WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher resolution runs

  1. High Resolution Nature Runs and the Big Data Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. Phillip; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center is undertaking a series of very computationally intensive Nature Runs and a downscaled reanalysis. The nature runs use the GEOS-5 as an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) while the reanalysis uses the GEOS-5 in Data Assimilation mode. This paper will present computational challenges from three runs, two of which are AGCM and one is downscaled reanalysis using the full DAS. The nature runs will be completed at two surface grid resolutions, 7 and 3 kilometers and 72 vertical levels. The 7 km run spanned 2 years (2005-2006) and produced 4 PB of data while the 3 km run will span one year and generate 4 BP of data. The downscaled reanalysis (MERRA-II Modern-Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications) will cover 15 years and generate 1 PB of data. Our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS), a specialization of the concept of business process-as-a-service that is an evolving extension of IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS enabled by cloud computing. In this presentation, we will describe two projects that demonstrate this shift. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is an example of cloud-enabled CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over MERRA reanalysis data collection by bringing together the high-performance computing, scalable data management, and a domain-specific climate data services API. NASA's High-Performance Science Cloud (HPSC) is an example of the type of compute-storage fabric required to support CAaaS. The HPSC comprises a high speed Infinib and network, high performance file systems and object storage, and a virtual system environments specific for data intensive, science applications. These technologies are providing a new tier in the data and analytic services stack that helps connect earthbound, enterprise-level data and computational resources to new customers and new mobility

  2. Higher Resolution for Water Resources Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth system science community is providing an increasing range of science results for the benefit of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In addressing questions such as reducing poverty and hunger, achieving sustainable global development, or by defining adaptation strategies for climate change, one of the key issues will be the quantitative description and understanding of the global water cycle, which will allow useful projections of available future water resources for several decades ahead. The quantities of global water cycle elements that we observe today - and deal with in hydrologic and atmospheric modeling - are already very different from the natural flows as human influence on the water cycle by storage, consumption and edifice has been going on for millennia, and climate change is expected to add more uncertainty. In this case Tony Blair’s comment that perhaps the most worrying problem is climate change does not cover the full story. We shall also have to quantify how the human demand for water resources and alterations of the various elements of the water cycle may proceed in the future: will there be enough of the precious water resource to sustain current and future demands by the various sectors involved? The topics that stakeholders and decision makers concerned with managing water resources are interested in cover a variety of human uses such as agriculture, energy production, ecological flow requirements to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, or human cultural aspects, recreation and human well-being - all typically most relevant at the regional or local scales, this being quite different from the relatively large-scale that the IPCC assessment addresses. Halfway through the Millennium process, the knowledge base of the global water cycle is still limited. The sustainability of regional water resources is best assessed through a research program that combines high-resolution climate and hydrologic models for expected

  3. Higher spin resolution of a toy big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Roy, Shubho

    2013-08-01

    Diffeomorphisms preserve spacetime singularities, whereas higher spin symmetries need not. Since three-dimensional de Sitter space has quotients that have big-bang/big-crunch singularities and since dS3-gravity can be written as an SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory, we investigate SL(3,C) Chern-Simons theory as a higher-spin context in which these singularities might get resolved. As in the case of higher spin black holes in AdS3, the solutions are invariantly characterized by their holonomies. We show that the dS3 quotient singularity can be desingularized by an SL(3,C) gauge transformation that preserves the holonomy: this is a higher spin resolution the cosmological singularity. Our work deals exclusively with the bulk theory, and is independent of the subtleties involved in defining a CFT2 dual to dS3 in the sense of dS/CFT.

  4. Picometer-resolution dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Zhao, Bofeng; Li, Cui; Pan, Yingling; Liu, Ya; Yasui, Takeshi; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-19

    Dual-comb spectroscopy holds the promise as real-time, high-resolution spectroscopy tools. However, in its conventional schemes, the stringent requirement on the coherence between two lasers requires sophisticated control systems. By replacing control electronics with an all-optical dual-comb lasing scheme, a simplified dual-comb spectroscopy scheme is demonstrated using one dual-wavelength, passively mode-locked fiber laser. Pulses with a intracavity-dispersion-determined repetition-frequency difference are shown to have good mutual coherence and stability. Capability to resolve the comb teeth and a picometer-wide optical spectral resolution are demonstrated using a simple data acquisition system. Energy-efficient, free-running fiber lasers with a small comb-tooth-spacing could enable low-cost dual-comb systems.

  5. Estimation of red-light running frequency using high-resolution traffic and signal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yu, Guizhen; Wu, Xinkai; Ren, Yilong; Li, Yueguang

    2017-05-01

    Red-light-running (RLR) emerges as a major cause that may lead to intersection-related crashes and endanger intersection safety. To reduce RLR violations, it's critical to identify the influential factors associated with RLR and estimate RLR frequency. Without resorting to video camera recordings, this study investigates this important issue by utilizing high-resolution traffic and signal event data collected from loop detectors at five intersections on Trunk Highway 55, Minneapolis, MN. First, a simple method is proposed to identify RLR by fully utilizing the information obtained from stop bar detectors, downstream entrance detectors and advance detectors. Using 12 months of event data, a total of 6550 RLR cases were identified. According to a definition of RLR frequency as the conditional probability of RLR on a certain traffic or signal condition (veh/1000veh), the relationships between RLR frequency and some influential factors including arriving time at advance detector, approaching speed, headway, gap to the preceding vehicle on adjacent lane, cycle length, geometric characteristics and even snowing weather were empirically investigated. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with the traffic engineering practice, e.g., RLR is most likely to occur on weekdays during peak periods under large traffic demands and longer signal cycles, and a total of 95.24% RLR events occurred within the first 1.5s after the onset of red phase. The findings confirmed that vehicles tend to run the red light when they are close to intersection during phase transition, and the vehicles following the leading vehicle with short headways also likely run the red light. Last, a simplified nonlinear regression model is proposed to estimate RLR frequency based on the data from advance detector. The study is expected to helpbetter understand RLR occurrence and further contribute to the future improvement of intersection safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extended Opacity Tables with Higher Temperature-Density-Frequency Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Mark; Orban, Chris; Delahaye, Franck; Pinsonneault, Marc; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical models for plasma opacities underpin our understanding of radiation transport in many different astrophysical objects. These opacity models are also relevant to HEDP experiments such as ignition scale experiments on NIF. We present a significantly expanded set of opacity data from the widely utilized Opacity Project, and make these higher resolution data publicly available through OSU's portal with dropbox.com. This expanded data set is used to assess how accurate the interpolation of opacity data in temperature-density-frequency dimensions must be in order to adequately model the properties of most stellar types. These efforts are the beginning of a larger project to improve the theoretical opacity models in light of experimental results at the Sandia Z-pinch showing that the measured opacity of Iron disagrees strongly with all current models.

  7. Faster Defect Resolution with Higher Technical Quality of Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed an empirical study of the relation between technical quality of software products and the defect resolution performance of their maintainers. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that ratings for source code maintainability, as employed by the SIG quality model, are correlated with

  8. Higher Resolution and Faster MRI of 31Phosphorus in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Merideth; Barrett, Sean; Sethna, Zachary; Insogna, Karl; Vanhouten, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Probing the internal composition of bone on the sub-100 μm length scale is important to study normal features and to look for signs of disease. However, few useful non-destructive techniques are available to evaluate changes in the bone mineral chemical structure and functional micro-architecture on the interior of bones. MRI would be an excellent candidate, but bone is a particularly challenging tissue to study given the relatively low water density, wider linewidths of its solid components leading to low spatial resolution, and the long imaging time compared to conventional 1H MRI. Our lab has recently made advances in obtaining high spatial resolution (sub-400 μm)3 three-dimensional 31Phosphorus MRI of bone through use of the quadratic echo line-narrowing sequence (1). In this talk, we describe our current results using proton decoupling to push this technique even further towards the factor of 1000 increase in spatial resolution imposed by fundamental limits. We also discuss our work to speed up imaging through novel, faster reconstruction algorithms that can reconstruct the desired image from very sparse data sets. (1) M. Frey, et al. PNAS 109: 5190 (2012).

  9. Fine grained nuclear emulsion for higher resolution tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T., E-mail: naka@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Hakamata, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T. [Graduated School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tawara, Y. [Division of Energy Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); De Lellis, G. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); D' Ambrossio, N. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Fine grained nuclear emulsion with several 10 nm silver halide crystals can detect submicron tracks. This detector is expected to be worked as dark matter detector with directional sensitive. Now, nuclear emulsion became possible to be produced at Nagoya University, and extreme fine grained nuclear emulsion with 20 nm diameter was produced. Using this emulsion and new reading out technique with expansion technique, for optical selection and X-ray microscopy, recoiled tracks induced by dark matter can be detected automatically. Then, readout efficiency is larger than 80% at 120 nm, and angular resolution for final confirmation with X-ray microscopy is 20°. In addition, we started to construct the R and D underground facility in Gran Sasso.

  10. Exploring Opportunities for Conflict Resolution in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli-DiManna, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to identify methods to improve conflict management skills of administrative staff in higher education. General systems, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and (c) Burton's human needs theories served as the conceptual frameworks for the study. The lived experiences of 25 community…

  11. The ATLAS Trigger Menu Design for Higher Luminosities in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this presentation we describe the design criteria for the trigger menu for Run-2. We discuss several aspects of the process of planning the trigger menu, starting from how ATLAS physics goals and the need for detector performance measurements enter the menu design, and how rate, bandwidth, and CPU constraints are folded in during the compilation of the menu. We present the tools that allow us to predict and optimize the trigger rates and CPU consumption for the anticipated LHC luminosities. We outline the online system that we implemented to monitor deviations from the individual trigger target rates and to quickly react to changing LHC conditions and data taking scenarios. Finally we give an overview of the updated 2E34 Trigger Menu, allowing the listener to get a taste of the vast physics program that the trigger is supporting.

  12. The Muon Momentum Resolution fo the D0 Experiment in Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, O. [Gottingen Univ. (Germany); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hedin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Santos, A. S. [Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tuchming, B. [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay (France)

    2012-07-19

    This note describes the procedure used to determine the muon momentum resolution and corrections applied to MC events. These corrections are derived using J/ψ→μ⁺μ⁻ and Z,γ*→μ⁺μ⁻ events, including tail regions of the invariant mass distribution. Results for a subset of the data are used as an example.

  13. Picometer-resolution dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running fibre laser

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Zhao, Bofeng; Li, Cui; Pan, Yingling; Liu, Ya; Yasui, Takeshi; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy utilizes two sets of comb lines with slightly different comb-tooth-spacings, and optical spectral information is acquired by measuring the radio-frequency beat notes between the sets of comb lines. It holds the promise as a real-time, high-resolution analytical spectroscopy tool for a range of applications. However, the stringent requirement on the coherence between comb lines from two separate lasers and the sophisticated control system to achieve that have confined th...

  14. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger Menu for higher luminosities: Design, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment aims at recording about 1 kHz of physics collisions, starting with an LHC design bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. To reduce the massive background rate while maintaining a high selection efficiency for rare physics events (such as beyond the Standard Model physics), a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. A trigger menu is a compilation of these triggers which specifies the physics algorithms to be used during data taking and the bandwidth a given trigger is allocated. Trigger menus reflect not only the physics goals of the collaboration for a given run, but also take into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and limitations from the...

  15. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger Menu for higher luminosities: Design, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Torro Pastor, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment aims at recording about 1 kHz of physics collisions, starting with an LHC design bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. To reduce the massive background rate while maintaining a high selection efficiency for rare physics events (such as beyond the Standard Model physics), a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. A trigger menu is a compilation of these triggers which specifies the physics algorithms to be used during data taking and the bandwidth a given trigger is allocated. Trigger menus reflect not only the physics goals of the collaboration for a given run, but also take into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and limitations from the...

  16. The ATLAS Trigger Menu design for higher luminosities in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Torro Pastor, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment aims at recording about 1 kHz of physics collisions, starting with an LHC design bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. To reduce the large background rate while maintaining a high selection efficiency for rare physics events (such as beyond the Standard Model physics), a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as the presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multivariate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering for the many analyses that are pursued by the ATLAS community. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of nearly two thousand individual triggers. A Trigger Menu is the compilation of these triggers, it specifies the physics selection algorithms to be used during data taking and the rate and bandwidth a given trigger is allocated. Trigger menus must reflect the physics goals of the collaboration for a given run, but also take into con...

  17. The high-resolution powder diffraction station PO DI STA is ''running'' at Adone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Simeoni, S.; Cappuccio, G.; Maistrelli, P.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of February 1991, a ''triple-axis'' high-resolution diffractometer for on powder sample measurements with synchrotron radiation was put in operation on the Adone wiggler line BX1 at Frascati. The diffractometer is based on a Seifert goniometer, designed according to our specifications. During the project, particular attention was paid in assuring the highest reliability together with great flexibility in the use. In fact, the diffractometer can also be used in a ''medium resolution'' configuration. For preliminary alignment and data collection, it is possible to operate with a traditional x-ray tube, too. The alignment procedure of the diffractometer to the x-ray beam is very easy. Powder samples can be measured both on the flat holder and on the capillary. An IBM PC computer is used for the instrument actuation and preliminary on-line data collection, while a large software package has been developed for the data analysis performed by a Macintosh IIcx. The instrument performance has been tested with a standard Si sample and quartz and Ni oxide samples. For the two possible resolution configurations, a test on a NiO sample gave FWHM values of 0.16 degree and 0.04 degree, respectively, for the [012] peak

  18. Higher surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by high - resolution climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Janneke; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Box, Jason E.; Bales, Roger C.

    2009-01-01

    High‐resolution (∼11 km) regional climate modeling shows total annual precipitation on the Greenland ice sheet for 1958–2007 to be up to 24% and surface mass balance up to 63% higher than previously thought. The largest differences occur in coastal southeast Greenland, where the much higher

  19. Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaseena M.P.M., Fathima; P., Divya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find out the extent and difference in the mean scores of Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher secondary school students of Kerala. A survey technique was used for the study. Sample consists of 685 higher secondary students by giving due representation other criteria. Findings revealed that…

  20. Higher-resolution selective metallization on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Suhuan; Ai, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    How to fabricate conductive patterns on ceramic boards with higher resolution is a challenge in the past years. The fabrication of copper patterns on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless copper plating is a low cost and high efficiency method. Nevertheless, the lower resolution limits its further industrial applications in many fields. In this report, the mechanisms of laser direct writing and electroless copper plating were studied. The results indicated that as the decomposed products of precursor PdCl2 have different chemical states respectively in laser-irradiated zone (LIZ) and laser-affected zone (LAZ). This phenomenon was utilized and a special chemical cleaning method with aqua regia solution was taken to selectively remove the metallic Pd in LAZ, while kept the PdO in LIZ as the only active seeds. As a result, the resolution of subsequent copper patterns was improved significantly. This technique has a great significance to develop the microelectronics devices.

  1. Higher-resolution selective metallization on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Suhuan; Ai, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mechanisms of laser direct writing and electroless plating were studied. • Active seeds in laser-irradiated zone and laser-affected zone were found to be different. • A special chemical cleaning method with aqua regia was taken. • Higher-resolution copper patterns on alumina ceramic were obtained conveniently. - Abstract: How to fabricate conductive patterns on ceramic boards with higher resolution is a challenge in the past years. The fabrication of copper patterns on alumina substrate by laser direct writing and electroless copper plating is a low cost and high efficiency method. Nevertheless, the lower resolution limits its further industrial applications in many fields. In this report, the mechanisms of laser direct writing and electroless copper plating were studied. The results indicated that as the decomposed products of precursor PdCl_2 have different chemical states respectively in laser-irradiated zone (LIZ) and laser-affected zone (LAZ). This phenomenon was utilized and a special chemical cleaning method with aqua regia solution was taken to selectively remove the metallic Pd in LAZ, while kept the PdO in LIZ as the only active seeds. As a result, the resolution of subsequent copper patterns was improved significantly. This technique has a great significance to develop the microelectronics devices.

  2. Internationalization of Higher Education in China: Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools and the Introduction of High-Quality Foreign Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen

    2009-01-01

    With the acceleration of the internationalization process of higher education in China, the Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools (CFCRS) has been developing at an expeditious pace nowadays. It positively enhances the internationalization process of Chinese higher education and greatly contributes to providing the society with talents.…

  3. Prospects for higher spatial resolution quantitative X-ray analysis using transition element L-lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, P.; Holland, J.

