of equations that emerges from our derivation is then considered. A local well-posedness theory is straightforwardly established by a contraction mapping argument. A subclass of these equations possess a special Hamiltonian structure that implies the local theory can be continued indefinitely.

  5. Drought genetics have varying influence on corn water stress under differing water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) in the Great Plains will be increasingly grown under limited irrigation management and greater water stress. Hybrids with drought genetics may decrease the impacts of water stress on yield. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of drought genetics o...

  6. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, P.R.; Carlos de Araújo, José

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts of small reservoirs are subject to climate change. Using a case-study on North-East Brazil, this paper shows that climate change impacts on water availability may be severe, and impacts on distrib...

  7. Stover removal effects on seasonal soil water availability under full and deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removing corn (Zea mays L.) stover for livestock feed or bioenergy feedstock may impact water availability in the soil profile to support crop growth. The role of stover in affecting soil profile water availability will depend on annual rainfall inputs as well as irrigation level. To assess how res...

  8. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  9. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  10. 75 FR 8697 - Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9115-1] Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF and DWSRF...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of...

  11. Water availability and demand in the development regions of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. de Villiers

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water data in the development regions is at present insufficient. This is due to the fact that water supply and demand is calculated for the physical drainage regions (watersheds, while the development regions do not correspond with the drainage regions. The necessary calculations can accordingly presently not be made. In this paper this problem is addressed.

  12. Open Source Tools for Assessment of Global Water Availability, Demands, and Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Vernon, C. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Link, R. P.; Liu, Y.; Feng, L.; Huang, Z.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability and water demands are essential factors for estimating water scarcity conditions. To reproduce historical observations and to quantify future changes in water availability and water demand, two open source tools have been developed by the JGCRI (Joint Global Change Research Institute): Xanthos and GCAM-STWD. Xanthos is a gridded global hydrologic model, designed to quantify and analyze water availability in 235 river basins. Xanthos uses a runoff generation and a river routing modules to simulate both historical and future estimates of total runoff and streamflows on a monthly time step at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD is a spatiotemporal water disaggregation model used with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to spatially downscale global water demands for six major enduse sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, mining, and manufacturing) from the region scale to the scale of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD then temporally downscales the gridded annual global water demands to monthly results. These two tools, written in Python, can be integrated to assess global, regional or basin-scale water scarcity or water stress. Both of the tools are extensible to ensure flexibility and promote contribution from researchers that utilize GCAM and study global water use and supply.

  13. The hydraulic conductance of Fraxinus ornus leaves is constrained by soil water availability and coordinated with gas exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortan, Emmanuelle; Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2009-04-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is known to be an important determinant of plant gas exchange and photosynthesis. Little is known about the long-term impact of different environmental factors on the hydraulic construction of leaves and its eventual consequences on leaf gas exchange. In this study, we investigate the impact of soil water availability on Kleaf of Fraxinus ornus L. as well as the influence of Kleaf on gas exchange rates and plant water status. With this aim, Kleaf, leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), leaf water potential (Psileaf) and leaf mass per area (LMA) were measured in F. ornus trees, growing in 21 different sites with contrasting water availability. Plants growing in arid sites had lower Kleaf, gL and Psileaf than those growing in sites with higher water availability. On the contrary, LMA was similar in the two groups. The Kleaf values recorded in sites with two different levels of soil water availability were constantly different from each other regardless of the amount of precipitation recorded over 20 days before measurements. Moreover, Kleaf was correlated with gL values. Our data suggest that down-regulation of Kleaf is a component of adaptation of plants to drought-prone habitats. Low Kleaf implies reduced gas exchange which may, in turn, influence the climatic conditions on a local/regional scale. It is concluded that leaf hydraulics and its changes in response to resource availability should receive greater attention in studies aimed at modelling biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  14. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  15. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  16. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  17. Growth is required for perception of water availability to pattern root branches in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E; Dinneny, José R

    2018-01-23

    Water availability is a potent regulator of plant development and induces root branching through a process termed hydropatterning. Hydropatterning enables roots to position lateral branches toward regions of high water availability, such as wet soil or agar media, while preventing their emergence where water is less available, such as in air. The mechanism by which roots perceive the spatial distribution of water during hydropatterning is unknown. Using primary roots of Zea mays (maize) we reveal that developmental competence for hydropatterning is limited to the growth zone of the root tip. Past work has shown that growth generates gradients in water potential across an organ when asymmetries exist in the distribution of available water. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that substantial growth-sustained water potential gradients are also generated in the hydropatterning competent zone and that such biophysical cues inform the patterning of lateral roots. Using diverse chemical and environmental treatments we experimentally demonstrate that growth is necessary for normal hydropatterning of lateral roots. Transcriptomic characterization of the local response of tissues to a moist surface or air revealed extensive regulation of signaling and physiological pathways, some of which we show are growth-dependent. Our work supports a "sense-by-growth" mechanism governing hydropatterning, by which water availability cues are rendered interpretable through growth-sustained water movement. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  19. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  20. Increasing the availability and consumption of drinking water in middle schools: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha I; Bogart, Laura M; Elliott, Marc N; Lamb, Sheila; Uyeda, Kimberly E; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    Although several studies suggest that drinking water may help prevent obesity, no US studies have examined the effect of school drinking water provision and promotion on student beverage intake. We assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and outcomes of a school-based intervention to improve drinking water consumption among adolescents. The 5-week program, conducted in a Los Angeles middle school in 2008, consisted of providing cold, filtered drinking water in cafeterias; distributing reusable water bottles to students and staff; conducting school promotional activities; and providing education. Self-reported consumption of water, nondiet soda, sports drinks, and 100% fruit juice was assessed by conducting surveys among students (n = 876), preintervention and at 1 week and 2 months postintervention, from the intervention school and the comparison school. Daily water (in gallons) distributed in the cafeteria during the intervention was recorded. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and baseline intake of water at school, the odds of drinking water at school were higher for students at the intervention school than students at the comparison school. Students from the intervention school had higher adjusted odds of drinking water from fountains and from reusable water bottles at school than students from the comparison school. Intervention effects for other beverages were not significant. Provision of filtered, chilled drinking water in school cafeterias coupled with promotion and education is associated with increased consumption of drinking water at school. A randomized controlled trial is necessary to assess the intervention's influence on students' consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as obesity-related outcomes.

  1. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  2. Availability of water affects renewal of tissues in migratory blackcaps during stopover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bauchinger, Ulf; Aamidor, Sarah E; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2011-09-01

    Migrating blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) were used to test the predictions that (1) the rebuilding of the digestive tract, as reflected by mass-specific consumption of food on the first 2-3 days of a stopover, is faster in birds with access to drinking water than in birds without, and (2) that adipose tissue and pectoral muscles grow faster and to a greater extent in birds with unlimited access to water. We simulated migratory stopover in two experiments. In Experiment I, each of 31 birds was randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups for 6 days. Along with mealworms (∼64% water) ad libitum, Group 1 received drinking water ad libitum; Group 2 had 0.5 h/day access to water; and Group 3 had no access to water. In Experiment II, 30 birds were offered a mixed diet for insectivorous birds (∼33% water) ad libitum for 6 days, while randomly assigned to two groups: (1) Water ad libitum-control; and (2) 30 min access to water twice a day. We measured lean mass and fat mass using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, as well as body mass (m(b)), pectoral muscle index (PMI), and daily intake of food and water. Mean daily water intake was significantly different among the groups in both experiments. However, the availability of drinking water positively affected the rates of gain of lean and fat mass only in birds fed with the mixed, relatively dry diet. Furthermore, mass-specific daily food intake was affected by the availability of drinking water only in the mixed diet experiment, in which birds with unlimited access to drinking water reached an asymptote, 1 day earlier than birds in the water-restricted group. We suggest that in birds consuming diets with low water content, the lack of sufficient drinking water may result in slower rebuilding of the digestive tract, or may influence biochemical processes in the gut that result in slower growth of tissue. Although blackcaps obtained sufficient water from preformed and metabolic water to renew lost tissues when

  3. Cover crop biomass production and water use in the central great plains under varying water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-limited environment of the semi-arid central Great Plains may not have potential to produce enough cover crop biomass to generate benefits associated with cover crop use in more humid regions. There have been reports that cover crops grown in mixtures produce more biomass with greater wate...

  4. Global water scarcity: the monthly blue water footprint compared to blue water availability for the world's major river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin

    Conventional blue water scarcity indicators suffer from four weaknesses: they measure water withdrawal instead of consumptive water use, they compare water use with actual runoff rather than natural (undepleted) runoff, they ignore environmental flow requirements and they evaluate scarcity on an

  5. Future Water Availability from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya upper Indus Basin under Conflicting Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeh ul Hasson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Future of the crucial Himalayan water supplies has generally been assessed under the anthropogenic warming, typically consistent amid observations and climate model projections. However, conflicting mid-to-late melt-season cooling within the upper Indus basin (UIB suggests that the future of its melt-dominated hydrological regime and the subsequent water availability under changing climate has yet been understood only indistinctly. Here, the future water availability from the UIB is presented under both observed and projected—though likely but contrasting—climate change scenarios. Continuation of prevailing climatic changes suggests decreased and delayed glacier melt but increased and early snowmelt, leading to reduction in the overall water availability and profound changes in the overall seasonality of the hydrological regime. Hence, initial increases in the water availability due to enhanced glacier melt under typically projected warmer climates, and then abrupt decrease upon vanishing of the glaciers, as reported earlier, is only true given the UIB starts following uniformly the global warming signal. Such discordant future water availability findings caution the impact assessment communities to consider the relevance of likely (near-future climate change scenarios—consistent to prevalent climatic change patterns—in order to adequately support the water resource planning in Pakistan.

  6. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  7. 77 FR 20020 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9655-2] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of EPA's Responsiveness Summary Concerning EPA's November 30, 2011, Public Notice...

  8. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Tingju Zhu; Claudia Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM) of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation wat...

  9. Impact of root growth and root hydraulic conductance on water availability of young walnut trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerszurki, Daniela; Couvreur, Valentin; Hopmans, Jan W.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; de Souza, Jorge L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a tree species of high economic importance in the Central Valley of California. This crop has particularly high water requirements, which makes it highly dependent on irrigation. The context of decreasing water availability in the state calls for efficient water management practices, which requires improving our understanding of the relationship between water application and walnut water availability. In addition to the soil's hydraulic conductivity, two plant properties are thought to control the supply of water from the bulk soil to the canopy: (i) root distribution and (ii) plant hydraulic conductance. Even though these properties are clearly linked to crop water requirements, their quantitative relation remains unclear. The aim of this study is to quantitatively explain walnut water requirements under water deficit from continuous measurements of its water consumption, soil and stem water potential, root growth and root system hydraulic conductance. For that purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted for a two month period. Young walnut trees were planted in transparent cylindrical pots, equipped with: (i) rhizotron tubes, which allowed for non-invasive monitoring of root growth, (ii) pressure transducer tensiometers for soil water potential, (iii) psychrometers attached to non-transpiring leaves for stem water potential, and (iv) weighing scales for plant transpiration. Treatments consisted of different irrigation rates: 100%, 75% and 50% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Plant responses were compared to predictions from three simple process-based soil-plant-atmosphere models of water flow: (i) a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation based on stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit, (ii) a model of plant hydraulics predicting stem water potential from soil-root interfaces water potential, and (iii) a model of soil water depletion predicting the water potential drop between the bulk soil and soil-root interfaces

  10. Multilayer geospatial analysis of water availability for shale resources development in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, C.; Cook, M. A.; Webber, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    Mexico’s government enacted an energy reform in 2013 that aims to foster competitiveness and private investment throughout the energy sector value chain. As part of this reform, it is expected that extraction of oil and gas via hydraulic fracturing will increase in five shale basins (e.g. Burgos, Sabinas, Tampico, Tuxpan, and Veracruz). Because hydraulic fracturing is a water-intensive activity, it is relevant to assess the potential water availability for this activity in Mexico. This research aims to quantify the water availability for hydraulic fracturing in Mexico and identify its spatial distribution along the five shale basins. The methodology consisted of a multilayer geospatial analysis that overlays the water availability in the watersheds and aquifers with the different types of shale resources areas (e.g. oil and associated gas, wet gas and condensate, and dry gas) in the five shale basins. The aquifers and watersheds in Mexico are classified in four zones depending on average annual water availability. Three scenarios were examined based on different impact level on watersheds and aquifers from hydraulic fracturing. For the most conservative scenario analyzed, the results showed that the water available could be used to extract between 8.15 and 70.42 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of energy in the typical 20-30 year lifetime of the hydraulic fracturing wells that could be supplied with the annual water availability overlaying the shale areas, with an average across estimates of around 18.05 Quads. However, geographic variation in water availability could represent a challenge for extracting the shale reserves. Most of the water available is located closer to the Gulf of Mexico, but the areas with the larger recoverable shale reserves coincide with less water availability in Northern Mexico. New water management techniques (such as recycling and re-use), more efficient fracturing methods, shifts in usage patterns, or other water sources need

  11. Implementation of State Obligations and Responsibility Ensuring the Availability of Clean Water in Karimunjawa Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

    2018-02-01

    This article aims to analyze the implementation of state obligations and responsibility ensuring the availability of clean water as part of human rights in Karimunjawa islands. The analysis based on principle of the State obligations and responsibility to fulfill their citizen right. Water sources in Karimunjawa Islands is very limited. It depend on forest conservation. Around 9.600 peoples live in Karimunjawa Islands, but Karimunjawa is non groundwater basin region. It means, Karimunjawa doesn't have groundwater potential. The quantity of water depends on the season. The solution to maintain the sustainability of clean water is piping from water reservoir to residential areas. The problem is there are so many hotels in Karimunjawa islands, it disrupted the fulfillment of clean water. Besides utilizing water from reservoir, many hotels drilled the ground to get water. It had impact to the availibity of water in dry season and affected to fulfillment of water supply for Karimunjawa people. There is no specific regulation and policy to solve this problem. Clean water management is doing by Karimunjawa's people. Meanwhile, based on Mahkamah Konstitusi Decree number 85/PUU-XI/2013, state is a rights holder to dominate the water in accordance with the Articles 33 paragraph (2) and (3) UUD NRI 1945, so the government has an obligation to make a policy, regulations, management, and supervision.

  12. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  13. Availability of uranium present in the sludge generated at two stations of potable water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Serrano, A.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Guillen, J.

    2013-01-01

    During the treatment is carried out in a Station Potable Water Treatment Plant sludge enriched are produced in components that have been removed from the water. The concentration and availability of radionuclides accumulated in a sludge during coagulation-flocculation will condition possible later use, so it is essential to carry out the characterization of sludge and its chemical speciation. (Author)

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingju Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT. Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation water supply in the catchments of the Limpopo River Basin within the four riparian countries: Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The analysis found that water resources of the Limpopo River Basin are already stressed under today’s climate conditions. Projected water infrastructure and management interventions are expected to improve the situation by 2050 if current climate conditions continue into the future. However, under the climate change scenarios studied here, water supply availability is expected to worsen considerably by 2050. Assessing hydrological impacts of climate change is crucial given that expansion of irrigated areas has been postulated as a key adaptation strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa. Such expansion will need to take into account future changes in water availability in African river basins.

  15. 75 FR 30013 - South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment May 20, 2010. In accordance... assessment (EA) regarding South Feather Water and Power Agency's (SFWPA) request to raise the dam crest and... Project (FERC No. 2088). Sly Creek is located on Sly Creek [[Page 30014

  16. Fusion of multisource and multiscale remote sensing data for water availability assessment in a metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N. B.; Yang, Y. J.; Daranpob, A.

    2009-09-01

    Recent extreme hydroclimatic events in the United States alone include, but are not limited to, the droughts in Maryland and the Chesapeake Bay area in 2001 through September 2002; Lake Mead in Las Vegas in 2000 through 2004; the Peace River and Lake Okeechobee in South Florida in 2006; and Lake Lanier in Atlanta, Georgia in 2007 that affected the water resources distribution in three states - Alabama, Florida and Georgia. This paper provides evidence from previous work and elaborates on the future perspectives that will collectively employ remote sensing and in-situ observations to support the implementation of the water availability assessment in a metropolitan region. Within the hydrological cycle, precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration can be monitored by using WSR-88D/NEXRAD data, RADARSAT-1 images, and GEOS images collectively to address the spatiotemporal variations of quantitative availability of waters whereas the MODIS images may be used to track down the qualitative availability of waters in terms of turbidity, Chlorophyll-a and other constitutes of concern. Tampa Bay in Florida was selected as a study site in this analysis, where the water supply infrastructure covers groundwater, desalination plant, and surface water at the same time. Research findings show that through the proper fusion of multi-source and multi-scale remote sensing data for water availability assessment in metropolitan region, a new insight of water infrastructure assessment can be gained to support sustainable planning region wide.

  17. Water Availability in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; de Linage, C.; Swenson, S. C.; Rodell, M.

    2010-12-01

    As water security becomes more tenuous, conflicts and disputes over the appropriate management and allocation of transboundary water resources are sure to arise. In particular, the Middle East faces extreme scarcity as a result of both natural climate variations and the impacts of water management decisions and policies. A recent drought, which began in 2007, caused regional hardships as precious water resources dwindled and collaboration between nations failed to accommodate shared needs. In this work, the area surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates River Basin was selected as a case study to evaluate trends in fresh water availability. Because few complete datasets exist for precipitation, streamflow, evapotranspiration, groundwater or surface water in the area, remote sensing techniques, including GRACE and altimetry, as well as land-surface models were utilized to develop an understanding of the regional hydrology. These observations and model results were used to estimate trends in total water storage and its individual components - soil moisture, snow water equivalent, surface water and groundwater. GRACE data show a clear decrease in total water storage in the Middle East from January 2003 to December 2009, and indicate that the selected region experienced a total volume loss of 143 km3 of water. Supporting datasets suggest that approximately two-thirds of this was a loss of groundwater. These results highlight the impacts of drought conditions on groundwater consumption and of agricultural expansion on available water resources in the region. Furthermore, they raise important political issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring and datasets for the core components of the water budget.

  18. Modeling of Soil Water Availability for Agricultural Planning at Pelaga Village, Badung Regency, Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyarto, R.; Sunarta, I. N.; Wiyanti; Padmayani, N. K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Pelaga Village is located in Badung regency which has the advantage in agriculture with the cultivation of coffee plants, oranges, carrots, cabbage, and chili. The physical condition of Pelaga Village which has high rainfall, bumpy areas, and sandy-sandy ground texture causes air to air to be available for plants. Based on these questions then conducted a study to determine the comparison between the available water and water requirement for agriculture. Available water was difference field capacity and permanent wilting point method and crop water requirement was using Blaney-Criddle method. The results from this research was deficit between available air and crop water requirements. Available water was 12,12% and crop water requirement in initial stage, dev. Stage, mid-season stage, and late season stage respectively, coffee 11.28%, 24.19%, 35.49%, 29.04%; cabbage 19.58%, 19.58%, 33.10%, 27.74%: carrot 14.82%, 28.61%, 28.61%, 27.95%: Orange 14.82%, 28.61%, 28.61%, 27.23%; chili, 17.37%,17.37%, 34.80%, 30.46%. Soil management that must be done is by short-term land management by sprinkling long-term soil management by means of organic material valuation, irrigation making, and terracing making.

  19. Superficial Water Resource at Tempisque River Watershed, Costa Rica: Availability and Requirement Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Arias, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the status of water resources availability and demand in the upper and middle Tempisque watershed projected up to 2030 and the proposed actions to start a planning process. The resource availability scenarios incorporate the modifications inwater flows due to land use and cli­mate changes; these combined effects increases the problems of water shortages during the dry season. The resource demand scenarios include projections provided by the major users in the watershed, o...

  20. Superficial Water Resource at Tempisque River Watershed, Costa Rica: Availability and Requirement Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Guzmán-Arias

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the status of water resources availability and demand in the upper and middle Tempisque watershed projected up to 2030 and the proposed actions to start a planning process. The resource availability scenarios incorporate the modifications inwater flows due to land use and cli­mate changes; these combined effects increases the problems of water shortages during the dry season. The resource demand scenarios include projections provided by the major users in the watershe...

  1. Influence of free water availability on a desert carnivore and herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluever, Bryan M; Gese, Eric M; Dempsey, Steven J

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic manipulation of finite resources on the landscape to benefit individual species or communities is commonly employed by conservation and management agencies. One such action in arid regions is the construction and maintenance of water developments (i.e., wildlife guzzlers) adding free water on the landscape to buttress local populations, influence animal movements, or affect distributions of certain species of interest. Despite their prevalence, the utility of wildlife guzzlers remains largely untested. We employed a before-after control-impact (BACI) design over a 4-year period on the US Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, USA, to determine whether water availability at wildlife guzzlers influenced relative abundance of black-tailed jackrabbits Lepus californicus and relative use of areas near that resource by coyotes Canis latrans , and whether coyote visitations to guzzlers would decrease following elimination of water. Eliminating water availability at guzzlers did not influence jackrabbit relative abundance. Coyote relative use was impacted by water availability, with elimination of water reducing use in areas associated with our treatment, but not with areas associated with our control. Visitations of radio-collared coyotes to guzzlers declined nearly 3-fold following elimination of water. Our study provides the first evidence of a potential direct effect of water sources on a mammalian carnivore in an arid environment, but the ecological relevance of our finding is debatable. Future investigations aimed at determining water effects on terrestrial mammals could expand on our findings by incorporating manipulations of water availability, obtaining absolute estimates of population parameters and vital rates and incorporating fine-scale spatiotemporal data.

  2. Freshwater availability and water fetching distance affect child health in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer

    2012-02-21

    Currently, more than two-thirds of the population in Africa must leave their home to fetch water for drinking and domestic use. The time burden of water fetching has been suggested to influence the volume of water collected by households as well as time spent on income generating activities and child care. However, little is known about the potential health benefits of reducing water fetching distances. Data from almost 200, 000 Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 26 countries were used to assess the relationship between household walk time to water source and child health outcomes. To estimate the causal effect of decreased water fetching time on health, geographic variation in freshwater availability was employed as an instrumental variable for one-way walk time to water source in a two-stage regression model. Time spent walking to a household's main water source was found to be a significant determinant of under-five child health. A 15-min decrease in one-way walk time to water source is associated with a 41% average relative reduction in diarrhea prevalence, improved anthropometric indicators of child nutritional status, and a 11% relative reduction in under-five child mortality. These results suggest that reducing the time cost of fetching water should be a priority for water infrastructure investments in Africa.

  3. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Mesa consists of alluvial-fan deposits that overlie shale and, locally, sandstone. Maps of the base of the aquifer, the water table, and the saturated thickness of the aquifer were prepared from data from the well files of the Colorado Division of Water Resources. The base of the aquifer generally is topographically higher than the valleys of the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek, and direct hydraulic connection of the aquifer to North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek is limited. The aquifer is recharged primarily by infiltration of surface water diverted for irrigation. Ground water discharges to seeps and springs and through slope deposits at the boundaries of the aquifer. Data from the well files also were used to estimate the specific capacity of wells and to estimate the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. A water budget was used to estimate recharge to and discharge from the aquifer. Although storage within the aquifer likely varies seasonally and from year to year, it was assumed that there were no long-term changes in ground-water storage. Estimated average annual recharge to and discharge from the aquifer during November 1998 through October 2006 were about 30,767 acre-feet per year. Although sufficient ground water is available on Rogers Mesa for additional domestic water supplies, conversion of irrigated land to residential land use likely would reduce recharge to the aquifer, affecting the sustainability of ground-water supplies on Rogers Mesa. Stream-depletion analyses indicate that the ground water in the aquifer likely would be considered tributary ground water and additional uses of ground water to supply new subdivisions likely would require implementation of augmentation plans. Although sufficient ground water is available on Rogers Mesa for additional domestic water supplies, conversion of irrigated land to residential land use likely would reduce recharge to the aquifer, affecting the sustainability

  4. Available water modifications by topsoil treatments under mediterranean semiarid conditions: afforestation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2016-04-01

    During dry periods in the Mediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil. These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil vegetation recovery which creates a positive feedback process that can lead to desertification. Restoration of native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health, and control runoff and sediment yield. In Mediterranean areas, after a forestry proposal, it is highly common to register a significant number of losses for the saplings that have been introduced due to the lack of rainfall. When no vegetation is established, organic amendments can be used to rapidly protect the soil surface against the erosive forces of rain and runoff. In this study we investigated the hydrological effects of five soil treatments in relation to the temporal variability of the available water for plants. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. In control plots, during June, July, August and September, soils were registered below the wilting point, and therefore, in the area of water unusable by plants. These months were coinciding with the summer mediterranean drought. This fact justifies the high mortality found on plants after the seeding plan. Similarly, soils have never exceeded the field capacity value measured for control plots. Conversely, in the straw and pinus mulch, soils were above the wilting point during a longer time than in control plots. Thus, the soil moisture only has stayed below the 4.2 pF suction in July, July and August. Regarding the amount of water available was also higher, especially in the months of December, January and February. However, the field capacity

  5. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

    2012-01-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  6. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Eastern and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Harrison, L.; Shukla, S.; Pricope, N. G.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Severe droughts in 2015, 2016 and 2017 in Ethiopia, Southern Africa, and Somalia have negatively impacted agriculture and municipal water supplies resulting in food and water insecurity. Information from remotely sensed data and field reports indicated that the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation (FLDAS) accurately tracked both the anomalously low soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff conditions. This work presents efforts to more precisely monitor how the water balance responds to water availability deficits (i.e. drought) as estimated by the FLDAS with CHIRPS precipitation, MERRA-2 meteorological forcing and the Noah33 land surface model.Preliminary results indicate that FLDAS streamflow estimates are well correlated with observed streamflow where irrigation and other channel modifications are not present; FLDAS evapotranspiration (ET) is well correlated with ET from the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model (SSEBop) in Eastern and Southern Africa. We then use these results to monitor availability, and explore trends in water supply and demand.

  7. Water level affects availability of optimal feeding habitats for threatened migratory waterbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aharon-Rotman, Yaara; McEvoy, John; Zheng Zhaoju

    2017-01-01

    within the lake. Changing the natural hydrological system will affect waterbirds dependent on water level changes for food availability and accessibility. We tracked two goose species with different feeding behaviors (greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons [grazing species] and swan geese Anser......Extensive ephemeral wetlands at Poyang Lake, created by dramatic seasonal changes in water level, constitute the main wintering site for migratory Anatidae in China. Reductions in wetland area during the last 15years have led to proposals to build a Poyang Dam to retain high winter water levels...... cygnoides [tuber-feeding species]) during two winters with contrasting water levels (continuous recession in 2015; sustained high water in 2016, similar to those predicted post-Poyang Dam), investigating the effects of water level change on their habitat selection based on vegetation and elevation. In 2015...

  8. 75 FR 27926 - Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-NOA-0016] Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation Standards for Showerheads; Request for Comments AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments. SUMMARY...

  9. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramírez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-12-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources: population growth reduces the land and water per person; and adoption of affluent diets increases the demand for land and water per person. This study shows potentials of global food supply by linking food demand drivers with national land and water availability. Whether the available land and water is enough to meet national food demand was calculated for 187 countries. The calculations were performed for the past situation (1960 and 2010) and to assess four future scenarios (2050) to discuss different paths of diets, population numbers and agricultural expansion. Inclusion of the demand perspective in the analysis has shown stronger challenges for future global food supply than have other studies. The results show that with the "business as usual" scenario, 40% of the global population in 2050 will live in countries with not enough land nor water to meet the demands of their population. Restriction to basic diets will be the most effective in lowering both land and water constraints. Our results identify both food production and food demand factors, and the regions that may experience the strongest challenges in 2050.

  10. Optimizing Regional Food and Energy Production under Limited Water Availability through Integrated Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlian Gao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, human activity is approaching planetary boundaries. In northwest China, in particular, the coal industry and agriculture are competing for key limited inputs of land and water. In this situation, the traditional approach to planning the development of each sector independently fails to deliver sustainable solutions, as solutions made in sectorial ‘silos’ are often suboptimal for the entire economy. We propose a spatially detailed cost-minimizing model for coal and agricultural production in a region under constraints on land and water availability. We apply the model to the case study of Shanxi province, China. We show how such an integrated optimization, which takes maximum advantage of the spatial heterogeneity in resource abundance, could help resolve the conflicts around the water–food–energy (WFE nexus and assist in its management. We quantify the production-possibility frontiers under different water-availability scenarios and demonstrate that in water-scarce regions, like Shanxi, the production capacity and corresponding production solutions are highly sensitive to water constraints. The shadow prices estimated in the model could be the basis for intelligent differentiated water pricing, not only to enable the water-resource transfer between agriculture and the coal industry, and across regions, but also to achieve cost-effective WFE management.

  11. Physiological responses of Theobroma cacao L. to water soil available in nursery stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Garcia Lozano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the locality of El Espinal, Tolima, the effect of water stress on leaf water potential and gas exchange of plants three clones of cacao (Theobroma cacao L was evaluated. The experiment was established in a split plot design in randomized block arrangement. The main plot was four levels of available soil water, subplot grafted seedlings to three months of three clones with five repetitions. The results showed highly significant differences (P <0.01 in content of soil water, but no differences between the materials evaluated. The loss of water in the soil decreases leaf water potential (Ψf and causes stomatal closure altering gas exchange and vapor pressure deficit (DPV accentuates mainly at noon with increasing evapotranspiration. The magnitude of impact of water deficit depends on climatic variations throughout the day. The climatic variables that affect plant development, are temperature and relative humidity in the form of DPV. Net photosynthesis and growth of cocoa seedlings are physiological variables very sensitive to excess and especially to water deficit.

  12. Assessing the impacts of combined climate and land use changes for water availability and demands in a Mediterranean watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean basins experience water scarcity issues due to the dry climate associated with the need for agricultural irrigation and recurrent severe drought episodes. Recent land use changes have increased the pressure over water resources due to an expansion of irrigation. Global climate change is expected to bring forth a drier climate, which may simultaneously lead to higher irrigation demands and less water to sustain them, which would be a great management challenge. The issues surrounding climate and associated land use changes were addressed for the Xarrama basin in southern Portugal. This is a region where there is already a large amount of irrigation, mostly consisting of corn and rice fields, but recent trends point to an increase of drip-irrigation in olives and vineyards. The water management strategies for this region assume water transfers from the larger Alqueva reservoir, without taking into account the impacts of these future changes which might introduce additional evapotranspiration losses while decreasing the amount of available water both in Xarrama and Alqueva. Future climate and land-use scenarios were downscaled to the basin level, the latter taking into account local land-use change trends in recent decades. Downscaling based on local tendencies allowed detailed land use changes for agriculture and forest (the main land uses for this region), i.e. the most likely types of crops and trees to be introduced or replaced. The results of local tendencies scenarios reflect the SRES tendencies for Europe, namely agricultural abandonment and increased biofuel production, with species adapted to this climatic region. These scenarios are the first for this region with highly detailed information about land use change scenarios under climate change. The SWAT eco-hydrological model is being applied to quantify the individual impact of climate and land-use change scenarios on both water availability and demands, and the synergies between both. This

  13. Different hydraulic traits of woody plants from tropical forests with contrasting soil water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Dan; Chen, Ya-Jun; Fu, Pei-Li; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2017-11-01

    In southwestern China, tropical karst forests (KF) and non-karst rain forests (NKF) have different species composition and forest structure owing to contrasting soil water availability, but with a few species that occur in both forests. Plant hydraulic traits are important for understanding the species' distribution patterns in these two forest types, but related studies are rare. In this study, we investigated hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation and wood anatomy of 23 abundant and typical woody species from a KF and a neighboring NKF, as well as two Bauhinia liana species common to both forests. We found that the KF species tended to have higher sapwood density, smaller vessel diameter, lower specific hydraulic conductivity (ks) and leaf to sapwood area ratio, and were more resistant to cavitation than NKF species. Across the 23 species distinctly occurring in either KF or NKF, there was a significant tradeoff between hydraulic efficiency and safety, which might be an underlying mechanism for distributions of these species across the two forests. Interestingly, by possessing rather large and long vessels, the two Bauhinia liana species had extremely high ks but were also high resistance to cavitation (escaping hydraulic tradeoff). This might be partially due to their distinctly dimorphic vessels, but contribute to their wide occurrence in both forests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Jawitz, James W.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative national assessment of urban water availability and vulnerability for 225 U.S. cities with population greater than 100,000. Here, the urban assessments account for not only renewable water flows, but also the extracted, imported, and stored water that urban systems access through constructed infrastructure. These sources represent important hydraulic components of the urban water supply, yet are typically excluded from water scarcity assessments. Results from this hydraulic-based assessment were compared to those obtained using a more conventional method that estimates scarcity solely based on local renewable flows. The inclusion of hydraulic components increased the mean availability to cities, leading to a significantly lower portion of the total U.S. population considered "at risk" for water scarcity (17%) than that obtained from the runoff method (47%). Water vulnerability was determined based on low-flow conditions, and smaller differences were found for this metric between at-risk populations using the runoff (66%) and hydraulic-based (54%) methods. The large increase in the susceptible population between the scarcity measures evaluated using the hydraulic method may better reconcile the seeming contradiction in the United States between perceptions of natural water abundance and widespread water scarcity. Additionally, urban vulnerability measures developed here were validated using a media text analysis. Vulnerability assessments that included hydraulic components were found to correlate with the frequency of urban water scarcity reports in the popular press while runoff-based measures showed no significant correlation, suggesting that hydraulic-based assessments provide better context for understanding the nature and severity of urban water scarcity issues.