    2014-03-01

    Lowering electron beam kV reduces electron scattering and improves spatial resolution of X-ray analysis. However, a previous round robin analysis of steels at 5 - 6 kV using Lα-lines for the first row transition elements gave poor accuracies. Our experiments on SS63 steel using Lα-lines show similar biases in Cr and Ni that cannot be corrected with changes to self-absorption coefficients or carbon coating. The inaccuracy may be caused by different probabilities for emission and anomalous self-absorption for the La-line between specimen and pure element standard. Analysis using Ll(L3-M1)-lines gives more accurate results for SS63 plausibly because the M1-shell is not so vulnerable to the atomic environment as the unfilled M4,5-shell. However, Ll-intensities are very weak and WDS analysis may be impractical for some applications. EDS with large area SDD offers orders of magnitude faster analysis and achieves similar results to WDS analysis with Lα-lines but poorer energy resolution precludes the use of Ll-lines in most situations. EDS analysis of K-lines at low overvoltage is an alternative strategy for improving spatial resolution that could give higher accuracy. The trade-off between low kV versus low overvoltage is explored in terms of sensitivity for element detection for different elements.

  4. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  5. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  6. High Resolution Higher Energy X-ray Microscope for Mesoscopic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snigireva, I; Snigirev, A

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel X-ray microscopy technique to study mesoscopically structured materials, employing compound refractive lenses. The easily seen advantage of lens-based methodology is the possibility to retrieve high resolution diffraction pattern and real-space images in the same experimental setup. Methodologically the proposed approach is similar to the studies of crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The proposed microscope was applied for studying of mesoscopic materials such as natural and synthetic opals, inverted photonic crystals

  7. High-resolution empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D: Investigating run-on-request and forecasting modes of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    The dramatic increase of the geomagnetic field data volume available due to many recent missions, including GOES, Polar, Geotail, Cluster, and THEMIS, required at some point the appropriate qualitative transition in the empirical modeling tools. Classical empirical models, such as T96 and T02, used few custom-tailored modules to represent major magnetospheric current systems and simple data binning or loading-unloading inputs for their fitting with data and the subsequent applications. They have been replaced by more systematic expansions of the equatorial and field-aligned current contributions as well as by the advanced data-mining algorithms searching for events with the global activity parameters, such as the Sym-H index, similar to those at the time of interest, as is done in the model TS07D (Tsyganenko and Sitnov, 2007; Sitnov et al., 2008). The necessity to mine and fit data dynamically, with the individual subset of the database being used to reproduce the geomagnetic field pattern at every new moment in time, requires the corresponding transition in the use of the new empirical geomagnetic field models. It becomes more similar to runs-on-request offered by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center for many first principles MHD and kinetic codes. To provide this mode of operation for the TS07D model a new web-based modeling tool has been created and tested at the JHU/APL (http://geomag_field.jhuapl.edu/model/), and we discuss the first results of its performance testing and validation, including in-sample and out-of-sample modeling of a number of CME- and CIR-driven magnetic storms. We also report on the first tests of the forecasting version of the TS07D model, where the magnetospheric part of the macro-parameters involved in the data-binning process (Sym-H index and its trend parameter) are replaced by their solar wind-based analogs obtained using the Burton-McPherron-Russell approach.

  8. Monitoring crop leaf area index time variation from higher resolution remotely sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is significant for research on global climate change and ecological environment. China HJ-1 satellite has a revisit cycle of four days, providing CCD data (HJ-1 CCD) with a resolution of 30 m. However, the HJ-1 CCD is incapable of obtaining observations at multiple angles. This is problematic because single angle observations provide insufficient data for determining the LAI. This article proposes a new method for determining LAI using HJ-1 CCD data. The proposed method uses background knowledge of dynamic land surface processes that are extracted from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI 1-km resolution data. To process the uncertainties that arise from using two data sources with different spatial resolutions, the proposed method is implemented in a dynamitic Bayesian network scheme by integrating a LAI dynamic process model and a canopy reflectance model with remotely sensed data. Validation results showed that the determination coefficient between estimated and measured LAI was 0.791, and the RMSE was 0.61. This method can enhance the accuracy of the retrieval results while retaining the time series variation characteristics of the vegetation LAI. The results suggest that this algorithm can be widely applied to determining high-resolution leaf area indices using data from China HJ-1 satellite even if information from single angle observations are insufficient for quantitative application

  9. Finsler geometry on higher order tensor fields and applications to high angular resolution diffusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astola, L.J.; Florack, L.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study 3D-multidirectional images, using Finsler geometry. The application considered here is in medical image analysis, specifically in High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) (Tuch et al. in Magn. Reson. Med. 48(6):1358–1372, 2004) of the brain. The goal is to reveal the architecture

  10. Finsler geometry on higher order tensor fields and applications to high angular resolution diffusion imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astola, L.; Florack, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study 3D-multidirectional images, using Finsler geometry. The application considered here is in medical image analysis, specifically in High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) (Tuch et al. in Magn. Reson. Med. 48(6):1358–1372, 2004) of the brain. The goal is to reveal the architecture

  11. Finsler geometry on higher order tensor fields and applications to high angular resolution diffusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astola, L.J.; Florack, L.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We study 3D-multidirectional images, using Finsler geometry. The application considered here is in medical image analysis, specifically in High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) [24] of the brain. The goal is to reveal the architecture of the neural fibers in brain white matter. To the

  12. Circuit modification in electrical field flow fractionation systems generating higher resolution separation of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasci, Tonguc O; Johnson, William P; Fernandez, Diego P; Manangon, Eliana; Gale, Bruce K

    2014-10-24

    Compared to other sub-techniques of field flow fractionation (FFF), cyclical electrical field flow fractionation (CyElFFF) is a relatively new method with many opportunities remaining for improvement. One of the most important limitations of this method is the separation of particles smaller than 100nm. For such small particles, the diffusion rate becomes very high, resulting in severe reductions in the CyElFFF separation efficiency. To address this limitation, we modified the electrical circuitry of the ElFFF system. In all earlier ElFFF reports, electrical power sources have been directly connected to the ElFFF channel electrodes, and no alteration has been made in the electrical circuitry of the system. In this work, by using discrete electrical components, such as resistors and diodes, we improved the effective electric field in the system to allow high resolution separations. By modifying the electrical circuitry of the ElFFF system, high resolution separations of 15 and 40nm gold nanoparticles were achieved. The effects of applying different frequencies, amplitudes and voltage shapes have been investigated and analyzed through experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Interdisciplinary and Active Research to Encourage Higher Resolution Research and Prototyping in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adream Blair-Early

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available University art and design programs are branching out and creating interdisciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to position industry and academic leaders to work alongside students, community leaders, artists and non-profits to develop creative and innovative solutions to the challenges facing contemporary society. But product design benefits even more from practices that engage users throughout the entire design process, often called participatory design. Participatory design process utilizes user feedback throughout the design process to spur innovation and improve design quality. It is possible in the classroom to engage in participatory design and participatory prototyping through the use of inexpensive 3D printers and laser cutters as well as traditional hand tools, requiring only mastery of a few simple techniques and technology readily available on laptop computers. The class research being presented was conceived as part of a new interdisciplinary classroom research space call the Digital Craft Research Lab (DCRL housed within the department of Art and Design. Courses taught within the DCRL offer students, researchers and faculty continual access to both low resolution and high-resolution prototyping machinery and materials. This paper looks at the role of action and participatory research in a design course that created printed hand innovations in collaboration with a nine-year-old female user. Students were asked to work on modeling new designs as well as capturing the progress in a final open source book and models. This paper asks the question can the use of classroom collaboration, action research and work spaces encourage creativity, innovation, and critical thinking in student and professional

  14. Acculturative Experiences Among Indonesian Graduate Students in US Higher Education: Academic Shock, Adjustment, Crisis, and Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Mukminin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to describe and understand the lived experiences of the acculturative process of Indonesian graduate students at an American public research university. The theoretical frameworks of Oberg’s (1960 Culture Shock Model and Berry and his colleagues’ (1987 and Berry’s (2006 Acculturation Stress Model were used to guide this study. Data for this study were collected through a demographic background survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions with Indonesian graduate students. The demographic data were analyzed descriptively. The interviews and focus groups data were analyzed using within-case and cross-case displays and analyses (Miles and Huberman 1994. Five salient themes and sub-themes that emerged were: academic shock, adjustment, crisis, resolution, and what helps/does not help? Implications and strategies for professionals and scholars who work with international students in practice, education, and policy are discussed. In addition, strategies to promote Indonesian graduate students’ academic and social success in graduate programs are included. Suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  15. Higher resolution cine imaging with compressed sensing for accelerated clinical left ventricular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aaron C W; Strugnell, Wendy; Riley, Robyn; Schmitt, Benjamin; Zenge, Michael; Schmidt, Michaela; Morris, Norman R; Hamilton-Craig, Christian

    2017-06-01

    To assess the clinical feasibility of a compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence of both high temporal and spatial resolution (CS_bSSFP) in comparison to a balanced steady-state free precession cine (bSSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass. Segmented MRI cine images were acquired on a 1.5T scanner in 50 patients in the LV short-axis stack orientation using a retrospectively gated conventional bSSFP sequence (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition [GRAPPA] acceleration factor 2), followed by a prospectively triggered CS_bSSFP sequence with net acceleration factor of 8. Image quality was assessed by published criteria. Comparison of sequences was made in LV volumes and mass, image quality score, quantitative regional myocardial wall motion, and imaging time using Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman and paired 2-tailed Student's t-test. Differences (bSSFP minus CS_bSSFP, mean ± SD) and Pearson's correlations were 14.8 ± 16.3 (P = 0.31) and r = 0.98 (P cine CS_bSSFP accurately and reliably quantitates LV volumes and mass, shortens acquisition times, and is clinically feasible. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1693-1699. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Flexible hydrological modeling - Disaggregation from lumped catchment scale to higher spatial resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc Quan; Willems, Patrick; Pannemans, Bart; Blanckaert, Joris; Pereira, Fernando; Nossent, Jiri; Cauwenberghs, Kris; Vansteenkiste, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Based on an international literature review on model structures of existing rainfall-runoff and hydrological models, a generalized model structure is proposed. It consists of different types of meteorological components, storage components, splitting components and routing components. They can be spatially organized in a lumped way, or on a grid, spatially interlinked by source-to-sink or grid-to-grid (cell-to-cell) routing. The grid size of the model can be chosen depending on the application. The user can select/change the spatial resolution depending on the needs and/or the evaluation of the accuracy of the model results, or use different spatial resolutions in parallel for different applications. Major research questions addressed during the study are: How can we assure consistent results of the model at any spatial detail? How can we avoid strong or sudden changes in model parameters and corresponding simulation results, when one moves from one level of spatial detail to another? How can we limit the problem of overparameterization/equifinality when we move from the lumped model to the spatially distributed model? The proposed approach is a step-wise one, where first the lumped conceptual model is calibrated using a systematic, data-based approach, followed by a disaggregation step where the lumped parameters are disaggregated based on spatial catchment characteristics (topography, land use, soil characteristics). In this way, disaggregation can be done down to any spatial scale, and consistently among scales. Only few additional calibration parameters are introduced to scale the absolute spatial differences in model parameters, but keeping the relative differences as obtained from the spatial catchment characteristics. After calibration of the spatial model, the accuracies of the lumped and spatial models were compared for peak, low and cumulative runoff total and sub-flows (at downstream and internal gauging stations). For the distributed models, additional

  17. Towards a resolution of the cosmological singularity in non-local higher derivative theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Tirthabir; Koivisto, Tomi; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest problems of standard cosmology is the Big Bang singularity. Previously it has been shown that non-local ghostfree higher-derivative modifications of Einstein gravity in the ultra-violet regime can admit non-singular bouncing solutions. In this paper we study in more details the dynamical properties of the equations of motion for these theories of gravity in presence of positive and negative cosmological constants and radiation. We find stable inflationary attractor solutions in the presence of a positive cosmological constant which renders inflation geodesically complete, while in the presence of a negative cosmological constant a cyclic universe emerges. We also provide an algorithm for tracking the super-Hubble perturbations during the bounce and show that the bouncing solutions are free from any perturbative instability

  18. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  19. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  20. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  1. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  2. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  3. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  4. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  5. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  6. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p jump index (p jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump.

  7. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  8. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  9. Three-dimensional inversion recovery manganese-enhanced MRI of mouse brain using super-resolution reconstruction to visualize nuclei involved in higher brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Dana S; Plenge, Esben; Poot, Dirk H J; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik; van der Weerd, Louise

    2014-07-01

    The visualization of activity in mouse brain using inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides unique contrast, but suffers from poor resolution in the slice-encoding direction. Super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) is a resolution-enhancing post-processing technique in which multiple low-resolution slice stacks are combined into a single volume of high isotropic resolution using computational methods. In this study, we investigated, first, whether SRR can improve the three-dimensional resolution of IR-SE MEMRI in the slice selection direction, whilst maintaining or improving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the two-dimensional slice stacks. Second, the contrast-to-noise ratio of SRR IR-SE MEMRI was compared with a conventional three-dimensional gradient echo (GE) acquisition. Quantitative experiments were performed on a phantom containing compartments of various manganese concentrations. The results showed that, with comparable scan times, the signal-to-noise ratio of three-dimensional GE acquisition is higher than that of SRR IR-SE MEMRI. However, the contrast-to-noise ratio between different compartments can be superior with SRR IR-SE MEMRI, depending on the chosen inversion time. In vivo experiments were performed in mice receiving manganese using an implanted osmotic pump. The results showed that SRR works well as a resolution-enhancing technique in IR-SE MEMRI experiments. In addition, the SRR image also shows a number of brain structures that are more clearly discernible from the surrounding tissues than in three-dimensional GE acquisition, including a number of nuclei with specific higher brain functions, such as memory, stress, anxiety and reward behavior. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Torsional resonance mode magnetic force microscopy: enabling higher lateral resolution magnetic imaging without topography-related effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidatzis, A; García-Martín, J M

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental work that reveals the benefits of performing magnetic force microscopy measurements employing the torsional resonance mode of cantilever oscillation. This approach provides two clear advantages: the ability of performing magnetic imaging without topography-related interference and the significant lateral resolution improvement (approximately 15%). We believe that this work demonstrates a significant improvement to a versatile magnetic imaging technique widely used in academia and in industry. (paper)

  11. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  12. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  13. Snow driven Radiative Forcing in High Latitude Areas of Disturbance Using Higher Resolution Albedo Products from Landsat and Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, A.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Rogers, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo plays an important role in the surface energy budget and radiative forcing by determining the proportion of absorbed incoming solar radiation available to drive photosynthesis and surface heating. In Arctic regions, albedo is particularly sensitive to land cover and land use change (LCLUC) and modeling efforts have shown it to be the primary driver of effective radiative forcing from the biogeophysical effects of LCLUC. In boreal forests, the effects of these changes are complicated during snow covered periods when newly exposed, highly reflective snow can serve as the primary driver of radiative forcing. In Arctic biomes disturbance scars from fire, pest and harvest can remain in the landscape for long periods of time. As such, understanding the magnitude and persistence of these disturbances, especially in the shoulder seasons, is critical. The Landsat and Sentinel-2 Albedo Products couple 30m and 20m surface reflectances with concurrent 500m BRDF Products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The 12 bit radiometric fidelity of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 allow for the inclusion of high-quality, unsaturated albedo calculations over snow covered surfaces at scales more compatible with fragmented landscapes. Recent work on the early spring albedo of fire scars has illustrated significant post-fire spatial heterogeneity of burn severity at the landscape scale and highlights the need for a finer spatial resolution albedo record. The increased temporal resolution provided by multiple satellite instruments also allows for a better understanding of albedo dynamics during the dynamic shoulder seasons and in historically difficult high latitude locations where persistent cloud cover limits high quality retrievals. Here we present how changes in the early spring albedo of recent boreal forest disturbance in Alaska and central Canada affects landscape-scale radiative forcing. We take advantage of the long historical Landsat record

  14. Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases is higher on streets, too, because these kids might use IV drugs or have unprotected sex (often for money). Runaway Prevention Let's face it — stress is a part of life, even for kids — but being able to deal with problems with ...

  15. Run 2 Upgrades to the CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Kreis, B.; Cavanaugh, R.; Mishra, K.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Apanasevich, L.; Zhang, J.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Foudas, C.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J.B.; Strebler, T.; Zabi, A.; Barbieri, R.; Cali, I.A.; Innocenti, G.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Roland, C.; Wyslouch, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Northup, M.; Tran, B.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Forbes, R.; Gorski, T.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W.; Svetek, A.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.

    2016-01-21

    The CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is being upgraded in two stages to maintain performance as the LHC increases pile-up and instantaneous luminosity in its second run. In the first stage, improved algorithms including event-by-event pile-up corrections are used. New algorithms for heavy ion running have also been developed. In the second stage, higher granularity inputs and a time-multiplexed approach allow for improved position and energy resolution. Data processing in both stages of the upgrade is performed with new, Xilinx Virtex-7 based AMC cards.

  16. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: the power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high-luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1 there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small-scale IFU maps.

  17. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  18. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... news is that many children whose parents had drug problems don't become addicted when they grow up. The chances of addiction are higher, but it doesn't have to ...

  19. Running and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electron run-away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The run-away effect of electrons for the Coulomb scattering has been studied by Dricer, but the question for other scattering mechanisms is not yet studied. Meanwhile, if the scattering is quasielastic, a general criterion for the run-away may be formulated; in this case the run-away influence on the distribution function may also be studied in somewhat general and qualitative manner. (Auth.)

  1. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  2. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  3. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  4. PRECIS Runs at IITM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRECIS Runs at IITM. Evaluation experiment using LBCs derived from ERA-15 (1979-93). Runs (3 ensembles in each experiment) already completed with LBCs having a length of 30 years each, for. Baseline (1961-90); A2 scenario (2071-2100); B2 scenario ...

  5. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  6. Capturing and displaying microscopic images used in medical diagnostics and forensic science using 4K video resolution – an application in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Kuijten; Ajda Ortac; Hans Maier; Gert de Heer

    2015-01-01

    To analyze, interpret and evaluate microscopic images, used in medical diagnostics and forensic science, video images for educational purposes were made with a very high resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (4K), which is four times as many pixels as High-Definition Video (1920 × 1080 pixels).

  7. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  8. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  9. Capturing and displaying microscopic images used in medical diagnostics and forensic science using 4K video resolution - an application in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Hans; de Heer, Gert; Ortac, Ajda; Kuijten, Jan

    2015-11-01

    To analyze, interpret and evaluate microscopic images, used in medical diagnostics and forensic science, video images for educational purposes were made with a very high resolution of 4096 × 2160 pixels (4K), which is four times as many pixels as High-Definition Video (1920 × 1080 pixels). The unprecedented high resolution makes it possible to see details that remain invisible to any other video format. The images of the specimens (blood cells, tissue sections, hair, fibre, etc.) are recorded using a 4K video camera which is attached to a light microscope. After processing, this resulted in very sharp and highly detailed images. This material was then used in education for classroom discussion. Spoken explanation by experts in the field of medical diagnostics and forensic science was also added to the high-resolution video images to make it suitable for self-study. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  11. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  12. The Design and Performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector Trigger for Run 2 LHC Collisions at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kilby, Callum; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the LHC Run 2 data with collisions at both 50 ns and 25 ns are discussed. The HLT ID tracking algorithms are essential for the identification of nearly all physics signatures in the ATLAS trigger. In order to deal with the expected higher rates for LHC Run 2, the ID trigger was redesigned during the 2013-15 long shutdown to satisfy the demands of the higher energy LHC operation. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the Run 2 data taken so far for the different trigger signatures in terms of both efficiency, and resolution is presented. The online processing times for running trigger tracking for the different trigger signatures are discussed in detail. Where appropriate, comparison of the new strategy for Run 2, with that adopted in Run 1 are made to demonstrate successful application and superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  13. The LHCb Run Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, M C; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Callot, O [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Paris 11, Orsay (France); Duval, P-Y [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Franek, B [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Galli, D, E-mail: Clara.Gaspar@cern.c [Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  14. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  15. Running injuries - changing trends and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B

    2011-01-01

    Running injuries are common. Recently the demographic has changed, in that most runners in road races are older and injuries now include those more common in master runners. In particular, Achilles/calf injuries, iliotibial band injury, meniscus injury, and muscle injuries to the hamstrings and quadriceps represent higher percentages of the overall injury mix in recent epidemiologic studies compared with earlier ones. Evidence suggests that running mileage and previous injury are important predictors of running injury. Evidence-based research now helps guide the treatment of iliotibial band, patellofemoral syndrome, and Achilles tendinopathy. The use of topical nitroglycerin in tendinopathy and orthotics for the treatment of patellofemoral syndrome has moderate to strong evidence. Thus, more current knowledge about the changing demographics of runners and the application of research to guide treatment and, eventually, prevent running injury offers hope that clinicians can help reduce the high morbidity associated with long-distance running.

  16. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  17. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  18. Urban Run-off Volumes Dependency on Rainfall Measurement Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Jensen, N. E.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Urban run-off is characterized with fast response since the large surface run-off in the catchments responds immediately to variations in the rainfall. Modeling such type of catchments is most often done with the input from very few rain gauges, but the large variation in rainfall over small areas...... resolutions and single gauge rainfall was fed to a MOUSE run-off model. The flow and total volume over the event is evaluated....

  19. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes on a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63, and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but indicates that there are still large errors at 120 km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over east Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution. However, subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is not greatly affected. We find that the export of short-lived precursors such as NOx by convection is overestimated at coarse resolution.

  20. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  1. Can Unshod Running Reduce Running Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    78 viii ACRONYMS FFS Forefoot Strike MFS Midfoot Strike RFS Rearfoot...differences between forefoot and rearfoot striking runners. Daoud collected the history of the 52 runners and quantified their injury rates and severity...conclusion was that the rearfoot striking runners have a significantly higher rate of repetitive stress injuries compared to forefoot runners

  2. Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2011-12-27

    Countries having a more individualist culture have enjoyed higher long-run growth than countries with a more collectivist culture. Individualist culture attaches social status rewards to personal achievements and thus, provides not only monetary incentives for innovation but also social status rewards, leading to higher rates of innovation and economic growth.

  3. Adding run history to CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  4. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  5. Computational electrodynamics in material media with constraint-preservation, multidimensional Riemann solvers and sub-cell resolution - Part II, higher order FVTD schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Garain, Sudip; Taflove, Allen; Montecinos, Gino

    2018-02-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) scheme has served the computational electrodynamics community very well and part of its success stems from its ability to satisfy the constraints in Maxwell's equations. Even so, in the previous paper of this series we were able to present a second order accurate Godunov scheme for computational electrodynamics (CED) which satisfied all the same constraints and simultaneously retained all the traditional advantages of Godunov schemes. In this paper we extend the Finite Volume Time Domain (FVTD) schemes for CED in material media to better than second order of accuracy. From the FDTD method, we retain a somewhat modified staggering strategy of primal variables which enables a very beneficial constraint-preservation for the electric displacement and magnetic induction vector fields. This is accomplished with constraint-preserving reconstruction methods which are extended in this paper to third and fourth orders of accuracy. The idea of one-dimensional upwinding from Godunov schemes has to be significantly modified to use the multidimensionally upwinded Riemann solvers developed by the first author. In this paper, we show how they can be used within the context of a higher order scheme for CED. We also report on advances in timestepping. We show how Runge-Kutta IMEX schemes can be adapted to CED even in the presence of stiff source terms brought on by large conductivities as well as strong spatial variations in permittivity and permeability. We also formulate very efficient ADER timestepping strategies to endow our method with sub-cell resolving capabilities. As a result, our method can be stiffly-stable and resolve significant sub-cell variation in the material properties within a zone. Moreover, we present ADER schemes that are applicable to all hyperbolic PDEs with stiff source terms and at all orders of accuracy. Our new ADER formulation offers a treatment of stiff source terms that is much more efficient than previous ADER

  6. Ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography evaluation reveals 3-fold higher association rate for sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations and developmental venous anomalies: a retrospective study in consecutive 58 patients with 60 cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, Burak [Aksaray State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aksaray (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Oz, Buge; Bakkaloglu, Dogu Vuralli [Istanbul University, Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Isler, Cihan [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    The imaging and surgical literature has confusing association rates for the association between sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs) and developmental venous anomalies (DVAs). In this study, our purpose was to determine the association rate using ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography (FDCTA) and compare it with literature. Fifty-eight patients with 60 sporadic intracranial CMs that underwent an FDCTA study were included in our retrospective study. Re-evaluation of radiological data was performed based on the criteria defined by authors. Isotropic volumetric reconstructions with ultra-high resolution (voxel size of 102 μm{sup 3} for initial; 67 μm{sup 3} and 32 μm{sup 3} for further evaluation) were used for assessment. Sixteen patients underwent surgery for excision of their CMs. Fifty-one of all patients (87.9 %) were associated with a DVA. Undefined local venous structures (UD-LVSs) were observed in the remaining 7 patients (12.1 %). The strength of interobserver agreement was excellent [kappa(k) coefficient = 0.923]. Ultra-high-resolution FDCTA evaluation of CMs and DVAs reveals 3-fold higher association rate compared to the literature. FDCTA for patients with sporadic CMs could help identify the associated DVAs that remained undetected or unclear with other imaging modalities, which can be useful in decision-making processes, planning surgery, and during operation. (orig.)

  7. The effect of taxonomic resolution on the assessment of ecological water quality classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Kloiber, A.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Within the ecological assessment of running waters based on benthic macroinvertebrates different levels of taxonomic resolution (species, genus, family and higher) are in use. Although assessment systems are often developed with detailed data on species level, water managers and other end-users

  8. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  9. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  10. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  11. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Running and Osteoarthritis: Does Recreational or Competitive Running Increase the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Exercise, like running, is good for overall health and, specifically, our hearts, lungs, muscles, bones, and brains. However, some people are concerned about the impact of running on longterm joint health. Does running lead to higher rates of arthritis in knees and hips? While many researchers find that running protects bone health, others are concerned that this exercise poses a high risk for age-related changes to hips and knees. A study published in the June 2017 issue of JOSPT suggests that the difference in these outcomes depends on the frequency and intensity of running. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(6):391. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0505.

  13. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  14. Effect of Light/Dark Cycle on Wheel Running and Responding Reinforced by the Opportunity to Run Depends on Postsession Feeding Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, T. W.; Mondona, A. R.; Conrad, K. M.; Poirier, K. F.; Pickering, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Do rats run and respond at a higher rate to run during the dark phase when they are typically more active? To answer this question, Long Evans rats were exposed to a response-initiated variable interval 30-s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement during light and dark cycles. Wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased modestly during…

  15. The efficacy of downhill running as a method to enhance running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-06-01

    Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners. Nineteen athletes completed supplementary downhill (-5% gradient; n = 10) or flat (n = 9) run training twice a week for 8 weeks within their habitual training. Participants trained at a standardised intensity based on the velocity of lactate turnpoint (vLTP), with training volume increased incrementally between weeks. Changes in energy cost of running (E C ) and vLTP were assessed on both flat and downhill gradients, in addition to maximal oxygen uptake (⩒O 2max). No changes in E C were observed during flat running following downhill (1.22 ± 0.09 vs 1.20 ± 0.07 Kcal kg -1  km -1 , P = .41) or flat run training (1.21 ± 0.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.12 Kcal kg -1  km -1 ). Moreover, no changes in E C during downhill running were observed in either condition (P > .23). vLTP increased following both downhill (16.5 ± 0.7 vs 16.9 ± 0.6 km h -1 , P = .05) and flat run training (16.9 ± 0.7 vs 17.2 ± 1.0 km h -1 , P = .05), though no differences in responses were observed between groups (P = .53). Therefore, a short programme of supplementary downhill run training does not appear to enhance RE in already well-trained individuals.

  16. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  17. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  18. The effect of three surface conditions, speed and running experience on vertical acceleration of the tibia during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Hannelore; Aeles, Jeroen; Schütte, Kurt; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-06-01

    Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e.g. vertical acceleration. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds, but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces (concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail) at two different running speeds: a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3.06 m/s. Vertical acceleration of the lower leg was measured with an accelerometer. The vertical acceleration was significantly lower during running on the woodchip trail in comparison with the synthetic running track and the concrete, and significantly lower during running at lower speed in comparison with during running at higher speed on all surfaces. No significant differences in vertical acceleration were found between the three groups of runners at fixed speed. Higher self-selected speed due to higher performance level also did not result in higher vertical acceleration. These results may show that running on a woodchip trail and slowing down could reduce the injury risk at the tibia.

  19. Run-2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a pp centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV, and ATLAS has taken first data at this new energy. In this talk the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment during the 2-year shutdown 2013/2014 will be discussed, and first detector and trigger performance results from the Run-2 will be shown. In general, reconstruction algorithms of tracks, e/gamma, muons, taus, jets and flavour tag- ging have been improved for Run-2. The new reconstruction algorithms and their performance measured using the data taken in 2015 at sqrt(s)=13 TeV will be discussed. Reconstruction efficiency, isolation performance, transverse momentum resolution and momentum scales are measured in various regions of the detector and in momentum intervals enlarged with respect to those measured in the Run-1. This presentation will also give an overview of the upgrades to the ATLAS trigger system that have been implemented during the LHC shutdown in order to deal with the increased trigger rates (fact...

  20. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We...... of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas...

  1. Darlington up and running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Show, Don

    1993-01-01

    We've built some of the largest and most successful generating stations in the world. Nonetheless, we cannot take our knowledge and understanding of the technology for granted. Although, I do believe that we are getting better, building safer, more efficient plants, and introducing significant improvements to our existing stations. Ontario Hydro is a large and technically rich organization. Even so, we realize that partnerships with others in the industry are absolutely vital. I am thinking particularly of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. We enjoy a very close relationship with Aecl, and their support was never more important than during the N/A Investigations. In recent years, we've strengthened our relationship with Aecl considerably. For example, we recently signed an agreement with Aecl, making available all of the Darlington 900 MW e design. Much of the cooperation between Ontario Hydro and Aecl occurs through the CANDU Engineering Authority and the CANDU Owners Group (CO G). These organizations are helping both of US to greatly improve cooperation and efficiency, and they are helping ensure we get the biggest return on our CANDU investments. CO G also provides an important information network which links CANDU operators in Canada, here in Korea, Argentina, India, Pakistan and Romania. In many respects, it is helping to develop the strong partnerships to support CANDU technology worldwide. We all benefit in the long run form sharing information and resources

  2. The NLstart2run study: Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries in novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluitenberg, B; van Middelkoop, M; Smits, D W; Verhagen, E; Hartgens, F; Diercks, R; van der Worp, H

    2015-10-01

    Running is a popular form of physical activity, despite of the high incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs). Because of methodological issues, the etiology of RRIs remains unclear. Therefore, the purposes of the study were to assess the incidence of RRIs and to identify risk factors for RRIs in a large group of novice runners. In total, 1696 runners of a 6-week supervised "Start to Run" program were included in the NLstart2run study. All participants were aged between 18 and 65, completed a baseline questionnaire that covered potential risk factors, and completed at least one running diary. RRIs were registered during the program with a weekly running log. An RRI was defined as a musculo-skeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back attributed to running and hampering running ability for three consecutive training sessions. During the running program, 10.9% of the runners sustained an RRI. The multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that a higher age, higher BMI, previous musculo-skeletal complaints not attributed to sports and no previous running experience were related to RRI. These findings indicate that many novice runners participating in a short-term running program suffer from RRIs. Therefore, the identified risk factors should be considered for screening and prevention purposes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  4. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  5. Running as a Key Lifestyle Medicine for Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Chul; Brellenthin, Angelique G; Thompson, Paul D; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, I-Min; Lavie, Carl J

    Running is a popular and convenient leisure-time physical activity (PA) with a significant impact on longevity. In general, runners have a 25%-40% reduced risk of premature mortality and live approximately 3 years longer than non-runners. Recently, specific questions have emerged regarding the extent of the health benefits of running versus other types of PA, and perhaps more critically, whether there are diminishing returns on health and mortality outcomes with higher amounts of running. This review details the findings surrounding the impact of running on various health outcomes and premature mortality, highlights plausible underlying mechanisms linking running with chronic disease prevention and longevity, identifies the estimated additional life expectancy among runners and other active individuals, and discusses whether there is adequate evidence to suggest that longevity benefits are attenuated with higher doses of running. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Jasper; Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations before and during the first half of stance and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n = 13) and low mileage (LM; joint stiffness might predominantly be governed by tendon stiffness rather than muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners, which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although neuromuscular factors play a key role during running, the influence of high mileage training on neuromuscular function has been poorly studied, especially in relation to running speed. This study is the first to demonstrate changes in neuromuscular conditioning with high mileage training, mainly characterized by lower thigh muscle activation after touch down, higher initial knee stiffness, and greater estimates of energy return, with adaptations being increasingly evident at faster running speeds. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  9. Asymmetric information and bank runs

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chao

    2007-01-01

    It is known that sunspots can trigger panic-based bank runs and that the optimal banking contract can tolerate panic-based runs. The existing literature assumes that these sunspots are based on a publicly observed extrinsic randomizing device. In this paper, I extend the analysis of panic-based runs to include an asymmetric-information, extrinsic randomizing device. Depositors observe different, but correlated, signals on the stability of the bank. I find that if the signals that depositors o...