  15. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on water available to tropical forests in an Amazonian catchment and implications for modeling drought response: Water Available to Tropical Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yilin; Leung, Lai-Yung; Duan, Zhuoran; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Tomasella, Javier

    2017-08-18

    The Amazon basin experienced periodic droughts in the past, and climate models projected more intense and frequent droughts in the future. How tropical forests respond to drought may depend on water availability, which is modulated by landscape heterogeneity. Using the one-dimensional ACME Land Model (ALM) and the three-dimensional ParFlow variably saturated flow model, a series of numerical experiments were performed for the Asu catchment in central Amazon to elucidate processes that influence water available for plant use and provide insights for improving Earth system models. Results from ParFlow show that topography has a dominant influence on groundwater table and runoff through lateral flow. Without any representations of lateral processes, ALM simulates very different seasonal variations in groundwater table and runoff compared to ParFlow even if it is able to reproduce the long-term spatial average groundwater table of ParFlow through simple parameter calibration. In the ParFlow simulations, the groundwater table is evidently deeper and the soil saturation is lower in the plateau compared to the valley. However, even in the plateau during the dry season in the drought year of 2005, plant transpiration is not water stressed in the ParFlow simulations as the soil saturation is still sufficient to maintain a soil matric potential for the stomata to be fully open. This finding is insensitive to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and soil parameters, but the empirical wilting formulation used in the models is an important factor that should be addressed using observations and modeling of coupled plant hydraulics-soil hydrology processes in future studies.

  16. Available water and the orange trees growth on soils of a toposequence of the Reconcavo Baiano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Arlicelio de Queiroz; Souza, Luciano da Silva; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Liovando Marciano da; Santana, Marlete Bastos

    1997-01-01

    Aiming the study of the influence of available water in soils, at different depths, on the orange trees growth, the present work was carried out on a toposequence located at the Sapeacu-BA-Brazil municipality, with 190 m length and 0.097 mm -1 declivity. Due to the declivity and soils variations, the area was divided into three sectors with different constitutions. Weekly basis measurements of the soil water content have been performed, in the period of Dec 18, 1995 - Dec 18, 1996, at different depths, by using a neutron probe. The water considered as available was the stored water in the soil, at different depths, less the volumetric humidity under the -1,500 kPa

  17. Assessment of Suitable Areas for Home Gardens for Irrigation Potential, Water Availability, and Water-Lifting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Assefa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin of Ethiopia to assess potentially irrigable areas for home gardens, water availability, and feasibility of water-lifting technologies. A GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE technique was applied to access the potential of surface and groundwater sources for irrigation. The factors affecting irrigation practice were identified and feasibility of water-lifting technologies was evaluated. Pairwise method and expert’s opinion were used to assign weights for each factor. The result showed that about 345,000 ha and 135,000 ha of land were found suitable for irrigation from the surface and groundwater sources, respectively. The rivers could address about 1–1.2% of the irrigable land during dry season without water storage structure whereas groundwater could address about 2.2–2.4% of the irrigable land, both using conventional irrigation techniques. If the seven major dams within the basin were considered, surface water potential would be increased and satisfy about 21% of the irrigable land. If rainwater harvesting techniques were used, about 76% of the basin would be suitable for irrigation. The potential of surface and groundwater was evaluated with respect to water requirements of dominant crops in the region. On the other hand, rope pump and deep well piston hand pump were found with relatively the most (26% and the least (9% applicable low-cost water-lifting technologies in the basin.

  18. Climate change impacts on water availability in the Red River Basin and critical areas for future water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Sabzi, H.; Moreno, H. A.; Neeson, T. M.; Rosendahl, D. H.; Bertrand, D.; Xue, X.; Hong, Y.; Kellog, W.; Mcpherson, R. A.; Hudson, C.; Austin, B. N.

    2017-12-01

    Previous periods of severe drought followed by exceptional flooding in the Red River Basin (RRB) have significantly affected industry, agriculture, and the environment in the region. Therefore, projecting how climate may change in the future and being prepared for potential impacts on the RRB is crucially important. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on water availability across the RRB. We used three down-scaled global climate models and three potential greenhouse gas emission scenarios to assess precipitation, temperature, streamflow and lake levels throughout the RRB from 1961 to 2099 at a spatial resolution of 1/10°. Unit-area runoff and streamflow were obtained using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model applied across the entire basin. We found that most models predict less precipitation in the western side of the basin and more in the eastern side. In terms of temperature, the models predict that average temperature could increase as much as 6°C. Most models project slightly more precipitation and streamflow values in the future, specifically in the eastern side of the basin. Finally, we analyzed the projected meteorological and hydrologic parameters alongside regional water demand for different sectors to identify the areas on the RRB that will need water-environmental conservation actions in the future. These hotspots of future low water availability are locations where regional environmental managers, water policy makers, and the agricultural and industrial sectors must proactively prepare to deal with declining water availability over the coming decades.

  19. Competing effects of groundwater withdrawals and climate change on water availability in semi-arid India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sishodia, R. P.; Shukla, S.

    2017-12-01

    India, a global leader in groundwater use (250 km3/yr), is experiencing groundwater depletion. There has been a 130-fold increase in number of irrigation wells since 1960. Anticipated future increase in groundwater demand is likely to exacerbate the water availability in the semi-arid regions of India. Depending on the direction of change, future climate change may either worsen or enhance the water availability. This study uses an integrated hydrologic modeling approach (MIKE SHE MIKE 11) to compare and combine the effects of future (2040-2069) increased groundwater withdrawals and climate change on surface and groundwater flows and availability for an agricultural watershed in semi-arid south India. Modeling results showed that increased groundwater withdrawals in the future resulted in reduced surface flows (25%) and increased frequency and duration (90 days/yr) of well drying. In contrast, projected future increase in rainfall (7-43%) under the changed climate showed increased groundwater recharge (15-67%) and surface flows (9-155%). Modeling results suggest that the positive effects of climate change may enhance the water availability in this semi-arid region of India. However, in combination with increased withdrawals, climate change was shown to increase the well drying and reduce the water availability especially during dry years. A combination of management options such as flood to drip conversion, energy subsidy reductions and water storage can support increased groundwater irrigated area in the future while mitigating the well drying. A cost-benefit analysis showed that dispersed water storage and flood to drip conversion can be highly cost-effective in this semi-arid region. The study results suggest that the government and management policies need to be focused towards an integrated management of demand and supply to create a sustainable food-water-energy nexus in the region.

  20. Availability of ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin, central and southern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sufficient amounts of water to supply single family homes are available from the bedrock aquifer nearly everywhere in the middle Merrimack River basin in central and southern New Hampshire. Relatively this and narrow, unconsolidated aquifers of sand or sand and gravel commonly capable of yielding more than 200 gallons per minute to properly located and constructed wells are found only in major stream valleys. The map provides a preliminary assessment of the availability of ground water in the basin, as determined by estimating the capability of the aquifers to store and transmit water. On the map, aquifers are rated as having high, medium, or low potential to yield water. Ground water in the middle Merrimack River basin is generally of good chemical quality. Most of it is clear and colorless, contains no suspended matter and practically no bacteria, water may be affected by land-use practices. Degradation of water quality may occur in unsewered residential and village areas, near solid-waste-disposal sites, agricultural land, and major highways. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and perfluorinated compounds and evaluation of the availability of reclaimed water in Kinmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Wei-Po Lai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging contaminants have commonly been observed in environmental waters but have not been included in water quality assessments at many locations around the world. To evaluate the availability of reclaimed water in Kinmen, Taiwan, this study provides the first survey of the distribution of thirty-three pharmaceuticals and five perfluorinated chemicals in lake waters and water from local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. The results showed that the target emerging contaminants in Kinmen lakes were at trace ng/L concentrations. In addition, most of the target compounds were present in the Jincheng and Taihu WWTP influents at ng/L concentrations levels, of which 5 compounds (erythromycin-H2O (1340 ng/L, ibuprofen (1763 ng/L, atenolol (1634 ng/L, acetaminophen (2143 ng/L, and caffeine (3113 ng/L reached μg/L concentrations. The overall treatment efficiencies of the Jincheng and Taihu WWTPs with respect to these pharmaceuticals and perfluorinated chemicals were poor; half of the compounds were less than 50% removed. Five compounds (sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin-H2O, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin with risk quotient (RQ values > 1 in the effluent should be further investigated to understand their effects on the aquatic environment. Additional and advanced treatment units are found necessary to provide high-quality recycled water and sustainable water resources.

  2. Towards a more appropriate water based extraction for the assessment of organic contaminant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Zachary A.; Reid, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    This study correlated extractabilities of 37 d aged phenanthrene residues in four dissimilar soils with the fraction that was available for earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) accumulation and microorganism (Pseudomonas sp.) mineralisation. Extractability was determined using two established techniques, namely (1) a water based extraction using CO 2 equilibrated water and (2) an aqueous based hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Results showed no relationship between earthworm accumulation and phenanthrene extractability using either HPCD (r 2 =0.07; slope=-4.76; n=5) or the water based extraction (r 2 =0.31; slope=-5.34; n=5). Earthworm accumulation was overestimated by both techniques. In contrast, the fraction of phenanthrene extractable using both the HPCD technique and the water based extraction correlated strongly with microbial mineralisation. However, the slopes of these linear relationships were 0.48 (r 2 =0.96; n=10), and 0.99 (r 2 =0.88; n=10) for the water based extraction and HPCD, respectively. Thus, the HPCD extraction provided values that were numerically close to the mineralisation values, whilst the water based extraction values were approximately half the mineralisation values. It is submitted that HPCD extraction provided an appropriate method of assessing the fraction of contaminant available for microbial mineralisation in these dissimilar soils. - No significant difference was found between microbially mineralised phenanthrene and extractability using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in four dissimilar soils; the water-only extraction removed half of this fraction

  3. Superficial Water Resource at Tempisque River Watershed, Costa Rica: Availability and Requirement Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Guzmán-Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the status of water resources availability and demand in the upper and middle Tempisque watershed projected up to 2030 and the proposed actions to start a planning process. The resource availability scenarios incorporate the modifications inwater flows due to land use and cli­mate changes; these combined effects increases the problems of water shortages during the dry season. The resource demand scenarios include projections provided by the major users in the watershed, of which very few can envision growth expectations in terms of water consumption. The proposed resource planning process integrates the analysis conducted in this thesis and tries to identify the basic steps to be followed for the pro­per management of the resource in the future.

  4. Effects of water availability on emerald ash borer larval performance and phloem phenolics of Manchurian and black ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-04-01

    The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Classification of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids under different water availability based on biometric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The eucalyptus grows rapidly and is well suitable to edaphic and bioclimatic conditions in several regions of of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids grown under different water availability conditions.Area of study: The study was performed in south-eastern of BrazilMaterial and Methods: We evaluated five commercial hybrids cultivated in pots with the substrate maintained at 65, 50, 35 and 20% maximum water retention capacity. The evaluation was based on the following characteristics: total height (cm, diameter (mm, number of leaves, leaf area (dm2, and dry weight (g plant-1 of leaf, stem + branches,   root, shoot and total and root/shoot ratio.Main results: All the characteristics evaluated were adversely affected by reduced availability of water in the substrate. The hybrids assessed performed differently in terms of biometric characteristics, irrespective of water availability. Water deficit resulted in a greater reduction in the dry weight production compared to number of leaves, diameter and height. Hybrids H2 and H5 have favorable traits for tolerating drought. The hybrid H2 shows a stronger slowdown in growth as soil moisture levels drop, although its growth rate is low, and H5 increases the root/shoot ratio but maintains growth in terms of height, even under drought conditions.Research highlights: The results obtained in our experiment show that productive hybrids sensitive to drought could also perform better under water deficit conditions, maintaining satisfactory growth despite significant drops in these characteristics.Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; water deficit; drought tolerance. 

  6. Radioecological investigations of phytocommunities higher water plant in upper Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Volkova, E.N.; Shirokaya, Z.O.; Karapish, V.A.; Dremlyuga, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The dose loads of the highest water plants it determined and ecological role of phytocommunities in radionuclides distribution and migration in water reservoir is shown. The ' critical zones ' for characteristic types of phytocommunities are determined. It is marked that radionuclides accumulation by macrophits depends on species and ecological group

  7. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocco, Robert M; Facelli, José M; Watling, Jennifer R

    2016-03-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites' effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ(13)C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Increasing water availability during afterschool snack: evidence, strategies, and partnerships from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Catherine M; Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Lee, Rebekka M; Thayer, Julie C; Mont-Ferguson, Helen; Cradock, Angie L

    2012-09-01

    Providing drinking water to U.S. children during school meals is a recommended health promotion strategy and part of national nutrition policy. Urban school systems have struggled with providing drinking water to children, and little is known about how to ensure that water is served, particularly in afterschool settings. To assess the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote water as the beverage of choice in afterschool programs. The Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Initiative (OSNAP) used a community-based collaboration and low-cost strategies to provide water after school. A group RCT was used to evaluate the intervention. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2011. Twenty afterschool programs in Boston were randomized to intervention or control (delayed intervention). Intervention sites participated in learning collaboratives focused on policy and environmental changes to increase healthy eating, drinking, and physical activity opportunities during afterschool time (materials available at www.osnap.org). Collaboration between Boston Public Schools Food and Nutrition Services, afterschool staff, and researchers established water-delivery systems to ensure children were served water during snack time. Average ounces of water served to children per day was recorded by direct observation at each program at baseline and 6-month follow-up over 5 consecutive school days. Secondary measures directly observed included ounces of other beverages served, other snack components, and water-delivery system. Participation in the intervention was associated with an increased average volume of water served (+3.6 ounces/day; p=0.01) during snack. On average, the intervention led to a daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack (p=0.03). This study indicates the OSNAP intervention, including strategies to overcome structural barriers and collaboration with key actors, can increase offerings of water during afterschool snack

  9. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2012-04-09

    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

  10. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L; González, Angélica L; Hagen, Elizabeth M; Nathaniel Holland, J; Kotler, Burt P; Maestre, Fernando T; Smith, Stanley D; Wolf, Blair O

    2012-08-01

    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts

  11. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  12. Aerial and surface rivers: downwind impacts on water availability from land use changes in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Luedeke, Matthias K. B.; Zemp, Delphine C.; Lakes, Tobia; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2018-02-01

    The abundant evapotranspiration provided by the Amazon forests is an important component of the hydrological cycle, both regionally and globally. Since the last century, deforestation and expanding agricultural activities have been changing the ecosystem and its provision of moisture to the atmosphere. However, it remains uncertain how the ongoing land use change will influence rainfall, runoff, and water availability as findings from previous studies differ. Using moisture tracking experiments based on observational data, we provide a spatially detailed analysis recognizing potential teleconnection between source and sink regions of atmospheric moisture. We apply land use scenarios in upwind moisture sources and quantify the corresponding rainfall and runoff changes in downwind moisture sinks. We find spatially varying responses of water regimes to land use changes, which may explain the diverse results from previous studies. Parts of the Peruvian Amazon and western Bolivia are identified as the sink areas most sensitive to land use change in the Amazon and we highlight the current water stress by Amazonian land use change on these areas in terms of the water availability. Furthermore, we also identify the influential source areas where land use change may considerably reduce a given target sink's water reception (from our example of the Ucayali River basin outlet, rainfall by 5-12 % and runoff by 19-50 % according to scenarios). Sensitive sinks and influential sources are therefore suggested as hotspots for achieving sustainable land-water management.

  13. Effect of water availability in opening containers of breeding site on Aedes aegypti life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokachil, Najir; Yusoff, Nuraini; Saaid, Alif; Appandi, Najwa; Harun, Farhana

    2017-11-01

    The distribution of rainfall is one of the factors which contribute to the development of Aedes aegypti life cycle. The fluctuation of rainfall might influence the acceleration of Aedes aegypti growth by providing sufficient breeding sites. In this research, the availability of water in an opening container of the breeding site is considered as a significant variable which affects the distinct stages structure in mosquito life cycle which egg, larva, pupa, and adult. A stage-structured Lefkovitch matrix model was used by considering the quantity of water contains in an opening container and life cycle of Aedes aegypti. The maximum depth of water in the container was also taken into account in order to find the time duration of mosquito life cycle to complete. We found that the maximum depth of water availability in mosquito breeding site influenced the abundance of the mosquito population. Hence, the containers are filled with sufficient water be able to stand from hot temperature for several days before drying out might continue to provide mosquito breeding site. In the future, it is recommended to consider other factors which affect the quantity of water in mosquito breeding sites such as heavy rain and wind blows.

  14. A Versatile Phenotyping System and Analytics Platform Reveals Diverse Temporal Responses to Water Availability in Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Feldman, Maximilian; Gehan, Malia A; Wilson, Melinda S; Shyu, Christine; Bryant, Douglas W; Hill, Steven T; McEntee, Colton J; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Kumar, Indrajit; Ficor, Tracy; Turnipseed, Stephanie; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Brutnell, Thomas P; Carrington, James C; Mockler, Todd C; Baxter, Ivan

    2015-10-05

    Phenotyping has become the rate-limiting step in using large-scale genomic data to understand and improve agricultural crops. Here, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform for controlled-environment plant growth and automated multimodal phenotyping is described. The system has capacity for 1140 plants, which pass daily through stations to record fluorescence, near-infrared, and visible images. Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV) was developed as open-source, hardware platform-independent software for quantitative image analysis. In a 4-week experiment, wild Setaria viridis and domesticated Setaria italica had fundamentally different temporal responses to water availability. While both lines produced similar levels of biomass under limited water conditions, Setaria viridis maintained the same water-use efficiency under water replete conditions, while Setaria italica shifted to less efficient growth. Overall, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform and PlantCV software detected significant effects of genotype and environment on height, biomass, water-use efficiency, color, plant architecture, and tissue water status traits. All ∼ 79,000 images acquired during the course of the experiment are publicly available. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell and tissue dynamics of olive endocarp sclerification vary according to water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Sofiene B M; Costagli, Giacomo; Rapoport, Hava F

    2013-12-01

    Endocarp developmental timing in drupe-type fruits, involving tissue expansion and sclerification processes, is increasingly used as marker for biological studies and crop management. In spite of its wide application, however, little is known regarding how these morphogenetic processes unfold or the factors that modify it. This study evaluates endocarp expansion and sclerification of olive (Olea europaea) fruits, used as an example of drupe-type fruits, from trees growing under different water regimes: full irrigated, deficit irrigated (moderate reduction of water availability) and rainfed (severe reduction of water availability). Fruits were sampled weekly until pit hardening, and fruit and endocarp areas were evaluated in histological preparations. An image analysis process was tested and adjusted to quantify sclerified area and distribution within the endocarp. Individual stone cells differentiated independently but distribution and timing indicated the overall coordination of endocarp tissue sclerification. Increase in sclerified area was initially gradual, accelerated abruptly the week prior to the end of endocarp expansion and then continued at an intermediate rate. These results suggest that the end of the expansion period is driven by sclerification and the morphogenetic signals involved act first on sclerification rather than endocarp size. Intensification of sclerification and the end of expansive growth occurred first with lowest water supply. Moderate and severe reductions in water availability proportionately decreased endocarp expansion and prolonged the sclerification, delaying the date of physically perceived hardening but not affecting the final degree of endocarp sclerification. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A. Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  17. The role of water availability in controlling coupled vegetation-atmosphere dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Todd Michael

    This work examines how water availability affects vegetation structure and vegetation-atmosphere exchange of water, carbon, and energy for a savanna ecosystem. The study site is the Kalahari Transect (KT), in southern Africa, which follows a north-south decline in mean annual rainfall from ˜1600 mm/yr to ˜250 mm/yr between the latitudes 12°--26°S. Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements taken over a time frame of 1--9 days at four sites along the transect during the wet (growing) season revealed that the ecosystem water use efficiency for the sites, defined as the ratio of net carbon flux to evapotranspiration, decreased with increasing mean annual rainfall. EC data were used to parameterize a large eddy simulation model, which was applied over a heterogeneous remotely-sensed surface. Water availability for the vegetation was found to affect the relative controls (structural vs. meteorological) on the spatial distribution of vegetation fluxes. When the spatial distribution of vapor pressure deficit, D, was most predictable (i.e. non water-limiting conditions) it was unimportant in shaping the distribution of the vegetation fluxes, while at times when D was least predictable (i.e. water-limiting conditions) it was most important. This observation is explained by the relative degree of vegetation-atmosphere coupling and the complexity of the non-local effects on D , both of which are dependent upon water availability. Based upon the differing ways in which trees and grass respond to interannual variability in rainfall, a new method was developed to estimate fractional tree, grass, and bare soil cover from a synthesis of satellite and ground-based data. This method was applied to the KT where it was found that tree fractional cover declines with mean annual rainfall, while grass fractional cover peaks near the middle of the gradient. A soil moisture model applied to this data indicated a shift from nutrient- to water-limitation from the mesic to arid portions of

  18. Impact of Unconventional Energy Development using Hydraulic Fracturing on Louisiana Water Resources Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, H. G., Sr.; Habib, E. H.; Borrok, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction around United States has been deployed significantly in the recent years. The current study focuses on the impact of Hydraulic fracturing (HF) on the sustainability of water resources in Louisiana. This impact is measured by quantifying the stress for current and future scenarios of HF water use in the two-main shale plays in Louisiana, the Haynesville and Tuscaloosa. The assessment is conducted at the HUC-12 fine catchment spatial scale. Initially, sectored stress metrics were calculated for surface and groundwater, respectively, without including HF water use. Demand sectors involved in this first stress estimation are power generation, public supply, industrial, etc. Once both stress metrics were estimated with the reported water sources and uses in Louisiana corresponding to the 2010 year, several scenarios for both sources were evaluated. In the first scenario, a peak year (2011) of HF water use was added as a water demand new category into the stress calculation matrices. The results indicate that a significant variability in the calculated stress metric with and without HF is reflected only for the groundwater sector. On the other hand, surface water sector doesn't seem to be affected for the HF water use. However, this apparent abundant surface water in the catchment, the location of the wells is not always adjacent to the body of water, and then trucking or piping of water may be required. For this reason, availability of groundwater in situ is a relevant factor in terms of production cost. Additional tested scenarios consist of increasing the number of wells in both shale play locations. Existing wells scenario calculates the stress including the water use of the total number of wells that currently exist in both shale plays in a short period (one year). The other additional tested scenario consists of increase of 100% of the required number of wells to extract the expected total shale play capacity. Results of the

  19. Estimation of underground river water availability based on rainfall in the Maros karst region, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Ihsan, Nasrul; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2016-02-01

    Maros karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014.

  20. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramirez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources:

  1. Impact and consequences of evapotranspiration changes on water resources availability in the arid Zhangye Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Su, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) plays an important role in the hydrological cycle and it is essential to estimate ET accurately for the evaluation of available water resources. This is most important in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper, the long-term changes in daily ET in the semi-arid Zhangye

  2. Water availability forecasting for Naryn River using ground-based and satellite snow cover data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Kalashnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of river nourishment in arid regions of Central Asia is the melting of seasonal snow accu‑ mulated in mountains during the cold period. In this study, we analyzed data on seasonal snow cover by ground‑based observations from Kyrgyzhydromet network, as well as from MODIS satellite imagery for the period of 2000–2015. This information was used to compile the forecast methods of water availability of snow‑ice and ice‑snow fed rivers for the vegetation period. The Naryn river basin was chosen as a study area which is the main tributary of Syrdarya River and belongs to the Aral Sea basin. The representative mete‑ orological stations with ground‑based observations of snow cover were identified and regression analysis between mean discharge for the vegetation period and number of snow covered days, maximum snow depth based on in‑situ data as well as snow cover area based on MODIS images was conducted. Based on this infor‑ mation, equations are derived for seasonal water availability forecasting using multiple linear regression anal‑ ysis. Proposed equations have high correlation coefficients (R = 0.89÷0.92 and  and fore‑ casting accuracy. The methodology was implemented in Kyrgyzhydromet and is used for forecasting of water availability in Naryn basin and water inflow into Toktogul Reservoir.

  3. Water availability as driver of birch mortality in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.; Boer, de W.F.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2018-01-01

    Trees in the forest-steppe ecotones face stress due to reduced water availability as a consequence of more extreme seasonal fluctuations in precipitation and temperature. Together with browsing pressure this can hinder tree growth, tree regeneration and competition between trees and grasses. We

  4. Effects of changes in land use and climate on water availability of a tropical catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhaento, Hero

    2018-01-01

    Land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization influence the hydrology of catchments and hence water availability. Together with climate change, land use changes can affect the frequency of floods or droughts and thus threaten local or regional socio-economic development. For Indonesia, the

  5. The influence of nutrient and water availability on carbohydrate storage in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; H.L. Allen; T.J. Albaugh; P.M. Dougherty

    2002-01-01

    We quantified the effects of nutrient and water availability on monthly whole-tree carbohydrate budgets and determined allocation patterns of storage carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) to test site resource impacts on internal carbon (C) storage. A factorial combination of two nutrient and two irrigation treatments were imposed on a 7-year...

  6. Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine Root Extension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between soil water availability, root extension, and shoot growth of loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated in a rhizotron sand mixture in the absence and presence of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) competition. Heights and diameters of seedlings grown with crabgrass were reduced 33 and SO%, respectively, compared with...

  7. A method to study response of large trees to different amounts of available soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Marx; Shi-Jean S. Sung; J.S. Cunningham; M.D. Thompson; L.M. White

    1995-01-01

    A method was developed to manipulate available soil water on large trees by intercepting thrufall with gutters placed under tree canopies and irrigating the intercepted thrufall onto other trees. With this design, trees were exposed for 2 years to either 25% less thrufall, normal thrufall, or 25% additional thrufall.Undercanopy construction in these plots moderately...

  8. Limitations to postfire seedling establishment: The role of seeding technology, water availability, and invasive plant abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony Svejcar

    2010-01-01

    Seeding rangeland following wildfire is a central tool managers use to stabilize soils and inhibit the spread of invasive plants. Rates of successful seeding on arid rangeland, however, are low. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which water availability, invasive plant abundance, and seeding technology influence postfire seedling establishment...

  9. 75 FR 52523 - Southern Nevada Water Authority; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13569-001-NV] Southern Nevada Water Authority; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment August 19, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's...

  10. Effects of water and nitrogen availability on nitrogen contribution by the legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Goergen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert Blank

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentration, nodulation, nodule activity, and rhizodeposition of ...

  11. 76 FR 71967 - Marseilles Land & Water Company, IL; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13351-000] Marseilles Land & Water Company, IL; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR...

  12. The influence of savanna trees on nutrient, water and light availability and the understorey vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Kroon, de H.; Berendse, F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2004-01-01

    In an East African savanna herbaceous layer productivity and species composition were studied around Acacia tortilis trees of three different age classes, as well as around dead trees and in open grassland patches. The effects of trees on nutrient, light and water availability were measured to

  13. Methodology to Analyse the actual and the future effect of water scarcity on the available water resources in Meguellil watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, I.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Shabou, M.; Zribi, M.; Ben Issa, N.; chakroun, H.; Galafassi, D.; Rathwell, K.; Hoff, H.; Pizzigalli, C.

    2012-04-01

    Scarcity often has its roots in water shortage, and it is in the arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and wide climate variability, combined with population growth and economic development, that the problems of water scarcity are most acute. The Merguellil watershed, situated in the center of Tunisia, represents exactly this state of fact where the agriculture is the main consumer with about 80% of the total water resources because of the continuous increase and intensification of irrigated area. The surface water can satisfy a very low portion of this demand; consequently, the groundwater is overexploited. The irrigation sector is divided into public and private. While the public irrigated areas are well known, the private ones are not sufficiently controlled mainly the water volumes pumped from the aquifer. Therefore, a sustainable management of all available water resources and meeting as much as possible all water demands, is crucial. To analyze the actual and future water balance of the Merguellil watershed, and to identify critical trends and thresholds and effective solutions, a WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system) application has been developed. It utilizes a constrained optimization algorithm to allocate water among competing demands in a basin. The year 2009 is considered as the reference one which represents the basic definition of the water system as it currently exists, and forms the foundation of all scenarios analysis. Three scenarios were compared to the reference one. The first combines between the reduction of 10% in precipitation, as it is forseen by the regional climate model RCA (driven by ECHAM5) that provides statistic data of precipitation until 2050, and the increase of 2% per year in irrigated area in the kairouan plain deduced from the land use maps dating from 1991/1992 to 2009/2010 obtained by multi dates remote sensing data. The second scenario is the application of a deficit irrigation that respects the yield

  14. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  15. Changing water availability during the African maize-growing season, 1979–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, Lyndon D; Chaney, Nathaniel W; Herrera-Estrada, Julio; Sheffield, Justin; Caylor, Kelly K; Wood, Eric F

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how global change is impacting African agriculture requires a full physical accounting of water supply and demand, but accurate, gridded data on key drivers (e.g., humidity) are generally unavailable. We used a new bias-corrected meteorological dataset to analyze changes in precipitation (supply), potential evapotranspiration (E p , demand), and water availability (expressed as the ratio P/E p ) in 20 countries (focusing on their maize-growing regions and seasons), between 1979 and 2010, and the factors driving changes in E p . Maize-growing areas in Southern Africa, particularly South Africa, benefitted from increased water availability due in large part to demand declines driven primarily by declining net radiation, increasing vapor pressure, and falling temperatures (with no effect from changing windspeed), with smaller increases in supply. Sahelian zone countries in West Africa, as well as Ethiopia in East Africa, had strong increases in availability driven primarily by rainfall rebounding from the long-term Sahelian droughts, with little change or small reductions in demand. However, intra-seasonal supply variability generally increased in West and East Africa. Across all three regions, declining net radiation contributed downwards pressure on demand, generally over-riding upwards pressure caused by increasing temperatures, the regional effects of which were largest in East Africa. A small number of countries, mostly in or near East Africa (Tanzania and Malawi) experienced declines in water availability primarily due to decreased rainfall, but exacerbated by increasing demand. Much of the reduced water availability in East Africa occurred during the more sensitive middle part of the maize-growing season, suggesting negative consequences for maize production. (paper)

  16. Potassium nutrition and water availability affect phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon in eucalypt trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo; Trivelin, Paulo; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2015-04-01

    Potassium fertilisation strongly affects growth and carbon partitioning of eucalypt on tropical soil that are strongly weathered. In addition, potassium fertilization could be of great interest in mitigating the adverse consequences of drought in planted forests, as foliar K concentrations influence osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation and phloem loading. Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthate from source leaves to sink organs, thus controlling growth partitioning among the different tree compartments. But little is known about the effect of potassium nutrition on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon and on the interaction between K nutrition and water availability. In situ 13C pulse labelling was conducted on tropical eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus grandis L.) grown in a trial plantation with plots in which 37% of throughfall were excluded (about 500 mm/yr) using home-made transparent gutters (-W) or not (+W) and plots that received 0.45 mol K m-2 applied as KCl three months after planting (+K) or not (-K). Three trees were labelled in each of the four treatments (+K+W, +K-W, -K+W and -K-W). Trees were labelled for one hour by injecting pure 13CO2 in a 27 m3 whole crown chamber. We estimated the velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk by comparing time lags between the uptake of 13CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded by off axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) in two chambers per tree, one just under the crown and one at the base of the trunk. We analyzed the dynamics of the label recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap by analysing carbon isotope composition of bulk leaf organic matter and phloem extracts using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk and the initial rate 13C disappearance from the foliage were much higher in +K trees than in -K trees with no significant effect of rainfall. The volumetric flow of phloem, roughly estimated by multiplying

  17. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    efforts. Using tree-level observations, the National Park Service-led Greater Yellowstone Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-term Monitoring Program provided important ecological insight on the size-dependent effects of white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and water availability on whitebark pine mortality. This ongoing monitoring campaign will continue to offer observations that advance conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

  18. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  19. Influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhanjie; Yao, Xiaolei; Yu, Jingshan

    2014-01-01

    The influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs (General Circulation Models) for A1B emission scenario (medium CO2 emission) in the 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. The projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in the 2050s. Results show that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend, while in the rest period of a year it shows a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the viewpoint of water resource availability, it is indicated that it has the possibility that water resources may not be sufficient to fulfill irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer.

  20. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  1. Potential impacts of climate change on water availability for crops in the Okanagan Basin, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, D.; Smith, C.A.S.; Frank, G.; Koch, W.; Alila, Y.; Merritt, W.S.; Taylor, W.G.; Barton, M.; Hall, J.W.; Cohen, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop water demand in the Okanagan Basin was determined for 1961 to 1990, 2010 to 2039, 2040 to 2069, and 2070 to 2099. Daily station temperature data were spatially interpolated to a 1 x 1 km grid and adjusted for elevation. Daily precipitation data were estimated across four climatic regions. Output from three global climate models (GCM), CGCM2, CSIROMk2 and HadCM3 was used to create future daily climate. Daily potential evapo-transpiration (grass reference) was estimated from an empirical relationship between Bellani-plate atmometer readings, temperature and extra-terrestrial solar radiation, and then modified by crop coefficients for all crops except pasture. Depending on GCM, projected water demand increased by 12-20% (2010 to 2039), 24-38% (2040 to 2069) and 40-61% (2070 to 2099). Possible elevated CO 2 effects on stomatal conductance which may reduce water demand were not accounted for. Comparisons with modeled Okanagan Lake inflows indicated that, on average, high water demand and low supply scenarios coincided. In one sub-basin, supply and demand thresholds were exceeded 1 yr in 6 (HadCM3) in the 2050s and at least 1 yr in 4 for all GCMs by the 2080s, and existing water supply infrastructure may be inadequate. Crop growing seasons were defined empirically from growing degree days or threshold temperatures. The growing season lengthened up to 30-35% leading to higher demand in fall and shortages due to low stream flows. (author)

  2. Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tojo Radimy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

  3. The Coupling of Ecosystem Productivity and Water Availability in Dryland Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover and climatic change will alter biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of water vapor and carbon dioxide depending, in part, on feedbacks between biotic activity and water availability. Eddy covariance observations allow us to estimate ecosystem-scale productivity and respiration, and these datasets are now becoming sufficiently mature to advance understanding of these ecohydrological interactions. Here we use a network of sites in semiarid western North America representing gradients of water availability and functional plant type. We examine how precipitation (P) controls evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem production (NEP), and its component fluxes of ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross ecosystem production (GEP). Despite the high variability in seasonal and annual precipitation timing and amounts that we expect to influence ecosystem function, we find persistent overall relationships between P or ET and the fluxes of NEP, Reco and GEP across the network, indicating a commonality and resilience in ecosystem soil and plant response to water availability. But we also observe several important site differences such as prior seasonal legacy effects on subsequent fluxes which vary depending on dominant plant functional type. For example, multiyear droughts, episodic cool-season droughts, and hard winter freezes seem to affect the herbaceous species differently than the woody ones. Nevertheless, the overall, strong coupling between hydrologic and ecologic processes at these sites bolsters our ability to predict the response of dryland ecosystems to future precipitation change.