  10. How to run 100 meters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    A paraitre dans SIAP; The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: ...

  11. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  12. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c ), and aerial time (t a ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert ), and leg stiffness (k leg ) were then estimated. Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean -5.6% ± 0.3%, P running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (-6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean -29.2% and -5.1%, respectively, P running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

  13. Similar Running Economy With Different Running Patterns Along the Aerial-Terrestrial Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Gimenez, Philippe; Mourot, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    No unique or ideal running pattern is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into 2 categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare the RE of aerial and terrestrial runners. Two coaches classified 58 runners into aerial (n = 29) or terrestrial (n = 29) running patterns on the basis of visual observations. RE, muscle activity, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters of both groups were measured during a 5-min run at 12 km/h on a treadmill. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 max) and peak treadmill speed (PTS) were assessed during an incremental running test. No differences were observed between aerial and terrestrial patterns for RE, V̇O 2 max, and PTS. However, at 12 km/h, aerial runners exhibited earlier gastrocnemius lateralis activation in preparation for contact, less dorsiflexion at ground contact, higher coactivation indexes, and greater leg stiffness during stance phase than terrestrial runners. Terrestrial runners had more pronounced semitendinosus activation at the start and end of the running cycle, shorter flight time, greater leg compression, and a more rear-foot strike. Different running patterns were associated with similar RE. Aerial runners appear to rely more on elastic energy utilization with a rapid eccentric-concentric coupling time, whereas terrestrial runners appear to propel the body more forward rather than upward to limit work against gravity. Excluding runners with a mixed running pattern from analyses did not affect study interpretation.

  14. Changes in running kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h treadmill run (24TR). Kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass characteristics of the running step were assessed in 10 experienced ultralong-distance runners before, every 2 h, and after a 24TR using an instrumented treadmill dynamometer. These measurements were performed at 10 km·h, and mechanical parameters were sampled at 1000 Hz for 10 consecutive steps. Contact and aerial times were determined from ground reaction force (GRF) signals and used to compute step frequency. Maximal GRF, loading rate, downward displacement of the center of mass, and leg length change during the support phase were determined and used to compute both vertical and leg stiffness. Subjects' running pattern and spring-mass behavior significantly changed over the 24TR with a 4.9% higher step frequency on average (because of a significantly 4.5% shorter contact time), a lower maximal GRF (by 4.4% on average), a 13.0% lower leg length change during contact, and an increase in both leg and vertical stiffness (+9.9% and +8.6% on average, respectively). Most of these changes were significant from the early phase of the 24TR (fourth to sixth hour of running) and could be speculated as contributing to an overall limitation of the potentially harmful consequences of such a long-duration run on subjects' musculoskeletal system. During a 24TR, the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior show a clear shift toward a higher oscillating frequency and stiffness, along with lower GRF and leg length change (hence a reduced overall eccentric load) during the support phase of running. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  15. CDF run II run control and online monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, T.; Ikado, K.; Badgett, W.; Chlebana, F.; Maeshima, K.; McCrory, E.; Meyer, A.; Patrick, J.; Wenzel, H.; Stadie, H.; Wagner, W.; Veramendi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the CDF Run II Run Control and online event monitoring system. Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes. Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines, using JDBC database connections to configure clients, and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface. The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts: the event monitoring programs, the display to browse their results, the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections, the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with Run Control, and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs

  16. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222798; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  17. Achieving the optimal performance of the CMS ECAL in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Menglei

    2016-01-01

    Many physics analyses using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the LHC require accurate, high resolution electron and photon energy measurements. Particularly important are decays of the Higgs boson resulting in electromagnetic particles in the final state. Di-photon events in CMS are also a very important channel in the search for Higgs boson production in association with other particles or in the search for possible new resonances of higher mass. The requirement for high performance electromagnetic calorimetry therefore remains high during LHC Run II. Following the excellent performance achieved in Run~I at a center of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) started operating at the LHC in Spring 2015 with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy. The instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC during Run~II is expected to exceed the levels achieved in Run I, using 25 ns bunch spacing. The average number of concurrent proton-proton collisions per bu...

  18. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  19. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  20. The D0 run II trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Michigan State U.

    2004-01-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II

  1. CMS Software and Computing Ready for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider, software and computing was a strategic strength of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. The timely processing of data and simulation samples and the excellent performance of the reconstruction algorithms played an important role in the preparation of the full suite of searches used for the observation of the Higgs boson in 2012. In Run 2, the LHC will run at higher intensities and CMS will record data at a higher trigger rate. These new running conditions will provide new challenges for the software and computing systems. Over the two years of Long Shutdown 1, CMS has built upon the successes of Run 1 to improve the software and computing to meet these challenges. In this presentation we will describe the new features in software and computing that will once again put CMS in a position of physics leadership.

  2. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  3. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  4. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  5. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, S.

    1997-05-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunchspacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II

  6. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, S.

    1997-01-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunch spacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II

  7. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; hide

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  8. Ozone Production in Global Tropospheric Models: Quantifying Errors due to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, O.; Prather, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the Western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes at a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63 and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but still indicates large errors at 120~km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is still too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over East Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution, but subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is less significantly affected.

  9. A Brief Opportunity to Run Does Not Function as a Reinforcer for Mice Selected for High Daily Wheel-Running Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.; Garland, Theodore, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Mice from replicate lines, selectively bred based on high daily wheel-running rates, run more total revolutions and at higher average speeds than do mice from nonselected control lines. Based on this difference it was assumed that selected mice would find the opportunity to run in a wheel a more efficacious consequence. To assess this assumption…

  10. 39 CFR 601.107 - Initial disagreement resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... communicate, in writing, to the supplier his or her resolution of the disagreement. (c) Alternative dispute resolution. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedures may be used to resolve a disagreement. If the use... disagreement resolution. (a) Definitions. (1) Days. Calendar days; however, any time period will run until a...

  11. ROSA-III 50 % break integral test RUN 916

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji; Koizumi, Yasuo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Murata, Hideo

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the experimental data of RUN 916 conducted at the ROSA-III test facility. The facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) simulator for a BWR/6 with the electrically heated core, the break simulator and the scaled ECCS(emergency core cooling system). RUN 916 was a 50 % split break test at the recirculation pump suction line with an assumption of HPCS diegel generator failure and conducted as one of the break area parameter tests. A peak cladding temperature (PCT) of 917 K was reached at 190 s after the break during the reflooding phase. Whole core was completely quenched by ECCS, and the effectiveness of ECCS was confermed. The primary test results of RUN 916 are compared in this report with those of RUN 926, which was a 200 % double-ended break test. The initiation of core dryout in RUN 916 was later than that in RUN 926 because of the smaller discharge flow rate. Duration of core dryourt was, however, longer in RUN 916 because of later actuation of ECCSs. PCT in RUN 916 was 133 K higher than that in RUN 926. (author)

  12. ROSA-III 100 % break integral test Run 914

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji; Koizumi, Yasuo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Murata, Hideo

    1987-05-01

    This report presents the experimental data of RUN 914 conducted at the ROSA-III test facility. The facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) simulator for a BWR/6 with the electrically heated core, the break simulator and the scaled ECCS (emergency core cooling system). RUN 914 was a 100% split break test at the recirculation pump suction line with an assumption of HPCS diesel generator failure and conducted as one of the break area parameter tests. A peak cladding temperature (PCT) of 851 K was reached at 130 s after the break during the reflooding phase. Whole core was completely quenched by ECCS, and the effectiveness of ECCS was confirmed. The primary test results of RUN 914 are compared in this report with those of RUN 926, which was a 200 % double-ended break test. The initiation of core dryout in RUN 914 was almost the same as that in RUN 926. Duration of core dryourt was, however, longer in RUN 914 because of later actuation of ECCSs. PCT in RUN 914 was 67 K higher than that in RUN 926. (author)

  13. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    abundance of cells. We also report that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration positively co-varied with each other and, in males, were positively correlated with testosterone. In summary, we offer a higher resolution of understanding of the function of GnRH-I and GnIH during the breeding period of European starlings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chul; Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Matsui, Takashi; Yook, Jang Soo; Soya, Hideaki

    2013-03-14

    Recently, we reported that voluntary resistance wheel running with a resistance of 30% of body weight (RWR), which produces shorter distances but higher work levels, enhances spatial memory associated with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling compared to wheel running without a load (WR) [17]. We thus hypothesized that RWR promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a neuronal substrate underlying this memory improvement. Here we used 10-week-old male Wistar rats divided randomly into sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR groups. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with the thymidine analogue 5-Bromo-2'-deoxuridine (BrdU) for 3 consecutive days before wheel running. We found that even when the average running distance decreased by about half, the average work levels significantly increased in the RWR group, which caused muscular adaptation (oxidative capacity) for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed that the total BrdU-positive cells and newborn mature cells (BrdU/NeuN double-positive) in the dentate gyrus increased in both the WR and RWR groups. These results provide new evidence that RWR has beneficial effects on AHN comparable to WR, even with short running distances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can High-resolution WRF Simulations Be Used for Short-term Forecasting of Lightning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Lapenta, W.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; LaCasse, K.; Petersen, W.

    2006-01-01

    A number of research teams have begun to make quasi-operational forecast simulations at high resolution with models such as the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. These model runs have used horizontal meshes of 2-4 km grid spacing, and thus resolved convective storms explicitly. In the light of recent global satellite-based observational studies that reveal robust relationships between total lightning flash rates and integrated amounts of precipitation-size ice hydrometeors in storms, it is natural to inquire about the capabilities of these convection-resolving models in representing the ice hydrometeor fields faithfully. If they do, this might make operational short-term forecasts of lightning activity feasible. We examine high-resolution WRF simulations from several Southeastern cases for which either NLDN or LMA lightning data were available. All the WRF runs use a standard microphysics package that depicts only three ice species, cloud ice, snow and graupel. The realism of the WRF simulations is examined by comparisons with both lightning and radar observations and with additional even higher-resolution cloud-resolving model runs. Preliminary findings are encouraging in that they suggest that WRF often makes convective storms of the proper size in approximately the right location, but they also indicate that higher resolution and better hydrometeor microphysics would be helpful in improving the realism of the updraft strengths, reflectivity and ice hydrometeor fields.

  16. The NLstart2run study: Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors and running-related injuries in novice runners, taking the time varying nature of these training-related factors into account. Prospective cohort study. 1696 participants completed weekly diaries on running exposure and injuries during a 6-week running program for novice runners. Total running volume (min), frequency and mean intensity (Rate of Perceived Exertion) were calculated for the seven days prior to each training session. The association of these time-varying variables with injury was determined in an extended Cox regression analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis showed that running with a higher intensity in the previous week was associated with a higher injury risk. Running frequency was not significantly associated with injury, however a trend towards running three times per week being more hazardous than two times could be observed. Finally, lower running volume was associated with a higher risk of sustaining an injury. These results suggest that running more than 60min at a lower intensity is least injurious. This finding is contrary to our expectations and is presumably the result of other factors. Therefore, the findings should not be used plainly as a guideline for novices. More research is needed to establish the person-specific training patterns that are associated with injury. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-13

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  18. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  19. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  20. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  1. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    OpenAIRE

    David Hryvniak; Jay Dicharry; Robert Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Background: Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how thi...

  2. Running Neuroimaging Applications on Amazon Web Services: How, When, and at What Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Madhyastha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS to execute neuroimaging workflows “in the cloud.” Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements. Most neuroimaging workflows can be executed as independent parallel jobs and are therefore excellent candidates for running on AWS, but the overhead of learning to do so and determining whether it is worth the cost can be prohibitive. In this paper we describe how to identify neuroimaging workloads that are appropriate for running on AWS, how to benchmark execution time, and how to estimate cost of running on AWS. By benchmarking common neuroimaging applications, we show that cloud computing can be a viable alternative to on-premises hardware. We present guidelines that neuroimaging labs can use to provide a cluster-on-demand type of service that should be familiar to users, and scripts to estimate cost and create such a cluster.

  3. Running from Paris to Beijing: biomechanical and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Degache, Francis; Edouard, Pascal; Feasson, Léonard; Verney, Julien; Oullion, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biomechanical changes occurring in a subject after running 8,500 km in 161 days (i.e. 52.8 km daily). Three weeks before, 3 weeks after (POST) and 5 months after (POST+5) running from Paris to Beijing, energy cost of running (Cr), knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and biomechanical parameters (using a treadmill dynamometer) at different velocities were assessed in an experienced ultra-runner. At POST, there was a tendency toward a 'smoother' running pattern, as shown by (a) a higher stride frequency and duty factor, and a reduced aerial time without a change in contact time, (b) a lower maximal vertical force and loading rate at impact and (c) a decrease in both potential and kinetic energy changes at each step. This was associated with a detrimental effect on Cr (+6.2%) and a loss of strength at all angular velocities for both knee flexors and extensors. At POST+5, the subject returned to his original running patterns at low but not at high speeds and maximal strength remained reduced at low angular velocities (i.e. at high levels of force). It is suggested that the running pattern changes observed in the present study were a strategy adopted by the subject to reduce the deleterious effects of long distance running. However, the running pattern changes could partly be linked to the decrease in maximal strength.

  4. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  5. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  6. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  7. Running codes through the web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Clark presented a report and demonstration of running atomic physics codes through the WWW. The atomic physics data is generated from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) codes that calculate electron impact excitation, ionization, photoionization, and autoionization, and inversed processes through detailed balance. Samples of Web interfaces, input and output are given in the report

  8. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  9. Reconcile: A Coreference Resolution Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V; Cardie, C; Gilbert, N; Riloff, E; Buttler, D; Hysom, D

    2009-10-29

    Despite the availability of standard data sets and metrics, approaches to the problem of noun phrase coreference resolution are hard to compare empirically due to the different evaluation setting stemming, in part, from the lack of comprehensive coreference resolution research platforms. In this tech report we present Reconcile, a coreference resolution research platform that aims to facilitate the implementation of new approaches to coreference resolution as well as the comparison of existing approaches. We discuss Reconcile's architecture and give results of running Reconcile on six data sets using four evaluation metrics, showing that Reconcile's performance is comparable to state-of-the-art systems in coreference resolution.

  10. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  12. Spontaneous Entrainment of Running Cadence to Music Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Moens, Bart; Buhmann, Jeska; Demey, Michiel; Coorevits, Esther; Dalla Bella, Simone; Leman, Marc

    Since accumulating evidence suggests that step rate is strongly associated with running-related injuries, it is important for runners to exercise at an appropriate running cadence. As music tempo has been shown to be capable of impacting exercise performance of repetitive endurance activities, it might also serve as a means to (re)shape running cadence. The aim of this study was to validate the impact of music tempo on running cadence. Sixteen recreational runners ran four laps of 200 m (i.e. 800 m in total); this task was repeated 11 times with a short break in between each four-lap sequence. During the first lap of a sequence, participants ran at a self-paced tempo without musical accompaniment. Running cadence of the first lap was registered, and during the second lap, music with a tempo matching the assessed cadence was played. In the final two laps, the music tempo was either increased/decreased by 3.00, 2.50, 2.00, 1.50, or 1.00 % or was kept stable. This range was chosen since the aim of this study was to test spontaneous entrainment (an average person can distinguish tempo variations of about 4 %). Each participant performed all conditions. Imperceptible shifts in musical tempi in proportion to the runner's self-paced running tempo significantly influenced running cadence ( p  tempo conditions and adaptation in running cadence ( p  effect of condition on the level of entrainment was revealed ( p  effects of music tempo on running cadence can only be obtained up to a certain level of tempo modification. Finally, significantly higher levels of tempo entrainment were found for female participants compared to their male counterparts ( p  music tempo could serve as an unprompted means to impact running cadence. As increases in step rate may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of common running-related injuries, this finding could be especially relevant for treatment purposes, such as exercise prescription and gait retraining. Music tempo

  13. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  14. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  15. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  16. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  17. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  18. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  19. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  20. The alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ripellino, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS reconstruction of charged particle trajectories relies on the Inner Detector tracking system. The accuracy of the reconstruction is limited by the finite resolution of the detector elements and the knowledge about their positions. A precise alignment of the detector is therefore essential. In this poster we present the strategy and the status of the Inner Detector alignment in ATLAS during the LHC Run 2.

  1. The importance of resolution on the response of mid-latitude transients to enhanced CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of global warming on the activity of the mid-latitude transients is not well understood. Work with simple models suggests that there will be two competing effects on transient activity. Firstly, there will be a reduction in the baroclinicity due to a smaller pole-equator temperature gradient and secondly there will be increased moisture availability in a warmer atmosphere. A comparison of the mid-latitude transients from two versions of the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM run at different resolutions is presented and the importance of resolution on the simulation of the high and low frequency variability is discussed. At higher resolution, one of the largest responses of the model to a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 is an enhancement of the westerly flow in the North Atlantic, but this is much reduced at lower resolution. Consistency is sort between changes in the time mean flow and the transient behavior

  2. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  3. Run Clever - No difference in risk of injury when comparing progression in running volume and running intensity in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim: The Run Clever trial investigated if there was a difference in injury occurrence across two running schedules, focusing on progression in volume of running intensity (Sch-I) or in total running volume (Sch-V). It was hypothesised that 15% more runners with a focus on progression...... in volume of running intensity would sustain an injury compared with runners with a focus on progression in total running volume. Methods: Healthy recreational runners were included and randomly allocated to Sch-I or Sch-V. In the first eight weeks of the 24-week follow-up, all participants (n=839) followed...... participants received real-time, individualised feedback on running intensity and running volume. The primary outcome was running-related injury (RRI). Results: After preconditioning a total of 80 runners sustained an RRI (Sch-I n=36/Sch-V n=44). The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) in Sch-V (reference...

  4. Potential Relationship between Passive Plantar Flexor Stiffness and Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between passive stiffness of the plantar flexors and running performance in endurance runners. Forty-eight well-trained male endurance runners and 24 untrained male control subjects participated in this study. Plantar flexor stiffness during passive dorsiflexion was calculated from the slope of the linear portion of the torque-angle curve. Of the endurance runners included in the present study, running economy in 28 endurance runners was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-min trials (14, 16, and 18 km/h) of submaximal treadmill running. Passive stiffness of the plantar flexors was significantly higher in endurance runners than in untrained subjects. Moreover, passive plantar flexor stiffness in endurance runners was significantly correlated with a personal best 5000-m race time. Furthermore, passive plantar flexor stiffness in endurance runners was significantly correlated with energy cost during submaximal running at 16 km/h and 18 km/h, and a trend towards such significance was observed at 14 km/h. The present findings suggest that stiffer plantar flexors may help achieve better running performance, with greater running economy, in endurance runners. Therefore, in the clinical setting, passive stiffness of the plantar flexors may be a potential parameter for assessing running performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Metabolic cost of running is greater on a treadmill with a stiffer running platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A H; McKerrow, Alexander D; Kohn, Tertius A

    2017-08-01

    Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO 2max ). The stiffer treadmill elicited higher oxygen consumption (C: 46.7 ± 3.8; Q: 50.1 ± 4.3 ml·kg -1 · min -1 ), energy expenditure (C: 16.0 ± 2.5; Q: 17.7 ± 2.9 kcal · min -1 ), carbohydrate oxidation (C: 9.6 ± 3.1; Q: 13.0 ± 3.9 kcal · min -1 ), heart rate (C: 155 ± 16; Q: 163 ± 16 beats · min -1 ) and rating of perceived exertion (C: 13.8 ± 1.2; Q: 14.7 ± 1.2), but lower fat oxidation (C: 6.4 ± 2.3; Q: 4.6 ± 2.5 kcal · min -1 ) (all analysis of variance treadmill comparisons P running depending on the running platform stiffness.

  6. Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yo; Lin, Kuan-Lun; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-07-01

    People have advocated barefoot running, claiming that it is better suited to human nature. Humans usually run barefoot using a forefoot strike and run shod using a heel strike. The striking pattern was thought to be a key factor that contributes to the benefit of barefoot running. The purpose of this study is to use scientific data to prove that the striking pattern is more important than barefoot or shod conditions for runners on running injuries prevention. Twelve habitually male shod runners were recruited to run under four varying conditions: barefoot running with a forefoot strike, barefoot running with a heel strike, shod running with a forefoot strike, and shod running with a heel strike. Kinetic and kinematic data and electromyography signals were recorded during the experiments. The results showed that the lower extremity can gain more compliance when running with a forefoot strike. Habitually shod runners can gain more shock absorption by changing the striking pattern to a forefoot strike when running with shoes and barefoot conditions. Habitually shod runners may be subject to injuries more easily when they run barefoot while maintaining their heel strike pattern. Higher muscle activity in the gastrocnemius was observed when running with a forefoot strike, which may imply a greater training load on the muscle and a tendency for injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  8. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  9. Wheel running, voluntary ethanol consumption, and hedonic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R Adron; Blednov, Yuri A

    2008-08-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between naturally rewarding behaviors and ethanol drinking behaviors in mice. Although natural and drug reinforcers activate similar brain circuitry, there is behavioral evidence suggesting food and drug rewards differ in perceived value. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationships between naturally reinforcing stimuli and consumption of ethanol in ethanol preferring C57BL/6J mice. Mouse behaviors were observed after the following environmental manipulations: standard or enhanced environment, accessible or inaccessible wheel, and presence or absence of ethanol. Using a high-resolution volumetric drinking monitor and wheel running monitor, we evaluated whether alternating access to wheel running modified ethanol-related behaviors and whether alternating access to ethanol modified wheel running or subsequent ethanol-related behaviors. We found that ethanol consumption remains stable with alternating periods of wheel running. Wheel running increases in the absence of ethanol and decreases upon reintroduction of ethanol. Upon reintroduction of ethanol, an alcohol deprivation effect was seen. Collectively, the results support theories of hedonic substitution and suggest that female C57BL/6J mice express ethanol seeking and craving under these specific conditions.

  10. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  11. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  12. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  13. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  14. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  16. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...... gratings at small-contrast approximation and also are applicable for the description of space-charge wave domains. We discuss spatial domain and subharmonic beam formation in bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) crystals in the framework of the small-contrast approximation of STPM. The experimental results...

  17. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  18. Injuries And Footwear (Part 2): Minimalist Running Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney; Grier, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    This article defines minimalist running shoes and examines physiological, biomechanical, and injury rate differences when running in conventional versus minimalist running shoes. A minimalist shoe is one that provides "minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot, because of its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices." Most studies indicate that running in minimalist shoes results in a lower physiological energy cost than running in conventional shoes, likely because of the lower weight of the minimalist shoe. Most individuals running in conventional shoes impact the ground heel first (rearfoot strike pattern), whereas most people running in minimalist shoes tend to strike with the front of the foot (forefoot strike pattern). The rate at which force is developed on ground impact (i.e., the loading rate) is generally higher when running in conventional versus minimalist shoes. Findings from studies that have looked at associations between injuries and foot strike patterns or injuries and loading rates are conflicting, so it is not clear if these factors influence injury rates; more research is needed. Better-designed prospective studies indicate that bone stress injuries and the overall injury incidence are higher in minimalist shoes during the early weeks (10-12 weeks) of transition to this type of footwear. Longer-term studies are needed to define injury rates once runners are fully transitioned to minimalist shoes. At least one longer-term minimalist-shoe investigation is ongoing and, hopefully, will be published soon. 2016.

  19. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  20. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  1. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  2. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Performance in Run 1 and Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ . Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta < 3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $\\eta = 1.5$ to $\\eta = 4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27$ fb$^{−1}$ has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately $3.9$ fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in this year. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Argon Calorimeter achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successful discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. This contribution will give ...

  3. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  4. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

  5. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  6. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  7. The ATLAS Trigger algorithms upgrade and performance in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Title: The ATLAS Trigger algorithms upgrade and performance in Run 2 (TDAQ) The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger; it reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. The excellent performance of the ATLAS trigger has been vital for the ATLAS physics program of Run-2, selecting interesting collision events for wide variety of physics signatures with high efficiency. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and pile-up which are the result of the almost doubling of the center-of-mass collision energy and the increase in the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC. At the Level-1 trigger the undertaken impr...

  8. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  9. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  10. Effects of footwear and strike type on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Daniel P; Daoud, Adam I; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    This study tests if running economy differs in minimal shoes versus standard running shoes with cushioned elevated heels and arch supports and in forefoot versus rearfoot strike gaits. We measured the cost of transport (mL O(2)·kg(-1)·m(-1)) in subjects who habitually run in minimal shoes or barefoot while they were running at 3.0 m·s(-1) on a treadmill during forefoot and rearfoot striking while wearing minimal and standard shoes, controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. Force and kinematic data were collected when subjects were shod and barefoot to quantify differences in knee flexion, arch strain, plantar flexor force production, and Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain. After controlling for stride frequency and shoe mass, runners were 2.41% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when forefoot striking and 3.32% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when rearfoot striking (P forefoot and rearfoot striking did not differ significantly in cost for either minimal- or standard-shoe running. Arch strain was not measured in the shod condition but was significantly greater during forefoot than rearfoot striking when barefoot. Plantar flexor force output was significantly higher in forefoot than in rearfoot striking and in barefoot than in shod running. Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain and knee flexion were also lower in barefoot than in standard-shoe running. Minimally shod runners are modestly but significantly more economical than traditionally shod runners regardless of strike type, after controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. The likely cause of this difference is more elastic energy storage and release in the lower extremity during minimal-shoe running.

  11. Run 2 analysis computing for CDF and D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuess, S.

    1995-11-01

    Two large experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron collider will use upgraded of running. The associated analysis software is also expected to change, both to account for higher data rates and to embrace new computing paradigms. A discussion is given to the problems facing current and future High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis computing, and several issues explored in detail

  12. High Spatial Resolution Visual Band Imagery Outperforms Medium Resolution Spectral Imagery for Ecosystem Assessment in the Semi-Arid Brazilian Sertão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Goldblatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-arid ecosystems play a key role in global agricultural production, seasonal carbon cycle dynamics, and longer-run climate change. Because semi-arid landscapes are heterogeneous and often sparsely vegetated, repeated and large-scale ecosystem assessments of these regions have to date been impossible. Here, we assess the potential of high-spatial resolution visible band imagery for semi-arid ecosystem mapping. We use WorldView satellite imagery at 0.3–0.5 m resolution to develop a reference data set of nearly 10,000 labeled examples of three classes—trees, shrubs/grasses, and bare land—across 1000 km 2 of the semi-arid Sertão region of northeast Brazil. Using Google Earth Engine, we show that classification with low-spectral but high-spatial resolution input (WorldView outperforms classification with the full spectral information available from Landsat 30 m resolution imagery as input. Classification with high spatial resolution input improves detection of sparse vegetation and distinction between trees and seasonal shrubs and grasses, two features which are lost at coarser spatial (but higher spectral resolution input. Our total tree cover estimates for the study area disagree with recent estimates using other methods that may underestimate treecover because they confuse trees with seasonal vegetation (shrubs and grasses. This distinction is important for monitoring seasonal and long-run carbon cycle and ecosystem health. Our results suggest that newer remote sensing products that promise high frequency global coverage at high spatial but lower spectral resolution may offer new possibilities for direct monitoring of the world’s semi-arid ecosystems, and we provide methods that could be scaled to do so.

  13. Concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement: choice between different durations of opportunity to run in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-02-01

    How do animals choose between opportunities to run of different durations? Are longer durations preferred over shorter durations because they permit a greater number of revolutions? Are shorter durations preferred because they engender higher rates of running? Will longer durations be chosen because running is less constrained? The present study reports on three experiments that attempted to address these questions. In the first experiment, five male Wistar rats chose between 10-sec and 50-sec opportunities to run on modified concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Across conditions, the durations associated with the alternatives were reversed. Response, time, and reinforcer proportions did not vary from indifference. In a second experiment, eight female Long-Evans rats chose between opportunities to run of equal (30 sec) and unequal durations (10 sec and 50 sec) on concurrent variable-ratio (VR) schedules. As in Experiment 1, between presentations of equal duration conditions, 10-sec and 50-sec durations were reversed. Results showed that response, time, and reinforcer proportions on an alternative did not vary with reinforcer duration. In a third experiment, using concurrent VR schedules, durations were systematically varied to decrease the shorter duration toward 0 sec. As the shorter duration decreased, response, time, and reinforcer proportions shifted toward the longer duration. In summary, differences in durations of opportunities to run did not affect choice behavior in a manner consistent with the assumption that a longer reinforcer is a larger reinforcer.

  14. Running as a form of active leisure - running paths as a substantial element of local society development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Stodółka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The civilizational progress has brought many conveniences that allowed us to choose leisure and recreation as the preferred way of spending our free time. The interest in the advantages of open-air activities keeps growing, together with the number of needs emerging with the constant improvement of the economic status of our society. Meeting those needs has become the aim of many projects. The more fashionable running becomes, the higher amount of people get interested in it and start running. The dynamic development of tourism related to running is a challenge for the tourism market. The astonishing popularity of this form of sport is especially visible in the number of people taking part in official runs and the growing number of the runs themselves. Promoting the region through active tourism is more than desirable. The goal is to show the right direction in creating the local society development strategies in fields such as health and active leisure for local governments. This direction is the proposition to create more running paths. The way of creating them has been described on the example of Świdnica city in Lower Silesian region ofPoland. The project should perfectly match the development strategy of the city and become helpful for the municipality. Having the area of the city and the number of its inhabitants in mind one could apply the guidelines written above to other cities with similar conditions without hesitation.

  15. Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: optimality of walk-run-rest mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Leroy L; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2013-04-06

    On a treadmill, humans switch from walking to running beyond a characteristic transition speed. Here, we study human choice between walking and running in a more ecological (non-treadmill) setting. We asked subjects to travel a given distance overground in a given allowed time duration. During this task, the subjects carried, and could look at, a stopwatch that counted down to zero. As expected, if the total time available were large, humans walk the whole distance. If the time available were small, humans mostly run. For an intermediate total time, humans often use a mixture of walking at a slow speed and running at a higher speed. With analytical and computational optimization, we show that using a walk-run mixture at intermediate speeds and a walk-rest mixture at the lowest average speeds is predicted by metabolic energy minimization, even with costs for transients-a consequence of non-convex energy curves. Thus, sometimes, steady locomotion may not be energy optimal, and not preferred, even in the absence of fatigue. Assuming similar non-convex energy curves, we conjecture that similar walk-run mixtures may be energetically beneficial to children following a parent and animals on long leashes. Humans and other animals might also benefit energetically from alternating between moving forward and standing still on a slow and sufficiently long treadmill.