  4. Water availability change in central Belgium for the late 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; Taye, Meron Teferi; Willems, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the potential impact of climate change on water availability in central Belgium. Two water balance components being precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are initially projected for the late 21st century (2071-2100) based on 30 Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models relative to a baseline period of 1961-1990, assuming forcing by four representative concentration pathway emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5). The future available water is then estimated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration projections. The number of wet days and mean monthly precipitation for summer season is projected to decrease in most of the scenarios, while the projections show an increase in those variables for the winter months. Potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase during both winter and summer seasons. The results show a decrease in water availability for summer and an increase for winter, suggesting drier summers and wetter winters for the late 21st century in central Belgium.

  5. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ≥ -7.9 bars and ΨL ≥ -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ≤ -8.0 bars and

  6. Availability of ground water in the lower Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Joseph B.; Johnston, Herbert E.; Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1974-01-01

    The lower Pawcatuck River basin in southwestern Rhode Island is an area of about 169 square miles underlain by crystalline bedrock over which lies a relatively thin mantle of glacial till and stratified drift. Stratified drift, consisting dominantly of sand and gravel, occurs in irregularly shaped linear deposits that are generally less than a mile wide and less than 125 feet thick; these deposits are found along the Pawcatuck River, its tributaries, and abandoned preglacial channels. Deposits of stratified sand and gravel constitute the principal aquifer in the lower Pawcatuck basin and the only one capable of sustaining yields of 100 gallons per minute or more to individual wells. Water available for development in this aquifer consists of water in storage--potential ground-water runoff to streams--plus infiltration that can be induced from streams. Minimum annual ground-water runoff from the sand and gravel aquifer is calculated to be at least 1.17 cubic feet per second per square mile, or 0.76 million gallons per day per square mile. Potential recharge by induced infiltration is estimated to range from about 250 to 600 gallons per day per linear foot of streambed for the principal streams. In most areas, induced infiltration from streams constitutes the major source of water potentially available for development by wells. Because subsurface hydraulic connection in the sand and gravel aquifer is poor in several places, the deposits are conveniently divisible into several ground-water reservoirs. The potential yield from five of the most promising ground-water reservoirs is evaluated by means of mathematical models. Results indicate that continuous withdrawals ranging from 1.3 to 10.3 million gallons per day, and totaling 31 million gallons per day, are obtainable from these reservoirs. Larger yields may be recovered by different well placement, spacing, construction and development, pumping practice, and so forth. Withdrawals at the rates indicated will reduce

  7. Ozone risk assessment in three oak species as affected by soil water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Moura, Barbara; Paoletti, Elena

    2018-03-01

    To derive ozone (O 3 ) dose-response relationships for three European oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens, and Quercus robur) under a range of soil water availability, an experiment was carried out with 2-year-old potted seedlings exposed to three levels of water availability in the soil and three levels of O 3 pollution for one growing season in an ozone free-air controlled exposure (FACE) facility. Total biomass losses were estimated relative to a hypothetical clean air at the pre-industrial age, i.e., at 10 ppb as daily average (M24). A stomatal conductance model was parameterized with inputs from the three species for calculating the stomatal O 3 flux. Exposure-based (M24, W126, and AOT40) and flux-based (phytotoxic O 3 dose (POD) 0-3 ) dose-response relationships were estimated and critical levels (CL) were calculated for a 5% decline of total biomass. Results show that water availability can significantly affect O 3 risk assessment. In fact, dose-response relationships calculated per individual species at each water availability level resulted in very different CLs and best metrics. In a simplified approach where species were aggregated on the basis of their O 3 sensitivity, the best metric was POD 0.5 , with a CL of 6.8 mmol m -2 for the less O 3 -sensitive species Q. ilex and Q. pubescens and of 3.5 mmol m -2 for the more O 3 -sensitive species Q. robur. The performance of POD 0 , however, was very similar to that of POD 0.5 , and thus a CL of 6.9 mmol m -2 POD 0 and 3.6 mmol m -2 POD 0 for the less and more O 3 -sensitive oak species may be also recommended. These CLs can be applied to oak ecosystems at variable water availability in the soil. We conclude that POD y is able to reconcile the effects of O 3 and soil water availability on species-specific oak productivity.

  8. Asynchronous Amazon forest canopy phenology indicates adaptation to both water and light availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Matthew O; Kimball, John S; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2014-01-01

    Amazon forests represent nearly half of all tropical vegetation biomass and, through photosynthesis and respiration, annually process more than twice the amount of estimated carbon (CO 2 ) from fossil fuel emissions. Yet the seasonality of Amazon canopy cover, and the extent to which seasonal fluctuations in water availability and photosynthetically available radiation influence these processes, is still poorly understood. Implementing six remotely sensed data sets spanning nine years (2003–2011), with reported field and flux tower data, we show that southern equatorial Amazon forests exhibit a distinctive seasonal signal. Seasonal timing of water availability, canopy biomass growth and net leaf flush are asynchronous in regions with short dry seasons and become more synchronous across a west-to-east longitudinal moisture gradient of increasing dry season. Forest cover is responsive to seasonal disparities in both water and solar radiation availability, temporally adjusting net leaf flush to maximize use of these generally abundant resources, while reducing drought susceptibility. An accurate characterization of this asynchronous behavior allows for improved understanding of canopy phenology across contiguous tropical forests and their sensitivity to climate variability and drought. (letter)

  9. NASA Land Information System (LIS) Water Availability to Support Reclamation ET Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Arsenault, Kristi; Pinheiro, Ana; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Houser, Paul; Kumar, Sujay; Engman, Ted; Nigro, Joe; Triggs, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation identified the remote sensing of evapotranspiration (ET) as an important water flux for study and designated a test site in the Lower Colorado River basin. A consortium of groups will work together with the goal to develop more accurate and cost effective techniques using the enhanced spatial and temporal coverage afforded by remote sensing. ET is a critical water loss flux where improved estimation should lead to better management of Reclamation responsibilities. There are several areas where NASA satellite and modeling data may be useful to meet Reclamation's objectives for improved ET estimation. In this paper we outline one possible contribution to use NASA's data integration capability of the Land Information System (LIS) to provide a merger of observational (in situ and satellite) with physical process models to provide estimates of ET and other water availability outputs (e.g., runoff, soil moisture) retrospectively, in near real-time, and also providing short-term predictions.

  10. Effect of water availability on tolerance of leaf damage in tall morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atala, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2009-03-01

    Resource availability may limit plant tolerance of herbivory. To predict the effect of differential resource availability on plant tolerance, the limiting resource model (LRM) considers which resource limits plant fitness and which resource is mostly affected by herbivore damage. We tested the effect of experimental drought on tolerance of leaf damage in Ipomoea purpurea, which is naturally exposed to both leaf damage and summer drought. To seek mechanistic explanations, we also measured several morphological, allocation and gas exchange traits. In this case, LRM predicts that tolerance would be the same in both water treatments. Plants were assigned to a combination of two water treatments (control and low water) and two damage treatments (50% defoliation and undamaged). Plants showed tolerance of leaf damage, i.e., a similar number of fruits were produced by damaged and undamaged plants, only in control water. Whereas experimental drought affected all plant traits, leaf damage caused plants to show a greater leaf trichome density and reduced shoot biomass, but only in low water. It is suggested that the reduced fitness (number of fruits) of damaged plants in low water was mediated by the differential reduction of shoot biomass, because the number of fruits per shoot biomass was similar in damaged and undamaged plants. Alternative but less likely explanations include the opposing direction of functional responses to drought and defoliation, and resource costs of the damage-induced leaf trichome density. Our results somewhat challenge the LRM predictions, but further research including field experiments is needed to validate some of the preliminary conclusions drawn.

  11. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within ;water-balance subregions; (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations and

  12. Polder effects on sediment-to-soil conversion: water table, residual available water capacity, and salt stress interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

  13. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guzman, Alethea; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analysed using Epi Info. There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%). Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6-8.5) and having toilets located within 20 m of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.3). In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09-0.49). In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns.

  14. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.; Vecchia, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10–40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10–30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems.

  15. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P C D; Dunne, K A; Vecchia, A V

    2005-11-17

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10-40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10-30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems.

  16. REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING LOCALLY AVAILABLE INEXPENSIVE TARO AND WATER HYACINTH AS BIOSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahjalal Khandaker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, locally available and inexpensive Taro and Water Hyacinth were used as biosorbents to remove chromium from synthetic wastewater. The removal of this metal ion from water in the batch and column method have been studied and discussed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm studies were also carried out. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Scanning Electronic Microscopic image was also used to understand the surface characteristics of biosorbent before and after biosorption studies. Effects of various factors such as pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate initial concentration, particle size etc. were analyzed. The initial concentrations of chromium were considered 5-30mgL-1 in batch method and only 4mgL-1 in column method. The maximum chromium adsorbed was 1.64 mgg-1 and 4.44 mgg-1 in Batch method and 1.15 mgg-1 and 0.75 mgg-1 in Column method. Batch and Column desorption and regeneration studies were conducted. Column desorption studies indicated that both of these biosorbents could be reused for removing heavy metals. Results of the laboratory experiments show that the performance of Taro and Water Hyacinth prove that they can effectively be used as low cost biosorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater.KEYWORDS:   adsorption; chromium removal; Taro; water hyacinth; batch method; column studies

  17. Water chemistry, seepage investigation, streamflow, reservoir storage, and annual availability of water for the San Juan-Chama Project, northern New Mexico, 1942-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    at Azotea Tunnel Outlet occurred from May through June, with a median duration of slightly longer than a month. Years with higher maximum daily streamflow generally are associated with higher annual streamflow than years with lower maximum daily streamflow. The amount of water that can be diverted for the SJCP is controlled by the availability of streamflow and is limited by several factors including legal limits for diversion, limits from the SJCP infrastructure including the size of the diversion dams and tunnels, the capacity of Heron Reservoir, and operational constraints that limit when water can be diverted. The average annual streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet was 94,710 acre-feet, and the annual streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet was approximately 75 percent of the annual streamflow available for the SJCP. The average annual percentage of available streamflow not diverted for the SJCP was 14 percent because of structural limitations of the capacity of infrastructure, 1 percent because of limitations of the reservoir storage capacity, and 29 percent because of the limitations from operations. For most years, the annual available streamflow not diverted for unknown reasons exceeded the sum of the water not diverted because of structural, capacity, and operational limitations.

  18. Assessing information needs and instrument availability for a pressurized water reactor during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Duane J. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)); Arcieri, William C. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)); Ward, Leonard W. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States))

    1994-07-01

    A five-step methodology was developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information that personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and severe accident conditions, to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information. This methodology was applied to a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment and the results are presented. A companion article describes application of the methodology to a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment. ((orig.))

  19. Assessing information needs and instrument availability for a pressurized water reactor during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Duane J.; Arcieri, William C.; Ward, Leonard W.

    1994-01-01

    A five-step methodology was developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information that personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and severe accident conditions, to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information. This methodology was applied to a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment and the results are presented. A companion article describes application of the methodology to a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment. ((orig.))

  20. 210Pb and 210Po Determination in Bottled Water Available on the Croatian Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2011-01-01

    An alpha emitting radionuclide 210Po and beta emitting radionuclide 210Pb are decay products of 238U. Due to their nuclear properties they are considered as radionuclides with the highest radiotoxicity and contribute significantly to the internal dose to the population received by drinking water. For radiological impact assessment 210Pb and 210Po must be measured routinely and accurately, with low detection limits. The aim of our study was determination of activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in bottled drinking and mineral waters available on Croatian market. For their determination a procedure for their simultaneous separation from the water samples was used. After addition of 209Po tracer and lead carrier, radionuclides were preconcentrated from large volume by MnO 2 and their separation from interfering elements by Sr resin was done. 210Po source for alpha-particle spectrometric measurement was prepared by selfdeposition on silver disc, while lead was precipitated as lead sulphate and the beta activity of its daughter 210Bi was counted on a beta proportional counter. The results obtained show that values for activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in all examined waters are in accordance with allowed activity concentration according to the European Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom and Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, published by WHO in 2006. (author)

  1. Endogenous change: on cooperation and water availability in two ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.

    2014-05-01

    We propose and test the theory of endogenous change in societal institutions based on historical reconstructions of two ancient civilizations, the Indus and Hohokam, in two water-scarce basins, the Indus Basin in the Indian subcontinent and the lower Colorado Basin in the southwestern United States. In our reconstructions, institutions are approximated by the scale of "cooperation", be it in the form of the extent of trade, sophisticated irrigation networks, a central state or a loosely held state with a common cultural identity. We study changes in institutions brought about by changes in factors like rainfall, population density, and land-use-induced water resource availability, in a proximate manner. These factors either change naturally or are changed by humans; in either case we contend that the changes affect the stability of cooperative structures over time. We relate the quantitative dimensions of water access by ancient populations to the co-evolution of water access and the socioeconomic and sociopolitical organizations. In doing so, we do not claim that water manipulation was the single most significant factor in stimulating social development and complexity - this would be highly reductionist. Nonetheless, we provide a discussion with the aim to enhance our understanding of the complexity of coupled human-hydrological systems. We find that scarcity triggered more complex cooperative arrangements in both Indus and Hohokam societies.

  2. Bacterial invasion potential in water is determined by nutrient availability and the indigenous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, Sam; De Roy, Karen; Boon, Nico

    2013-09-01

    In drinking water (DW) and the distribution systems, bacterial growth and biofilm formation have to be controlled both for limiting taste or odour development and preventing clogging or biocorrosion problems. After a contamination with undesired bacteria, factors like nutrient availability and temperature will influence the survival of these invaders. Understanding the conditions enabling invaders to proliferate is essential for a holistic approach towards microbial risk assessment in DW. Pseudomonas putida was used as a model invader because this easy-growing bacterium can use a wide range of substrates. Invasion experiments in oligo- to eutrophic waters showed the requirement of both a carbon and phosphate source for survival of P. putida in DW. Addition of C, N and P enabled P. putida to grow in DW from 5.80 × 10(4) to 1.84 × 10(8) cells mL(-1) and survive for at least 12 days. However, in surface water with similar nutrient concentrations, P. putida did not survive, indicating the concomitant importance of the present indigenous microbial community of the specific water sample. Either extensive carbon or phosphate limitation can be used in water treatment design in order to obtain a DW which is not susceptible for unwanted bacterial growth. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori.

  4. Hydrologic models and analysis of water availability in Cuyama Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Changes in population, agricultural development practices (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available water resources, particularly groundwater, in the Cuyama Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in Santa Barbara County. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that could be considered in the evaluation of the sustainable water supply. The Cuyama Valley Hydrologic Model (CUVHM) was designed to simulate the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system, including components dependent on variations in climate, thereby providing a reliable assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform water users and help to improve planning for future conditions. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, construction of a precipitation-runoff model using the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), and construction of an integrated hydrologic flow model with MODFLOW-One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MF-OWHM). The hydrologic models were calibrated to historical conditions of water and land use and, then, used to assess the use and movement of water throughout the Valley. These tools provide a means to understand the evolution of water use in the Valley, its availability, and the limits of sustainability. The conceptual model identified inflows and outflows that include the movement and use of water in both natural and anthropogenic systems. The groundwater flow system is characterized by a layered geologic sedimentary sequence that—in combination with the effects of groundwater pumping, natural recharge, and the application of irrigation water at the land surface—displays vertical hydraulic-head gradients. Overall, most of the agricultural demand for water in the Cuyama Valley in the initial part of the growing season is

  5. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  6. Batch experiments versus soil pore water extraction--what makes the difference in isoproturon (bio-)availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Suhadolc, Metka; Scherb, Hagen; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2009-10-01

    Two approaches to determine pesticide (bio-)availability in soils (i) batch experiments with "extraction with an excess of water" (EEW) and (ii) the recently introduced "soil pore water (PW) extraction" of pesticide incubated soil samples have been compared with regard to the sorption behavior of the model compound isoproturon in soils. A significant correlation between TOC and adsorbed pesticide amount was found when using the EEW approach. In contrast, there was no correlation between TOC and adsorbed isoproturon when using the in situ PW extraction method. Furthermore, sorption was higher at all concentrations in the EEW method when comparing the distribution coefficients (K(d)) for both methods. Over all, sorption in incubated soil samples at an identical water tension (-15 kPa) and soil density (1.3 g cm(-3)) appears to be controlled by a complex combination of sorption driving soil parameters. Isoproturon bioavailability was found to be governed in different soils by binding strength and availability of sorption sites as well as water content, whereas the dominance of either one of these factors seems to depend on the individual composition and characteristics of the respective soil sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis we obtained furthermore indications that the soil pore structure is affected by the EEW method due to disaggregation, resulting in a higher availability of pesticide sorption sites than in undisturbed soil samples. Therefore, it can be concluded that isoproturon sorption is overestimated when using the EEW method, which should be taken into account when using data from this approach or similar batch techniques for risk assessment analysis.

  7. Instrumentation availability for a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcieri, W.C.; Hanson, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, the availability of instruments to supply accident management information during a broad range of severe accidents is evaluated for a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment. Results from this evaluation include the following: (a) identification of plant conditions that would impact instrument performance and information needs during severe accidents, (b) definition of envelopes of parameters that would be important in assessing the performance of plant instrumentation for a broad range of severe accident sequences, and (c) assessment of the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Instrumentation availability during severe accidents for a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcieri, W.C.; Hanson, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Management Research Program, the availability of instruments to supply accident management information during a broad range of severe accidents is evaluated for a Boiling Water Reactor with a Mark I containment. Results from this evaluation include: (1) the identification of plant conditions that would impact instrument performance and information needs during severe accidents; (2) the definition of envelopes of parameters that would be important in assessing the performance of plant instrumentation for a broad range of severe accident sequences; and (3) assessment of the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents

  9. Asynchronous Amazon Forest Canopy Phenology Indicates Adaptation to Both Water and Light Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. O.; Kimball, J. S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Amazon forests represent nearly half of all tropical vegetation biomass and, through photosynthesis and respiration, annually process more than twice the amount of estimated carbon (CO2) from fossil fuel emissions. Yet the seasonality of Amazon canopy cover, and the extent to which seasonal fluctuations in water availability and photosynthetically active radiation influence these processes, is still poorly understood. Implementing six remotely sensed data sets spanning nine years (2003-2011), with reported field and flux tower data, we show that southern equatorial Amazon forests exhibit a distinctive seasonal signal. Seasonal timing of water availability, canopy biomass growth and net leaf flush are asynchronous in regions with short dry seasons and become more synchronous across a west-to-east longitudinal moisture gradient of increasing dry season length. Forest cover is responsive to seasonal disparities in both water and solar radiation availability, temporally adjusting net leaf flush to maximize use of these generally abundant resources, while reducing drought susceptibility. An accurate characterization of this asynchronous behavior allows for improved understanding of canopy phenology across contiguous tropical forests and their sensitivity to climate variability and drought. These insights can also inform land surface models to provide a more accurate representation of seasonal forest carbon allocation strategies responsive to environmental drivers.

  10. Water availability and demand in West Africa in the 21st century: impacts of climate change and population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Dominik; Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Ibrahim, Moussa; Ibrahim, Boubacar

    2014-05-01

    The countries in West Africa are highly dependent on rainfed agriculture. Changes in the magnitude and timing of precipitation will affect the agricultural output and the economies as a whole. Irrigation is increasingly being considered an important adaptation option to help improve food security of the population that is expected to double in less than 50 years. West Africa is one of the regions where general circulation models (GCM) show the highest disagreements in the direction of future trends of precipitation, making assessments of water availability and the potential for irrigation a difficult task. We use output from a set of dynamically downscaled climate data sets from regional climate modes (RCM) from the CORDEX CMIP5 collection to drive WBMplus, a macroscale hydrological model and simultaneously calculate water demand (livestock, domestic, and irrigation) and availability for a set of land use, and socio economic scenarios around the 2050's for river basins in the ten countries participating in the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL) project. Contrary to earlier results from GCMs, the set of RCMs suggest a consistent increase (~5-10%) in annual precipitation for a majority of the land area in West Africa that translates to slight increases in river flow under natural conditions for most river basins and a opportunities for increasing irrigation during the dry season. However, water demand is projected to more than double for livestock and domestic needs as a result of population growth. Demand for irrigation will rise sharply if irrigation is expanded from the current area (representing less than 3% of all croplands in the region), closer to its potential which is multiple times higher than the existing area. The pressures on water resources in the region will therefore be dominated by pressures arising from increased demand rather than changes in the availability of water and can potentially lead to

  11. Dynamic Response of Plant Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Light, Water and Nutrient Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrero Mateo, M. D. P.; Moran, S. M.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Carmo-Silva, A. E.; Papuga, S. A.; Matveeva, M.; Wieneke, S.; Rascher, U.

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis is the most important exchange process of CO2 between the atmosphere and the land-surface. Spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthesis depend on dynamic plant-specific adaptation strategies to highly variable environmental conditions e.g. light, water, and nutrient availability. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) has been proposed as a direct indicator of photosynthesis, and several studies have demonstrated its relationship with vegetation functioning at leaf and canopy level. In this study, two overarching questions about ChF were addressed: Q1) How water, nutrient and ambient light conditions determine the relationships between photosynthesis and ChF? Which is the optimum irradiance level for detecting water and nutrient deficit conditions with ChF?; Q2) What is the seasonal relationship between photosynthesis and ChF when nitrogen is the limiting factor? The results of this study indicated that when the differences between treatments (water or nitrogen) drive the relationship between photosynthesis and ChF, ChF has a direct relationship with photosynthesis. This study demonstrates that the light level at which plants were grown was optimum for detecting water and nutrient deficit with ChF. Further, the seasonal relation between photosynthesis and ChF with nitrogen stress was not a simple linear function due to the complex physiological relation between photosynthesis and ChF. Our study showed that at times in the season when nitrogen was sufficient and photosynthesis was highest, ChF decreased because these two processes compete for available energy. The results from this study demonstrated that ChF is a reliable indicator of plant stress and has great potential as a tool for better understand where, when, and how CO2 is exchanged between the land and atmosphere.

  12. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-01-01

    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m 3 /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m 3 / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m 3 / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  13. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-01-15

    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m{sup 3} /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m{sup 3} / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m{sup 3} / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  14. Higher plant availability and reduced reactor scram frequency in PWRs by appropriate system and I and C design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, G.; Weber, J.

    1987-01-01

    High plant availability and reliability are guaranteed by appropriate design of reactor and BOP systems, this including the plant I and C systems. It is of advantage to have design, construction and commissioning of the plant concentrated in the hands of a single company to avoid interface problems between the different areas of the plant. The integrated overall control concept developed by KWU with control, limitation and protection systems as well as optimized operational and monitoring systems assisted by instrumentation channel redundance and logic for selection of the second highest (or second lowest) signal value as appropriate for comparison with limitation setpoints, minimize the severity of transients. This results in a reduction in the frequency of reactor scrams and of unnecessary actuation of safety systems. Dynamic plant behavior is described for a number of examples where the improved plant behavior resulting from the above design features enhances plant availability

  15. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  16. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  17. North American water availability under stress and duress: building understanding from simulations, observations and data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.; Atchley, A. L.; Hector, B.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the available freshwater for human use and ecological function depends on fluxes and stores that are hard to observe. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest terrestrial flux of water behind precipitation but is observed with low spatial density. Likewise, groundwater is the largest freshwater store, yet is equally uncertain. The ability to upscale observations of these variables is an additional complication; point measurements are made at scales orders of magnitude smaller than remote sensing data products. Integrated hydrologic models that simulate continental extents at fine spatial resolution are now becoming an additional tool to constrain fluxes and address interconnections. For example, recent work has shown connections between water table depth and transpiration partitioning, and demonstrated the ability to reconcile point observations and large-scale inferences. Here we explore the dynamics of large hydrologic systems experiencing change and stress across continental North America using integrated model simulations, observations and data products. Simulations of aquifer depletion due to pervasive groundwater pumping diagnose both stream depletion and changes in ET. Simulations of systematic increases in temperature are used to understand the relationship between snowpack dynamics, surface and groundwater flow, ET and a changing climate. Remotely sensed products including the GRACE estimates of total storage change are downscaled using model simulations to better understand human impacts to the hydrologic cycle. These example applications motivate a path forward to better use simulations to understand water availability.

  18. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  19. Water retention and availability in soils of the State of Santa Catarina-Brazil: effect of textural classes, soil classes and lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The retention and availability of water in the soil vary according to the soil characteristics and determine plant growth. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate water retention and availability in the soils of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, according to the textural class, soil class and lithology. The surface and subsurface horizons of 44 profiles were sampled in different regions of the State and different cover crops to determine field capacity, permanent wilting point, available water content, particle size, and organic matter content. Water retention and availability between the horizons were compared in a mixed model, considering the textural classes, the soil classes and lithology as fixed factors and profiles as random factors. It may be concluded that water retention is greater in silty or clayey soils and that the organic matter content is higher, especially in Humic Cambisols, Nitisols and Ferralsol developed from igneous or sedimentary rocks. Water availability is greater in loam-textured soils, with high organic matter content, especially in soils of humic character. It is lower in the sandy texture class, especially in Arenosols formed from recent alluvial deposits or in gravelly soils derived from granite. The greater water availability in the surface horizons, with more organic matter than in the subsurface layers, illustrates the importance of organic matter for water retention and availability.

  20. Implications of higher energy - summary of benefits, issues, commissioning cost, SEU, Cryo, QPS margins, Potential availability issues

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is technically almost ready to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012. Nevertheless, a review of the advantages and disadvantages of such an energy step should be carefully made before taking this decision. There fore, this paper will summarize the benefits from the physics point of view; the potential issues like a possible increase of Single Event Errors , Unidentified Flying Objects, or a significant decrease of the quench margin from beam losses that, all in all , could lead to availability issues, compromising the integrated luminosity. And last but not least, the commissioning cost will be addressed.

  1. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  2. Chemical analysis of mineral water available in the local markets of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.A.; Zaib, S.; Sher, N.; Tariq, S.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analysis of mineral water of different companies was carried out asses the quality of mineral water available in the local market. The results were compared with WHO standards. Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ were determined with the help of flame emissions spectrophotometer while Cl/sup 1/, HCO/sub 3/, Ca/sup +2/ and Mg/sup +2/ were determined by titrimetric methods. The physical parameters such as pH, EC, and TDS were determined by pH meter, EC meter and TDS meter respectively. It was observed that about 80 percentage of the sample obey the WHO standards regarding Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ whereas only 20 percentage samples fall within the permissible limit regarding Cl/sup -/ ions. The concentration of Ca/sup +2/ in all the sample exceeds the permissible limits. It was concluded that some brands need to improve their quality. (author)

  3. Limiting factor analysis of high availability nuclear plants (boiling water reactors). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, L.G.; Brady, R.M.; Shor, S.W.W.; McCusker, J.T.; Alden, W.M.; Kovacs, S.

    1979-08-01

    The pertinent results are presented of a 16-month study conducted for Electric Power Research Institute by General Electric Company, Bechtel Power Corporation, and Philadelphia Electric Company. The study centered around the Peach Bottom 2 Atomic Power Station, but also included limited study of operations at 20 additional operating boiling water reactors. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate key factors limiting plant availability, and to identify potential improvements for eliminating or alleviating those limitations. The key limiting factors were found to be refueling activities; activities related to the reactor fuel; reactor scrams; activities related to 20 operating systems or major components; delays due to radiation, turbid water during refueling operations, facilities/working conditions, and dirt/foreign material; and general maintenance/repair of valves and piping. Existing programs to reduce the effect on plant unavailability are identified, and suggestions for further action are made

  4. Monitoring the Soil Water Availability of Young Urban Trees in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titel, Selina; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette

    2017-04-01

    In large cities numerous trees have to be planted each year to replace died off or cut down trees or for greening of constructed roads and newly built quarters. The typical age of planted trees is between five and fifteen years. Often the planting takes place in special planting pits to stimulate the tree growth under the restricted urban conditions. Consequently, trees are surrounded by different soil substrates: the soil from the nursery in the root ball, the special planting pit substrate and the surrounding urban soil which is often anthropogenic influenced. Being relocated in the city, trees have to cope with the warmer urban climate, the soil sealing and compaction and the low water storage capacity of the substrate. All factors together increase the probability of dry phases for roadside trees. The aim of this study is to monitor the soil water availability at sites of planted roadside trees during the first years after planting. Therefore, a measuring design was developed, which works automatically and takes the complex below ground structure of the soil into account. This approach consists of 13 soil water tension sensors inside and outside of each planting pit up to one meter depth connected to a data logger. The monitoring devices will finally be installed at 20 roadside trees (amongst others Quercus cerris, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides 'Fairview') in Hamburg, Germany, to identify phases of drought stress. The young trees were mainly planted in spring 2016. Data of the first year of measurements show, that the water tension varied between the different soil substrates and the depth. In the first year of tree growth in the city, soil in the tree root ball became significantly drier than the surrounding soil material. In late summer 2016 the water tension in the topsoil had the potential to cause drought stress below some trees.

  5. Heavy water handbook. Evaluation of presently available thermophysical properties of heavy water (D2O) liquid and vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukovsky, J.; Haack, K.

    1994-08-01

    Many publication on the thermophysical properties of heavy water (D 2 O) have appeared since D 2 O became commercially available in the 1930's. Some for the data contradict one another and this has led to confusion when information is needed on D 2 O thermophysical data. Correct thermophysical data must be consistent, i.e. their mutual dependence must be consistent with fundamental thermophysical laws. The work behind this publication has focused on collecting all available D 2 O data and checking them against these fundamental thermophysical criteria. Depending on the various production methods for D 2 O, its oxygen content is enriched more or less by the heavier oxygen isotopes 17 O and 18 O. This, together with the amount of impurities and dissolved gases in the D 2 O samples of the various references, might - to some extent - explain the discrepancies found between the data. Only a few references contain information on these subjects. The D 2 O data sets found to be the most reliable are presented in Chapter 9, in tables as well as in diagrams, together with the corresponding H 2 O data for comparison. Comments on the reliability of the diagrams are given where necessary. Furthermore, short descriptions are given of heavy water sources, availability, production processes, economy, material and energy requirements for the production process. Finally a comprehensive list of references and an author index are included. (au)

  6. Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) for estimating water availability during water scarcity conditions: rainfall-runoff modelling of the ungauged diversion inflows to the Ridracoli water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Ridracoli reservoir is the main drinking water supply reservoir serving the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy. Such water supply system has a crucial role in an area where the different characteristics of the communities to be served, their size, the mass tourism and the presence of food industries highlight strong differences in drinking water needs. Its operation allows high quality drinking water supply to a million resident customers, plus a few millions of tourists during the summer of people and it reduces the need for water pumping from underground sources, and this is particularly important since the coastal area is subject also to subsidence and saline ingression into aquifers. The system experienced water shortage conditions thrice in the last decade, in 2002, in 2007 and in autumn-winter 2011-2012, when the reservoir water storage fell below the attention and the pre-emergency thresholds, thus prompting the implementation of a set of mitigation measures, including limitations to the population's water consumption. The reservoir receives water not only from the headwater catchment, closed at the dam, but also from four diversion watersheds, linked to the reservoir through an underground water channel. Such withdrawals are currently undersized, abstracting only a part of the streamflow exceeding the established minimum flows, due to the design of the water intake structures; it is therefore crucial understanding how the reservoir water availability might be increased through a fuller exploitation of the existing diversion catchment area. Since one of the four diversion catchment is currently ungauged (at least at the fine temporal scale needed for keeping into account the minimum flow requirements downstream of the intakes), the study first presents the set up and parameterisation of a continuous rainfall-runoff model at hourly time-step for the three gauged diversion watersheds and for the headwater catchment: a regional parameterisation

  7. Early testing of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, Johan

    2000-01-01

    Long-term climate changes have been evident in the past. In the future an increase in the rate of climate change is predicted owing to man-made emissions. Studies of adaptedness to different climatic conditions are of great importance for the design of appropriate breeding and gene conservation programmes. This thesis presents studies of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies and explores the possibilities of utilising differences in adaptedness to obtain juvenile-mature (J-M) correlations strong enough for efficient early testing. Offspring from clones in two Swedish Pinus sylvestris seed orchards and one Picea abies seed orchard were grown in growth chambers for one and two growth periods respectively. Two temperature regimes and two irrigation regimes were applied in a factorial design. Both species expressed high phenotypic plasticity and additive variance for height growth and biomass traits. This implies that these populations should be able to adapt both to short-term and to long-term climate changes. Genotype by environment (GxE) interaction indicated strong differences in adaptedness to temperature and low differences in adaptedness to water availability. Parent rank changes between treatments indicated that climate change could seriously alter the ranking of clones in breeding populations and thus decrease the genetic gain obtained in previous selections. Differences in stability among parents suggested that culling of unstable genotypes could be a way to reduce the negative effects of GxE interaction. Genetic correlations between growth chamber and 14-30 year old field progeny trials with the same parents were mainly weak for both species. The correlations were improved by the drought treatment in the Picea abies experiment suggesting that further development of early testing methods for this species should include treatments with limiting water availability

  8. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng H. They

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Evidence for additive effects of virus infection and water availability on phythormone induction in a staple crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seth Davis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with phytoviruses influences plant responses to environmental stress, but the biochemical mechanisms underlying these interactions are unknown. Infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum with a cereal virus (Barley yellow dwarf virus, BYDV has context-dependent effects on plant productivity and survival conditional to water stress, and we hypothesized this was due to phythormone induction resulting from virus infection. We tested whether BYDV infection and water availability interact to influence hormone profiles in wheat across multiple time periods. Wheat plants were inoculated with BYDV by exposing them to infectious aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi. Concentrations of five hormones (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate [MS], and salicylic acid [SA] in leaf tissues were compared to concentrations in plants exposed to noninfectious aphids (sham treatment and nondamaged control plants for five time-since-infection periods (0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 d and two levels of water availability (0.2 and 0.8 g H20/g soil. Three important findings emerged: (1 total hormone concentrations in BYDV-infected plants exceeded concentrations in sham-treated and control plants up to 16 d following infection, after which nondamaged plants exhibited the highest concentrations of hormones; compared with nondamaged and BYDV-infected plants, hormone levels were reduced in sham-treated plants; (2 inoculation treatment affected concentrations of MS and SA: SA concentrations were increased in BYDV-infected plants, but control plants exhibited higher MS concentrations than either BYDV-infected or sham-treated plants irrespective of watering treatments and across all time periods; and (3 correlation analysis revealed no evidence of hormonal cross-inhibition. This study provides the first evidence that BYDV infection elevates both total phytohormone levels and SA in wheat in a time-sensitive manner, suggesting a potential biochemical basis for virus

  10. Assessment of Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in Modified Dike Structures, Lower Missouri River, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Johnson, Harold E.