  16. The NLstart2run study: Economic burden of running-related injuries in novice runners participating in a novice running program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the economic burden of running-related injuries (RRI) occurred during the 6-week 'Start-to-Run' program of the Dutch Athletics Federation in 2013. Prospective cohort study. This was a monetary cost analysis using the data prospectively gathered alongside the RRI registration in the NLstart2run study. RRI data were collected weekly. Cost diaries were applied two and six weeks after the RRI registration to collect data regarding healthcare utilisation (direct costs) and absenteeism from paid and unpaid work (indirect costs). RRI was defined as running-related pain that hampered running ability for three consecutive training sessions. From the 1696 participants included in the analysis, 185 reported a total of 272 RRIs. A total of 26.1% of the cost data (71 RRIs reported by 50 participants) were missing. Therefore, a multiple imputation procedure was performed. The economic burden (direct plus indirect costs) of RRIs was estimated at €83.22 (95% CI €50.42-€116.02) per RRI, and €13.35 (95% CI €7.07-€19.63) per participant. The direct cost per RRI was €56.93 (95% CI €42.05-€71.81) and the indirect cost per RRI was €26.29 (95% CI €0.00-€54.79). The indirect cost was higher for sudden onset RRIs than for gradual onset RRIs, with a mean difference of €33.92 (95% CI €17.96-€49.87). Direct costs of RRIs were 2-fold higher than the indirect costs, and sudden onset RRIs presented higher costs than gradual onset RRIs. The results of this study are important to provide information to public health agencies and policymakers about the economic burden of RRIs in novice runners. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. R. Mateo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Global-scale river models (GRMs are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction, the suitability of GRMs for application to finer resolutions needs to be assessed. This study investigates the impacts of spatial resolution and flow connectivity representation on the predictive capability of a GRM, CaMa-Flood, in simulating the 2011 extreme flood in Thailand. Analyses show that when single downstream connectivity (SDC is assumed, simulation results deteriorate with finer spatial resolution; Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients decreased by more than 50 % between simulation results at 10 km resolution and 1 km resolution. When multiple downstream connectivity (MDC is represented, simulation results slightly improve with finer spatial resolution. The SDC simulations result in excessive backflows on very flat floodplains due to the restrictive flow directions at finer resolutions. MDC channels attenuated these effects by maintaining flow connectivity and flow capacity between floodplains in varying spatial resolutions. While a regional-scale flood was chosen as a test case, these findings should be universal and may have significant impacts on large- to global-scale simulations, especially in regions where mega deltas exist.These results demonstrate that a GRM can be used for higher resolution simulations of large-scale floods, provided that MDC in rivers and floodplains is adequately represented in the model structure.

  18. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Cherry May R.; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Champathong, Adisorn; Vaze, Jai; Oki, Taikan

    2017-10-01

    Global-scale river models (GRMs) are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction, the suitability of GRMs for application to finer resolutions needs to be assessed. This study investigates the impacts of spatial resolution and flow connectivity representation on the predictive capability of a GRM, CaMa-Flood, in simulating the 2011 extreme flood in Thailand. Analyses show that when single downstream connectivity (SDC) is assumed, simulation results deteriorate with finer spatial resolution; Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients decreased by more than 50 % between simulation results at 10 km resolution and 1 km resolution. When multiple downstream connectivity (MDC) is represented, simulation results slightly improve with finer spatial resolution. The SDC simulations result in excessive backflows on very flat floodplains due to the restrictive flow directions at finer resolutions. MDC channels attenuated these effects by maintaining flow connectivity and flow capacity between floodplains in varying spatial resolutions. While a regional-scale flood was chosen as a test case, these findings should be universal and may have significant impacts on large- to global-scale simulations, especially in regions where mega deltas exist.These results demonstrate that a GRM can be used for higher resolution simulations of large-scale floods, provided that MDC in rivers and floodplains is adequately represented in the model structure.

  19. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  20. Effects of changing speed on knee and ankle joint load during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de David, Ana Cristina; Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Joint moments can be used as an indicator of joint loading and have potential application for sports performance and injury prevention. The effects of changing walking and running speeds on joint moments for the different planes of motion still are debatable. Here, we compared knee and ankle moments during walking and running at different speeds. Data were collected from 11 recreational male runners to determine knee and ankle joint moments during different conditions. Conditions include walking at a comfortable speed (self-selected pacing), fast walking (fastest speed possible), slow running (speed corresponding to 30% slower than running) and running (at 4 m · s(-1) ± 10%). A different joint moment pattern was observed between walking and running. We observed a general increase in joint load for sagittal and frontal planes as speed increased, while the effects of speed were not clear in the transverse plane moments. Although differences tend to be more pronounced when gait changed from walking to running, the peak moments, in general, increased when speed increased from comfortable walking to fast walking and from slow running to running mainly in the sagittal and frontal planes. Knee flexion moment was higher in walking than in running due to larger knee extension. Results suggest caution when recommending walking over running in an attempt to reduce knee joint loading. The different effects of speed increments during walking and running should be considered with regard to the prevention of injuries and for rehabilitation purposes.

  1. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an empirical model relating human running performance to some characteristics of metabolic energy-yielding processes using A, the capacity of anaerobic metabolism (J/kg); MAP, the maximal aerobic power (W/kg); and E, the reduction in peak aerobic power with the natural logarithm of race duration T, when T greater than TMAP = 420 s. Accordingly, the model developed describes the average power output PT (W/kg) sustained over any T as PT = [S/T(1 - e-T/k2)] + 1/T integral of T O [BMR + B(1 - e-t/k1)]dt where S = A and B = MAP - BMR (basal metabolic rate) when T less than TMAP; and S = A + [Af ln(T/TMAP)] and B = (MAP - BMR) + [E ln(T/TMAP)] when T greater than TMAP; k1 = 30 s and k2 = 20 s are time constants describing the kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively, at the beginning of exercise; f is a constant describing the reduction in the amount of energy provided from anaerobic metabolism with increasing T; and t is the time from the onset of the race. This model accurately estimates actual power outputs sustained over a wide range of events, e.g., average absolute error between actual and estimated T for men's 1987 world records from 60 m to the marathon = 0.73%. In addition, satisfactory estimations of the metabolic characteristics of world-class male runners were made as follows: A = 1,658 J/kg; MAP = 83.5 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; 83.5% MAP sustained over the marathon distance. Application of the model to analysis of the evolution of A, MAP, and E, and of the progression of men's and women's world records over the years, is presented.

  2. LHCb Run II tracking performance and prospects for the Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb tracking system consists of a Vertex Locator around the interaction point, a tracking station with four layers of silicon strip detectors in front of the magnet, and three tracking stations, using either straw-tubes or silicon strip detectors, behind the magnet. This system allows to reconstruct charged particles with a high efficiency (typically > 95% for particles with momentum > 5 GeV) and an excellent momentum resolution (0.5% for particles with momentum < 20 GeV). The high momentum resolution results in very narrow mass peaks, leading to a very good signal-to-background ratio in such key channels as $B_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$. Furthermore an optimal decay time resolution is an essential element in the studies of time dependent CP violation. For Run II a novel reconstruction strategy was adopted, allowing to run the same track reconstruction in the software trigger as offline. This convergence was possible due to a staged approach in the track reconstruction and a large reduction in the processing tim...

  3. Progression in Running Intensity or Running Volume and the Development of Specific Injuries in Recreational Runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    -training. Participants were randomized to one of two running schedules: Schedule Intensity(Sch-I) or Schedule Volume(Sch-V). Sch-I progressed the amount of high intensity running (≥88% VO2max) each week. Sch-V progressed total weekly running volume. Global positioning system watch or smartphone collected data on running...

  4. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  5. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  6. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  7. Effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary wheel running on the microstructure of the murine distal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timonen Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and osteoporosis, two possibly related conditions, are rapidly expanding health concerns in modern society. Both of them are associated with sedentary life style and nutrition. To investigate the effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary physical activity we used high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT together with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT to examine the microstructure of the distal femoral metaphysis in mice. Methods Forty 7-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 4 groups: control (C, control + running (CR, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet + running (HFR. After a 21-week intervention, all the mice were sacrificed and the left femur dissected for pQCT and μCT measurements. Results The mice fed the high-fat diet showed a significant weight gain (over 70% for HF and 60% for HFR, with increased epididymal fat pad mass and impaired insulin sensitivity. These obese mice had significantly higher trabecular connectivity density, volume, number, thickness, area and mass, and smaller trabecular separation. At the whole bone level, they had larger bone circumference and cross-sectional area and higher density-weighted maximal, minimal, and polar moments of inertia. Voluntary wheel running decreased all the cortical bone parameters, but increased the trabecular mineral density, and decreased the pattern factor and structure model index towards a more plate-like structure. Conclusions The results suggest that in mice the femur adapts to obesity by improving bone strength both at the whole bone and micro-structural level. Adaptation to running exercise manifests itself in increased trabecular density and improved 3D structure, but in a limited overall bone growth

  8. High-field, high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: improved image quality by addition of contrast agent and higher field strength in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M.; Szomolanyi, P.; Weber, M.; Grabner, G.; Trattnig, S.; Stavrou, I.; Knosp, E.; Hoeftberger, R.; Stadlbauer, A.

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate intratumoral susceptibility effects in malignant brain tumors and to assess visualization of susceptibility effects before and after administration of the paramagnetic contrast agent MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine; Bracco Imaging), an agent known to have high relaxivity, with respect to susceptibility effects, image quality, and reduction of scan time. Included in the study were 19 patients with malignant brain tumors who underwent high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted (SW) MR imaging at 3 T before and after administration of contrast agent. In all patients, Multihance was administered intravenously as a bolus (0.1 mmol/kg body weight). MR images were individually evaluated by two radiologists with previous experience in the evaluation of pre- and postcontrast 3-T SW MR images with respect to susceptibility effects, image quality, and reduction of scan time. In the 19 patients 21 tumors were diagnosed, of which 18 demonstrated intralesional susceptibility effects both in pre- and postcontrast SW images, and 19 demonstrated contrast enhancement in both SW images and T1-weighted spin-echo MR images. Conspicuity of susceptibility effects and image quality were improved in postcontrast images compared with precontrast images and the scan time was also reduced due to decreased TE values from 9 min (precontrast) to 7 min (postcontrast). The intravenous administration of MultiHance, an agent with high relaxivity, allowed a reduction of scan time from 9 min to 7 min while preserving excellent susceptibility effects and image quality in SW images obtained at 3 T. Contrast enhancement and intralesional susceptibility effects can be assessed in one sequence. (orig.)

  9. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Penc, Ondrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. The redesign of the ID trigger, which took place during the 2013-15 long shutdown, in order to satisfy the demands of the higher energy LHC Run 2 operation is described. The ID trigger HLT algorithms are essential for nearly all trigger signatures within the ATLAS trigger. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the early Run 2 data for the different trigger signatures is presented, including the detailed timing performance for the algorithms running on the redesigned single stage ATLAS HLT Farm. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy are made and demonstrate the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  10. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. ATLAS simulation of boson plus jets processes in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This note describes the ATLAS simulation setup used to model the production of single electroweak bosons ($W$, $Z\\gamma^\\ast$ and prompt $\\gamma$) in association with jets in proton--proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. Several Monte Carlo generator predictions are compared in regions of phase space relevant for data analyses during the LHC Run-2, or compared to unfolded data distributions measured in previous Run-1 or early Run-2 ATLAS analyses. Comparisons are made for regions of phase space with or without additional requirements on the heavy-flavour content of the accompanying jets, as well as electroweak $Vjj$ production processes. Both higher-order corrections and systematic uncertainties are also discussed.

  12. The Energy Cost of Running with the Ball in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandro; Raffi, Milena; Atmatzidis, Charalampos; Merni, Franco; Di Michele, Rocco

    2017-11-01

    Running with the ball is a soccer-specific activity frequently used by players during match play and training drills. Nevertheless, the energy cost (EC) of on-grass running with the ball has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the EC of constant-speed running with the ball, and to compare it with the EC of normal running. Eight amateur soccer players performed two 6- min runs at 10 km/h on artificial turf, respectively with and without the ball. EC was measured with indirect calorimetry and, furthermore, estimated with a method based on players' accelerations measured with a GPS receiver. The EC measured with indirect calorimetry was higher in running with the ball (4.60±0.42 J/kg/m) than in normal running (4.19±0.33 J/kg/m), with a very likely moderate difference between conditions. Instead, a likely small difference was observed between conditions for EC estimated from GPS data (4.87±0.07 vs. 4.83±0.08 J/kg/m). This study sheds light on the energy expenditure of playing soccer, providing relevant data about the EC of a typical soccer-specific activity. These findings may be a reference for coaches to precisely determine the training load in drills with the ball, such as soccer-specific circuits or small-sided games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. A New High Resolution Climate Dataset for Climate Change Impacts Assessments in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurcu, M.; Huber, M.

    2016-12-01

    Assessing regional impacts of climate change (such as changes in extreme events, land surface hydrology, water resources, energy, ecosystems and economy) requires much higher resolution climate variables than those available from global model projections. While it is possible to run global models in higher resolution, the high computational cost associated with these simulations prevent their use in such manner. To alleviate this problem, dynamical downscaling offers a method to deliver higher resolution climate variables. As part of an NSF EPSCoR funded interdisciplinary effort to assess climate change impacts on New Hampshire ecosystems, hydrology and economy (the New Hampshire Ecosystems and Society project), we create a unique high-resolution climate dataset for New England. We dynamically downscale global model projections under a high impact emissions scenario using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with three nested grids of 27, 9 and 3 km horizontal resolution with the highest resolution innermost grid focusing over New England. We prefer dynamical downscaling over other methods such as statistical downscaling because it employs physical equations to progressively simulate climate variables as atmospheric processes interact with surface processes, emissions, radiation, clouds, precipitation and other model components, hence eliminates fix relationships between variables. In addition to simulating mean changes in regional climate, dynamical downscaling also allows for the simulation of climate extremes that significantly alter climate change impacts. We simulate three time slices: 2006-2015, 2040-2060 and 2080-2100. This new high-resolution climate dataset (with more than 200 variables saved in hourly (six hourly) intervals for the highest resolution domain (outer two domains)) along with model input and restart files used in our WRF simulations will be publicly available for use to the broader scientific community to support in-depth climate

  14. Design of ProjectRun21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Participation in half-marathon has been steeply increasing during the past decade. In line, a vast number of half-marathon running schedules has surfaced. Unfortunately, the injury incidence proportion for half-marathoners has been found to exceed 30% during 1-year follow......-up. The majority of running-related injuries are suggested to develop as overuse injuries, which leads to injury if the cumulative training load over one or more training sessions exceeds the runners' load capacity for adaptive tissue repair. Owing to an increase of load capacity along with adaptive running...... the association between running experience or running pace and the risk of running-related injury. METHODS: Healthy runners using Global Positioning System (GPS) watch between 18 and 65 years will be invited to participate in this 14-week prospective cohort study. Runners will be allowed to self-select one...

  15. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms Upgrade and Performance in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger; it reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. The excellent performance of the ATLAS trigger has been vital for the ATLAS physics program of Run-2, selecting interesting collision events for wide variety of physics signatures with high efficiency. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and pile-up which are the result of the almost doubling of the center-of-mass collision energy and the increase in the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC. At the Level-1 trigger the undertaken improvements resulted in more pile-up robust selection efficiencies and event ra...

  16. The ATLAS Trigger system upgrade and performance in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Savanna Marie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger; it reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. The excellent performance of the ATLAS trigger has been vital for the ATLAS physics program of Run-2, selecting interesting collision events for wide variety of physics signatures with high efficiency. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and pile-up which are the result of the almost doubling of the center-of-mass collision energy and the increase in the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC. At the Level-1 trigger the undertaken improvements resulted in more pile-up robust selection efficiencies and event ra...

  17. The Performance and Development of the Inner Detector Trigger Algorithms at ATLAS for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Sowden, Benjamin Charles; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A description of the design and performance of the newly reimplemented tracking algorithms for the ATLAS trigger for LHC Run 2, to commence in spring 2015, is provided. The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) has been restructured to run as a more flexible single stage process, rather than the two separate Level 2 and Event Filter stages used during Run 1. To make optimal use of this new scenario, a new tracking strategy has been implemented for Run 2 for the HLT. This new strategy will use a Fast Track Finder (FTF) algorithm to directly seed the subsequent Precision Tracking, and will result in improved track parameter resolution and significantly faster execution times than achieved during Run 1 but with no significant reduction in efficiency. The performance and timing of the algorithms for numerous physics signatures in the trigger are presented. The profiling infrastructure, constructed to provide prompt feedback from the optimisation, is described, including the methods used to monitor the relative performan...

  18. High resolution simulations of orographic flow over a complex terrain on the Southeast coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S. C.; Zolino, M. M.; Gomes, J. L.; Bustamante, J. F.; Lima-e-Silva, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    The Eta Model is used operationally by CPTEC to produce weather forecasts over South America since 1997. The model has gone through upgrades. In order to prepare the model for operational higher resolution forecasts, the model is configured and tested over a region of complex topography located near the coast of Southeast Brazil. The Eta Model was configured, with 2-km horizontal resolution and 50 layers. The Eta-2km is a second nesting, it is driven by Eta-15km, which in its turn is driven by Era-Interim reanalyses. The model domain includes the two Brazilians cities, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, urban areas, preserved tropical forest, pasture fields, and complex terrain and coastline. Mountains can rise up to about 700m. The region suffers frequent events of floods and landslides. The objective of this work is to evaluate high resolution simulations of wind and temperature in this complex area. Verification of model runs uses observations taken from the nuclear power plant. Accurate near-surface wind direction and magnitude are needed for the plant emergency plan and winds are highly sensitive to model spatial resolution and atmospheric stability. Verification of two cases during summer shows that model has clear diurnal cycle signal for wind in that region. The area is characterized by weak winds which makes the simulation more difficult. The simulated wind magnitude is about 1.5m/s, which is close to observations of about 2m/s; however, the observed change of wind direction of the sea breeze is fast whereas it is slow in the simulations. Nighttime katabatic flow is captured by the simulations. Comparison against Eta-5km runs show that the valley circulation is better described in the 2-km resolution run. Simulated temperatures follow closely the observed diurnal cycle. Experiments improving some surface conditions such as the surface temperature and land cover show simulation error reduction and improved diurnal cycle.

  19. Should the Air Force Teach Running Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    barefoot running, and gait training techniques. Current research indicates efficiencies in running with a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, and a...recent retrospective study showed a lower injury rate in forefoot - strike runners as compared with heel- strike runners. However, there are no...barefoot-like” fashion and allows a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, as opposed to the heel- strike gait style often seen with traditional running

  20. Running-in as an Engineering Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jamari, Jamari

    2007-01-01

    Running-in is a process which can be found in daily lives. This phenomenon occurs after the start of the contact between fresh solid surfaces, resulting in changes in the surface topography, friction and wear. Before the contacting engineering solid surfaces reach a steady-state operation situation this running-n enhances the contact performance. Running-in is very complex and is a vast problem area. A lot of variable occurs in the running-in process, physically, mechanically or chemically. T...

  1. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  2. How to run ions in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küchler, D; Manglunki, D; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    In the light of different running scenarios potential source improvements will be discussed (e.g. one month every year versus two month every other year and impact of the different running options [e.g. an extended ion run] on the source). As the oven refills cause most of the down time the oven design and refilling strategies will be presented. A test stand for off-line developments will be taken into account. Also the implications on the necessary manpower for extended runs will be discussed

  3. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  4. CERN: Higher energies at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This year will be the last that CERN's 27-kilometre LEP electron-positron collider will run routinely at around 45 GeV per beam. In the run, scheduled to begin in May, the four big experiments will top up their harvest so far of over 12 million Z particles for a final polishing of precision Z data. Behind the scenes, LEP is being prepared for higher energy running and a new phase of physics. After a brief technical stop in October, the aim is for a test run of up to 70 GeV per beam before the end of the year. Higher energy demands more radiofrequency power, which will be supplied by superconducting cavities. With this goal in mind, a programme of development work began at CERN over ten years ago, when LEP was still on the drawing board. Initially this effort focused on cavities made from sheet niobium, but later switched to copper covered by a sputtered niobium film, which gives better thermal and r.f. performance (September 1990, page 24). The first industrially-manufactured four-cavity niobium coated module, complete with its cryostat and r.f plumbing, was installed in LEP in 1993. Although it quickly achieved its nominal accelerating gradient of 6 MV/m, its reliability was affected by unforeseen problems in the associated power couplers. This delayed the installation schedule, but after a crash programme of design and modification of the power couplers, together with improvements in actual cavity design and manufacture, module supply and testing has now attained a satisfactory rhythm. Two modules installed in LEP amassed between them over 50 days of continuous running in 1994, and confidence is now high that the emphasis can shift towards integrating the cavities into LEP, rather than running the cavities themselves. During LEP's 1994-5 winter shutdown, modules are being installed at Points 2 and 6. Later, additional cavities will be installed in Points 2, 6 and 8 prior to embarking on the higher energy test run at the end of the year. After

  5. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher-Order Program Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    for OCaml, a dialect of ML, that provides run-time code generation for OCaml programs. We apply these byte-code combinators in semantics-directed compilation for an imperative language and in run-time specialization using type-directed partial evaluation. Finally, we present an approach to compiling goal......This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generation....... It is our thesis that they synergize well in the development of customizable software. Recent research on domain-specific languages propose to embed them into existing general-purpose languages. Typed higher-order languages have proven especially useful as meta languages because they provide a rich...

  7. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-01-10

    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  8. The LHC Tier1 at PIC: Experience from first LHC run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flix, J.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Accion, E.; Acin, V.; Acosta, C.; Bernabeu, G.; Bria, A.; Casals, J.; Caubet, M.; Cruz, R.; Delfino, M.; Espinal, X.; Lanciotti, E.; Lopez, F.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, V.; Merino, G.; Pacheco, A.; Planas, E.; Porto, M. C.; Rodriguez, B.; Sedov, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the operational experience of the Tier1 computer center at Port d'Informacio Cientifica (PIC) supporting the commissioning and first run (Run1) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The evolution of the experiment computing models resulting from the higher amounts of data expected after there start of the LHC are also described. (authors)

  9. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  10. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  11. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  12. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    technique- related information in run-training interfaces. From that finding, this paper presents three questions to be addressed by designers of future run-training interfaces. We believe that addressing these questions will support creation of expedient interfaces that improve runners’ technique...

  13. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  14. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  15. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  16. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  17. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  18. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  19. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  20. Estimating Short run and Long run Coefficients of Fundamentals Factors with Growth and Momentum Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Shoaib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the long term relationship of risk premium and fundamental factors in emerging stock markets of China, India and Pakistan keeping in view leading contribution of Fama and French (1992 and Carhart (1997 models. Contrary to the macroeconomic multifactor models, this study incorporates firm-specific risk factors related to the market premium; size (SMB, value (HML, momentum (WML and growth (UMD as determinants of risk premium. The firm-specific growth factor is incorporated based on evidence from Ho, Strange, and Piesse (2008 by employing (UMD which is based on assets to market equity of the firm. Sample of 1198 companies from the three emerging markets for the period of 2001-2013 depicts market risk premium as the leading factor affecting risk premium in Indian and the Pakistani markets. Results reveal market momentum being high enough to overestimate coefficients in the short run. However, the relationship is stabilized and adjusted in the long run. Chinese markets, where all the risk factors seem to play their role to determine risk premium, are relatively much stable and grown-up and clearly represent maturity of the Chinese markets. Distinction between the short run and long run might be useful for the investors of the three emerging economies. According to the principle of high risk associated with high returns, small value happens to deliver higher returns with higher volatility. The growth stocks outperform value stocks in these economies.

  1. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

  2. LHCb : LHCbVELO: Performance and Radiation Damage in LHC Run I and Preparationfor Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Heavy hadrons are identified through their flight distance in the Vertex Locator (VELO). The VELO comprises 42 modules made of two n+-on-n 300 um thick half-disc silicon sensors with R-measuring and Phi-measuring micro-strips. In order to allow retracting the detector, the VELO is installed as two movable halves containing 21 modules each. The detectors are operated in a secondary vacuum and are cooled by a bi-phase CO2 cooling system. During data taking in LHC Run 1 the LHCb VELO has operated with an extremely high efficiency and excellent performance. The track finding efficiency is typically greater than 98%. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 um is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c. An overview of all important performance parameters will be given. The VELO sensors have received a large and non-uniform radiation dose of up to 1.2 x 10...

  3. Transition from shod to barefoot alters dynamic stability during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizos, Antonis; Santuz, Alessandro; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2017-07-01

    Barefoot running recently received increased attention, with controversial results regarding its effects on injury risk and performance. Numerous studies examined the kinetic and kinematic changes between the shod and the barefoot condition. Intrinsic parameters such as the local dynamic stability could provide new insight regarding neuromuscular control when immediately transitioning from one running condition to the other. We investigated the local dynamic stability during the change from shod to barefoot running. We further measured biomechanical parameters to examine the mechanisms governing this transition. Twenty habitually shod, young and healthy participants ran on a pressure plate-equipped treadmill and alternated between shod and barefoot running. We calculated the largest Lyapunov exponents as a measure of errors in the control of the movement. Biomechanical parameters were also collected. Local dynamic stability decreased significantly (d=0.41; 2.1%) during barefoot running indicating worse control over the movement. We measured higher cadence (d=0.35; 2.2%) and total flight time (d=0.58; 19%), lower total contact time (d=0.58; -5%), total vertical displacement (d=0.39; -4%), and vertical impulse (d=1.32; 11%) over the two minutes when running barefoot. The strike index changed significantly (d=1.29; 237%) towards the front of the foot. Immediate transition from shod to the barefoot condition resulted in an increased instability and indicates a worst control over the movement. The increased instability was associated with biomechanical changes (i.e. foot strike patterns) of the participants in the barefoot condition. Possible reasons why this instability arises, might be traced in the stance phase and particularly in the push-off. The decreased stability might affect injury risk and performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of Footwear on the Modular Organization of Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santuz, Alessandro; Ekizos, Antonis; Janshen, Lars; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2017-01-01

    For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2.8 ± 0.4 m/s). Fundamental synergies, containing the time-dependent activation coefficients (motor primitives) and the time-invariant muscle weightings (motor modules), were extracted from 24 ipsilateral electromyographic activities using non-negative matrix factorization. In shod running, the average foot strike pattern was a rearfoot strike, while in barefoot running it was a mid-forefoot strike. In both conditions, five fundamental synergies were enough to describe as many gait cycle phases: weight acceptance, propulsion, arm swing, early swing and late swing. We found the motor primitives to be generally shifted earlier in time during the stance-related phases and later in the swing-related ones in barefoot running. The motor primitive describing the propulsion phase was significantly of shorter duration (peculiarity confirmed by the analysis of the spinal motor output). The arm swing primitive, instead, was significantly wider in the barefoot condition. The motor modules demonstrated analogous organization with some significant differences in the propulsion, arm swing and late swing synergies. Other than to the trivial absence of shoes, the differences might be deputed to the lower ankle gear ratio (and the consequent increased system instability) and to the higher recoil capabilities of the longitudinal foot arch during barefoot compared to shod running.

  5. The Influence of Footwear on the Modular Organization of Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Santuz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2.8 ± 0.4 m/s. Fundamental synergies, containing the time-dependent activation coefficients (motor primitives and the time-invariant muscle weightings (motor modules, were extracted from 24 ipsilateral electromyographic activities using non-negative matrix factorization. In shod running, the average foot strike pattern was a rearfoot strike, while in barefoot running it was a mid-forefoot strike. In both conditions, five fundamental synergies were enough to describe as many gait cycle phases: weight acceptance, propulsion, arm swing, early swing and late swing. We found the motor primitives to be generally shifted earlier in time during the stance-related phases and later in the swing-related ones in barefoot running. The motor primitive describing the propulsion phase was significantly of shorter duration (peculiarity confirmed by the analysis of the spinal motor output. The arm swing primitive, instead, was significantly wider in the barefoot condition. The motor modules demonstrated analogous organization with some significant differences in the propulsion, arm swing and late swing synergies. Other than to the trivial absence of shoes, the differences might be deputed to the lower ankle gear ratio (and the consequent increased system instability and to the higher recoil capabilities of the longitudinal foot arch during barefoot compared to shod running.

  6. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Stefanie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Liquid-argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta<3.2$, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from $\\eta=1.5$ to $\\eta=4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ has been collected at centre-of-mass energies of $7-8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. After detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 and $86.4\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of data at a centre-of-mass energy of $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ have been recorded. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of $100\\,\\mathrm{kHz}$ in Run-2 data taking, the number of readout samples recorded and used for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four while keeping the expected performance. The well calibrated and highly granular LAr calorimeter reached its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution. This contribution will give an overview of the detector operation, hardware...

  7. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Stefanie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region eta<3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from eta=1.5 to eta=4.9. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 fb-1 has been collected at c.o.m energies of 7-8 TeV. After detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 and 86.4fb-1 of data at a c.o.m energy of 13 TeV have been recorded. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of 100 kHz in Run-2 data taking, the number of read-out samples recorded and used for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four while keeping the expected performance. The well calibrated and highly granular LAr Calorimeter reached its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution. This contribution will give an overview of the detector operation, hardware improvements, changes in the monitoring and data quality procedures, to cope with increased ...

  8. ATLAS strip detector: Operational Experience and Run1 → Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT operational experience and the detector performance during the RUN1 period of LHC will be reported. Additionally the preparation outward to RUN2 during the long shut down 1 will be mentioned.

  9. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance...... is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study...... period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running...

  10. Performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter in Run II and its role in the measurement of the Higgs boson properties

    CERN Document Server

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The characterisation of the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 around 125 GeV, and confirmed with the data collected in Run II, requires the precise determination of its mass, width and couplings. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) is crucial for measurements in the highest resolution channels, $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H\\to 4$ leptons. In particular the energy resolution, the scale uncertainty and the position resolution for electrons and photons are required to be as good as possible.During Run II the LHC is continuously operating with 25 ns bunch spacing and increasing instantaneous luminosity. The calorimeter reconstruction algorithm has been adapted to cope with increasing levels of pile-up and the calibration and monitoring strategy have been optimised to maintain the excellent performance of the CMS ECAL throughout Run II. We show first performance results from the Run II data taking periods, achieved through energy calibrations using physics events, with...

  11. Endurance running performance in athletes with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W; Williams, C; Nute, M G

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory assessment was made during maximal and submaximal exercise on 16 endurance trained male runners with asthma (aged 35 +/- 9 years) (mean +/- S.D.). Eleven of these asthmatic athletes had recent performance times over a half-marathon, which were examined in light of the results from the laboratory tests. The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the group was 61.8 +/- 6.3 ml kg-1 min-1 and the maximum ventilation (VEmax) was 138.7 +/- 24.7 l min-1. These maximum cardio-respiratory responses to exercise were positively correlated to the degree of airflow obstruction, defined as the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (expressed as a percentage of predicted normal). The half-marathon performance times of 11 of the athletes ranged from those of recreational to elite runners (82.4 +/- 8.8 min, range 69-94). Race pace was correlated with VO2max (r = 0.863, P less than 0.01) but the highest correlation was with the running velocity at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol l-1 (r = 0.971, P less than 0.01). The asthmatic athletes utilized 82 +/- 4% VO2max during the half-marathon, which was correlated with the %VO2max at 2 mmol l-1 blood lactate (r = 0.817, P less than 0.01). The results of this study suggest that athletes with mild to moderate asthma can possess high VO2max values and can develop a high degree of endurance fitness, as defined by their ability to sustain a high percentage of VO2max over an endurance race. In athletes with more severe airflow obstruction, the maximum ventilation rate may be reduced and so VO2max may be impaired. The athletes in the present study have adapted to this limitation by being able to sustain a higher %VO2max before the accumulation of blood lactate, which is an advantage during an endurance race. Therefore, with appropriate training and medication, asthmatics can successfully participate in endurance running at a competitive level.

  12. Evaluation of high-resolution climate simulations for West Africa using COSMO-CLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Diarra; Smiatek, Gerhard; Bliefernicht, Jan; Laux, Patrick; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2017-04-01

    The climate change modeling activities within the WASCAL program (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) concentrate on the provisioning of future climate change scenario data at high spatial and temporal resolution and quality in West Africa. Such information is highly required for impact studies in water resources and agriculture for the development of reliable climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this study, we present a detailed evaluation of high simulation runs based on the regional climate model, COSMO model in CLimate Mode (COSMO-CLM). The model is applied over West Africa in a nested approach with two simulation domains at 0.44° and 0.11° resolution using reanalysis data from ERA-Interim (1979-2013). The models runs are compared to several state-of-the-art observational references (e.g., CRU, CHIRPS) including daily precipitation data provided by national meteorological services in West Africa. Special attention is paid to the reproduction of the dynamics of the West African Monsoon (WMA), its associated precipitation patterns and crucial agro-climatological indices such as the onset of the rainy season. In addition, first outcomes of the regional climate change simulations driven by MPI-ESM-LR are presented for a historical period (1980 to 2010) and two future periods (2020 to 2050, 2070 to 2100). The evaluation of the reanalysis runs shows that COSMO-CLM is able to reproduce the observed major climate characteristics including the West African Monsoon within the range of comparable RCM evaluations studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain, especially in the Sahel zone. The added value of the higher resolution of the nested run is reflected in a smaller bias in extreme precipitation statistics with respect to the reference data.