    2004-01-01

    This study documented the effects of wing-dike notching on the availabilit of shallow water habitat in the Lower Missouri River. Five wing dikes were surveyed in late May 2004 after they were notched in early May as part of shallow-water habitat (SWH) rehabilitation activities undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Surveys included high-resolution hydroacoustic depth, velocity, and substrate mapping. Relations of bottom elevations within the wing dike fields to index discharges and water-surface elevations indicate that little habitat meeting the SWH definition was created immediately following notching. This result is not unexpected, as significant geomorphic adjustment may require large flow events. Depth, velocity, and substrate measurements in the post-rehabilitation time period provide baseline data for monitoring ongoing changes. Differences in elevation and substrate were noted at all sites. Most dike fields showed substantial aggradation and replacement of mud substrate with sandier sediment, although the changes did not result in increased availability of SWH at the index discharge. It is not known how much of the elevation and substrate changes can be attributed directly to notching and how much would result from normal sediment transport variation.

  11. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Rigden, Angela J.; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G. James; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, stream flow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budykos hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  12. Optimizing available water capacity using microwave satellite data for improving irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2015-04-01

    This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity by developing a technique for estimating soil hydraulic parameters through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The prototype involves the usage of Monte Carlo analysis to assimilate historical remote sensing soil moisture data available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) within the hydrological model. The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately In the method followed in this study the hydraulic parameters are derived directly from information on the soil moisture state at the AMSR-E footprint scale and the available water capacity is derived for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically-based hydrological model. The available capacity water, which refers to difference between the field capacity and wilting point of the soil and represent the soil moisture content at 0.33 bar and 15 bar respectively is estimated from the soil hydraulic parameters using the van Genuchten equation. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database within the particular AMSR-E footprint. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the ranges are narrowed in the region where simulation shows a good match between predicted and near-surface soil moisture from AMSR-E. In this study, the uncertainties in accurately determining the parameters of the nonlinear soil water retention function for large-scale hydrological modeling is the focus of the development of the Bayesian framework. Thus, the model forecasting has been combined with the observational information to optimize the model state and the soil hydraulic parameters simultaneously. The optimization process is divided into

  13. Evaluation of globally available precipitation data products as input for water balance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrenz, H.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-04-01

    Subject of this study is the evaluation of globally available precipitation data products, which are intended to be used as input variables for water balance models in ungauged basins. The selected data sources are a) the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), b) the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and c) the Climate Research Unit (CRU), resulting into twelve globally available data products. The data products imply different data bases, different derivation routines and varying resolutions in time and space. For validation purposes, the ground data from South Africa were screened on homogeneity and consistency by various tests and an outlier detection using multi-linear regression was performed. External Drift Kriging was subsequently applied on the ground data and the resulting precipitation arrays were compared to the different products with respect to quantity and variance.

  14. Ecohydrology of agroecosystems: probabilistic description of yield reduction risk under limited water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Supplemental irrigation represents one of the main strategies to mitigate the effects of climate variability and stabilize yields. Irrigated agriculture currently provides 40% of food production and its relevance is expected to further increase in the near future, in face of the projected alterations of rainfall patterns and increase in food, fiber, and biofuel demand. Because of the significant investments and water requirements involved in irrigation, strategic choices are needed to preserve productivity and profitability, while maintaining a sustainable water management - a nontrivial task given the unpredictability of the rainfall forcing. To facilitate decision making under uncertainty, a widely applicable probabilistic framework is proposed. The occurrence of rainfall events and irrigation applications are linked probabilistically to crop development during the growing season and yields at harvest. Based on these linkages, the probability density function of yields and corresponding probability density function of required irrigation volumes, as well as the probability density function of yields under the most common case of limited water availability are obtained analytically, as a function of irrigation strategy, climate, soil and crop parameters. The full probabilistic description of the frequency of occurrence of yields and water requirements is a crucial tool for decision making under uncertainty, e.g., via expected utility analysis. Furthermore, the knowledge of the probability density function of yield allows us to quantify the yield reduction hydrologic risk. Two risk indices are defined and quantified: the long-term risk index, suitable for long-term irrigation strategy assessment and investment planning, and the real-time risk index, providing a rigorous probabilistic quantification of the emergence of drought conditions during a single growing season in an agricultural setting. Our approach employs relatively few parameters and is thus easily and

  15. Responses of plant available water and forest productivity to variably layered coarse textured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingbin; Barbour, Lee; Elshorbagy, Amin; Si, Bing; Zettl, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Reforestation is a primary end use for reconstructed soils following oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Limited soil water conditions strongly restrict plant growth. Previous research has shown that layering of sandy soils can produce enhanced water availability for plant growth; however, the effect of gradation on these enhancements is not well defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil texture (gradation and layering) on plant available water and consequently on forest productivity for reclaimed coarse textured soils. A previously validated system dynamics (SD) model of soil moisture dynamics was coupled with ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes model, Biome-BGC-SD, to simulate forest dynamics for different soil profiles. These profiles included contrasting 50 cm textural layers of finer sand overlying coarser sand in which the sand layers had either a well graded or uniform soil texture. These profiles were compared to uniform profiles of the same sands. Three tree species of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauce Voss.), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were simulated using a 50 year climatic data base from northern Alberta. Available water holding capacity (AWHC) was used to identify soil moisture regime, and leaf area index (LAI) and net primary production (NPP) were used as indices of forest productivity. Published physiological parameters were used in the Biome-BGC-SD model. Relative productivity was assessed by comparing model predictions to the measured above-ground biomass dynamics for the three tree species, and was then used to study the responses of forest leaf area index and potential productivity to AWHC on different soil profiles. Simulated results indicated soil layering could significantly increase AWHC in the 1-m profile for coarse textured soils. This enhanced AWHC could result in an increase in forest LAI and NPP. The increased extent varied with soil

  16. Heavy water handbook. Evaluation of available thermophysical properties of heavy water (D2O) liquid and vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukovsky, J.; Haack, K.; Wiig, P.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous publications on the thermophysical data of heavy water (D 2 O) have been published since D 2 O became commercially available in the 1930's. Some of these data are in mutual disagreement. This has led to confusion among the scientifical and technical staffs who needed the information on the D 2 O thermophysical data. Correct thermophysical data must be consistent, i.e. their mutual relations must be in accordance to the fundamental thermophysical laws. The work behind this publication has been focussed at collecting all avalilable D 2 O data and checking the data mutually by means of these fundamental thermophysical criteria. Depending on the various production methods, the oxygen content of the D 2 O is enriched more or less in the heavier oxygen isotopes 17 O and 18 O. This, together with the amount of impurities and dissolved gases in the D 2 O samples of the various references, might - to some extent - explain the discrepancies between the data sources. Only a few references contain information on these subjects. The D 2 O data sets which were found to be the most reliable are presented in chapter 9, in tables as well as in diagrams, together with the corresponding H 2 O data for comparison. The diagrams are commented for reliability where it was found necessary. Furthermore, the publication contains short descriptions on the heavy water sources, availability, production processes, economy, material and energy demands for production. A comprehensive list of references is enclosed. (author)

  17. Can rainfed agriculture adapt to uncertainty in availability of water in Indus Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Sen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding impacts of hydrological and climatological functions under changing climate on regional floods, droughts as well as agricultural commodities remain a serious challenge in tropical agricultural basins. These "tropical agricultural basins" are regions where: (i) the understanding on hydrologic functions (such as precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, vegetation) are not well established; (ii) increasing population is at the convergence of rural and urban boundaries; (iii) resilience and sustainability of the water resources under different climatic conditions is unknown; and, (iv) agriculture is the primary occupation for majority of the population. More than 95% of the farmed lands in tropical regions are rainfed and 60% of total agricultural production in South Asia relying on seasonal rainfall. Tropical regions frequently suffer from unexpected droughts and sudden flash floods, resulting in massive losses in human lives and affecting regional economy. Prediction of frequency, intensity and magnitude of floods in tropical regions is still a subject of debate and research. A clear example is from the massive floods in the Eastern Indus River in July 2010 that submerged 17 million acre of fertile cropland. Yet, seasonal droughts, such as 2014 rain deficits in Indus Basin, had no effects on annual crop yields - thus creating a paradox. Large amounts of groundwater is being used to supplement water needs for crops during drought conditions, leading to oversubscription of natural aquifers. Key reason that rainfed agriculture is relying heavily on groundwater is because of the uncertainty in timing and distribution of precipitation in the tropical regions, where such data are not routinely collected as well as the basins are transnational, thus limiting sharing of data. Assessment of availability of water for agricultural purposes a serious challenge in tropical regions. This study will provide a framework for using multi

  18. Establishing axenic cultures from mature pecan embryo explants on media with low water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidy, A A; Smith, M A

    1990-12-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with mature pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch) nuts prevented successful, contaminant-free in vitro culture of embryo expiants, even after rigorous surface disinfestation of the nuts and careful aseptic shelling. Disinfestation with sodium hypochlorite after shell removal was also unsuccessful, because even dilute concentrations which were ineffective against the fungal contaminants prevented subsequent growth from the embryo. Explanting media with low water availability which would not sustain growth of fungal contaminants, but supported growth from mature pecan embryos, were developed as an alternative disinfestation method. The explanting media were supplemented with 0.9-1.5% agar, and other media components were selectively omitted to test their influence on water availability and fungal growth. Disinfestation of up to 65% of the cultures was accomplished, depending on the medium formulation, compared to 100% loss to contamination on control medium (0.5% agar). A complete medium (containing sucrose, salts, vitamins, 18 μM BAP, and 5 μM IBA) with 1.5% agar provided control of contamination, and encouraged subsequent regeneration from the embryo expiants, which remained free of contaminant growth through subsequent subcultures.

  19. High-resolution projections of surface water availability for Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bennett

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes to streamflows caused by climate change may have major impacts on the management of water for hydro-electricity generation and agriculture in Tasmania, Australia. We describe changes to Tasmanian surface water availability from 1961–1990 to 2070–2099 using high-resolution simulations. Six fine-scale (∼10 km2 simulations of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are generated with the CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM, a variable-resolution regional climate model (RCM. These variables are bias-corrected with quantile mapping and used as direct inputs to the hydrological models AWBM, IHACRES, Sacramento, SIMHYD and SMAR-G to project streamflows.

    The performance of the hydrological models is assessed against 86 streamflow gauges across Tasmania. The SIMHYD model is the least biased (median bias = −3% while IHACRES has the largest bias (median bias = −22%. We find the hydrological models that best simulate observed streamflows produce similar streamflow projections.

    There is much greater variation in projections between RCM simulations than between hydrological models. Marked decreases of up to 30% are projected for annual runoff in central Tasmania, while runoff is generally projected to increase in the east. Daily streamflow variability is projected to increase for most of Tasmania, consistent with increases in rainfall intensity. Inter-annual variability of streamflows is projected to increase across most of Tasmania.

    This is the first major Australian study to use high-resolution bias-corrected rainfall and potential evapotranspiration projections as direct inputs to hydrological models. Our study shows that these simulations are capable of producing realistic streamflows, allowing for increased confidence in assessing future changes to surface water variability.

  20. Foliar nitrogen metabolism of adult Douglas-fir trees is affected by soil water availability and varies little among provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Baoguo; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Dannenmann, Michael; Junker, Laura Verena; Kleiber, Anita; Hess, Moritz; Jansen, Kirstin; Eiblmeier, Monika; Gessler, Arthur; Kohnle, Ulrich; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Wildhagen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The coniferous forest tree Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is native to the pacific North America, and is increasingly planted in temperate regions worldwide. Nitrogen (N) metabolism is of great importance for growth, resistance and resilience of trees. In the present study, foliar N metabolism of adult trees of three coastal and one interior provenance of Douglas-fir grown at two common gardens in southwestern Germany (Wiesloch, W; Schluchsee, S) were characterized in two subsequent years. Both the native North American habitats of the seed sources and the common garden sites in Germany differ in climate conditions. Total and mineral soil N as well as soil water content were higher in S compared to W. We hypothesized that i) provenances differ constitutively in N pool sizes and composition, ii) N pools are affected by environmental conditions, and iii) that effects of environmental factors on N pools differ among interior and coastal provenances. Soil water content strongly affected the concentrations of total N, soluble protein, total amino acids (TAA), arginine and glutamate. Foliar concentrations of total N, soluble protein, structural N and TAA of trees grown at W were much higher than in trees at S. Provenance effects were small but significant for total N and soluble protein content (interior provenance showed lowest concentrations), as well as arginine, asparagine and glutamate. Our data suggest that needle N status of adult Douglas-fir is independent from soil N availability and that low soil water availability induces a re-allocation of N from structural N to metabolic N pools. Small provenance effects on N pools suggest that local adaptation of Douglas-fir is not dominated by N conditions at the native habitats.

  1. 75 FR 26956 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-6] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of EPA proposed total maximum... nutrient, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCB, and trash impairments pursuant to Clean Water Act Section...

  2. 75 FR 20351 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9139-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of the administrative record file... in the State of Arkansas under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This TMDL was completed...

  3. 75 FR 8698 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Ten Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9118-5] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Ten...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability for comment on the administrative... Smith, Environmental Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental...

  4. 76 FR 76161 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Three Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9500-1] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Three...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability for comment on the administrative... Smith, Environmental Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental...

  5. 76 FR 70442 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of 28 Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9491-1] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of 28...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability for comment on the administrative..., Environmental Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  6. 76 FR 80366 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9610-6] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability for comment on the administrative..., Environmental Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  7. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal...: Reclamation provides assistance for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply... the findings and conclusions of the appraisal investigations that identified the water supply problems...

  8. Regional scaling of annual mean precipitation and water availability with global temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2018-03-01

    Changes in regional water availability belong to the most crucial potential impacts of anthropogenic climate change, but are highly uncertain. It is thus of key importance for stakeholders to assess the possible implications of different global temperature thresholds on these quantities. Using a subset of climate model simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we derive here the sensitivity of regional changes in precipitation and in precipitation minus evapotranspiration to global temperature changes. The simulations span the full range of available emission scenarios, and the sensitivities are derived using a modified pattern scaling approach. The applied approach assumes linear relationships on global temperature changes while thoroughly addressing associated uncertainties via resampling methods. This allows us to assess the full distribution of the simulations in a probabilistic sense. Northern high-latitude regions display robust responses towards wetting, while subtropical regions display a tendency towards drying but with a large range of responses. Even though both internal variability and the scenario choice play an important role in the overall spread of the simulations, the uncertainty stemming from the climate model choice usually accounts for about half of the total uncertainty in most regions. We additionally assess the implications of limiting global mean temperature warming to values below (i) 2 K or (ii) 1.5 K (as stated within the 2015 Paris Agreement). We show that opting for the 1.5 K target might just slightly influence the mean response, but could substantially reduce the risk of experiencing extreme changes in regional water availability.

  9. Shrubland carbon sink depends upon winter water availability in the warm deserts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Scott, Russell L.; John A. Arnone,; Jasoni, Richard L.; Litvak, Marcy E.; Moreo, Michael T.; Papuga, Shirley A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Schreiner-McGraw, Adam P.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2018-01-01

    Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such model-based analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in open shrublands, which is the most common global land cover type, covering ∼14% of Earth’s surface. Here we evaluate how the amount and seasonal timing of water availability regulate CO2 exchange between shrublands and the atmosphere. We use eddy covariance data from six US sites across the three warm deserts of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of ∼100–400mm, annual temperatures of 13–18°C, and records of 2–8 years (33 site-years in total). The Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mojave Deserts present gradients in both mean annual precipitation and its seasonal distribution between the wet-winter Mojave Desert and the wet-summer Chihuahuan Desert. We found that due to hydrologic losses during the wettest summers in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, evapotranspiration (ET) was a better metric than precipitation of water available to drive dryland CO2 exchange. In contrast with recent synthesis studies across diverse dryland biomes, we found that NEP could not be directly predicted from ET due to wintertime decoupling of the relationship between ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP). Ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE=GEP/ET) did not differ between winter and summer. Carbon use efficiency (CUE=NEP/GEP), however, was greater in winter because Reco returned a smaller fraction of carbon to the atmosphere (23% of GEP) than in summer (77%). Combining the water-carbon relations found here with historical precipitation since 1980, we estimate that lower average winter precipitation during the 21st century reduced the net carbon sink of the three deserts by an average of 6.8TgC yr1. Our results highlight that winter precipitation is critical to the annual carbon balance of these

  10. Mapping water availability, cost and projected consumptive use in the eastern United States with comparisons to the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbie D.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.; Kobos, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The availability of freshwater supplies to meet future demand is a growing concern. Water availability metrics are needed to inform future water development decisions. With the help of water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1300 watersheds throughout the 31 contiguous states in the eastern US complimenting a prior study of the west. The compiled set of water availability data is unique in that it considers multiple sources of water (fresh surface and groundwater, wastewater and brackish groundwater); accommodates institutional controls placed on water use; is accompanied by cost estimates to access, treat and convey each unique source of water; and is compared to projected future growth in consumptive water use to 2030. Although few administrative limits have been set on water availability in the east, water managers have identified 315 fresh surface water and 398 fresh groundwater basins (with 151 overlapping basins) as areas of concern (AOCs) where water supply challenges exist due to drought related concerns, environmental flows, groundwater overdraft, or salt water intrusion. This highlights a difference in management where AOCs are identified in the east which simply require additional permitting, while in the west strict administrative limits are established. Although the east is generally considered ‘water rich’ roughly a quarter of the basins were identified as AOCs; however, this is still in strong contrast to the west where 78% of the surface water basins are operating at or near their administrative limit. Little effort was noted on the part of eastern or western water managers to quantify non-fresh water resources.

  11. Water availability determines the richness and density of fig trees within Brazilian semideciduous forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luís Francisco Mello; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The success of fig trees in tropical ecosystems is evidenced by the great diversity (+750 species) and wide geographic distribution of the genus. We assessed the contribution of environmental variables on the species richness and density of fig trees in fragments of seasonal semideciduous forest (SSF) in Brazil. We assessed 20 forest fragments in three regions in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Fig tree richness and density was estimated in rectangular plots, comprising 31.4 ha sampled. Both richness and fig tree density were linearly modeled as function of variables representing (1) fragment metrics, (2) forest structure, and (3) landscape metrics expressing water drainage in the fragments. Model selection was performed by comparing the AIC values (Akaike Information Criterion) and the relative weight of each model (wAIC). Both species richness and fig tree density were better explained by the water availability in the fragment (meter of streams/ha): wAICrichness = 0.45, wAICdensity = 0.96. The remaining variables related to anthropic perturbation and forest structure were of little weight in the models. The rainfall seasonality in SSF seems to select for both establishment strategies and morphological adaptations in the hemiepiphytic fig tree species. In the studied SSF, hemiepiphytes established at lower heights in their host trees than reported for fig trees in evergreen rainforests. Some hemiepiphytic fig species evolved superficial roots extending up to 100 m from their trunks, resulting in hectare-scale root zones that allow them to efficiently forage water and soil nutrients. The community of fig trees was robust to variation in forest structure and conservation level of SSF fragments, making this group of plants an important element for the functioning of seasonal tropical forests.

  12. The Effect of Land Use on Availability of Japanese Freshwater Resources and Its Significance for Water Footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Motoshita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All relevant effects on water must be assessed in water footprinting for identifying hotspots and managing the impacts of products, processes, and services throughout the life cycle. Although several studies have focused on physical water scarcity and degradation of water quality, the relevance of land use in water footprinting has not been widely addressed. Here, we aimed to verify the extent of land-use effect in the context of water footprinting. Intensity factors of land use regarding the loss of freshwater availability are modeled by calculating water balance at grid scale in Japan. A water footprint inventory and impacts related to land use are assessed by applying the developed intensity factors and comparing them with those related to water consumption and degradation. Artificial land use such as urban area results in the loss of many parts of available freshwater input by precipitation. When considering water footprint inventory, the dominance of land use is less than that of water consumption. However, the effect of land use is relevant to the assessment of water footprint impact by differentiating stress on water resources. The exclusion of land use effect underestimates the water footprint of goods produced in Japan by an average of around 37%.

  13. Caries prevalence and its association with brushing habits, water availability, and the intake of sugared beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Joseph A; Martinez Mier, Esperanza A; Soto, Armando; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Weddell, James A; Villanueva Cruz, Irma; Anton de la Concha, Jose Luis

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. With Dental Caries being the most common disease amongst children in the world today, there is a need to fully understand risk factors that may be related to caries prevalence and how they could be best addressed. AIM. The aim of this study was to evaluate soda, juice, sugared-beverage intake, brushing habits, and community water source availability as they relate to the prevalence of both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions in small rural villages in Mexico. DESIGN. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used in children from small, isolated, villages in Mexico. Risk factors were assessed via questionnaires. RESULTS. Caries prevalence in the villages was very high, ranging from 94.7% to 100% of the children studied. The mean number of surfaces with lesions per child (D1MFS + d1mfs) having scores ≥1 (noncavitated and cavitated) ranged from 15.4 ± 11.1 to 26.6 ± 15.2. Many of the children reported drinking beverages containing sugar. CONCLUSIONS. Drinking sugared beverages, poor oral hygiene habits, and lack of access to tap water were identified as risk factor for caries in this sample of residents of rural Mexico. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Uncertainty in water resources availability in the Okavango River basin as a result of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Hughes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the hydrological response to scenarios of climate change in the Okavango River catchment in Southern Africa. Climate scenarios are constructed representing different changes in global mean temperature from an ensemble of 7 climate models assessed in the IPCC AR4. The results show a substantial change in mean flow associated with a global warming of 2 °C. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the sign and magnitude of the projected changes between different climate models, implying that the ensemble mean is not an appropriate generalised indicator of impact. The uncertainty in response between different climate model patterns is considerably greater than the range due to uncertainty in hydrological model parameterisation. There is also a clear need to evaluate the physical mechanisms associated with the model projected changes in this region. The implications for water resource management policy are considered.

  15. Phenotypic flexibility at the molecular and organismal level allows desert-dwelling rodents to cope with seasonal water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro A; Cortes, Arturo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    We examined the phenotypic flexibility of field urine osmolality (Uosm) in response to seasonal rainfall and the experimental expression of renal aquaporins (AQPs) in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini, a South American desert-dwelling rodent, through an integrative study at both the cellular and the organismal level. Field Uosm was higher in summer than in winter. Fall and winter Uosm were not significantly different. During a rainy year, winter Uosm was 2,140 +/- 82.3 mOsm kg(-1); the corresponding value in a dry year was 2,569 +/- 61.3 mOsm kg(-1). During the summer, the mean Uosm in a rainy year was 3,321 +/- 71.5 mOsm kg(-1), and in a dry year it was 3,604 +/- 107.2 mOsm kg(-1). The distribution of AQP-2, AQP-3, and AQP-4 was similar to that described for mouse and rat kidneys and confined to principal cells in cortex and inner medullary collecting-duct cells. AQP-4 immunoreactivity was unaltered by the state of water balance. Relative to water loading, dehydration induced an increase in AQP-2 immunoreactivity and protein abundance. Although more discrete, AQP-3 immunolabeling was also increased by dehydration. We now reveal how the integration of flexible renal mechanisms acting at the cellular and organismal level allow a small desert-dwelling mammal to cope with seasonal and yearly (El Nino) water availability in its semiarid habitat.

  16. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  17. Gender in higher level education and professional training in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M

    1997-01-01

    While more women are participating in training and decision-making in the local-level drinking water and sanitation sectors, this is not occurring at higher levels because of the gender imbalance that remains in higher-level sector education and professional training programs. This imbalance is characterized by gender-biased science curricula and by a lack of female role models. Even in developing countries where female enrollment outstrips that of men in higher education, women commonly prepare for careers in areas that are less valued than sanitary engineering. This imbalance ignores the fact that women can perform technical and managerial skills as competently as men. A similar male-dominated pattern emerges in professional training courses offered by development agencies, especially courses that focus on management issues. Low female school attendance begins when girls must forego primary school attendance to help their mothers in domestic chores, such as fetching water. Inadequate sanitation facilities for girls at schools also pose impediments. Efforts to improve this situation include 1) a promotional brochure developed by the Botswana Ministry of Education to raise awareness of the importance of men's and women's work as technicians and engineers in the water and sanitation sector among secondary school students; 2) creation of free schools and universities in Oman, where the numbers of women in previously male-dominated jobs are increasing; and 3) promotion of female education at the Asian Institute of Technology.

  18. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  19. Investigation of Ground-Water Availability and Quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William L.; Daniel, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    A countywide inventory was conducted of 649 wells in nine hydrogeologic units in Orange County, North Carolina. As a result of this inventory, estimates of ground-water availability and use were calculated, and water-quality results were obtained from 51 wells sampled throughout the County from December 1998 through January 1999. The typical well in Orange County has an average depth of 208 feet, an average casing length of 53.6 feet, a static water level of 26.6 feet, a yield of 17.6 gallons per minute, and a well casing diameter of 6.25 inches. The saturated thickness of the regolith averages 27.0 feet and the yield per foot of total well depth averages 0.119 gallon per minute per foot. Two areas of the County are more favorable for high-yield wells—a west-southwest to east-northeast trending area in the northwestern part of the County, and a southwest to northeast trending area in the southwestern part of the County. Well yields in Orange County show little correlation with topographic or hydrogeologic setting.Fifty-one sampling locations were selected based on (a) countywide areal distribution, (b) weighted distribution among hydrogeologic units, and (c) permission from homeowners. The list of analytes for the sampling program consisted of common anions and cations, metals and trace elements, nutrients, organic compounds, and radon. Samples were screened for the presence of fuel compounds and pesticides by using immuno-assay techniques. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. The median pH was 6.9, which is nearly neutral, and the median hardness was 75 milligrams per liter calcium carbonate. The median dissolved solids concentration was 125 milligrams per liter, and the median specific conductance was 175 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Orange County ground water is classified as a calcium-bicarbonate type.High nutrient concentrations were not found in samples collected for this

  20. Biological Soil Crusts of Arctic Svalbard—Water Availability as Potential Controlling Factor for Microalgal Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Borchhardt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSCs formed by phototrophic organisms were investigated on Arctic Svalbard (Norway. These communities exert several important ecological functions and constitute a significant part of vegetation at high latitudes. Non-diatom eukaryotic microalgal species of BSCs from 20 sampling stations around Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen were identified by morphology using light microscopy, and the results revealed a high species richness with 102 species in total. 67 taxa belonged to Chlorophyta (31 Chlorophyceae and 36 Trebouxiophyceae, 13 species were Streptophyta (11 Klebsormidiophyceae and two Zygnematophyceae and 22 species were Ochrophyta (two Eustigmatophyceae and 20 Xanthophyceae. Surprisingly, Klebsormidium strains belonging to clade G (Streptophyta, which were so far described from Southern Africa, could be determined at 5 sampling stations. Furthermore, comparative analyses of Arctic and Antarctic BSCs were undertaken to outline differences in species composition. In addition, a pedological analysis of BSC samples included C, N, S, TP (total phosphorus, and pH measurements to investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition. No significant correlation with these chemical soil parameters was confirmed but the results indicated that pH might affect the BSCs. In addition, a statistically significant influence of precipitation on species composition was determined. Consequently, water availability was identified as one key driver for BSC biodiversity in Arctic regions.

  1. Disponibilidad de agua-aire en sustratos para plantas Water-air availability in plant substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Beatriz Vence

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de los sustratos especialmente las relacionadas con la disponibilidad de agua-aire para las raíces de las plantas son las más importantes dentro del estudio de estos materiales usados en cultivos en contenedores. Para un óptimo crecimiento de la planta un sustrato debe contener suficiente cantidad de agua y aire y ambos estar disponibles. A nivel mundial el estudio de las propiedades que determinan esta disponibilidad comenzó desde las ciencias del suelo y fue adaptándose a las características propias de la amplia gama de productos que pueden ser utilizados, surgiendo así variables y métodos de medida específicos para la caracterización física de sustratos. En la Argentina el estudio de sustratos para plantas constituye un área de conocimiento nueva y en desarrollo, por ello exige un trabajo interdisciplinario donde hay que concordar un lenguaje común de términos técnicos, la elección de los métodos analíticos de referencia específicos y una legislación actualizada para sustratos. Haciendo un estudio crítico de la gran cantidad de información al respecto que proviene de otros países se podrán adaptar a nuestra realidad y a nuestros materiales. En esta revisión se enumeran resumidamente los más importantes conceptos a tener en cuenta para la evaluación física de sustratos a fin de que puedan servir de base para una mejor comprensión y discusión del tema.The study of the physical properties of substrates for container plant production is very important because the water and air availability for plant roots is involved. A substrate must contain a sufficient amount of available water and air to produce an optimum plant growth and development. Worldwide, the study of the properties that determine the water and air availability started from soil sciences and has been evolving to the present existence of a great variety of products that can be used, concomitant with the identification of parameters

  2. Simulation of groundwater conditions and streamflow depletion to evaluate water availability in a Freeport, Maine, watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Locke, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate water availability in the State of Maine, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Maine Geological Survey began a cooperative investigation to provide the first rigorous evaluation of watersheds deemed "at risk" because of the combination of instream flow requirements and proportionally large water withdrawals. The study area for this investigation includes the Harvey and Merrill Brook watersheds and the Freeport aquifer in the towns of Freeport, Pownal, and Yarmouth, Maine. A numerical groundwater- flow model was used to evaluate groundwater withdrawals, groundwater-surface-water interactions, and the effect of water-management practices on streamflow. The water budget illustrates the effect that groundwater withdrawals have on streamflow and the movement of water within the system. Streamflow measurements were made following standard USGS techniques, from May through September 2009 at one site in the Merrill Brook watershed and four sites in the Harvey Brook watershed. A record-extension technique was applied to estimate long-term monthly streamflows at each of the five sites. The conceptual model of the groundwater system consists of a deep, confined aquifer (the Freeport aquifer) in a buried valley that trends through the middle of the study area, covered by a discontinuous confining unit, and topped by a thin upper saturated zone that is a mixture of sandy units, till, and weathered clay. Harvey and Merrill Brooks flow southward through the study area, and receive groundwater discharge from the upper saturated zone and from the deep aquifer through previously unknown discontinuities in the confining unit. The Freeport aquifer gets most of its recharge from local seepage around the edges of the confining unit, the remainder is received as inflow from the north within the buried valley. Groundwater withdrawals from the Freeport aquifer in the study area were obtained from the local water utility and estimated for other categories. Overall

  3. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  4. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations...... showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity...... water availability even among geographically close populations....

  5. 76 FR 79176 - Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of the draft document Recreational Water... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-OW-2011-0466; FRL-9609-3] Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific Views AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  6. 76 FR 77226 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of 28 Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9505-4] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of 28... public comment period for the notice of availability that published on November 14, 2011, 76 FR 70442... Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6, 1445...

  7. Reactivity of the Bacteria-Water Interface: Linking Nutrient Availability to Bacteria-Metal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowle, D. A.; Daughney, C. J.; Riley, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Identifying and quantifying the controls on metal mobilities in geologic systems is critical in order to understand processes such as global element cycling, metal transport in near-surface water-rock systems, sedimentary diagenesis, and mineral formation. Bacteria are ubiquitous in near-surface water-rock systems, and numerous laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that bacteria can facilitate the formation and dissolution of minerals, and enhance or inhibit contaminant transport. However, despite the growing evidence that bacteria play a key role in many geologic processes in low temperature systems, our understanding of the influence of the local nutrient dynamics of the system of interest on bacteria-metal interactions is limited. Here we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling laboratory experiments with geochemical modeling to isolate the effect of nutrient availability on bacterially mediated proton and metal adsorption reactions. Experimental studies of metal-bacteria interactions were conducted in batch reactors as a function of pH, and solid-solute interactions after growth in a variety of defined and undefined media. Media nutrient composition (C,N,P) was quantified before and after harvesting the cells. Surface complexation models (SCM) for the adsorption reactions were developed by combining sorption data with the results of acid-base titrations, and in some cases zeta potential titrations of the bacterial surface. Our results indicate a clear change in both buffering potential and metal binding capacity of the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis as a function of initial media conditions. Combining current studies with our past studies on the effects of growth phase and others work on temperature dependence on metal adsorption we hope to develop a holistic surface complexation model for quantifying bacterial effects on metal mass transfer in many geologic systems.

  8. Review and analysis of available streamflow and water-quality data for Park County, Colorado, 1962-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on streamflow and surface-water and ground-water quality in Park County, Colorado, was compiled from several Federal, State, and local agencies. The data were reviewed and analyzed to provide a perspective of recent (1962-98) water-resource conditions and to help identify current and future water-quantity and water-quality concerns. Streamflow has been monitored at more than 40 sites in the county, and data for some sites date back to the early 1900's. Existing data indicate a need for increased archival of streamflow data for future use and analysis. In 1998, streamflow was continuously monitored at about 30 sites, but data were stored in a data base for only 10 sites. Water-quality data were compiled for 125 surface-water sites, 398 wells, and 30 springs. The amount of data varied considerably among sites; however, the available information provided a general indication of where water-quality constituent concentrations met or exceeded water-quality standards. Park County is primarily drained by streams in the South Platte River Basin and to a lesser extent by streams in the Arkansas River Basin. In the South Platte River Basin in Park County, more than one-half the annual streamflow occurs in May, June, and July in response to snowmelt in the mountainous headwaters. The annual snowpack is comparatively less in the Arkansas River Basin in Park County, and mean monthly streamflow is more consistent throughout the year. In some streams, the timing and magnitude of streamflow have been altered by main-stem reservoirs or by interbasin water transfers. Most values of surface-water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH were within recommended limits set by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Specific conductance (an indirect measure of the dissolved-solids concentration) generally was lowest in streams of the upper South Platte River Basin and higher in the southern one-half of the county in the Arkansas River Basin and in the South

  9. A calculation method of available soil water content : application to viticultural terroirs mapping of the Loire valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Goulet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Vine water supply is one of the most important elements in the determination of grape composition and wine quality. Water supply conditions are in relation with available soil water content, therefore this one has to be determined when vineyard terroir mapping is undertaken. The available soil water content depends on soil factors like water content at field capacity, water content at the permanent wilting point, apparent density and rooting depth. The aim of this study is to seek the relationship between these factors and a simple soil characteristic such as texture which could be easily measurable in routine cartography. Study area is located in the Loire valley, in two different geological regions. First results indicate that it is possible to determine available soil water content from clay percentage, then from soil texture. These results also show that available soil water content algorithms differ with geological properties. This calculation can be used at each auger boring and results can be spatialised within a Geographical Information System that allows the production of available water content maps.

  10. The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

  11. Water Availability and Use Pilot-A multiscale assessment in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, water availability and use were assessed for the U.S. part of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Basin Pilot of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national assessment of water availability and use. The goals of a national assessment of water availability and use are to clarify our understanding of water-availability status and trends and improve our ability to forecast the balance between water supply and demand for future economic and environmental uses. This report outlines possible approaches for full-scale implementation of such an assessment. As such, the focus of this study was on collecting, compiling, and analyzing a wide variety of data to define the storage and dynamics of water resources and quantify the human demands on water in the Great Lakes region. The study focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to highlight not only the abundant regional availability of water but also the potential for local shortages or conflicts over water. Regional studies provided a framework for understanding water resources in the basin. Subregional studies directed attention to varied aspects of the water-resources system that would have been difficult to assess for the whole region because of either data limitations or time limitations for the project. The study of local issues and concerns was motivated by regional discussions that led to recent legislative action between the Great Lakes States and regional cooperation with the Canadian Great Lakes Provinces. The multiscale nature of the study findings challenges water-resource managers and the public to think about regional water resources in an integrated way and to understand how future changes to the system-driven by human uses, climate variability, or land-use change-may be accommodated by informed water-resources management.

  12. Exploring the Effect of Climate Perturbations on Water Availability for Renewable Energy Development in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, David M.

    %. As modeled groundwater elevations declined in the IWV, the net generation (i.e. energy produced - energy used) of each renewable energy implementation decreased due a higher energy cost for pumping groundwater. The loss in efficiency was minimal for PV and wind solutions, with maximum changes in the drawdown being less than 10 m; however, for CSP and biofuel implementations drawdowns over 50 m were observed at the pumping well, resulting in electrical generation efficiency losses between 4% and 50% over a two-year period. It was concluded that PV would be the best balance between water and land-use for the IWV, or other groundwater dependent Basin and Range settings. In areas with limited water resources but abundant available land for implementation, WT solutions would have the smallest hydrologic impact. The impact of renewable scenarios was highly variable across and within differing fuel types, with the potential for larger negative impacts under a changing climate in areas with no perennial surface water.

  13. Recommended reactor coolant water chemistry requirements for WWER-1000 units with 235U higher enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, I.; Zaharieva, N.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade worldwide experience of PWRs and WWERs confirms the trends for the improvement of the nuclear power industry electricity production through the implementation of high burn-up or high fuel duty, which are usually accompanied with the usage of UO 2 fuel with higher content of 235 U - 4.0% - 4.5% (5.0%). It was concluded that the onset of sub-cooled nucleate boiling (SNB) on the fuel cladding surfaces and the initial excess reactivity of the core are the primary and basic factors accompanying the implementation of uranium fuel with higher 235 U content, aiming extended fuel cycles and higher burn-up of the fuel in Pressurized Water Reactors. As main consequences of the presence of these factors the modifications of chemical / electrochemical environments of nuclear fuel cladding- and reactor coolant system- surfaces are evaluated. These conclusions are the reason for: 1) The determination of the choices of the type of fuel cladding materials in respect with their enough corrosion resistance to the specific fuel cladding environment, created by the presence of SNB; 2) The development and implementation of primary circuit water chemistry guidelines ensuring the necessary low corrosion rates of primary circuit materials and limitation of cladding deposition and out-of-core radioactivity buildup; 3) Implementation of additional neutron absorbers which allow enough decrease of the initial concentration of H 3 BO 3 in coolant, so that its neutralization will be possible with the permitted alkalising agent concentrations. In this paper the specific features of WWER-1000 units in Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant; use of 235 U higher enriched fuel in the WWER-1000 reactors in the Kozloduy NPP; coolant water chemistry and radiochemistry plant data during the power operation period of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 5, 15 th fuel cycle; evaluation of the approaches and results by the conversion of the WWER-1000 Units at the Kozloduy NPP to the uranium fuel with 4.3% 235 U as

  14. Availability of irrigation water for domestic use in Pakistan: its impact on prevalence of diarrhoea and nutritional status of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    than five years were collected from 10 villages in the command area of the Hakra 6R canal in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the end of the study period. Additional surveys were conducted to collect information on the availability of water, sanitary facilities......This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs. During May 1998-April 1999, data on the occurrence of diarrhoea among 167 children aged less......, hygiene, and socioeconomic status. Height-for-age and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea were used as outcome measures. Quantity of water available in households was a strong predictor of height-for-age and prevalence of diarrhoea. Children from households with a large storage capacity for water...

  15. Prevention of oil spill pollution in sea water using locally available materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisuddin, S.; Al-Hashar, Naseer A.; Tahseen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Oil spill pollution, a severe environmental problem, which persists in marine environment or in inland water across the world, has grown to an alarming magnitude with increased levels of oil production and transport. The causes oil pollution are categorized as either accidental or operational, wherever oil is produced, transported, stored and used on the surface of sea or land. Hence, it is almost impossible for marine life to be freed from the adverse affects of oil spill, through the discharge of oil is controlled by an international convention. Prime concern for the health of marine life has created an instinct for undertaking this study by authors. Objectives of the present work include testing of four different local materials in separating oil from having different oil concentrations, and their efficiency of removal. The work also focuses on effect of time of contact and dosage of materials used for oil removal. Corchorus depressus locally available has proved to be more effective when compared to other materials utilized in addressing oil-spill related problems. At the same time its byproducts do not give rise to unwanted hazards to marine life. (author)

  16. Biological Soil Crusts of Arctic Svalbard-Water Availability as Potential Controlling Factor for Microalgal Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchhardt, Nadine; Baum, Christel; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    In the present study the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSCs) formed by phototrophic organisms were investigated on Arctic Svalbard (Norway). These communities exert several important ecological functions and constitute a significant part of vegetation at high latitudes. Non-diatom eukaryotic microalgal species of BSCs from 20 sampling stations around Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen were identified by morphology using light microscopy, and the results revealed a high species richness with 102 species in total. 67 taxa belonged to Chlorophyta (31 Chlorophyceae and 36 Trebouxiophyceae), 13 species were Streptophyta (11 Klebsormidiophyceae and two Zygnematophyceae) and 22 species were Ochrophyta (two Eustigmatophyceae and 20 Xanthophyceae). Surprisingly, Klebsormidium strains belonging to clade G (Streptophyta), which were so far described from Southern Africa, could be determined at 5 sampling stations. Furthermore, comparative analyses of Arctic and Antarctic BSCs were undertaken to outline differences in species composition. In addition, a pedological analysis of BSC samples included C, N, S, TP (total phosphorus), and pH measurements to investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition. No significant correlation with these chemical soil parameters was confirmed but the results indicated that pH might affect the BSCs. In addition, a statistically significant influence of precipitation on species composition was determined. Consequently, water availability was identified as one key driver for BSC biodiversity in Arctic regions.

  17. Water table and species identity outweigh carbon and nitrogen availability in a softwater plant community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaeghe, Floris; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2013-02-01

    Performance of aquatic macrophytes is driven by many environmental factors, and a major challenge is to understand how aquatic macrophyte communities are structured in various environments. In softwater lakes in Western Europe, hydrological state (submersed/emersed), carbon dioxide and ammonium levels and species interactions are considered as driving forces in structuring amphibious plant communities. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relative importance of these factors for four species in a competitive neighbourhood. Softwater lake habitat was simulated during one growing season in laboratory conditions, mimicking water level fluctuation, photoperiod and temperature. Artificial communities consisted of small populations of four softwater macrophyte species: Luronium natans, Baldellia ranunculoides ssp. repens, Eleocharis multicaulis and Hydrocotyle vulgaris. These communities were subjected to two levels of carbon dioxide and ammonium. Additionally, monocultures of Baldellia and Eleocharis were grown at a higher nutrient level combination in order to measure their competitive response in a community. Time (hydrological state) and species identity turned out to be the only consistently significant factors determining community composition. Plant performance was clearly species-dependent, while carbon dioxide and ammonium did not have major effects. The competitive response was significant in both Eleocharis and Baldellia. Competition intensity was highest in the emersed state. Carbon dioxide had a supplementary effect on the within-species performance in Luronium, Baldellia and Eleocharis, with high carbon dioxide level mainly resulting in more flowers and more stolons. Community outcomes and competitive responses in aquatic macrophytes appear difficult to predict, because of mixed life strategies and morphological and functional plasticity. We conclude that hydrological state was the only important environmental factor. The identity of the species that

  18. Decreasing water availability across the globe improves the effectiveness of protective ant-plant mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura C; Peixoto, Paulo E C

    2017-08-01

    Abiotic conditions can increase the costs of services and/or the benefits of rewards provided by mutualistic partners. Consequently, in some situations, the outcome of mutualisms can move from beneficial to detrimental for at least one partner. In the case of protective mutualisms between ant bodyguards and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), plants from arid environments face a trade-off between EFN production and maintenance and water and carbon economy. This trade-off may increase EFN costs and decrease their value as a defensive strategy to plants in such environments. Despite this, the presence of EFNs is an ubiquitous trait in plants from arid environments, suggesting that they provide greater benefits to plants in these environments to compensate for their higher costs. We used a meta-analysis to investigate if such benefits do increase with decreasing water availability and the possible underlying causes (such as ant behaviour or ant diversity). As predicted, ant effect on EFN plants performance increased as mean annual precipitation decreased. We also found that the frequency of dominant ants on EFN plants increased in drier areas. Due to the more aggressive behaviour of dominant ants, we suggest that they represent an important factor shaping the adaptive value of EFNs to plants in arid environments. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Impacts of water availability and drought on maize yield – A comparison of 16 indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žalud, Zdeněk; Hlavinka, Petr; Prokeš, K.; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Trnka, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 188, JUL (2017), s. 126-135 ISSN 0378-3774 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1310123; GA MZe(CZ) QJ1610072 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Drought * Hybrids * Precipitation * Soil water holding capacity * Water balance * Water use efficiency Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2016

  20. [Water disinfection by the combined exposure to super-high frequency energy and available chlorine produced during water electrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the effects on polluted water of SHF-energy together with the residual free (active) chlorine as a by-product of electrolysis action on dissolved chlorine-containing salts. Purpose of the studies was to evaluate input of these elements to the water disinfection effect. The synergy was found to kill microorganisms without impacts on the physicochemical properties of processed water or nutrient medium; therefore, it can be used for water treatment, and cultivation of microorganisms in microbiology.

  1. A water availability intervention in New York City public schools: influence on youths' water and milk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2015-02-01

    We determined the influence of "water jets" on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n=2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011-2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; Pschools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement.

  2. A Water Availability Intervention in New York City Public Schools: Influence on Youths’ Water and Milk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the influence of “water jets” on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. Methods. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n = 2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011–2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Results. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; P schools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. Conclusions. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement. PMID:25521867

  3. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes

  4. Phosphorus availability from phosphate rock and sewage sludge as influenced by the addition of water soluble phosphate fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Zaharah, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) inputs are required for sustainable agricultural production in most acid soils of the tropics and subtropics. Phosphate rocks (PR) and organic materials have been suggested as alternative P sources in these soils. Quantitative information on the P availability from sewage sludge (SL) is scanty. Methods to improve the effectiveness of PR such as partial acidulation and compaction with water-soluble P sources have been recommended. The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of Florida PR and sewage sludges (irradiated and non-irradiated) applied alone and in mixture with a water-soluble source (triple superphosphate, TSP) at two rates (50 and 150 mg P kg -1 soil). The 32 P isotope dilution technique was utilised to determine the proportion of P in the plant taken up from the P fertilizer treatments. Wheat was grown on an acid loamy sand Dystric Eutrocrepts and harvested 6 weeks after planting. Results on total P uptake and the RAE of the P fertilizer sources tested indicated that the addition of 50 mg P kg -1 soil as TSP was adequate in supplying P to the 6-week-old wheat plants as compared to PR and sewage sludge. Intermediate values were obtained for the mixtures. Similar responses were observed for the high P rate. For a given P rate, phosphorus uptake from PR and SL in presence of TSP was higher than P uptake from these sources alone, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of these non-readily available sources. With respect to P uptake from PR applied alone, the relative increases in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence were 52 and 67% for the low and high P rates, respectively. The relative increases in P uptake from SL due to TSP when compared to P uptake from SL alone were 102 and 59% for the low and high P rates of application. Application of a water-soluble P fertilizer together with a non-readily available P source shows an enhancement on the P uptake from the non

  5. Phosphorus availability from phosphate rock and sewage sludge as influenced by the addition of water soluble phosphate fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, F. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: F.Zapata@iaea.org; Zaharah, A.R. [Department of Land Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2002-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) inputs are required for sustainable agricultural production in most acid soils of the tropics and subtropics. Phosphate rocks (PR) and organic materials have been suggested as alternative P sources in these soils. Quantitative information on the P availability from sewage sludge (SL) is scanty. Methods to improve the effectiveness of PR such as partial acidulation and compaction with water-soluble P sources have been recommended. The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of Florida PR and sewage sludges (irradiated and non-irradiated) applied alone and in mixture with a water-soluble source (triple superphosphate, TSP) at two rates (50 and 150 mg P kg{sup -1} soil). The {sup 32}P isotope dilution technique was utilised to determine the proportion of P in the plant taken up from the P fertilizer treatments. Wheat was grown on an acid loamy sand Dystric Eutrocrepts and harvested 6 weeks after planting. Results on total P uptake and the RAE of the P fertilizer sources tested indicated that the addition of 50 mg P kg{sup -1} soil as TSP was adequate in supplying P to the 6-week-old wheat plants as compared to PR and sewage sludge. Intermediate values were obtained for the mixtures. Similar responses were observed for the high P rate. For a given P rate, phosphorus uptake from PR and SL in presence of TSP was higher than P uptake from these sources alone, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of these non-readily available sources. With respect to P uptake from PR applied alone, the relative increases in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence were 52 and 67% for the low and high P rates, respectively. The relative increases in P uptake from SL due to TSP when compared to P uptake from SL alone were 102 and 59% for the low and high P rates of application. Application of a water-soluble P fertilizer together with a non-readily available P source shows an enhancement on the P

  6. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Z.; Lindroth, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania......, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap...... low compared to other results. Generally, all clones, except for Jorunn, seem to be better off concerning biomass production, WUE and RUE than the reference clone. Jorr, Jorunn and Loden also seem to be able to cope with the reduced water availability with increase in the water use efficiency. Tora...

  7. Invasive submerged freshwater macrophytes are more plastic in their response to light intensity than to the availability of free CO2 in air-equilibrated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Franziska; Alnoee, Anette B.; Boderskov, Teis

    2015-01-01

    1. The future increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is likely to affect the growth and performance of submerged freshwater macrophytes because of higher concentrations of free CO2 in the water at air equilibrium. We measured the plastic responses to free CO2 and light for several traits...... in all four species. 4. As the growth and photosynthesis of the four invasive bicarbonate users were only slightly affected by the CO2 availability in air-equilibrated water, the future rise in atmospheric CO2 is unlikely to exacerbate their invasive behaviour and may even reduce their competitiveness...... compensation point, and with higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and quantum yield. The bicarbonate uptake capacity was generally highest at the high light intensity and high concentrations of free CO2. Plasticity indices for light intensity were consistently higher than for CO2 availability...

  8. Relative controls of natural and socio-economic drivers on water availability over India: an exploratory modelling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, A.; Singh, R.; Kumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    India, a water stressed nation with an estimated per capita water availability of 1500m3/year/person, is projected to surpass China in population to become the most populous country by 2022. This increasing population will further exacerbate the water stress, which will also vary due to climate and land use change. Here, we quantify the relative controls on per capita water availability from climatic, non-climatic and socio-economic factors. We achieve this by using several definitions of per capita water availability and accounting for virtual water trade transfer. Our exploratory analysis employs the recently developed probabilistic Budyko framework modified to account for inter-regional virtual water trade. We find that the Indo-Gangetic plains and Southeastern parts of India emerge as vulnerable regions where a growing population will lead to a drastic reduction in per capita water availability. The proposed framework can serve as a prototype for understanding the relative importance of socio-economic interventions versus water infrastructure or demand reduction investments.

  9. Availability of irrigation water for domestic use in Pakistan: its impact on prevalence of diarrhoea and nutritional status of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming

    2002-03-01

    This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs. During May 1998-April 1999, data on the occurrence of diarrhoea among 167 children aged less than five years were collected from 10 villages in the command area of the Hakra 6R canal in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the end of the study period. Additional surveys were conducted to collect information on the availability of water, sanitary facilities, hygiene, and socioeconomic status. Height-for-age and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea were used as outcome measures. Quantity of water available in households was a strong predictor of height-for-age and prevalence of diarrhoea. Children from households with a large storage capacity for water in the house had a much lower prevalence of diarrhoea and stunting than children from families without this facility. Having a toilet was protective for diarrhoea and stunting. Increased quantity of water for domestic use and provision of toilet facilities were the most important interventions to reduce burden of diarrhoea and malnutrition in this area. An integrated approach to water management is needed in irrigation schemes, so that supply of domestic water is given priority when allocating water in time and space within the systems.

  10. Snowmelt water drives higher soil erosion than rainfall water in a mid-high latitude upland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuyang; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Zengchao; Yang, Bowen; Wang, Li

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of precipitation and temperature on soil erosion are pronounced in mid-high latitude areas, which lead to seasonal variations in soil erosion. Determining the critical erosion periods and the reasons behind the increased erosion loads are essential for soil management decisions. Hence, integrated approaches combining experiments and modelling based on field investigations were applied to investigate watershed soil erosion characteristics and the dynamics of water movement through soils. Long-term and continuous data for surface runoff and soil erosion variation characteristics of uplands in a watershed were observed via five simulations by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In addition, laboratory experiments were performed to quantify the actual soil infiltrabilities in snowmelt seasons (thawed treatment) and rainy seasons (non-frozen treatment). The results showed that over the course of a year, average surface runoff and soil erosion reached peak values of 31.38 mm and 1.46 t ha-1 a-1, respectively, in the month of April. They also ranked high in July and August, falling in the ranges of 23.73 mm to 24.91 mm and 0.55 t ha-1 a-1 to 0.59 t ha-1 a-1, respectively. With the infiltration time extended, thawed soils showed lower infiltrabilities than non-frozen soils, and the differences in soil infiltration amounts between these two were considerable. These results highlighted that soil erosion was very closely and positively correlated with surface runoff. Soil loss was higher in snowmelt periods than in rainy periods due to the higher surface runoff in early spring, and the decreased soil infiltrability in snowmelt periods contributed much to this higher surface runoff. These findings are helpful for identification of critical soil erosion periods when making soil management before critical months, especially those before snowmelt periods.

  11. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  12. Reducing Water Availability Impacts the Development of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Its Ability to Take Up and Transport Phosphorus Under in Vitro Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Le Pioufle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios predict a higher variability in rainfall and an increased risk of water deficits during summers for the coming decades. For this reason, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and their mitigating effects on drought stress in plants are increasingly considered in crop management. However, the impact of a decrease in water availability on the development of AMF and their ability to take up and transport inorganic phosphorus (Pi to their hosts remain poorly explored. Here, Medicago truncatula plantlets were grown in association with Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 in bi-compartmented Petri plates. The system consisted in associating the plant and AMF in a root compartment (RC, allowing only the hyphae to extend in a root-free hyphal compartment (HC. Water availability in the HC was then lowered by increasing the concentration of polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG-8000 from 0 to 10, 25, and 50 g L-1 (corresponding to a slight decrease in water potential of -0.024, -0.025, -0.030, and -0.056 Mpa, respectively. Hyphal growth, spore production and germination were severely impaired at the lowest water availability. The dynamics of Pi uptake by the AMF was also impacted, although total Pi uptake evaluated after 24 h stayed unchanged. The percentage of metabolically active extraradical hyphae remained above 70%. Finally, at the lowest water availability, a higher P concentration was observed in the shoots of M. truncatula. At reduced water availability, the extraradical mycelium (ERM development was impacted, potentially limiting its capacity to explore a higher volume of soil. Pi uptake was slowed down but not prevented. The sensitivity of R. irregularis MUCL 41833 to a, even small, decrease in water availability contrasted with several studies reporting tolerance of AMF to drought. This suggests a species or strain-dependent effect and support the necessity to compare the impact of water availability on morpho-anatomy, nutrient

  13. The best farm-level irrigation strategy changes seasonally with fluctuating water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Meinke, H.B.; Rodriguez, D.

    2012-01-01

    Around the globe farmers managing irrigated crops face a future with a decreased and more variable water supply. To investigate generic adaptation issues, a range of on-farm strategies were evaluated for apportioning limited water between fields and enterprises using a typical case-study farm from

  14. Interspecific variation in physiological and foliar metabolic responses to reduced soil water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climatic uncertainty, particularly in regard to water resources, may alter irrigation management of rice, an essential cereal grain acknowledged as the primary food source for more than half the world’s population. To reduce water use, an alternate wetting and drying (AWD) system has been developed...

  15. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J. Flores-Otero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayers

    2004-01-01

    Competitive interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus,

  16. A comparison of hydrologic models for ecological flows and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter V. Caldwell; Jonathan G. Kennen; Ge Sun; Julie E. Kiang; Jon B. Butcher; Michele C. Eddy; Lauren E. Hay; Jacob H. LaFontaine; Ernie F. Hain; Stacy A. C. Nelson; Steve G. McNulty

    2015-01-01

    Robust hydrologic models are needed to help manage water resources for healthy aquatic ecosystems and reliable water supplies for people, but there is a lack of comprehensive model comparison studies that quantify differences in streamflow predictions among model applications developed to answer management questions. We assessed differences in daily streamflow...

  17. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: Tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Eric P. Eldredge; Keirith A. Snyder; David I. Board; Tara Forbis de Queiroz; Vada Hubbard

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to create resilient ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems typically requires seeding or transplanting native species, improving plant-soil-water relations, and controlling invasive species. We asked if improving water relations via irrigation or surface mulch would result in negative tradeoffs between native species...

  18. Metal availability and bio-accessibility in water-logged soils: in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, M. C.; Madrid, F.; Madrid, L.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.

    2010-05-01

    Reducing conditions of submerged soils were simulated in vitro by keeping various soil samples for various times of reaction (between 1 and 15 days) in sealed flasks and N2 atmosphere under an aqueous solution, 0.01 M CaCl2 containing 1 g/l glucose. Surface samples of soils from urban green areas of Ljubljana (LJU), Torino (TOR) and Sevilla, were chosen. In the latter case, two samples of the same soil were included, before (SE-0) and after (SE-8) receiving a composted biosolid (two yearly doses of 80000 kg/ha) obtained from sewage sludge, often used as amendment by the Parks & Gardens Service of the local Government. A fifth soil (QUE) was chosen from the area affected by an accident where 2 million m3 of metal-rich mine tailings were spilled over the Guadiamar river (SW Spain) and its riparian areas. This highly polluted soil was included for comparison. Values of Eh, pH and several metal concentrations were determined in the solution after each time, and metal availability and bio-accessibility were estimated in the soils after treatment. The metals studied were Fe, Mn and some of those called 'urban' metals, namely Cu, Pb and Zn. The solution pH for LJU, TOR and SE-0 was slightly acidified in the first days and increased steadily afterwards. In contrast, QUE and SE-8 show pH increases from the beginning and a constant pH after 4-8 days. This agrees with the expected H+ consumption during reduction. Most soils show strong initial Eh decreases, subsequent slower increases up to 5-8 days and slow decreases afterwards. Solution Fe and Mn showed significant increases throughout the experiment, and Pb showed slight increases only up to 4 days. In contrast, other metals showed non-significant changes, and very low amounts were dissolved during the treatment. However, the amounts of available and, especially, bio-accessible urban metals in the solid phases were significantly increased by the treatment. Such increases may cause a greater leaching of metals to the water

  19. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  20. Potential impacts of climate change on rainfall erosivity and water availability in China in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer Moore; Corey Bunch; Jian Ni

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion and water shortages threaten China’s social and economic development in the 21st century. This paper examines how projected climate change could affect soil erosion and water availability across China. We used both historical climate data (1961-1980) and the UKMO Hadley3 climate scenario (1960-2099) to drive regional hydrology and soil erosivity models....

  1. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  2. Quantifying changes in water use and groundwater availability in a megacity using novel integrated systems modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, D. W.; Xu, T.; Deines, J. M.; Cao, G.; Nagelkirk, R.; Viña, A.; McConnell, W.; Basso, B.; Kendall, A. D.; Li, S.; Luo, L.; Lupi, F.; Ma, D.; Winkler, J. A.; Yang, W.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.

    2017-08-01

    Water sustainability in megacities is a growing challenge with far-reaching effects. Addressing sustainability requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach able to capture interactions among hydrology, population growth, and socioeconomic factors and to reflect changes due to climate variability and land use. We developed a new systems modeling framework to quantify the influence of changes in land use, crop growth, and urbanization on groundwater storage for Beijing, China. This framework was then used to understand and quantify causes of observed decreases in groundwater storage from 1993 to 2006, revealing that the expansion of Beijing's urban areas at the expense of croplands has enhanced recharge while reducing water lost to evapotranspiration, partially ameliorating groundwater declines. The results demonstrate the efficacy of such a systems approach to quantify the impacts of changes in climate and land use on water sustainability for megacities, while providing a quantitative framework to improve mitigation and adaptation strategies that can help address future water challenges.

  3. A study on boiling water reactor regional stability from the viewpoint of higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Yutaka; Takigawa, Yukio; Uematsu, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative study on a mechanism for boiling water reactor regional stability has been carried out from the viewpoint of higher harmonics. In the mechanism, the gain decrease in the void-to-power transfer function can be explained by the higher harmonics mode subcriticality. It is shown that the thermal-hydraulic feedback effect can compensate for the gain decrease, and regional oscillation can be sustained that way. For quantitative evaluations, a three-dimensional higher harmonics analysis model has been developed. The results show that the first azimuthal harmonics subcriticality has a relatively small value under a regionally unstable condition. Comparing the subcriticality and the steady-state power distribution, it is shown that the distribution exists whose first azimuthal harmonics subcriticality takes a small value. A method of decomposition for the oscillated power responses into the harmonics modes is presented. The results show that the corewide oscillation power response consists almost entirely of the fundamental mode, and the regional oscillation power response consists almost entirely of the first azimuthal harmonics mode. This indicates that regional oscillation is a phenomenon in which the first azimuthal harmonics mode oscillates on the basis of the fundamental mode

  4. Effects of Position of Rainfed Rice Field in a Toposequence on Water Availability and Rice Yield in Central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SUGANDA, HUSEIN; PANINGBATAN, E.P; GUERRA, L.C; TUONG, T.P

    2003-01-01

    The productivity of rainfed rice needs to be increased in order to support the Indonesian Food Security programs, especially rice. Rainfall is one of the main sources of the water availability on the rainfed rice field. This research was conducted from October 2000 to February 2001 at four sites in Central Java Province. The objectives of this research were to study thevariability of water availability that influenced by toposequen's position and to analyze the rice yields due to treatments o...

  5. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  6. Identification of glacial meltwater runoff in a karstic environment and its implication for present and future water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Finger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers all over the world are expected to continue to retreat due to the global warming throughout the 21st century. Consequently, future seasonal water availability might become scarce once glacier areas have declined below a certain threshold affecting future water management strategies. Particular attention should be paid to glaciers located in a karstic environment, as parts of the meltwater can be drained by underlying karst systems, making it difficult to assess water availability. In this study tracer experiments, karst modeling and glacier melt modeling are combined in order to identify flow paths in a high alpine, glacierized, karstic environment (Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland and to investigate current and predict future downstream water availability. Flow paths through the karst underground were determined with natural and fluorescent tracers. Subsequently, geologic information and the findings from tracer experiments were assembled in a karst model. Finally, glacier melt projections driven with a climate scenario were performed to discuss future water availability in the area surrounding the glacier. The results suggest that during late summer glacier meltwater is rapidly drained through well-developed channels at the glacier bottom to the north of the glacier, while during low flow season meltwater enters into the karst and is drained to the south. Climate change projections with the glacier melt model reveal that by the end of the century glacier melt will be significantly reduced in the summer, jeopardizing water availability in glacier-fed karst springs.

  7. Effect of different soil water available levels on the development of young plants of “erva-mate”

    OpenAIRE

    Pintro, Jose Carlos; UEM; Flores, Feliciano Edi Vieira; UFRGS

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different levels of soil water availability on the development of young plants of “erva-mate” (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) was studied under controlled conditions. The plants were cultivated during the period from January to November, a total of 45 weeks. The foreseen treatments corresponded to 3 water available levels for plants: treatment 1 (T-1): soil moisture at 0.3 atm of tension, treatment 2 (T-2): soil moisture at 80% of water quantity used in T-1, and treatment 3 (T...

  8. Trade-offs Between Socio-economic Development and Ecosystem Health under Changing Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Elshorbagy, A. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.; Jardine, T.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and human water systems at regional scales are often developed around key characteristics of streamflow. As a result, changes in streamflow regime can affect both socio-economic activities and freshwater ecosystems. In addition to natural variability and/or climate change, extensive water resource management to support socio-economic growth has also changed streamflow regimes. This study aims at understanding the trade-offs between agricultural expansion in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, and alterations in the ecohydrological characteristics of the Saskatchewan River Delta (SRD) located downstream. Changes in climate along with extensive water resource management have altered the upstream flow regime. Moreover, Saskatchewan is investigating the possible expansion of irrigated agriculture to boost the provincial economy. To evaluate trade-offs across a range of possible scenarios for streamflow changes, the potential increase in provincial net benefit versus potential vulnerability of the SRD was assessed using perturbed flow realizations along with scenarios of irrigation expansion as input to an integrated water resource system model. This study sheds light on the potential variability in trade-offs between economic benefits and ecosystem health under a range of streamflow conditions, with the aim of informing decisions that can benefit both natural and human water systems.

  9. Contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy throughout the seasons under different nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Migliavacca, M.; Perez-Priego, O.; Luo, Y.; Moreno, G.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Reichstein, M.

    2017-12-01

    In semi-arid savanna type ecosystems, the carbon and water cycle are closely related to each other. Water availability is the main driver for the development and phenology of the vegetation, especially for annual plants. Depending on tree density, nutrient availability and species the contribution of the tree- and the herbaceous layer to ecosystem fluxes can vary substantially. We present data from an ecosystem scale nutrient manipulation experiment within a Mediterranean savanna type ecosystem which is used for cattle. The footprint areas of two out of three ecosystem eddy co-variance (EC) towers were fertilized with nitrogen (NT) and nitrogen plus phosphorous (NPT) while the third one served as the control tower (CT). At each ecosystem EC-tower an additional herbaceous layer tower was installed that only sampled fluxes from the herbaceous layer. Under certain assumptions flux differences between the ecosystem EC and the herbaceous layer EC systems can be considered as the contribution of the trees to the ecosystem fluxes. Based on phenology of the herbaceous layer estimated through green-chromatic-coordinates from digital imagery the year was separated into spring, senescence, regreening, and winter. The focus of the analysis is (i) the evaluation of the method and how it works throughout the different seasons and (ii) the quantification of the contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy under different environmental conditions and nutrient stoichiometry. The contribution of the trees to total ecosystem fluxes is variable in time. Especially, during the beginning of the senescence period high evapotranspiration rates and largest carbon uptake are measured while the contribution to sensible heat fluxes is largest during the end of the summer. During the regreening and winter the contribution of ET is relatively constant around 0.25 mm d-1. During the peak of the greenness ET and carbon flux of the herbaceous EC tower are

  10. Distribution and availability of mercury and methylmercury in different waters from the Rio Madeira Basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Miguel; Bernardi, José V E; Dórea, José G; Rocha, Bruno C P; Ribeiro, Romulo; Zara, Luis F

    2018-04-01

    Waters from the Amazon Basin have distinct physicochemical characteristics that can be optically classified as "black", "clear" and "white". We studied the distribution of total-Hg (THg) and methyl-Hg (MeHg) in these waters and respective suspended solids, sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic macroinvertebrates (BM) in the Madeira River Basin. Compared with the other types of water, the more acidic "black" kind had the highest THg and MeHg concentrations. The trend (black > clear > white) occurred for the concentrations of THg and MeHg in sediments and in the biotic compartment (plankton, macroinvertebrates). Organic Hg accounted for a small percentage (0.6-0.4%) of the THg in sediments but was highest in water (17-15%). For plankton and BM, the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAFs) of MeHg (53-125) were greater than those of THg (4.5-15); however, the BSAF trend according to water type (black > clear > white) was only significant for MeHg. Sediment THg is correlated with all forms of Hg in biotic and abiotic matrices. The results indicate that water acidity in the Amazon is an important chemical characteristic in assessing Hg contamination of sediments and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food web. The differences in the BSAFs between THg and MeHg support the use of this factor for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-bound Hg. The results add information critical to assessing environmental and health risks related to Hg methylation and potential fish-MeHg contamination, especially in tropical aquatic environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ground-water availability in the eastern part of the Lake Ontario Basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1986-01-01

    A set of three maps show surficial geology, significant unconsolidated aquifers and well yield, and selected well locations for the Lake Ontario basin, New York. In the low areas , glaciers and wave action of former high-level lakes deposited permeable sand and gravel to form aquifers that yield more than 10 gal/min of water to wells. Small quantities of water (less than 2 gal/min) can be pumped from dug wells that top till and fine lake-sediment deposits. (USGS)

  12. Projections of Declining Surface-Water Availability for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Li, Cuihua; Naik, Naomi; Cook, Benjamin; Nakamura, Jennifer; Liu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    16 of the CMIP5 models had all the data needed for this work for at least one simulation that was continuous from 1950 to 2040. Details of the models analyzed here are provided in Table S1. The model data analyzed here are available at http://strega.ldeo.columbia.edu:81/expert/home/.naomi/.AR5/.v2/.historical:rcp85/.mmm16/ a. Assessing the climatology of the models Despite increases in horizontal resolution of many models compared to their CMIP3 counterparts none of these models can adequately resolve the topography of the south west United States, such as the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains and the associated orographic precipitation. This requires that caution be used when interpreting the results presented here. To assess the ability of the models to simulate the current hydroclimate, in Figure S1 we show the observed (from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded rain gauge data, (1)) monthly climatology of precipitation and the same for all the models and the multimodel mean for the California-Nevada, Colorado headwaters and Texas regions. The GPCC data uses rain gauges only and interpolates to regular grids of which we used the 1? by 1? one. Details of the data set can be found in (2). While the models apparently overestimate precipitation in California and Nevada the seasonal cycle with wet winters and dry summers is very well represented. It is also possible that the rain gauge observations are biased low by inadequately sampling the higher mountain regions. How ever the models might also be expected to underestimate orographic precipitation due to inadequate horizontal resolution. The 25 models are also too wet in the Colorado headwaters region but correctly represent the quite even distribution though the year. The bimodal distribution of precipitation in Texas, with peaks in May and September, and the absolute amounts, are well modeled but with the September peak too weak. The positive precipitation bias translates into a positive runoff

  13. Regional consequences of the way land users respond to future water availability in Murcia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Temansen, M.; Hubacek, K.; Reed, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural development in the Murcia autonomous region, Spain, has led to overexploitation of groundwater resources, and climate change will further increase pressures. Policy options to tackle the current unsustainable situation include the development of inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) schemes

  14. Effect of landcover/land-use changes on water availability in and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... The images were downloaded for the June–September period which coincides with the cool dry season of Zimbabwe. Landsat MSS, TM and ETM (30 m resolution) images for the period 1984–2011 were downloaded and used for digital image classification in the Integrated Land and Water Information ...

  15. Green rust formation controls nutrient availability in a ferruginous water column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegeye, Asfaw; Bonneville, Steeve; Benning, Liane G.

    2013-01-01

    a mechanism for reconstructing ancient ocean chemistry. Such reconstructions depend, however, on precise knowledge of the iron minerals formed in the water column. Here, we combine mineralogical and geochemical analyses to demonstrate formation of the mixed-valence iron mineral, green rust, in ferruginous...

  16. Nutrient availability constrains the hydraulic architecture and water relations of savannah trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Bucci; F.G. Scholz; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; P.I. Campanello; R. Villalobos-Vega; M. Bustamante; F. Miralles-Wilhelm

    2006-01-01

    Several plant functional traits were studied in five dominant woody savanna species in a Brazilian savanna to determine whether removal of nutrient limitations has an effect on carbon allocation, water relations, and hydraulic architecture. Four treatments consisting of a control, and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and N plus P additions were maintained for 5 years....

  17. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  18. Projecting impacts of climate change on water availability using artificial neural network techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta; Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo

    2017-01-01

    Lago Loíza reservoir in east-central Puerto Rico is one of the primary sources of public water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. To evaluate and predict the Lago Loíza water budget, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique is trained to predict river inflows. A method is developed to combine ANN-predicted daily flows with ANN-predicted 30-day cumulative flows to improve flow estimates. The ANN application trains well for representing 2007–2012 and the drier 1994–1997 periods. Rainfall data downscaled from global circulation model (GCM) simulations are used to predict 2050–2055 conditions. Evapotranspiration is estimated with the Hargreaves equation using minimum and maximum air temperatures from the downscaled GCM data. These simulated 2050–2055 river flows are input to a water budget formulation for the Lago Loíza reservoir for comparison with 2007–2012. The ANN scenarios require far less computational effort than a numerical model application, yet produce results with sufficient accuracy to evaluate and compare hydrologic scenarios. This hydrologic tool will be useful for future evaluations of the Lago Loíza reservoir and water supply to the San Juan metropolitan area.

  19. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, J.; Deryng, D.; Muller, C.; Frieler, K.; Konzmann, M.; Gerten, D.; Glotter, M.; Florke, M.F.; Wada, Y.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement

  20. Century-Scale Change in Water Availability. CO2-Quadrupling Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, S.; Wetherald, R.T.; Delworth, T.L.; Stouffer, R.J.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that, unless a major effort is made, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide may rise above four times the pre-industrial level in a few centuries. Here we use a coupled atmosphere-ocean-land model to explore the response of the global water cycle to such a large increase in carbon dioxide, focusing on river discharge and soil moisture. Our results suggest that water is going to be more plentiful in those regions of the world that are already 'water-rich'. However, water stresses will increase significantly in regions and seasons that are already relatively dry. This could pose a very challenging problem for water-resource management around the world. For soil moisture, our results indicate reductions during much of the year in many semi-arid regions of the world, such as the southwestern region of North America, the northeastern region of China, the Mediterranean coast of Europe, and the grasslands of Australia and Africa. In some of these regions, soil moisture values are reduced by almost a factor of two during the dry season. The drying in semi-arid regions is likely to induce the outward expansion of deserts to the surrounding regions. Over extensive regions of both the Eurasian and North American continents in high and middle latitudes, soil moisture decreases in summer but increases in winter, in contrast to the situation in semi-arid regions. For river discharge, our results indicate an average increase of circa 15% during the next few centuries. The discharges from Arctic rivers such as the Mackenzie and Ob' increase by much larger fractions. In the tropics, the discharges from the Amazonas and Ganga-Brahmaputra also increase considerably. However, the percentage changes in runoff from other tropical and many mid-latitude rivers are smaller

  1. Current and projected water demand and water availability estimates under climate change scenarios in the Weyib River basin in Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar

    2017-07-01

    This study intended to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of current and projected water demand and water availability under climate change scenarios in Weyib River basin, Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia. Future downscaled climate variables from three Earth System Models under the three RCP emission scenarios were inputted into ArcSWAT hydrological model to simulate different components of water resources of a basin whereas current and projected human and livestock population of the basin is considered to estimate the total annual water demand for various purposes. Results revealed that the current total annual water demand of the basin is found to be about 289 Mm3, and this has to increase by 83.47% after 15 years, 200.67% after 45 years, and 328.78% after 75 years by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period water demand mainly due to very rapid increasing population (40.81, 130.80, and 229.12% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively) and climatic variability. The future average annual total water availability in the basin is observed to be increased by ranging from 15.04 to 21.61, 20.08 to 23.34, and 16.21 to 39.53% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s time slice, respectively, from base period available water resources (2333.39 Mm3). The current water availability per capita per year of the basin is about 3112.23 m3 and tends to decline ranging from 11.78 to 17.49, 46.02 to 47.45, and 57.18 to 64.34% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period per capita per year water availability. This indicated that there might be possibility to fall the basin under water stress condition in the long term.

  2. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  3. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-08

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  4. Forage Options for Dairy Farms with Reduced Water Availability in the Southern Murray Darling Basin of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jane Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin region of Australia is a major consumer of irrigation water because rainfall is low relative to evapotranspiration and the industrys relies heavily on irrigated temperate pastures and fodder crops. Water reforms, and potential climate change scenarios for this region suggest that there will be an overall decline in rainfall and water available for irrigation in the future. For the irrigated dairy industry to remain economically viable, there is a need for dairy farmers to improve the water productivity (WP of their forage systems and to be able to respond to year-to-year, and within year, variation in water availability. Researchers and dairy farmers are evaluating strategies to increase WP. These include: (i selecting better-adapted species for current and predicted climatic conditions; (ii using species that can survive and still be productive under reduced irrigation and then recover when full irrigation is restored; (iii modifying irrigation strategies to reduce water use whilst maintaining WP; and (iv grazing management strategies that facilitate the survival during, and recovery after, periods of moisture stress. This review will examine these strategies and discusses their potential to optimise forage production from irrigation water inputs so that the dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin remains viable in the future.

  5. Changes in soil water availability in vineyards can be traced by the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of dried wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Zufferey, Vivian

    2018-04-13

    The grapevine is one of the most important edible fruit plants cultivated worldwide, and it is highly sensitive to changes in the soil water content. We studied the total carbon and nitrogen contents and stable isotope compositions (C/N WSR , δ 13 C WSR and δ 15 N WSR values) of the solid residues obtained by freeze-drying wines produced from two white grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chasselas and Petite Arvine) field grown under different soil water regimes while maintaining other climatic and ecopedological conditions identical. These experiments simulated the more frequent and extended climate change-induced periods of soil water shortage. The wines were from the 2009-2014 vintages, produced using the same vinification procedure. The plant water status, reflecting soil water availability, was assessed by the predawn leaf water potential (Ψ pd ), monitored in the field during the growing seasons. For both wine varieties, the δ 13 C WSR values are highly correlated with Ψ pd values and record the soil water availability set by soil water holding capacity, rainfall and irrigation water supply. These relationships were the same as those observed for the carbon isotope composition of fruit sugars (i.e., must sugars) and plant water status. In Chasselas wines, the nitrogen content and δ 15 N WSR values decreased with soil water deficit, indicating control of the flux of soil-water soluble nutrients into plants by soil water availability. Such a correlation was not found for Petite Arvine, probably due to different N-metabolism processes in this genetically atypical cultivar. The results presented in this study confirm and generalize what was previously found for red wine (Pinot noir); the carbon isotope composition of wine solid residues is a reliable indicator of the soil and the plant water status and thus can be used to trace back local climatic conditions in the vineyard's region. In most wines (except Petite Arvine) the C/N WSR and δ 15 N WSR

  6. A comparison of methods for determining soil water availability in two sites in Panama with similar rainfall but distinct tree communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Kursar; Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht; Melvin T. Tyree

    2005-01-01

    Plant productivity, distribution and diversity in tropical rain forests correlate with water availability. Water availability is determined by rainfall and also by the available water capacity of the soil. However, while rainfall is recognized as important, linkages between plant distribution and differences among soils in available water capacity have not been...

  7. The composition, functional components, and physical characteristics of grain from staygreen and senescent sorghum lines grown under variable water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inclusion of sorghum into human food and feed is limited by its low digestibility compared to corn, which has been linked to the higher total kafirin levels in sorghum grain. Water stress after pollination reduced grain filling, affects the grain composition, functional components and grain phys...

  8. Forest biomass density across large climate gradients in northern South America is related to water availability but not with temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Cayuela, Luis; González-Caro, Sebastián; Aldana, Ana M; Stevenson, Pablo R; Phillips, Oliver; Cogollo, Álvaro; Peñuela, Maria C; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Jiménez, Eliana; Melo, Omar; Londoño-Vega, Ana Catalina; Mendoza, Irina; Velásquez, Oswaldo; Fernández, Fernando; Serna, Marcela; Velázquez-Rua, Cesar; Benítez, Doris; Rey-Benayas, José M

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the likely response of ecosystems to climate change are crucial challenges for ecology and for conservation biology. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in the tropics as these forests store more than half the total atmospheric carbon stock in their biomass. Biomass is determined by the balance between biomass inputs (i.e., growth) and outputs (mortality). We can expect therefore that conditions that favor high growth rates, such as abundant water supply, warmth, and nutrient-rich soils will tend to correlate with high biomass stocks. Our main objective is to describe the patterns of above ground biomass (AGB) stocks across major tropical forests across climatic gradients in Northwestern South America. We gathered data from 200 plots across the region, at elevations ranging between 0 to 3400 m. We estimated AGB based on allometric equations and values for stem density, basal area, and wood density weighted by basal area at the plot-level. We used two groups of climatic variables, namely mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration as surrogates of environmental energy, and annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, and water availability as surrogates of water availability. We found that AGB is more closely related to water availability variables than to energy variables. In northwest South America, water availability influences carbon stocks principally by determining stand structure, i.e. basal area. When water deficits increase in tropical forests we can expect negative impact on biomass and hence carbon storage.

  9. Understorey productivity in temperate grassy woodland responds to soil water availability but not to elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke; Bradstock, Ross A; Resco de Dios, Victor; Duursma, Remko A; Velasco, Sabrina; Boer, Matthias M

    2018-06-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and associated climate change are expected to modify primary productivity across a range of ecosystems globally. Increasing aridity is predicted to reduce grassland productivity, although rising [CO 2 ] and associated increases in plant water use efficiency may partially offset the effect of drying on growth. Difficulties arise in predicting the direction and magnitude of future changes in ecosystem productivity, due to limited field experimentation investigating climate and CO 2 interactions. We use repeat near-surface digital photography to quantify the effects of water availability and experimentally manipulated elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) on understorey live foliage cover and biomass over three growing seasons in a temperate grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. We hypothesised that (i) understorey herbaceous productivity is dependent upon soil water availability, and (ii) that eCO 2 will increase productivity, with greatest stimulation occurring under conditions of low water availability. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) determined foliage cover and growth rates over the length of the growing season (August to March), with low VWC (productivity. However, eCO 2 did not increase herbaceous cover and biomass over the duration of the experiment, or mitigate the effects of low water availability on understorey growth rates and cover. Our findings suggest that projected increases in aridity in temperate woodlands are likely to lead to reduced understorey productivity, with little scope for eCO 2 to offset these changes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of drinking water available in educational institutes of karachi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, A.; Nisa, K.; Khan, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    in order to investigate the physic-chemical quality, 780 water samples were collected from 490 educational institutes located in various areas of Karachi, during the period of May to September 2005. The parameters include pH, turbidity, total dissolve solids (TDS), hardness and conductivity that were varied from 3.2 to 8.7, 0.2 to 3.1 NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit), 79 to 1066 ppm, 69 to 558ppm and 96 to 1775 mu S/cm, respectively. On the basis of pH 6%, taste 2.1%, turbidity 0%, TDS 2.5% and hardness 1.3%, of the samples were found out of acceptable limits of World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Moreover, the conductivity of the studied waters was found to be the multiple of 0.6001 to that of TDS (R/sup 2/ = 0.987) when regression model was established. (author)

  11. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resource growth pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy; Kert Young; Nathan Cline; April Hulet; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Jeanne C. Chambers; Ben Rau

    2014-01-01

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and increase cover of desirable understory species. All plant species in these communities depend on soil water held at > −1.5 MPa matric potential in the upper 0.3 m of soil for nutrient...

  12. Water volume available for ECCS sump recirculation mode following a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekert, T. [TUV NORD SysTec (Germany); Rebohm, H. [TUV NORD EnSys Hannover (Germany); Huber, J. [TUV SUD IS (Germany); Brandes, F. [TUV SUD ET (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we describe the reviews performed in Germany on the water level in the containment sump after a LOCA and the derived actions. Our view on the issue is from the perspective of the independent safety experts - i.e. TUV SUD Industrie Service (TUV SUD IS), TUV SUD Energietechnik GmbH Baden-Wuerttemberg (TUV SUD ET), TUV NORD EnSys Hannover and TUV NORD SysTec -, which reviewed the analyses of the utilities on behalf of the responsible supervising authorities. Between these expert organizations information were exchanged via the steering committee on nuclear technology of the association of the TUVs (VdTUV). In our paper we describe the analyses on the two safety issues relevant in the connection with the water level in the containment sump: the necessary minimum coverage of suction pipes to avoid inadmissible entrainment of air and the water retention inside the containment after a LOCA. Our description concentrates on PWRs because of the more complex conditions in comparison to BWRs. In conclusion it can be stated that due to the thorough evaluation of operating experience, optimization measures could be derived. In addition, the analyses served the purpose of know-how maintenance. (authors)

  13. [Influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Bo; Sung, Yik-Hei; Bosco Chan, Pui-Lok; Meng, Yuan-Jun; Wan, Pak-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. From March, 2006 to June, 2007 and from October, 2010 to May, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. In total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two State Key Protection Class I species, the François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis). Although 42% of species only occurred in one of the microhabitats, differences in species assemblages between trails and pools were not significant. The results of our observation indicated that camera trapping was effective in monitoring medium to large sized mammals, and for recording illegal hunting. In addition, our results suggest that authorities should reinforce patrolling, especially at water pools during the dry season, and eradicate unsustainable extraction of underground water. Moreover, based on the advantages of large inhibited environments to animal species, especially to large predators, we also recommend connecting the three isolated sections of the reserve to promote species recovery and dispersal.

  14. Water volume available for ECCS sump recirculation mode following a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekert, T.; Rebohm, H.; Huber, J.; Brandes, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe the reviews performed in Germany on the water level in the containment sump after a LOCA and the derived actions. Our view on the issue is from the perspective of the independent safety experts - i.e. TUV SUD Industrie Service (TUV SUD IS), TUV SUD Energietechnik GmbH Baden-Wuerttemberg (TUV SUD ET), TUV NORD EnSys Hannover and TUV NORD SysTec -, which reviewed the analyses of the utilities on behalf of the responsible supervising authorities. Between these expert organizations information were exchanged via the steering committee on nuclear technology of the association of the TUVs (VdTUV). In our paper we describe the analyses on the two safety issues relevant in the connection with the water level in the containment sump: the necessary minimum coverage of suction pipes to avoid inadmissible entrainment of air and the water retention inside the containment after a LOCA. Our description concentrates on PWRs because of the more complex conditions in comparison to BWRs. In conclusion it can be stated that due to the thorough evaluation of operating experience, optimization measures could be derived. In addition, the analyses served the purpose of know-how maintenance. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  16. On the behavior of water at subfreezing temperatures in a protein crystal: evidence of higher mobility than in bulk water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqi; Böckmann, Anja; Dolenc, Jožica; Meier, Beat H; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-03

    NMR experiments have shown that water molecules in the crystal of the protein Crh are still mobile at temperatures well below 273 K. In order to investigate this water anomaly, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of crystalline Crh was carried out to determine the mobility of water in this crystal. The simulations were carried out at three temperatures, 150, 200, and 291 K. Simulations of bulk water at these temperatures were also done to obtain the properties of the simple point charge (SPC) water model used at these temperatures and to allow a comparison of the properties of water in the Crh crystal with those of bulk water at the same temperatures. According to the simulations, water is immobilized at 150 K both in crystal and in bulk water. As expected, at 291 K it diffuses and rotates more slowly in the protein crystal than in bulk water. However, at 200 K, the translational and rotational mobility of the water molecules is larger in the crystal than in bulk water. The enhancement of water mobility in the crystal at 200 K was further investigated by MD simulations in which the backbone or all protein atoms were positionally restrained, and in which additionally the electrostatic protein-water interactions were removed. Of these changes in the environment of the water molecules, rigidifying the protein backbones slightly enhanced water diffusion, while it slowed down rotation. In contrast, removal of electrostatic protein-water interactions did not change water diffusion but enhanced rotational motion significantly. Further investigations are required to delineate particular features of the protein crystal that induce the anomalous behavior of water at 200 K.

  17. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ecophysiological response to seasonal variations in water availability in the arborescent, endemic plant Vellozia gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melanie; Garcia, Queila S; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-03-01

    The physiological response of plants growing in their natural habitat is strongly determined by seasonal variations in environmental conditions and the interaction of abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, leaf water and nutrient contents, changes in cellular redox state and endogenous levels of stress-related phytohormones (abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid and jasmonates) were examined during the rainy and dry season in Vellozia gigantea, an endemic species growing at high elevations in the rupestrian fields of the Espinhaço Range in Brazil. Enhanced stomatal closure and increased ABA levels during the dry season were associated with an efficient control of leaf water content. Moreover, reductions in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) levels during the dry season were observed, while levels of other jasmonates, such as jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine, were not affected. Changes in ABA and OPDA levels correlated with endogenous concentrations of iron and silicon, hydrogen peroxide, and vitamin E, thus indicating complex interactions between water and nutrient contents, changes in cellular redox state and endogenous hormone concentrations. Results also suggested crosstalk between activation of mechanisms for drought stress tolerance (as mediated by ABA) and biotic stress resistance (mediated by jasmonates), in which vitamin E levels may serve as a control point. It is concluded that, aside from a tight ABA-associated regulation of stomatal closure during the dry season, crosstalk between activation of abiotic and biotic defences, and nutrient accumulation in leaves may be important modulators of plant stress responses in plants growing in their natural habitat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  20. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment......, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Irrespective of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC by 17–42%, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. The addition of SGB to coarse sand led...

  1. WATER-JET CUTTING MACHINE NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CERN RAW MATERIALS STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  2. Landscape Features Impact on Soil Available Water, Corn Biomass, and Gene Expression during the Late Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop yields at summit positions of rolling landscapes often are lower than backslope yields. The differences in plant response may be the result of many different factors. We examined corn ( L. plant productivity, gene expression, soil water, and nutrient availability in two landscape positions located in historically high (backslope and moderate (summit and shoulder yielding zones to gain insight into plant response differences. Growth characteristics, gene expression, and soil parameters (water and N and P content were determined at the V12 growth stage of corn. At tassel, plant biomass, N content, C isotope discrimination (Δ, and soil water was measured. Soil water was 35% lower in the summit and shoulder compared with the lower backslope plots. Plants at the summit had 16% less leaf area, biomass, and N and P uptake at V12 and 30% less biomass at tassel compared with plants from the lower backslope. Transcriptome analysis at V12 indicated that summit and shoulder-grown plants had 496 downregulated and 341 upregulated genes compared with backslope-grown plants. Gene set and subnetwork enrichment analyses indicated alterations in growth and circadian response and lowered nutrient uptake, wound recovery, pest resistance, and photosynthetic capacity in summit and shoulder-grown plants. Reducing plant populations, to lessen demands on available soil water, and applying pesticides, to limit biotic stress, may ameliorate negative water stress responses.

  3. Understanding surface-water availability in the Central Valley as a means to projecting future groundwater storage with climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    California's Central Valley (CV) relies heavily on diverted surface water and groundwater pumping to supply irrigated agriculture. However, understanding the spatiotemporal character of water availability in the CV is difficult because of the number of individual farms and local, state, and federal agencies involved in using and managing water. Here we use the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), developed by the USGS, to understand the relationships between climatic variability, surface water inputs, and resulting groundwater use over the historical period 1970-2013. We analyzed monthly surface water diversion data from >500 CV locations. Principle components analyses were applied to drivers constructed from meteorological data, surface reservoir storage, ET, land use cover, and upstream inflows, to feed multiple regressions and identify factors most important in predicting surface water diversions. Two thirds of the diversion locations ( 80% of total diverted water) can be predicted to within 15%. Along with monthly inputs, representations of cumulative precipitation over the previous 3 to 36 months can explain an additional 10% of variance, depending on location, compared to results that excluded this information. Diversions in the southern CV are highly sensitive to inter-annual variability in precipitation (R2 = 0.8), whereby more surface water is used during wet years. Until recently, this was not the case in the northern and mid-CV, where diversions were relatively constant annually, suggesting relative insensitivity to drought. In contrast, this has important implications for drought response in southern regions (eg. Tulare Basin) where extended dry conditions can severely limit surface water supplies and lead to excess groundwater pumping, storage loss, and subsidence. In addition to fueling our understanding of spatiotemporal variability in diversions, our ability to predict these water balance components allows us to update CVHM predictions before

  4. A vulnerability assessment for water availability related to the impacts of climate change in Banyuasin Valley, South Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Banyuasin Valley region is located in lowland areas that is potentially subjected to hazard of flooding and submergence. The indication of reduction hazard in water availability is in the period of 2010 with decreasing value of Total Run Off at - 500 mm/year and in the period 2030 is the lowest decline of the region Banyuasin with a value of -100 mm/year. Tanjung Api-api port, built in this area, is feared to be vulnerable to the availability of clean water due to the impact of climate change. The vulnerability components consist of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The formula means vulnerability to a certain hazard is strengthened by its exposure and its sensitivity and decreased by its adaptive capacity. The results of this study showed that water availability in the baseline condition is in low vulnerability (47.91%) whereas, at the projection condition, vulnerability is in the category of moderate vulnerability (81.28%).

  5. Ground-water availability in the central part of Lake Ontario basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Krebs, Martha M.

    1988-01-01

    A set of three maps showing surficial geology, distribution of glacial aquifers, and potential well yield in the 708 sq mi central part of the Lake Ontario basin are presented at a scale of 1:125,000. The basin is parallel to Lake Ontario and extends from Rochester in the west to Oswego in the east. Aquifers consisting primarily of sand and gravel formed where meltwaters from glaciers deposited kame and outwash sand and gravel and where wave action along shores of glacial lakes eroded, reworked , and deposited beaches. Thick deposits of well-sorted sand and gravel yield relatively large quantities of water - typically more than 100 gal/min. Aquifers consisting of thin beds of sand and (or) gravel or thick gravel that contain a large proportion of silt and fine sand yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Dug and driven wells that tap fine to medium sand deposits typically yield 1 to 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  6. Probabilistic Water Availability Prediction in the Rio Grande Basin using Large-scale Circulation Indices as Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedun, C. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Giardino, J. R.; Singh, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrometeorological conditions, and therefore water availability, is affected by large-scale circulation indices. In the Rio Grande, which is a transboundary basin shared between the United States and Mexico, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence local hydrological conditions. Different sub-regions of the basin exhibit varying degrees of correlation, but in general, an increase (decrease) in runoff during El Niños (La Niñas) is noted. Positive PDO enhances the effect of El Niño and dampens the negative effect of La Niña, and when it is in its neutral/transition phase, La Niña dominates climatic conditions and reduces water availability. Further, lags of up to 3 months have been found between ENSO and precipitation in the basin. We hypothesize that (1) a trivariate statistical relationship can be established between the two climate indices and water availability, and (2) the relationship can be used to predict water availability based on projected PDO and ENSO conditions. We use copula to establish the dependence between climate indices and water availability. Water availability is generated from Noah land surface model (LSM), forced with the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2). The model is run within NASA GSFC's Land Information System. LSM generated runoff gives a more realistic picture of available surface water as it is not affected by anthropogenic changes, such as the construction of dams, diversions, and other land use land cover changes, which may obscure climatic influences. Marginals from climate indices and runoff are from different distribution families, thus conventional functional forms of multivariate frequency distributions cannot be employed. Copulas offer a viable alternative as marginals from different families can be combined into a joint distribution. Uncertainties in the statistical relationship can be determined and the statistical model can be used for

  7. Evaluation of the ground-water resources of coastal Georgia: preliminary report of the data available as of July 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    A compilation of ground-water data that have been collected for nearly 100 years in the coastal area of Georgia is presented in this report. The compilation of pertinent data indicates what information is available for use in the evaluation of the ground-water resources of the 13 counties of coastal Georgia. Also included in this report is a fairly complete discussion of previous and ongoing investigations and monitoring networks, and an extensive list of references. Maps at 1:24,000 and 1:1,000,000 scales contain well locations and identifiers for all wells in the Ground Water Site Inventory (GWSI) data base of the National Water Data Storage and retrieval System (WATSTORE). Tabular summaries of selected site information from GWSI, including well identifiers and names, latitude-longitude location, depth of well, altitude of land surface, and use of water are presented. Water-use data from the National Water Use Data System, and water use for irrigation from the University of Georgia, Department of Agriculture survey, also are tabulated. Also included are pertinent information on geophysical surveys and data obtained, and proposed project activities, particularly test-monitor well drilling. The data in this report were collected and compiled as part of the cooperative activities between the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies.

  8. Evaluation of the ground-water resources of coastal Georgia; preliminary report on the data available as of July 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.; Matthews, Sharon E.; Gill, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    A compilation of ground-water data that have been collected for nearly 100 years in the coastal area of Georgia as part of cooperative activities between the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies is presented in this report. The compilation of pertinent data indicates that information is available for use in the evaluation of the ground-water resources of the 13 counties of coastal Georgia. Included in this report is a fairly complete discussion of previous and ongoing investigations and monitoring networks, and an extensive list of references. Maps at 1:24,000, 1:100,000; and 1:1000,000 scales contain well locations and identifers for all wells in the Ground Water Site Inventory (GWSI) data base of the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE). Tabular summaries of selected site information from GWSI, including well identifiers and names , latitude-longitude location, depth of well, altitude of land surface, and use of water are presented. Water-use data from the National Water Use Data System, and water use for irrigation from the University of Georgia, Department of Agriculture survey , are tabulated. Also included are pertinent information on geophysical surveys and data obtained, and proposed project activities, particularly test-monitor well drilling.

  9. Different methods for the estimation of available water resources in the future under the influence of climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic-Dursun, B.; Boreli-Zdravkovic, Dj.; Djuric, D.

    2012-04-01

    The paper analyzes different approaches for the calculation of available water resources the under influence of CC, for cases of drinking water sources in the alluviums of the Sava River (Belgrade GW source)and Nišava River (Mediana GW source). Different types of analyzed sources (bank-filtered and artificially recharged) required different approaches, adjusted to the specific characteristics. The Belgrade GW source (capacity of 4-5 m3/s), is comprised of 99 horizontal wells and over 40 tube wells positioned on the 50 km on the alluvial plain of the most downstream Sava River banks. Deep parts of the water bearing complex are comprised of river-lacustrine polycyclic sediments (from sandy-gravels to silts), while the upper part are alluvial sediments. Main recharge stems from the Sava River by bank filtration process, while due to the layering of the aquifer, recharge from the hinterland in some river bank sections reaches up to 30 %. Test area covers 240km2, of Sava river valley. Future water availability has to be calculated according to the "new" -expected boundary conditions, vertical water balance on the test area and "estimated" river water fluctuations. The artificially-recharged GW source "Mediana" provides water supply to the City of Niš, as one of 6 water supply sources. The concept of this groundwater source is based on surface water abstraction from the Nišava River (catchement area is 4,086 km2 totally, where 1,096 km2 is in Bulgaria), which is transported to infiltration lakes after pre-treatment process. Once in the infiltration lake, the water is infiltrated into the aquifer and abstracted by wells, or collected by a drainage system. This site was used for the analysis of the impacts of climate changes on the discharge of Nisava River, since it feeds aquifer through infiltration lakes (approx. 95-98%) after surface water pretreatment. Estimation of available water resources was done for period until 2100 for A1B climate scenario. Climate

  10. Desert agricultural terrace systems at EBA Jawa (Jordan) - Layout, water availability and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Julia; Krause, Jan; Müller-Neuhof, Bernd; Portillo, Marta; Reimann, Tony; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Located in the arid basalt desert of northeastern Jordan, the Early Bronze Age (EBA) settlement of Jawa is by far the largest and best preserved archaeological EBA site in the region. Recent surveys in the close vicinity revealed well-preserved remains of three abandoned agricultural terrace systems. In the presented study these archaeological features are documented by detailed mapping and the analysis of the sediment records in a multi-proxy approach. To study the chronology of the terrace systems optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the water management techniques and its impact on harvest yields, a crop simulation model (CropSyst) under today's climatic conditions is applied, simulating crop yields with and without (runoff) irrigation. In order to do so, a runoff time series for each agricultural terrace system and its catchment is generated, applying the SCS runoff curve number method (CN) based on rainfall and soil data. Covering a total area of 38 ha, irrigated terrace agriculture was practiced on slopes, small plateaus, and valleys in the close vicinity of Jawa. Floodwater from nearby wadis or runoff from adjacent slopes was collected and diverted via surface canals. The terraced fields were arranged in cascades, allowing effective water exploitation through a system of risers, canals and spillways. The examined terrace profiles show similar stratigraphic sequences of mixed unstratified fine sediments that are composed of small-scale relocated sediments with local origin. The accumulation of these fines is associated with the construction of agricultural terraces, forcing infiltration and storage of the water within the terraces. Two OSL ages of terrace fills indicate that the construction of these terrace systems started as early as 5300 ± 300 a, which fits well to the beginning of the occupation phase of Jawa at around 3.500 calBC, thus making them to the oldest examples of its kind in the Middle East

  11. Future Availability of Water Supply from Karstic Springs under Probable Climate Change. The case of Aravissos, Central Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadis, M.; Spachos, Th.; Zampetoglou, K.; Soupilas, Th.

    2012-04-01

    The test site of Aravissos is located at 70 Km to the West (W-NW) of Thessaloniki at the south banks of mount Païko, in the north part of Central Macedonia The karstic Aravissos springs supply 40% of total volume needed for the water supply of Thessaloniki, Greece. As the water is of excellent quality, it is feed directly in the distribution network without any previous treatment. The availability of this source is therefore of high importance for the sustainable water supply of this area with almost 1000000 inhabitants. The water system of Aravissos is developed in a karstic limestone with an age of about Late Cretaceous that covers almost the entire western part of the big-anticline of Païko Mountain. The climate in this area and the water consumption area, Thessaloniki, is a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and humid winters and hot and dry summers. The total annual number of rainy days is around 110. The production of the Aravissos springs depends mostly from the annual precipitations. As the feeding catchement and the karst aquifer are not well defined, a practical empirical balance model, that contains only well known relevant terms, is applied for the simulation of the operation of the springs under normal water extraction for water supply in present time. The estimation of future weather conditions are based on GCM and RCM simulation data and the extension of trend lines of the actual data. The future evolution of the availability of adequate water quantities from the springs is finally estimated from the balance model and the simulated future climatic data. This study has been realised within the project CC-WaterS, funded by the SEE program of the European Regional Development Fund (http://www.ccwaters.eu/).

  12. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  13. Higher order generalized perturbation theory for boiling water reactor in-core fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.R.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) loading pattern assessment requires solving the two-group, nodal form of the neutron diffusion equation and drift-flux form of the fluid equations simultaneously because these equation sets are strongly coupled via nonlinear feedback. To reduce the computational burden associated with the calculation of the core attributes (that is, core eigenvalue and thermal margins) of a perturbed BWR loading pattern, the analytical and numerical aspects of a higher order generalized perturbation theory (GPT) method, which correctly addresses the strong nonlinear feedbacks of two-phase flow, have been established. Inclusion of Jacobian information in the definition of the generalized flux adjoints provides for a rapidly convergent iterative method for solution of the power distribution and eigenvalue of a loading pattern perturbed from a reference state. Results show that the computational speedup of GPT compared with conventional forward solution methods demanding consistent accuracy is highly dependent on the number of spatial nodes utilized by the core simulator, varying from superior to inferior performance as the number of nodes increases

  14. Rapid Production of a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane for Water Filtration Using Readily Available Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Adrian; Stark, Wendelin J.; Grass, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    A chemistry laboratory experiment using everyday items and readily available chemicals is described to introduce advanced high school students and undergraduate college students to porous polymer membranes. In a three-step manufacturing process, a membrane is produced at room temperature. The filtration principle of the membrane is then…

  15. Factors controlling Eucalyptus productivity: How water availability and stand structure alter production and carbon allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Sebastiao Fonseca; Rodolfo A. Loos; Ernesto N. Takahashi; Claudio R. Silva; Sergio R. Silva; Rodrigo E. Hakamada; Jose Mario Ferreira; Augusto M. N. Lima; Jose Luiz Gava; Fernando P. Leite; Helder B. Andrade; Jacyr M. Alves; Gualter G. C. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Wood production varies substantially with resource availability, and the variation in wood production can result from several mechanisms: increased photosynthesis, and changes in partitioning of photosynthesis to wood production, belowground flux, foliage production or respiration. An understanding of the mechanistic basis for patterns in wood production...

  16. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Beck, Richard A; Schmutz, Joel A; Winston, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA.

  17. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Zinaida; Lindroth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap-flow and biometry are up-scaled to stand transpiration and stand dry substance production and used to assess WUE. RUE is estimated from the ratio between the stand dry substance production and the accumulated absorbed photosynthetic active radiation over the growing season. The total stand transpiration rate for the 5 months lies between 100 and 325 mm, which is fairly low compared to the Penman-Monteith transpiration for willow, reaching 400-450 mm for the same period. Mean WUE of all clones and treatments is 5.3 g/kg, which is high compared to earlier studies, while average RUE is 0.31 g/mol, which is slightly low compared to other results. Generally, all clones, except for Jorunn, seem to be better off concerning biomass production, WUE and RUE than the reference clone. Jorr, Jorunn and Loden also seem to be able to cope with the reduced water availability with increase in the water use efficiency. Tora performs significantly better than the other clones concerning both growth and efficiency in light and water use, but the effect of the dry treatment on stem growth shows sensitivity to water availability. The reduced stem growth could be due to a change in allocation patterns

  18. Drought management plans and water availability in agriculture: A risk assessment model for a Southern European basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dionisio Pérez-Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drought Management Plans (DMPs are regulatory instruments that establish priorities among the different water uses and define more stringent constraints to access to publicly provided water during droughts, especially for non-priority uses such as agriculture. These plans have recently become widespread across EU southern basins. However, in some of these basins the plans were approved without an assessment of the potential impacts that they may have on the economic activities exposed to water restrictions. This paper develops a stochastic methodology to estimate the expected water availability in agriculture that results from the decision rules of the recently approved DMPs. The methodology is applied to the particular case of the Guadalquivir River Basin in southern Spain. Results show that if DMPs are successfully enforced, available water will satisfy in average 62.2% of current demand, and this figure may drop to 50.2% by the end of the century as a result of climate change. This is much below the minimum threshold of 90% that has been guaranteed to irrigators so far.

  19. An interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Giertz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the influence of global and regional change on future water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in central Benin. For the region three development scenarios were evolved. These scenarios are combined with climate change scenarios based on the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In the mo-delling approach the quantification of the land use/land cover change is performed by the cellular automata model CLUE-S. The future climate scenarios are computed with the regional climate model REMO driven by the global ECHAM model. Using this data different land use and climate change scenarios can be calculated with the conceptual hydrological model UHP-HRU to assess the effects of global changes on the future water availability in Benin. To analyse the future water availability also the water consumption has to be taken into account. Due to high population growth an increase in water need in the future is expected for the region. To calculate the future household water consumption data from a regional survey and demographic projections are used. Development of the water need for animal husbandry is also considered. The first test run of the modelling approach was performed for the development scenario 'business as usual' combined with the IPCC scenario B2 for the year 2025. This test demonstrates the applicability of the approach for an interdisciplinary scenario analysis. A continuous run from 2000–2025 will be simulated for different scenarios as soon as the input data concerning land use/land cover and climate are available.

  20. Leveraging this Golden Age of Remote Sensing and Modeling of Terrestrial Hydrology to Understand Water Cycling in the Water Availability Grand Challenge for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Stephens, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    We live in a time of increasing strains on our global fresh water availability due to increasing population, warming climate, changes in precipitation, and extensive depletion of groundwater supplies. At the same time, we have seen enormous growth in capabilities to remotely sense the regional to global water cycle and model complex systems with physically based frameworks. The GEWEX Water Availability Grand Challenge for North America is poised to leverage this convergence of remote sensing and modeling capabilities to answer fundamental questions on the water cycle. In particular, we envision an experiment that targets the complex and resource-critical Western US from California to just into the Great Plains, constraining physically-based hydrologic modeling with the US and international remote sensing capabilities. In particular, the last decade has seen the implementation or soon-to-be launch of water cycle missions such as GRACE and GRACE-FO for groundwater, SMAP for soil moisture, GPM for precipitation, SWOT for terrestrial surface water, and the Airborne Snow Observatory for snowpack. With the advent of convection-resolving mesoscale climate and water cycle modeling (e.g. WRF, WRF-Hydro) and mesoscale models capable of quantitative assimilation of remotely sensed data (e.g. the JPL Western States Water Mission), we can now begin to test hypotheses on the nature and changes in the water cycle of the Western US from a physical standpoint. In turn, by fusing water cycle science, water management, and ecosystem management while addressing these hypotheses, this golden age of remote sensing and modeling can bring all fields into a markedly less uncertain state of present knowledge and decadal scale forecasts.

  1. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  2. Association between Aquilaria distribution, geographic characteristics, edaphic factors and water availability in natural tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Mohd Fajri Osman; Chong Saw Peng

    2006-01-01

    Oud or gaharu is a fragrant resin produced from Aquilaria trees as a response to injury, wounding and/or a fungal infection. Proliferation of Aquilaria under plantation system is essential to ensure continuous supply of gaharu. Even though the plantation of Aquilaria is aggressively conducted nowadays, there are still lack of details information and knowledge in terms of plant agronomy and oleoresin production. Understanding of plant, soil, water and environment relationship in natural habitat is important in order to provide guidelines and strategies for growers to adopt new agroforestry approaches that can lead to the best management practices for Aquilaria plantation. A study on soil physical and chemical characteristics, topographic condition, soil moisture and climate has been carried out to investigate the plant distribution pattern and resin production potential of 178 stand of Aquilaria in MINT Tech-Park tertiary forest and Gunung Tebu Forest Reserve. Result show that Aquilaria distributions concentrate at slope areas of gradient between 10 degrees to 15 degrees, the soil type is the stony low fertility sandy loam to sandy clay and this area receives a high density of rainfall which is more than 2500 mm/year. For the potential of resin production analysis, slope with high gradient show a significant potential of resin production probably due to the plant stress condition factors

  3. Nitrogen availability, water-filled pore space, and N2O-N fluxes after biochar application and nitrogen fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Márcia Thaís De Melo; Madari, Beáta Emoke; Bastiaans, Lammert; Oort, Pepijn Adrianus Johannes Van; Leal, Wesley Gabriel De Oliveira; Souza, Diego Mendes De; Santos, Roberto Carlos Dos; Matsushige, Iva; Maia, Aline De Holanda Nunes; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan; Meinke, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the impact of the application of wood biochar, combined with N fertilizations, on N2O-N fluxes, nitrogen availability, and water-filled pore space (WFPS) of a clayey Oxisol under rice (wet season) and common bean (dry season) succession. Manual static

  4. Water availability drives gas exchange and growth of trees in northeastern US, not elevated CO2 and reduced acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2017-04-10

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) exhibit high uncertainty about how climate change, elevated atmospheric CO 2 (atm. CO 2 ) concentration, and atmospheric pollutants will impact carbon sequestration in forested ecosystems. Although the individual roles of these environmental factors on tree growth are understood, analyses examining their simultaneous effects are lacking. We used tree-ring isotopic data and structural equation modeling to examine the concurrent and interacting effects of water availability, atm. CO 2 concentration, and SO 4 and nitrogen deposition on two broadleaf tree species in a temperate mesic forest in the northeastern US. Water availability was the strongest driver of gas exchange and tree growth. Wetter conditions since the 1980s have enhanced stomatal conductance, photosynthetic assimilation rates and, to a lesser extent, tree radial growth. Increased water availability seemingly overrides responses to reduced acid deposition, CO 2 fertilization, and nitrogen deposition. Our results indicate that water availability as a driver of ecosystem productivity in mesic temperate forests is not adequately represented in DGVMs, while CO 2 fertilization is likely overrepresented. This study emphasizes the importance to simultaneously consider interacting climatic and biogeochemical drivers when assessing forest responses to global environmental changes.

  5. The effect of herbaceous species removal, fire and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on soil water availability in sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Whittaker; Bruce Roundy; Jeanne Chambers; Susan Meyer; Robert Blank; Stanley Kitchen; John Korfmacher

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on available water for cheatgrass invasion, as well as...

  6. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-an-snow environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam B. Mazurkiewicz; David G. Callery; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2008-01-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA» has quantified...

  7. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  8. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  9. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, S. E.; Magni, C. R.; Martinez, V. A.; Ivkovic, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don. Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering. Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles), root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed. Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local land race of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity. Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio. (Author) 46 refs.

  10. The effect of nitrogen availability and water conditions on competition between a facultative CAM plant and an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, David E; Personius, Ashden; Collins, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are increasing their abundance in drylands worldwide. The drivers and mechanisms underlying the increased dominance of CAM plants and CAM expression (i.e., nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM plants, however, remain poorly understood. We investigated how nutrient and water availability affected competition between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a model facultative CAM species) and the invasive C 3 grass Bromus mollis that co-occur in California's coastal grasslands. Specifically we investigated the extent to which water stress, nutrients, and competition affect nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum . High nutrient and low water conditions favored M. crystallinum over B. mollis , in contrast to high water conditions. While low water conditions induced nocturnal carboxylation in 9-week-old individuals of M. crystallinum , in these low water treatments, a 66% reduction in nutrient applied over the entire experiment did not further enhance nocturnal carboxylation. In high water conditions M. crystallinum both alone and in association with B. mollis did not perform nocturnal carboxylation, regardless of the nutrient levels. Thus, nocturnal carboxylation in M. crystallinum was restricted by strong competition with B. mollis in high water conditions. This study provides empirical evidence of the competitive advantage of facultative CAM plants over grasses in drought conditions and of the restricted ability of M. crystallinum to use their photosynthetic plasticity (i.e., ability to switch to CAM behavior) to compete with grasses in well-watered conditions. We suggest that a high drought tolerance could explain the increased dominance of facultative CAM plants in a future environment with increased drought and nitrogen deposition, while the potential of facultative CAM plants such as M. crystallinum to expand to wet environments is expected to be limited.

  11. A water availability and low-flow analysis of the Tagliamento River discharge in Italy under changing climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Gunawardhana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the effects of projected variations in precipitation and temperature on snowfall-snowmelt processes and subsequent river discharge variations in the Tagliamento River in Italy. A lumped-parameter, non-linear, rainfall-runoff model with 10 general circulation model (GCM scenarios was used. Spatial and temporal changes in snow cover were assessed using 15 high-quality Landsat images. The 7Q10 low-flow probability distribution approximated by the Log-Pearson type III distribution function was used to examine river discharge variations with respect to climate extremes in the future. On average, the results obtained for 10 scenarios indicate a consistent warming rate for all time periods, which may increase the maximum and minimum temperatures by 2.3 °C (0.6–3.7 °C and 2.7 °C (1.0–4.0 °C, respectively, by the end of the 21st century compared to the present climate. Consequently, the exponential rate of frost day decrease for 1 °C winter warming in lower-elevation areas is approximately three-fold (262% higher than that in higher-elevation areas, revealing that snowfall in lower-elevation areas will be more vulnerable under a changing climate. In spite of the relatively minor changes in annual precipitation (−17.4 ~ 1.7% compared to the average of the baseline (1991–2010 period, snowfall will likely decrease by 48–67% during the 2080–2099 time period. The mean river discharges are projected to decrease in all seasons, except winter. The low-flow analysis indicated that while the magnitude of the minimum river discharge will increase (e.g. a 25% increase in the 7Q10 estimations for the winter season in the 2080–2099 time period, the number of annual average low-flow events will also increase (e.g. 16 and 15 more days during the spring and summer seasons, respectively, in the 2080–2099 time period compared to the average during the baseline period, leading to a future with a highly variable river discharge

  12. Predicting available water of soil from particle-size distribution and bulk density in an oasis-desert transect in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danfeng; Gao, Guangyao; Shao, Ming'an; Fu, Bojie

    2016-07-01

    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly the available water content of soil, (AW, cm3 cm-3), is required for optimal water management. Direct measurement of soil hydraulic properties is impractical for large scale application, but routinely available soil particle-size distribution (PSD) and bulk density can be used as proxies to develop various prediction functions. In this study, we compared the performance of the Arya and Paris (AP) model, Mohammadi and Vanclooster (MV) model, Arya and Heitman (AH) model, and Rosetta program in predicting the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) at 34 points with experimental SWCC data in an oasis-desert transect (20 × 5 km) in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, northwestern China. The idea of the three models emerges from the similarity of the shapes of the PSD and SWCC. The AP model, MV model, and Rosetta program performed better in predicting the SWCC than the AH model. The AW determined from the SWCCs predicted by the MV model agreed better with the experimental values than those derived from the AP model and Rosetta program. The fine-textured soils were characterized by higher AW values, while the sandy soils had lower AW values. The MV model has the advantages of having robust physical basis, being independent of database-related parameters, and involving subclasses of texture data. These features make it promising in predicting soil water retention at regional scales, serving for the application of hydrological models and the optimization of soil water management.

  13. Modelling the water and heat balances of the Mediterranean Sea using a two-basin model and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaltout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-basin model of the water and heat balances of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (WMB and EMB, respectively over the 1958–2010 period using available meteorological and hydrological data. The results indicate that the simulated temperature and salinity in both studied Mediterranean sub-basins closely follow the reanalysed data. In addition, simulated surface water in the EMB had a higher mean temperature (by approximately 1.6°C and was more saline (by approximately 0.87 g kg−1 than in the WMB over the studied period. The net evaporation over the EMB (1.52 mm day−1 was approximately 1.7 times greater than over the WMB (0.88 mm day−1. The water balance of the Mediterranean Sea was controlled by net inflow through the Gibraltar Strait and Sicily Channel, the net evaporation rate and freshwater input. The heat balance simulations indicated that the heat loss from the water body was nearly balanced by the solar radiation to the water body, resulting in a net export (import of approximately 13 (11 W m−2 of heat from the WMB (to the EMB.

  14. Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bougiatioti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Particle water (liquid water content, LWC and aerosol pH are important parameters of the aerosol phase, affecting heterogeneous chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients that profoundly impact cloud formation, atmospheric composition, and atmospheric fluxes of nutrients to ecosystems. Few measurements of in situ LWC and pH, however, exist in the published literature. Using concurrent measurements of aerosol chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei activity, and tandem light scattering coefficients, the particle water mass concentrations associated with the aerosol inorganic (Winorg and organic (Worg components are determined for measurements conducted at the Finokalia atmospheric observation station in the eastern Mediterranean between June and November 2012. These data are interpreted using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic model to predict the pH of aerosols originating from the various sources that influence air quality in the region. On average, closure between predicted aerosol water and that determined by comparison of ambient with dry light scattering coefficients was achieved to within 8 % (slope  =  0.92, R2  =  0.8, n  =  5201 points. Based on the scattering measurements, a parameterization is also derived, capable of reproducing the hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH within 15 % of the measured values. The highest aerosol water concentrations are observed during nighttime, when relative humidity is highest and the collapse of the boundary layer increases the aerosol concentration. A significant diurnal variability is found for Worg with morning and afternoon average mass concentrations being 10–15 times lower than nighttime concentrations, thus rendering Winorg the main form of particle water during daytime. The average value of total aerosol water was 2.19 ± 1.75 µg m−3, contributing on average up to 33 % of the total submicron mass concentration. Average aerosol water associated with

  15. Measuring P availability in soils fertilized with water-soluble P fertilizers using 32P methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Isotope exchange kinetics was used in conjunction with standard procedures for assessing soil P status in soils fertilized with soluble phosphatic fertilizers. Soil samples were collected before fertilizer application in year 1 (one) from 23 of the 30 sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock project. Soil phosphorus test values were plotted against indices of pasture response to applied fertilizer, to assess the effectiveness of the various soil tests to predict site responsiveness to applied fertilizer. Isotopically exchangeable P was only weakly related to other measures of available P, with resin P having the best relationship with E values. In some samples, very large values for isotopically exchangeable P (E values) were determined in relation to P extractable by all reagents. Examination of the data however, revealed that all the samples with large E values in relation to extractable P had very low equilibrium concentrations of solution P and high buffering capacities. The best soil test, Bray 1, could account for only 50% of the variation in plant responsiveness to applied fertilizer, with Olsen and Resin tests slightly worse at 41% and the isotopic procedure at 39%. (author)

  16. Improvement of water and light availability after thinning at a xeric site: which matters more? A dual isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuggiola, Arnaud; Ogée, Jérôme; Rigling, Andreas; Gessler, Arthur; Bugmann, Harald; Treydte, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Thinning fosters individual tree growth by increasing the availability of water, light and nutrients. At sites where water rather than light is limiting, thinning also enhances soil evaporation and might not be beneficial. Detailed knowledge of the short- to long-term physiological response underlying the growth responses to thinning is crucial for the management of forests already suffering from recurrent drought-induced dieback. We applied a dual isotope approach together with mechanistic isotope models to study the physiological processes underlying long-term growth enhancement of heavily thinned Pinus sylvestris in a xeric forest in Switzerland. This approach allowed us to identify and disentangle thinning-induced changes in stomatal conductance and assimilation rate. At our xeric study site, the increase in stomatal conductance far outweighed the increase in assimilation, implying that growth release in heavily thinned trees is primarily driven by enhanced water availability rather than increased light availability. We conclude that in forests with relatively isohydric species (drought avoiders) that are growing close to their physiological limits, thinning is recommended to maintain a less negative water balance and thus foster tree growth, and ultimately the survival of forest trees under drought. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Technologies for improving the availability and reliability of current and future water cooled nuclear power plants. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    One of the activities of the IAEA is to provide all Member States with an international source of balanced, objective information on advanced in technology for water cooled reactors. Since the global nuclear industry has a common interest in improving plant availability and reliability to assure specific individual plant and country perspective as well as to have an image of well managed competitive industry, the IAEA held a Technical Committee Meeting on Technologies for Improving the Availability and Reliability of Current and Future Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants in September 1997. The basic aim to was to identify, review and exchange information on international developments in technologies for achieving high availability and reliability and to suggest areas where further technical advances could contribute to improvement of performance. Designs for future plants were presented in the context of how they can accommodate both the organizational and technical means for reaching even higher levels of performance. This proceedings contains the contributed papers presented at this Meeting each with a separate abstract. Four sessions were concerned with: policies, practices and procedures for achieving high reliability and availability; improving availability and reliability through better use of today`s technologies; recent advances in technologies for improving availability and reliability; achieving high availability for new plants Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Technologies for improving the availability and reliability of current and future water cooled nuclear power plants. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    One of the activities of the IAEA is to provide all Member States with an international source of balanced, objective information on advanced in technology for water cooled reactors. Since the global nuclear industry has a common interest in improving plant availability and reliability to assure specific individual plant and country perspective as well as to have an image of well managed competitive industry, the IAEA held a Technical Committee Meeting on Technologies for Improving the Availability and Reliability of Current and Future Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants in September 1997. The basic aim to was to identify, review and exchange information on international developments in technologies for achieving high availability and reliability and to suggest areas where further technical advances could contribute to improvement of performance. Designs for future plants were presented in the context of how they can accommodate both the organizational and technical means for reaching even higher levels of performance. This proceedings contains the contributed papers presented at this Meeting each with a separate abstract. Four sessions were concerned with: policies, practices and procedures for achieving high reliability and availability; improving availability and reliability through better use of today's technologies; recent advances in technologies for improving availability and reliability; achieving high availability for new plants

  19. Stable isotopes and mercury in a model estuarine fish: Multibasin comparisons with water quality, community structure, and available prey base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Douglas H., E-mail: Doug.Adams@MyFWC.com; Paperno, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Stable-isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) and mercury in a model predator, and associated prey community assessments were used to make inferences regarding food web relationships and how these relationships are influenced by habitat variability and anthropogenic factors. Although interconnected, the three major basins of the Indian River Lagoon system on the Atlantic coast of Florida comprise noticeably different available habitat types with spatially distinct faunal communities and available prey for spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, a model predatory fish species. Water quality, degree of urbanization, human population density, and levels of nitrogen enrichment clearly differ between these representative estuarine basins. The differences can influence feeding ecology and therefore result in different mercury concentrations and different stable-isotope signatures of spotted seatrout between basins. Mercury concentrations in spotted seatrout were greatest in Mosquito Lagoon (ML) and least in the Indian River Lagoon proper (IRL), although concentrations were low for all basins. Spotted seatrout from IRL were carbon-depleted and nitrogen-enriched compared with those from the other basins; this suggests either that the fish's primary source of carbon in IRL is an algae- or phytoplankton-based food web or that the pathway through the food web is shorter there. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of IRL spotted seatrout were greater than those in the Banana River Lagoon or ML, suggesting slightly different trophic positioning of fish in these basins. The greater {delta}{sup 15}N values in IRL spotted seatrout may also reflect the greater human population density and resultant anthropogenic inputs (e.g., observed higher total nitrogen levels) in IRL compared with the other more pristine basins examined. Understanding species' responses to broad-scale habitat heterogeneity in estuaries and knowing basin-specific differences in stable isotopes

  20. Screening of hormone-like activities in bottled waters available in Southern Spain using receptor-specific bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sáenz, José-María; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Bottled water consumption is a putative source of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research has been conducted on the presence of chemicals with estrogen-like activity in bottled waters and on their estrogenicity, but few data are available on the presence of hormonal activities associated with other nuclear receptors (NRs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of endocrine activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in water in glass or plastic bottles sold to consumers in Southern Spain. Hormone-like activities were evaluated in 29 bottled waters using receptor-specific bioassays based on reporter gene expression in PALM cells [(anti-)androgenicity] and cell proliferation assessment in MCF-7 cells [(anti-)estrogenicity] after optimized solid phase extraction (SPE). All of the water samples analyzed showed hormonal activity. This was estrogenic in 79.3% and anti-estrogenic in 37.9% of samples and was androgenic in 27.5% and anti-androgenic in 41.3%, with mean concentrations per liter of 0.113pM 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalent units (E2Eq), 11.01pM anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) equivalent units (ICI 182780Eq), 0.33pM methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalent units (R1881Eq), and 0.18nM procymidone equivalent units (ProcEq). Bottled water consumption contributes to EDC exposure. Hormone-like activities observed in waters from both plastic and glass bottles suggest that plastic packaging is not the sole source of contamination and that the source of the water and bottling process may play a role, among other factors. Further research is warranted on the cumulative effects of long-term exposure to low doses of EDCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    contributed about 27.5 % to the total aerosol water, mostly during early morning, late evening, and nighttime hours.The aerosol was found to be highly acidic with calculated aerosol pH varying from 0.5 to 2.8 throughout the study period. Biomass burning aerosol presented the highest values of pH in the submicron fraction and the lowest values in total water mass concentration. The low pH values observed in the submicron mode and independently of air mass origin could increase nutrient availability and especially P solubility, which is the nutrient limiting sea water productivity of the eastern Mediterranean.

  2. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots water availability. Fine root production (treatments in Salix; i.e., absolute length and biomass production increased in the order: water limited treatment effects were detected for fine roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to fine roots (≤2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to fine roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  3. Using regional scale flow-ecology modeling to identify catchments where fish assemblages are most vulnerable to changes in water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernie F. Hain; Jonathan G. Kennen; Peter V. Caldwell; Stacy A.C. Nelson; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty

    2017-01-01

    Streamflow is essential for maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems and for sup- porting human water supply needs. Changes in climate, land use and water use practices may alter water availability. Understanding the potential effect of these changes on aquatic ecosystems is critical for long-term water management to maintain a balance between water for human consumption...

  4. Effect of soil water availability on gas exchange in young trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sara Mejía de Tafur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two outdoor trials were conducted in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in contrasting climatic conditions, to evaluate the effect of soil water availability on the gas exchange of four elite genotypes of Eucalyptus grandis as follows: 28-3, 18-3, 24A-5 and 19-1, respectively. One trial was conducted on the campus of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia located in Palmira, at 994 m.a.s.l. with an average temperature of 23.5°C (maximum of 31°C, minimum of 18°C, and 76% relative humidity (RH. The second trial was conducted at the nursery of Carton de Colombia S.A., located in Restrepo, at 1450 m.a.s.l. with an average temperature 18°C (maximum of 26°C, minimum of 12°C and 80% RH. A split-plot design with four replicates was used. Treatments were field capacity (FC, ½ FC, ¼ FC, and soil waterlogging. At both locations, pot surfaces were covered with plastic sheeting to prevent the entrance of rainfall. Significant differences between water regimes, genotypes and locations occurred in photosynthesis rate, internal CO2 of the substomatal cavity (Ci, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, indicating that E. grandis has physiological defense mechanisms to drought stress such as stomata closure, evidenced by a decreasing in photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate. A differential response was also observed between genotypes depending on the environment, indicating a genotype x environment interaction in terms of plant physiological response. Eucalyptus grandis appears to save water under water stress conditions by a decreasing in photosynthesis rate. Excess water is more limiting than water deficit.

  5. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Quantifying Fast and Slow Responses of Terrestrial Carbon Exchange across a Water Availability Gradient in North American Flux Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Goulden, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of water limitation, altering terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Here we compare site-level temporal sensitivity of annual carbon fluxes to interannual variations in water availability against cross-site spatial patterns over a network of 19 eddy covariance flux sites. This network represents one order of magnitude in mean annual productivity and includes western North American desert shrublands and grasslands, savannahs, woodlands, and forests with continuous records of 4 to 12 years. Our analysis reveals site-specific patterns not identifiable in prior syntheses that pooled sites. We interpret temporal variability as an indicator of ecosystem response to annual water availability due to fast-changing factors such as leaf stomatal response and microbial activity, while cross-site spatial patterns are used to infer ecosystem adjustment to climatic water availability through slow-changing factors such as plant community and organic carbon pools. Using variance decomposition, we directly quantify how terrestrial carbon balance depends on slow- and fast-changing components of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and total ecosystem respiration (TER). Slow factors explain the majority of variance in annual net ecosystem production (NEP) across the dataset, and their relative importance is greater at wetter, forest sites than desert ecosystems. Site-specific offsets from spatial patterns of GEP and TER explain one third of NEP variance, likely due to slow-changing factors not directly linked to water, such as disturbance. TER and GEP are correlated across sites as previously shown, but our site-level analysis reveals surprisingly consistent linear relationships between these fluxes in deserts and savannahs, indicating fast coupling of TER and GEP in more arid ecosystems. Based on the uncertainty associated with slow and fast factors, we suggest a framework for improved

  7. Cholera diagnosis in human stool and detection in water: protocol for a systematic review of available technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Diaconu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a highly infectious diarrheal disease spread via fecal contamination of water and food sources; it is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and recent outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, the Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal in less than 24 h and result in case fatality ratios of 30–50%. Cholera disproportionately affects those living in areas with poor access to water and sanitation: the long-term public health response is focused on improving water and hygiene facilities and access. Short-term measures for infection prevention and control, and disease characterization and surveillance, are impaired by diagnostic delays: culture methods are slow and rely on the availability of infrastructure and specialist equipment. Rapid diagnostic tests have shown promise under field conditions and further innovations in this area have been proposed. Methods This paper is the protocol for a systematic review focused on identifying current technologies and methods used for cholera diagnosis in stool, and detection in water. We will synthesize and appraise information on product technical specifications, accuracy and design features in order to inform infection prevention and control and innovation development. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest, IndMed and the WHO and Campbell libraries will be searched. We will include studies reporting on field evaluations, including within-study comparisons against a reference standard, and laboratory evaluations reporting on product validation against field stool or water samples. We will extract data according to protocol and attempt meta-analyses if appropriate given data availability and quality. Discussion The systematic review builds on a previous scoping review in this field and expands upon this by synthesising data on both product technical characteristics and design features. The review will be of particular value to

  8. Impacts of precipitation and temperature trends on different time scales on the water cycle and water resource availability in mountainous Mediterranean catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2017-04-01

    increase. From the analyses of river flow observations and hydrological modelling, these trends result in an estimated decreasing annual trend of the mean river inflow to reservoirs of 0.091 m3/s, which is equivalent to a mean loss of 2.87 hm3/year during the study period. Nonetheless, these results are associated to a high variability of both extreme values and the annual and decadal values. Moreover, the decrease of the annual inflow is approximately a 25% higher than the loss of precipitation, due to the impact on the different water fluxes from the snowpack associated to the enhanced torrential behaviour of both snowfall/rainfall occurrence and snow persistence. The results show the complexity of hydrological processes in Mediterranean regions, especially under the snow influence, and point out to a significant shift in the precipitation and temperature regime, and thus on the snow-affected hydrological variables in the study area, with a decrease of the available water resource volume in the medium and long term. However, on an annual basis, years with an intense snowfall regime but mild and longer dry periods result in a significant increase of the annual river flow and water storage. Reservoir operation criteria and water allocation should undergo a revision based on hydrological modelling of the snow regions and scenario analysis.

  9. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabert, Miroslawa; Proctor, Heather; Dabert, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    With nearly 6000 named species, water mites (Hydrachnidiae) represent the largest group of arachnids to have invaded and extensively diversified in freshwater habitats. Water mites together with three other lineages (the terrestrial Erythraiae and Trombidiae, and aquatic Stygothrombiae), make up the hyporder Parasitengonina, which is characterized by having parasitic larvae and predatory nymphs and adults. Relationships between the Hydrachnidiae and other members of the Parasitengonina are unclear, as are relationships among the major lineages of water mites. Monophyly of water mites has been asserted, with the possible exception of the morphologically distinctive Hydrovolzioidea. Here we infer the phylogeny of water mites using multiple molecular markers and including representatives of all superfamilies of Hydrachnidiae and of almost all other Parasitengonina. Our results support a monophyletic Parasitengonina including Trombidiae, Stygothrombiae, and Hydrachnidiae. A monophyletic Hydrachnidiae, including Hydrovolzioidea, is strongly supported. Terrestrial Parasitengonina do not form a monophyletic sister group to water mites. Stygothrombiae is close to water mites but is not nested within this clade. Water mites appear to be derived from ancestors close to Stygothrombiae or the erythraoid group Calyptostomatoidea; however, this relationship is not clear because of extremely short branches in this part of the parasitengonine tree. We recovered with strong support all commonly accepted water mite superfamilies except for Hydryphantoidea, which is clearly paraphyletic. Our data support the previously proposed clades Protohydrachnidia (Hydrovolzioidea and Eylaoidea), Euhydrachnidia (all remaining superfamilies), and the euhydrachnid subclade Neohydrachnidia (Lebertioidea, Hydrachnoidea, Hygrobatoidea, and Arrenuroidea). We found that larval leg structure and locomotory behavior are strongly congruent with the molecular phylogeny. Other morphological and behavioral

  10. Feedback mechanisms between water availability and water use in a semi-arid river basin: a geographically explicit multi-agent simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Taddei, Renzo R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the processes responsible for the distribution of water availability over space and time is of great importance to spatial planning in a semi-arid river basin. In this study the usefulness of a multi-agent simulation (MAS) approach for representing these processes is discussed. A MAS

  11. Particle water and pH in the Eastern Mediterranean: sources variability and implications for nutrients availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, P.; Bougiatioti, A.; Stavroulas, I.; Kouvarakis, G.; Nenes, A.; Weber, R.; Kanakidou, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2015-10-01

    during early morning, late evening and nighttime hours. The aerosol was found to be highly acidic with calculated aerosol pH varying from 0.5 to 2.8 throughout the study period. Biomass burning aerosol presented the highest values of pH in the submicron fraction and the lowest values in total water mass concentration. The low pH values observed in the submicron mode and independently of air masses origin could increase nutrient availability and especially P solubility, which is the nutrient limiting sea water productivity of the eastern Mediterranean.

  12. Aerial biomass and elemental changes in Atriplex canescens and A. acanthocarpa as affected by salinity and soil water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Mata-Gonzalez; Ruben Melendez-Gonzalez; J. Jesus Martinez-Hernandez

    2001-01-01

    Atriplex canescens and A. acanthocarpa from the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico were subjected to different salinity and irrigation treatments in a greenhouse study. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and irrigated with NaCl solutions of 0, 50, and 100 mM at 40 and 80 percent available soil water. Aerial biomass of A. canescens declined as NaCl treatments increased...

  13. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Ma

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK, application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK, combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B. Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability.

  14. Hypercooling Temperature of Water is about 100 K Higher than Calculated before

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buttersack, Tillmann; Weiss, V. C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2018), s. 471-475 ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : supercooled water * hypercooling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  15. Impact of future climate change on wheat production in relation to plant-available water capacity in a semiaridenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmin; Liu, De Li; Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; Zuo, Heping; Yang, Yonghui

    2014-02-01

    Conceptions encompassing climate change are irreversible rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, increased temperature, and changes in rainfall both in spatial- and temporal-scales worldwide. This will have a major impact on wheat production, particularly if crops are frequently exposed to a sequence, frequency, and intensity of specific weather events like high temperature during growth period. However, the process of wheat response to climate change is complex and compounded by interactions among atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variables, soil, nutrition, and agronomic management. In this study, we use the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM)-wheat model, driven by statistically downscaled climate projections of 18 global circulation models (GCMs) under the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 CO2 emission scenario to examine impact on future wheat yields across key wheat growing regions considering different soil types in New South Wales (NSW) of Australia. The response of wheat yield, yield components, and phenology vary across sites and soil types, but yield is closely related to plant available water capacity (PAWC). Results show a decreasing yield trend during the period of 2021-2040 compared to the baseline period of 1961-1990. Across different wheat-growing regions in NSW, grain yield difference in the future period (2021-2040) over the baseline (1961-1990) varies from +3.4 to -14.7 %, and in most sites, grain number is decreased, while grain size is increased in future climate. Reduction of wheat yield is mainly due to shorter growth duration, where average flowering and maturing time are advanced by an average of 11 and 12 days, respectively. In general, larger negative impacts of climate change are exhibited in those sites with higher PAWC. Current wheat cultivars with shorter growing season properties are viable in the future climate, but breading for

  16. Cholera diagnosis in human stool and detection in water: protocol for a systematic review of available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Karin; Falconer, Jennifer; O'May, Fiona; Jimenez, Miguel; Matragrano, Joe; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty; Ager, Alastair

    2018-02-20

    Cholera is a highly infectious diarrheal disease spread via fecal contamination of water and food sources; it is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and recent outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, the Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal in less than 24 h and result in case fatality ratios of 30-50%. Cholera disproportionately affects those living in areas with poor access to water and sanitation: the long-term public health response is focused on improving water and hygiene facilities and access. Short-term measures for infection prevention and control, and disease characterization and surveillance, are impaired by diagnostic delays: culture methods are slow and rely on the availability of infrastructure and specialist equipment. Rapid diagnostic tests have shown promise under field conditions and further innovations in this area have been proposed. This paper is the protocol for a systematic review focused on identifying current technologies and methods used for cholera diagnosis in stool, and detection in water. We will synthesize and appraise information on product technical specifications, accuracy and design features in order to inform infection prevention and control and innovation development. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest, IndMed and the WHO and Campbell libraries will be searched. We will include studies reporting on field evaluations, including within-study comparisons against a reference standard, and laboratory evaluations reporting on product validation against field stool or water samples. We will extract data according to protocol and attempt meta-analyses if appropriate given data availability and quality. The systematic review builds on a previous scoping review in this field and expands upon this by synthesising data on both product technical characteristics and design features. The review will be of particular value to stakeholders engaged in diagnostic procurement and manufacturers

  17. Higher energy efficiency and better water quality by using model predictive flow control at water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Verberk, J.Q.J.C.; Palmen, L.J.; Sperber, V.; Bakker, G.

    2011-01-01

    Half of all water supply systems in the Netherlands are controlled by model predictive flow control; the other half are controlled by conventional level based control. The differences between conventional level based control and model predictive control were investigated in experiments at five full

  18. Volume 1: Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheaffer, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dollinger, Caroline [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sarker, Prateeti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cresko, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal to reduce the cost of seawater desalination systems to $0.50/ cubic meter (m3) through the development of technology pathways to reduce energy, capital, operating, soft, and system integration costs.1 In support of this goal and to evaluate the technology pathways to lower the energy and carbon intensity of desalination while also reducing the total water cost, DOE is undertaking a comprehensive study of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for desalination technologies and systems. This study is being undertaken in two phases. Phase 1, Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems, collected the background information that will underpin Phase 2, the Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the results from Phase 1. The results from Phase 2 will be summarized in Volume 2: Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems (Volume 2). The analysis effort for Phase 2 will utilize similar methods as other industry-specific Energy Bandwidth Studies developed by DOE,2 which has provided a framework to evaluate and compare energy savings potentials within and across manufacturing sectors at the macroscale. Volume 2 will assess the current state of desalination energy intensity and reduction potential through the use of advanced and emerging technologies. For the purpose of both phases of study, energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required per unit of product water output (for example, kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water produced). These studies will expand the scope of previous sectorial bandwidth studies by also evaluating CO2 intensity and reduction opportunities and informing a techno-economic analysis of desalination systems. Volume 2 is expected to be completed in 2017.

  19. Drought Assessment over the Four Major River Basins of India using GRACE-based estimates of Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D.; Syed, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a natural disaster that has mutilating consequences over agriculture, ecosystems, economy and the society. Over the past few decades, drought related catastrophe, associated with global climate change, has escalated all across the world. Identification and analysis of drought utilizing individual hydrologic variables may be inadequate owing to the multitude of factors that are associated with the phenomenon. Therefore it is crucial to develop techniques that warrant comprehensive monitoring and assessment of droughts. In this study we propose a novel drought index (Water Availability Index (WAI)) that comprehends all the aspects of meteorologic, agricultural and hydrologic droughts. The proposed framework underscores the conceptualization and utilization of water availability, quantified as an integrated estimate of land water storage, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations, and precipitation. The methodology is employed over four major river basins of India (i.e. Ganga, Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi) for a period of 155 months (April 2002 to February 2015). Results exhibit the potential of the propounded index (WAI) to recognize drought events and impart insightful quantification of drought severity. WAI also demonstrates enhanced outcomes in comparison to other commonly used drought indices like PDSI, SPI, SPEI and SRI. In general there are at least three major drought periods with intensities ranging from moderate to severe in almost all river basins. The longest drought period, extending for 27 months, from September 2008 to November 2010, is observed in the Mahanadi basin. Results from this study confirm the potential of this technique as an effective tool for the characterization of drought at large spatial scales, which will only excel with better quantification and extended availability of terrestrial water storage observations from the GRACE-Follow On mission.

  20. Interactive Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Growth, Fitness and Survival of the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa under Different Food Availabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina V. Büscher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water corals are important bioengineers that provide structural habitat for a diverse species community. About 70% of the presently known scleractinian cold-water corals are expected to be exposed to corrosive waters by the end of this century due to ocean acidification. At the same time, the corals will experience a steady warming of their environment. Studies on the sensitivity of cold-water corals to climate change mainly concentrated on single stressors in short-term incubation approaches, thus not accounting for possible long-term acclimatisation and the interactive effects of multiple stressors. Besides, preceding studies did not test for possible compensatory effects of a change in food availability. In this study a multifactorial long-term experiment (6 months was conducted with end-of-the-century scenarios of elevated pCO2 and temperature levels in order to examine the acclimatisation potential of the cosmopolitan cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to future climate change related threats. For the first time multiple ocean change impacts including the role of the nutritional status were tested on L. pertusa with regard to growth, “fitness,” and survival. Our results show that while L. pertusa is capable of calcifying under elevated CO2 and temperature, its condition (fitness is more strongly influenced by food availability rather than changes in seawater chemistry. Whereas growth rates increased at elevated temperature (+4°C, they decreased under elevated CO2 concentrations (~800 μatm. No difference in net growth was detected when corals were exposed to the combination of increased CO2 and temperature compared to ambient conditions. A 10-fold higher food supply stimulated growth under elevated temperature, which was not observed in the combined treatment. This indicates that increased food supply does not compensate for adverse effects of ocean acidification and underlines the importance of considering the nutritional status

  1. An analytical solution for the estimation of the critical available soil water fraction for a single layer water balance model under growing crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of simplified water balance models devoted to irrigation scheduling or crop modelling, the relative transpiration rate (the ratio of actual to maximal transpiration is assumed to decrease linearly when the soil dries out below a critical available water value. This value is usually expressed as a fraction, F, of the maximal available soil water content. The present work aims to use the basic laws governing water transfer through the plants at a daily time step to compute F dynamically as the crop grows. It can be regarded as an expansion of Slabbers' (1980 approach to crop growing conditions. Starting from the mathematical representation given by single-root models (Gardner, 1960, an analytical expression for F is derived, using simplified hypotheses. This expression accounts for plant attributes such as the mean root radius, the critical leaf water potential for stomatal closure and the root length density profile growing with the crop. Environmental factors such as soil type and atmospheric demand also influence F. The structural influence of soil comes from the required introduction of the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity in the single-root model. The shape of the root length density profile is assumed to be sigmoidal and a new profile is calculated at each value of the rooting depth. A sensitivity analysis of F to all those factors is presented. The first general result is that F decreases as the root system grows in depth. Differences in the shape of the root profile can be responsible for differential water stress sensitivity in the early stages of growth. Yet, low critical leaf water potential can compensate partially for a poor root profile. Conversely, F is relatively insensitive to the average root radius. F sensitivity to soil type seems somewhat artificial: given the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity formula, the soil sensitivity results from F being expressed as a fraction of the maximal available soil water content

  2. Water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland Amazon forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Stalin Landázuri Paredes

    Full Text Available Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans. A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%. Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species

  3. Do shallow soil, low water availability, or their combination increase the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yajie; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Jing; Song, Haiyan; Liang, Qianhui; Tao, Jianping; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Liu, Jinchun

    2017-04-01

    Uneven soil depth and low water availability are the key limiting factors to vegetation restoration and reconstruction in limestone soils such as in vulnerable karst regions. Belowground competition will possibly increase under limited soil resources. Here, we investigate whether low resource availability (including shallow soil, low water availability, and shallow soil and low water availability combined) stimulates the competition between grasses with different root systems in karst soil, by assessing their growth response, biomass allocation, and morphological plasticity. In a full three-way factorial blocked design of soil depth by water availability by neighbor identity, we grew Festuca arundinacea (deep-rooted) and Lolium perenne (shallow-rooted) under normal versus shallow soil depth, high versus low water availability, and in monoculture (conspecific neighbor) versus mixture (neighbor of the other species). The key results were as follows: (1) total biomass and aboveground biomass in either of the species decreased with reduction of resources but were not affected by planting patterns (monoculture or mixture) even at low resource levels. (2) For F. arundinacea, root biomass, root mass fraction, total root length, and root volume were higher in mixture than in monoculture at high resource level (consistent with resource use complementarity), but lower in mixture than in monoculture at low resource levels (consistent with interspecific competition). In contrast for L. perenne, either at high or low resource level, these root traits had mostly similar values at both planting patterns. These results suggest that deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plant species can coexist in karst regions under current climatic regimes. Declining resources, due to shallow soil, a decrease in precipitation, or combined shallow soil and karst drought, increased the root competition between plants of deep-rooted and shallow-rooted species. The root systems of deep-rooted plants may be

  4. Water Availability of São Francisco River Basin Based on a Space-Borne Geodetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengke Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has recently experienced one of its worst droughts in the last 80 years, with wide-ranging consequences for water supply restrictions, energy rationing, and agricultural losses. Northeast and Southeast Brazil, which share the São Francisco River basin (SFRB, have experienced serious precipitation reduction since 2011. We used terrestrial water-storage (TWS fields, inverted from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission measurements, to assess and quantify the ongoing drought over the SFRB. We found a water loss rate of 3.30 km3/year over the time-span of April 2002 to March 2015. In addition, the TWS drought index (TWSDI showed the extension of the recent drought that has jeopardized the SFRB since January 2012, and which reached its maximum in July 2015 (the end of TWS time series. In this sense there seems to be a linkage between the TWSDI (wetness/dryness and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, in terms of the wavelet coherence, at the semi-annual and biennial bands, suggesting a relationship between the two. While acknowledging that further investigation is needed, we believe that our findings should contribute to the water management policies by quantifying the impact of this drought event over the SFRB.

  5. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ningning; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Lijie; Yu, Chunxiao; Yin, Guanghua; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Zhijie; Zhu, Ping; Ma, Xingzhu

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK), application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK), combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S) and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B). Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK) plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability.

  6. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Lijie; Yu, Chunxiao; Yin, Guanghua; Doane, Timothy A.; Wu, Zhijie; Zhu, Ping; Ma, Xingzhu

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK), application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK), combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S) and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B). Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK) plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability. PMID:27191160

  7. Incorporating soil variability in continental soil water modelling: a trade-off between data availability and model complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, L.; Crosbie, R. S.; Doble, R.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Developing a continental land surface model implies finding a balance between the complexity in representing the system processes and the availability of reliable data to drive, parameterise and calibrate the model. While a high level of process understanding at plot or catchment scales may warrant a complex model, such data is not available at the continental scale. This data sparsity is especially an issue for the Australian Water Resources Assessment system, AWRA-L, a land-surface model designed to estimate the components of the water balance for the Australian continent. This study focuses on the conceptualization and parametrization of the soil drainage process in AWRA-L. Traditionally soil drainage is simulated with Richards' equation, which is highly non-linear. As general analytic solutions are not available, this equation is usually solved numerically. In AWRA-L however, we introduce a simpler function based on simulation experiments that solve Richards' equation. In the simplified function soil drainage rate, the ratio of drainage (D) over storage (S), decreases exponentially with relative water content. This function is controlled by three parameters, the soil water storage at field capacity (SFC), the drainage fraction at field capacity (KFC) and a drainage function exponent (β). [ ] D- -S- S = KF C exp - β (1 - SFC ) To obtain spatially variable estimates of these three parameters, the Atlas of Australian Soils is used, which lists soil hydraulic properties for each soil profile type. For each soil profile type in the Atlas, 10 days of draining an initially fully saturated, freely draining soil is simulated using HYDRUS-1D. With field capacity defined as the volume of water in the soil after 1 day, the remaining parameters can be obtained by fitting the AWRA-L soil drainage function to the HYDRUS-1D results. This model conceptualisation fully exploits the data available in the Atlas of Australian Soils, without the need to solve the non

  8. Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acid biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, V. L.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ziegler, S. E.; Evans, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    Changes in the rates of nitrogen (N) cycling, microbial carbon (C) substrate use, and extracellular enzyme activities in a Mojave Desert ecosystem exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 suggest shifts in the size and/or functional characteristics of microbial assemblages in two dominant soil microsites: plant interspaces and under the dominant shrub Larrea tridentata. We used ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers as a proxy for microbial biomass to quantify spatial and temporal differences in soil microbial communities from February 2003 to May 2005. Further, we used the 13C signature of the fossil CO2 source for elevated CO2 plots to trace recent plant C inputs into soil organic matter (SOM) and broad microbial groups using δ13C (‰). Differences between individual δ13CPLFA and δ13CSOM for fungal biomarkers indicated active metabolism of newer C in elevated CO2 soils. Total PLFA-C was greater in shrub microsites compared to plant interspaces, and CO2 treatment differences within microsites increased under higher soil water availability. Total, fungal, and bacterial PLFA-C increased with decreasing soil volumetric water content (VWC) in both microsites, suggesting general adaptations to xeric desert conditions. Increases in fungal-to-bacterial PLFA-C ratio with decreasing VWC reflected functional group-specific responses to changing soil water availability. While temporal and spatial extremes in resource availability in desert ecosystems contribute to the difficulty in identifying common trends or mechanisms driving microbial responses in less extreme environments, we found that soil water availability and soil microsite interacted with elevated CO2 to shift fungal and bacterial biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils.

  9. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  10. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype.

  11. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  12. Above and belowground controls on litter decomposition in semiarid ecosystems: effects of solar radiation, water availability and litter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. T.; Araujo, P. I.; Leva, P. E.; Ballare, C. L.

    2008-12-01

    The integrated controls on soil organic matter formation in arid and semiarid ecosystems are not well understood and appear to stem from a number of interacting controls affecting above- and belowground carbon turnover. While solar radiation has recently been shown to have an important direct effect on carbon loss in semiarid ecosystems as a result of photochemical mineralization of aboveground plant material, the mechanistic basis for photodegradative losses is poorly understood. In addition, there are large potential differences in major controls on above- and belowground decomposition in low rainfall ecosystems. We report on a mesocosm and field study designed to examine the relative importance of different wavelengths of solar radiation, water availability, position of senescent material above- and belowground and the importance of carbon litter quality in determining rates of abiotic and biotic decomposition. In a factorial experiment of mesocosms, we incubated leaf and root litter simultaneously above- and belowground and manipulated water availability with large and small pulses. Significant interactions between position-litter type and position-pulse sizes demonstrated interactive controls on organic mass loss. Aboveground decomposition showed no response to pulse size or litter type, as roots and leaves decomposed equally rapidly under all circumstances. In contrast, belowground decomposition was significantly altered by litter type and water pulses, with roots decomposing significantly slower and small water pulses reducing belowground decomposition. In the field site, using plastic filters which attenuated different wavelengths of natural solar radiation, we found a highly significant effect of radiation exclusion on mass loss and demonstrated that both UV-A and short-wave visible light can have important impacts on photodegradative carbon losses. The combination of position and litter quality effects on litter decomposition appear to be critical for the

  13. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on water available to tropical forests in an Amazonian catchment and implications for modeling drought response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Leung, L. Ruby; Duan, Zhuoran; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Tomasella, Javier

    2017-08-01

    The Amazon basin has experienced periodic droughts in the past, and intense and frequent droughts are predicted in the future. Landscape heterogeneity could play an important role in how tropical forests respond to drought by influencing water available to plants. Using the one-dimensional ACME Land Model and the three-dimensional ParFlow variably saturated flow model, numerical experiments were performed for a catchment in central Amazon to elucidate processes that influence water available for plant use and provide insights for improving Earth system models. Results from ParFlow show that topography has a dominant influence on groundwater table and runoff through lateral flow. Without any representations of lateral processes, ALM simulates very different seasonal variations in groundwater table and runoff compared to ParFlow even if it is able to reproduce the long-term spatial average groundwater table of ParFlow through simple parameter calibration. In the ParFlow simulations, even in the plateau with much deeper water table depth during the dry season in the drought year of 2005, plant transpiration is not water stressed as the soil saturation is still sufficient for the stomata to be fully open based on the empirical wilting formulation in the models. This finding is insensitive to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and soil parameters, but the empirical wilting formulation is an important factor that should be addressed using observations and modeling of coupled plant hydraulics-soil hydrology processes in future studies. The results could be applicable to other catchments in the Amazon basin with similar seasonal variability and hydrologic regimes.

  14. Water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Omar Stalin Landázuri; Norris, Darren; Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes de; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit) affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits) on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores) and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans). A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%). Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans) were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species

  15. The impacts of irrigation with transferred and saline reclaimed water in the soil biological quality of two citrus species: Adaptations to low water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Felipe; Abadía, Joaquín; García, Carlos; Torres, Irene; Ruiz Navarro, Antonio; José Alarcón, Juan; Nicolás, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agroecosystems are limited by the availability of water and hence it is fundamental to find new water sources for sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change. Here, the effects of irrigation with water from different sources were analyzed in the soil microbial community and plant status of grapefruit and mandarin trees in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem located in south-east of Spain. Four irrigation treatments were evaluated: i) water with an average electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.1 dS m-1 from the "Tagus-Segura" water-transfer canal (TW); ii) reclaimed water (EC = 3.21 dS m-1) from a wastewater-treatment-plant (RW); iii) irrigation with TW, except in the second stage of fruit development, when RW was applied (TWc); and iv) irrigation with RW except in the second stage, when TW was used (RWc). Phospholipid fatty acids indicated that microbial biomass was greater under grapefruit than under mandarin. In the case of grapefruit, TW showed a lower bacterial biomass than RW, RWc, and TWc, while RW showed the lowest values in the mandarin soil. In grapefruit soil, β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activities, related to C cycling, were greater in RW and TWc than in TW and RWc. In mandarin soil, the greatest activity of these enzymes was found in TWc. The saline stress induced lower net photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) in plants of RW, RWc and TWc in comparison with TW. The annual use of reclaimed water or the combined irrigation with TWc positively influenced the soil biological quality of a grapefruit agro-ecosystem. Conversely, the mandarin soil community was more sensitive to the annual irrigation with RW.

  16. Fine particle water and pH in the Eastern Mediterranean: Sources, variability and implications for nutrients availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    total calculated water. Particle pH is also calculated with the help of ISORROPIA-II, and during the studied period, values varied from 0.5 to 2.8, indicating that the aerosol was highly acidic. pH values were also studied depending on the source/origin of the sampled air masses and biomass burning aerosol was found to exhibit the highest values of PM1 pH and the lowest values in total water mass concentrations. The two natural sources, namely mineral and marine origin, contained the largest amounts of total submicron water and the lowest contribution of organic water, as expected. The low pH values estimated for the studied period in the submicron mode and independently of the air masses' origin could potentially have important implications for nutrient availability, especially for phosphorus solubility, which is the nutrient limiting sea water productivity of the Eastern Mediterranean.

  17. ERS-1 SAR monitoring of ice growth on shallow lakes to determine water depth and availability in north west Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Martin; Morris, Kim; Liston, Glen

    1996-01-01

    Images taken by the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used to identify and to differentiate between the lakes that freeze completely to the bottom and those that do not, on the North Slope, in northwestern Alaska. The ice thickness at the time each lake froze completely is determined with numerical ice growth model that gives a maximum simulated thickness of 2.2 m. A method combining the ERS-1 SAR images and numerical ice growth model was used to determine the ice growth and the water availability in these regions.

  18. Variation in short-term and long-term responses of photosynthesis and isoprenoid-mediated photoprotection to soil water availability in four Douglas-fir provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Laura Verena; Kleiber, Anita; Jansen, Kirstin; Wildhagen, Henning; Hess, Moritz; Kayler, Zachary; Kammerer, Bernd; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo

    2017-01-10

    For long-lived forest tree species, the understanding of intraspecific variation among populations and their response to water availability can reveal their ability to cope with and adapt to climate change. Dissipation of excess excitation energy, mediated by photoprotective isoprenoids, is an important defense mechanism against drought and high light when photosynthesis is hampered. We used 50-year-old Douglas-fir trees of four provenances at two common garden experiments to characterize provenance-specific variation in photosynthesis and photoprotective mechanisms mediated by essential and non-essential isoprenoids in response to soil water availability and solar radiation. All provenances revealed uniform photoprotective responses to high solar radiation, including increased de-epoxidation of photoprotective xanthophyll cycle pigments and enhanced emission of volatile monoterpenes. In contrast, we observed differences between provenances in response to drought, where provenances sustaining higher CO 2 assimilation rates also revealed increased water-use efficiency, carotenoid-chlorophyll ratios, pools of xanthophyll cycle pigments, β-carotene and stored monoterpenes. Our results demonstrate that local adaptation to contrasting habitats affected chlorophyll-carotenoid ratios, pool sizes of photoprotective xanthophylls, β-carotene, and stored volatile isoprenoids. We conclude that intraspecific variation in isoprenoid-mediated photoprotective mechanisms contributes to the adaptive potential of Douglas-fir provenances to climate change.

  19. Integrated Water Resource Management: A Platform for Higher Education Institutions to Meet Complex Sustainability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Neil; Larsen, Rasmus Kløcker

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions in Sweden are increasingly exposed to international market conditions and rising competition from a more mobile student body. This increases the need for universities to adapt to their social and economic environment and to their clients, including the political trends and financial opportunities in Sweden and EU, if…

  20. Water availability as an agent of selection in introduced populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: impacts on flowering time evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Stock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowering is one of the most influential events in the life history of a plant and one of the main determinants of reproductive investment and lifetime fitness. It is also a highly complex trait controlled by dozens of genes. Understanding the selective pressures influencing time to flowering, and being able to reliably predict how it will evolve in novel environments, are unsolved challenges for plant evolutionary geneticists. Using the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined the impact of simulated high and low winter precipitation levels on the flowering time of naturalized lines from across the eastern portion of the introduced North American range, and the fitness consequences of early versus late flowering. Flowering time order was significantly correlated across two environments—in a previous common garden experiment and in environmental chambers set to mimic mid-range photoperiod and temperature conditions. Plants in low water flowered earlier, had fewer basal branches and produced fewer fruits. Selection in both treatments favored earlier flowering and more basal branches. Our analyses revealed an interaction between flowering time and water treatment for fitness, where flowering later was more deleterious for fitness in the low water treatment. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in winter precipitation levels are one of the selective agents underlying a flowering time cline in introduced A. thaliana populations.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging and relaxometry to study water transport mechanisms in a commercially available gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Amber L; Fell, Rob J; Codd, Sarah L; Lightley, Kim A; Konagurthu, Sanjay; Koehler-King, Dory G; Seymour, Joseph D

    2010-09-15

    The hydration of 4 mg Cardura XL (Pfizer), a commercially available gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablet, was investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A short echo time (T(e)=2.81 ms) technique for MRI of the hydration of a GITS tablet was implemented. From the MR images, signal intensity profiles were generated and interpreted in the context of diffusive and osmotic transport mechanisms. A distinct transition from diffusive to osmotic transport was measured at a timescale relevant to the measured drug release time. Diffusion and osmotic rate coefficients for water in the drug and polymer sweller layers of the tablet were quantified. Spin-lattice T(1) and spin-spin T(2) relaxation times of the water signal from within the tablet were measured as a function of hydration time in order to incorporate the effects of relaxation into interpretation of signal intensity and provide unique information on the distribution of water in different physical and chemical environments within the tablet. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Orbitally-paced variations of water availability in the SE Asian Monsoon region following the Miocene Climate Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Emma O.; Ji, Shunchuan; Nie, Junsheng; Breecker, Daniel O.

    2017-09-01

    Middle Miocene Earth had several boundary conditions similar to those predicted for future Earth including similar atmospheric pCO2 and substantial Antarctic ice cover but no northern hemisphere ice sheets. We describe a 12 m outcrop of the terrestrial Yanwan Section in the Tianshui Basin, Gansu, China, following the Miocene Climate Transition (13.9-13.7 Ma). It consists of ∼25 cm thick CaCO3-cemented horizons that overprint siltstones every ∼1 m. We suggest that stacked soils developed in siltstones under a seasonal climate with a fluctuating water table, evidenced by roots, clay films, mottling, presence of CaCO3 nodules, and stacked carbonate nodule δ13 C and δ18 O profiles that mimic modern soils. We suggest that the CaCO3-cemented horizons are capillary-fringe carbonates that formed in an arid climate with a steady water table and high potential evapotranspiration rates (PET), evidenced by sharp upper and basal contacts, micrite, sparite, and root-pore cements. The CaCO3 of the cemented horizons and the carbonate nodules have similar mean δ18 O and δ13 C values but the cements have significantly smaller variance in δ13 C and δ18 O values and a different δ18 O versus δ13 C slope, supporting the conclusion that these carbonates are from different populations. The magneto-stratigraphic age model indicates obliquity pacing of the arid conditions required to form the CaCO3-cemented horizons suggesting an orbital control on water availability. We suggest two possible drivers for the obliquity pacing of arid conditions: 1) variability in the cross-equatorial pressure gradient that controls summer monsoon (ASM) strength and is influenced by obliquity-paced variations of Antarctic ice volume and 2) variability in Western Pacific Ocean-East Asian continent pressure gradient controlled by the 25-45°N meridional insolation gradient. We also suggest that variations in aridity were influenced by variations in PET and sensible heating of the regional land

  3. An analysis of potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes in the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to assess potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes, located within the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio. The assessment was based on the criterion that water withdrawals should not appreciably affect maintenance of recreation-season pool levels in current use. To facilitate and simplify the assessment, it was assumed that historical lake operations were successful in maintaining seasonal pool levels, and that any discharges from lakes constituted either water that was discharged to prevent exceeding seasonal pool levels or discharges intended to meet minimum in-stream flow targets downstream from the lakes. It further was assumed that the volume of water discharged in excess of the minimum in-stream flow target is available for use without negatively impacting seasonal pool levels or downstream water uses and that all or part of it is subject to withdrawal. Historical daily outflow data for the lakes were used to determine the quantity of water that potentially could be withdrawn and the resulting quantity of water that would flow downstream (referred to as “flow-by”) on a daily basis as a function of all combinations of three hypothetical target minimum flow-by amounts (1, 2, and 3 times current minimum in-stream flow targets) and three pumping capacities (1, 2, and 3 million gallons per day). Using both U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data (where available) and lake-outflow data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers resulted in analytical periods ranging from 51 calendar years for Charles Mill, Clendening, and Piedmont Lakes to 74 calendar years for Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes. The observed outflow time series and the computed time series of daily flow-by amounts and potential withdrawals were analyzed to compute and report order statistics (95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles) and means for

  4. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F.; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a "5"9Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16–24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11–15 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350–470 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. - Highlights: • We report that peat-bogs are sources of bio-available iron to marine algae. • This iron is effectively chelated with aquatic humic acids. • The radiocarbon age of the iron-carrying aquatic humic acids was up to 550 years. • Analysis was focused on mixing experiments of iron-rich creek water with seawater. • Drained peatlands with

  5. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krachler, Regina, E-mail: regina.krachler@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Rudolf F.; Wallner, Gabriele [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Steier, Peter [Isotope Research and Nuclear Physics, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); University of Johannesburg, Department of Zoology, P. O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a {sup 59}Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16–24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11–15 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350–470 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. - Highlights: • We report that peat-bogs are sources of bio-available iron to marine algae. • This iron is effectively chelated with aquatic humic acids. • The radiocarbon age of the iron-carrying aquatic humic acids was up to 550 years. • Analysis was focused on mixing experiments of iron-rich creek water with seawater. • Drained

  6. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-01-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO 3 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  7. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  8. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar Ray Tracing Analysis to Determine Energy Availability in a CPC Designed for Use as a Residential Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Terrón-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound parabolic concentrators are relevant systems used in solar thermal technology. With adequate tailoring, they can be used as an efficient and low-cost alternative in residential water heating applications. This work presents a simulation study using a ray tracing analysis. With this technique, we simulate the interaction between solar rays and solar concentrator to quantify the amount of energy that impinges on the receiver at a particular time. Energy availability is evaluated in a comparison of two configurations throughout the year: static setup at 21° and multi-position setup; tilted with respect to the horizontal, depending on three seasonal positions: 0° for summer, 16° for spring/autumn, and 32° for winter, with the aim to evaluate the amount of available energy in each season. The fact that a tracking system can be dispensed with also represents an economical option for the proposed application. The results showed that at 21°, the proposed solar Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC works satisfactorily; however, by carrying out the selected angular adjustments, the overall energy availability increased by 22%, resulting in a more efficient option. The most effective design was also built and analyzed outdoors. The obtained thermal efficiency was of ~43%. The optical design and its evaluation developed herein proved to be a valuable tool for prototype design and performance evaluation.

  10. Rio Grande transboundary integrated hydrologic model and water-availability analysis, New Mexico and Texas, United States, and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Ritchie, Andre; Boyce, Scott E.; Ferguson, Ian; Galanter, Amy; Flint, Lorraine E.; Henson, Wesley

    2018-05-31

    , and northern part of the Conejos-Médanos Basin, with the entire region referred to as the “Transboundary Rio Grande” or TRG. These tools provide a means to understand hydrologic system response to the evolution of water use in the region, its availability, and potential operational constraints of the RGP.The conceptual model identified surface-water and groundwater inflows and outflows that included the movement and use of water both in natural and in anthropogenic systems. The groundwater-flow system is characterized by a layered geologic sedimentary sequence combined with the effects of ground