  13. Are workplaces with many women in management run differently?

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Are workplaces with a high percentage of women in management run differently?. This paper uses data from the British 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS98) to analyze empirically the relationship between the percentage of female workplace managers and people-management practices. The results show that workplace management teams with a higher proportion of women monitor employee feedback and development more intensely. Such teams also tend to promote more interpersonal c...

  14. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  15. Di-J/ψ Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vint, Philip John

    2009-01-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/ψ states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of ∼50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of ∼4.5 (micro)m. A previous search in the di-J/ψ channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at ∼13.7 GeV/c 2 . A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb -1 of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/ψ mass spectrum.

  16. Di-J/Ψ Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vint, Philip John [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/Ψ states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of ~50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of ~4.5 μm. A previous search in the di-J/Ψ channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at ~13.7 GeV/c2. A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb-1 of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/Ψ mass spectrum.

  17. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  18. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  19. The Trigger for Early Running

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system is based on three levels of event selection designed to capture the physics of interest with high efficiency from an initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. The selections in the three trigger levels must provide sufficient rejection to reduce the rate to 200 Hz, compatible with offline computing power and storage capacity. The LHC is expected to begin its operation with a peak luminosity of 10^31 with a relatively small number of bunches, but quickly ramp up to higher luminosities by increasing the number of bunches, and thus the overall interaction rate. Decisions must be taken every 25 ns during normal LHC operations at the design luminosity of 10^34, where the average bunch crossing will contain more than 20 interactions. Hence, trigger selections must be deployed that can adapt to the changing beam conditions while preserving the interesting physics and satisfying varying detector requirements. In this paper, we provide a menu of trigger selections that can be...

  20. Hourly Comparison of GPM-IMERG-Final-Run and IMERG-Real-Time (V-03) over a Dense Surface Network in Northeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Ehsan; Steinacker, Reinhold; Saghafian, Bahram

    2017-04-01

    Accurate quantitative daily precipitation estimation is key to meteorological and hydrological applications in hazards forecast and management. In-situ observations over mountainous areas are mostly limited, however, currently available satellite precipitation products can potentially provide the precipitation estimation needed for meteorological and hydrological applications. Over the years, blended methods that use multi-satellites and multi-sensors have been developed for estimating of global precipitation. One of the latest satellite precipitation products is GPM-IMERG (Global Precipitation Measurement with 30-minute temporal and 0.1-degree spatial resolutions) which consists of three products: Final-Run (aimed for research), Real-Time early run, and Real-Time late run. The Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products built upon the success of TRMM's Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products continue to make improvements in spatial and temporal resolutions and snowfall estimates. Recently, researchers who evaluated IMERG-Final-Run V-03 and other precipitation products indicated better performance for IMERG-Final-Run against other similar products. In this study two GPM-IMERG products, namely final run and real time-late run, were evaluated against a dense synoptic stations network (62 stations) over Northeastern Austria for mid-March 2015 to end of January 2016 period at hourly time-scale. Both products were examined against the reference data (stations) in capturing the occurrence of precipitation and statistical characteristics of precipitation intensity. Both satellite precipitation products underestimated precipitation events of 0.1 mm/hr to 0.4 mm/hr in intensity. For precipitations 0.4 mm/hr and greater, the trend was reversed and both satellite products overestimated than station recorded data. IMERG-RT outperformed IMERG-FR for precipitation intensity in the range of 0.1 mm/hr to 0.4 mm/hr while in the range of 1.1 to 1.8 mm

  1. Quality Management in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with quality management theory as an important part of management science. The primary objective of this work is an identification, formulation and analysis of such managerial issues in quality of higher education, which either are not known, or whose resolution is not considered fully sufficient. The thesis contains a bibliography of more than 200 related scientific works and presents selected issues of quality management in higher education, such as quality perception or it...

  2. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) beneficial effect on running economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P beneficial effect on running economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P beneficial effects on running economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD running was identified (P running economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  3. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  4. Performance of the SLD Barrel CRID during the 1992 physics data run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Toge, N.; Yuta, H.; Baird, K.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Word, G.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Yellin, S.; Ben-David, R.; Manly, S.; Snyder, J.; Turk, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Colye, P.; Coyne, D.; Liu, X.; Williams, D.A.; Coller, J.; Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; d'Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stockdale, I.; Wilson, R.J.

    1992-11-01

    The SLD Barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector was fully operational in the 1992 physics data run. The electron drift velocity and magnetic field deflection of electron trajectories have been measured. Cherenkov rings have been observed from both the liquid and gas radiators. The number and the resolution of the angle of Cherenkov photons have been measured to be approximately equal to design specifications

  5. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  6. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  7. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  8. Running Injuries During Adolescence and Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabak, Brian J; Snitily, Brian; Milani, Carlo J E

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of running among young athletes has significantly increased over the past few decades. As the number of children who participate in running increases, so do the potential number of injuries to this group. Proper care of these athletes includes a thorough understanding of the unique physiology of the skeletally immature athlete and common injuries in this age group. Treatment should focus on athlete education, modification of training schedule, and correction of biomechanical deficits contributing to injury. Early identification and correction of these factors will allow a safe return to running sports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ATLAS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1-> Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Koichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large hadron collider was operated very successfully during the Run1 and provided a lot of opportunities of physics studies. It currently has a consolidation work toward to the operation at $\\sqrt{s}=14 \\mathrm{TeV}$ in Run2. The ATLAS experiment has achieved excellent performance in Run1 operation, delivering remarkable physics results. The SemiConductor Tracker contributed to the precise measurement of momentum of charged particles. This paper describes the operation experience of the SemiConductor Tracker in Run1 and the preparation toward to the Run2 operation during the LS1.

  10. Electricity prices and fuel costs. Long-run relations and short-run dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the long-run relation and short-run dynamics between electricity prices and three fossil fuel prices - coal, natural gas and crude oil - using annual data for the U.S. for 1960-2007. The results suggest (1) a stable long-run relation between real prices for electricity and coal (2) Bi-directional long-run causality between coal and electricity prices. (3) Insignificant long-run relations between electricity and crude oil and/or natural gas prices. And (4) no evidence of asymmetries in the adjustment of electricity prices to deviations from equilibrium. A number of implications are addressed. (author)

  11. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System: Design, Performance and Plan

    CERN Document Server

    zur Nedden, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to select interesting collisions from the large data volume. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes the trigger system that consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT), reducing the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1000 Hz. The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC (Run-1) between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. In the second run of LHC (Run-2) starting from 2015, the LHC operates at centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and provides a higher luminosity of collisions. Also, the number of collisions occurring in a same bunch crossing increases. The ATLAS trigger system has to cope with these challenges, while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select relevant physics processes. In this talk, first we will review the ATLAS trigger ...

  12. Run II of the LHC: The Accelerator Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In 2015 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) starts its Run II operation. After the successful Run I at 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV in the 2010-2013 period, a first long shutdown (LS1) was mainly dedicated to the consolidation of the LHC magnet interconnections, to allow the LHC to operate at its design beam energy of 7 TeV. Other key accelerator systems have also been improved to optimize the performance reach at higher beam energies. After a review of the LS1 activities, the status of the LHC start-up progress is reported, addressing in particular the status of the LHC hardware commissioning and of the training campaign of superconducting magnets that will determine the operation beam energy in 2015. Then, the plans for the Run II operation are reviewed in detail, covering choice of initial machine parameters and strategy to improve the Run II performance. Future prospects of the LHC and its upgrade plans are also presented.

  13. Optimisation of the ATLAS Track Reconstruction Software for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Salzburger, Andreas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of particle trajectories in the tracking detectors of experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the most complex parts in analysing the collected data from beam-beam collisions. To achieve the desired integrated luminosity during Run-1 of the LHC data taking period, the number of simultaneous proton-proton interactions per beam crossing (pile-up) was steadily increased. The track reconstruction is the most time consuming reconstruction component and scales non-linear in high luminosity environments. Flat budget projections (at best) for computing resources during the upcoming Run-2 of the LHC together with the demands of reconstructing higher pile-up collision data at rates more than double compared to Run-1 have put pressure on the track reconstruction software to stay within the available computing resources. The ATLAS experiment has thus performed a two year long software campaign which led to a reduction of the reconstruction time for Run-2 conditions by a factor of four:...

  14. The ATLAS Trigger system upgrade and performance in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Savanna Marie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first part of the LHC Run-2 in 2015/16 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger; it reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. The excellent performance of the ATLAS trigger has been vital for the ATLAS physics program of Run-2, selecting interesting collision events for wide variety of physics signatures with high efficiency. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and pile-up which are the result of the almost doubling of the center-of-mass collision energy and the increase in the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC. In order to prepare for the anticipated further luminosity increase of the LHC in 2017/18, improving the trigger performance remain...

  15. Ankle-foot orthosis bending axis influences running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Ranz, Ellyn C; Schmidtbauer, Kelly A; Neptune, Richard R; Wilken, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to improve locomotion for people with lower limb musculoskeletal weakness. The clinical prescription and design process are typically qualitative and based on observational assessment and experience. Prior work examining the effect of AFO design characteristics generally excludes higher impact activities such as running, providing clinicians and researchers limited information to guide the development of objective prescription guidelines. The proximal location of the bending axis may directly influence energy storage and return and resulting running mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine if the location of an AFO's bending axis influences running mechanics. Marker and force data were recorded as 12 participants with lower extremity weakness ran overground while wearing a passive-dynamic AFO with posterior struts manufactured with central (middle) and off-centered (high and low) bending axes. Lower extremity joint angles, moments, powers, and ground reaction forces were calculated and compared between limbs and across bending axis conditions. Bending axis produced relatively small but significant changes. Ankle range of motion increased as the bending axis shifted distally (pbenefits during running, although individual preference and physical ability should also be considered. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The ATLAS Trigger in Run-2 - Design, Menu and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. Taken together constitute the trigger menu, which reflects the physics goals of the collaboration while taking into account available data taking resources. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and number of interactions per bunch crossing (pileup) which are the result of the...

  17. Reinventing the wheel: comparison of two wheel cage styles for assessing mouse voluntary running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, T; Harfmann, B D; Esser, K A; Schroder, E A

    2018-04-01

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different laboratories. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differ depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs. magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to greater running distance per day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used, suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus investigators need to report wheel cage type/wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The results of this study highlight that mice will run different distances per day and average speed based on the inherent resistance present in the switch mechanism used to record data. Rapid changes in running behavior for the same mouse in the different cages demonstrate that a strong behavioral factor contributes to classic exercise outcomes in mice. Caution needs to be taken when interpreting mouse voluntary wheel running activity to

  18. Evaluation report on CCTF core-I reflood tests Cl-5 (Run 14), Cl-10 (Run 19) and Cl-12 (Run 21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Murao, Yoshio

    1983-06-01

    Three tests Cl-5 (Run 14), Cl-10 (Run 19) and Cl-12 (Run 21) were performed using the Cylindrical Core Test Facility to study the effect of the containment pressure on the core cooling and the system behaviors during the reflood phase of a PWR-LOCA. The containment pressures of these tests were 0.15, 0.20 and 0.30 MPa for the tests Cl-10, Cl-5 and Cl-12, respectively. Through the comparison of the test results from these three tests, the following results were obtained. (1) The higher containment pressure gave the higher heat transfer coefficient in the core. This resulted in the lower turnaround temperature, the shorter turnaround time and the shorter quench time at the higher containment pressure. (2) In the higher containment pressure test, the higher core water head, the higher upper plenum water head, the higher downcomer water head in the early period and the lower downcomer water head in the later period were observed than those in the lower containment pressure test. This resulted in the higher pressure drop through the intact loop in the early period of the tests and the lower pressure drop in the later period of the test with the containment pressure. (3) The pressure drop through the broken cold leg pressurized the primary system. The pressure drop through the broken cold leg was decreased with the containment pressure. (4) The core inlet mass flow rate was increased with the containment pressure as observed in the FLECHT-SET phase B1 test. In quantity, however, the effect of the containment pressure on the increase of the core inlet mass flow rate was less in the CCTF than that in the FLECHT-SET. The less sensitivity in the CCTF was attributed mainly to the great pressure drop through the broken cold leg, which was not observed in the FLECHT-SET with big broken cold leg. (5) The system effect of the containment pressure was explained quantitatively. (author)

  19. Improvements to ATLAS Track Reconstruction for Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Run-II of the LHC will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. In addition, the Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer, which has been inserted at the centre of ATLAS during the shutdown of the LHC. We will discuss improvements to track reconstruction developed during the two year shutdown of the LHC. These include novel techniques developed to improve the performance in the dense cores of jets, optimisation for the expected conditions, and a big software campaign which lead to more than a factor of three decrease in the CPU time needed to process each recorded event.

  20. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probing the prevalence and nature of running musculoskeletal injuries in the 12 months preceding ... or agony, and which prevented them from physical activity for ..... injuries to professional football players: Developing the UEFA model.

  1. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  2. Run-2 Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Abner; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. With the large increase in collision energy with the LHC Run-2 (from 8TeV to 13 TeV) the sensitivity to heavy strongly produced SUSY particles (squarks and gluinos) increases tremendously. This talk presents recent ATLAS Run-2 searches for such particles in final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, and possibly light leptons.

  3. Running heavy-quark masses in DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Moch, S.

    2011-07-01

    We report on determinations of the running mass for charm quarks from deep-inelastic scattering reactions. The method provides complementary information on this fundamental parameter from hadronic processes with space-like kinematics. The obtained values are consistent with but systematically lower than the world average as published by the PDG. We also address the consequences of the running mass scheme for heavy-quark parton distributions in global fits to deep-inelastic scattering data. (orig.)

  4. The meaning of running away for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. The meaning of running away as it emerged from the girls' descriptions of their lives prior to leaving home was that of survival - both psychological and physical. The girls' stories centered on their evolving experiences of alienation, loneliness and detachment, and the failure of significant relationships at home and outside of home to provide them with the support they needed. These experiences laid the ground for the "final moments" before leaving, when a feeling of "no alternative," a hope for a better future, and various particular triggers led the girls to the decision to leave home. Participants' insights about the dynamics leading to running-away center on the meaning of family relationships, particularly those with the mother, as constituting the girl's psychological home. The girls seemed to perceive running away as an inevitability, rather than a choice, and even portrayed the running away as "living suicide." Yet, their stories clearly demonstrate their ability to cope and the possession of strengths and skills that enabled them to survive in extremely difficult home situations. The findings of this research highlight the importance of improving services for reaching out and supporting girls who are on the verge of running away from home. Such services should be tailored to the needs of girls who experience extreme but often silenced distress at home, and should facilitate alternative solutions to the girls' plight other than running away. An understanding of the dynamics leading to running away from the girls' perspective has the potential to improve the efficacy of services provided by contributing to the creation of a caring, empowering, understanding and trustful professional

  5. High resolution present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Svalbard modelled by MAR and implementation of a new online SMB downscaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C.; Fettweis, X.; Kittel, C.; Erpicum, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of high resolution simulations of the climate and SMB of Svalbard with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-40 then ERA-Interim, as well as an online downscaling method allowing us to model the SMB and its components at a resolution twice as high (2.5 vs 5 km here) using only about 25% more CPU time. Spitsbergen, the largest island in Svalbard, has a very hilly topography and a high spatial resolution is needed to correctly represent the local topography and the complex pattern of ice distribution and precipitation. However, high resolution runs with an RCM fully coupled to an energy balance module like MAR require a huge amount of computation time. The hydrostatic equilibrium hypothesis used in MAR also becomes less valid as the spatial resolution increases. We therefore developed in MAR a method to run the snow module at a resolution twice as high as the atmospheric module. Near-surface temperature and humidity are corrected on a grid with a resolution twice as high, as a function of their local gradients and the elevation difference between the corresponding pixels in the 2 grids. We compared the results of our runs at 5 km and with SMB downscaled at 2.5 km over 1960 — 2016 and compared those to previous 10 km runs. On Austfonna, where the slopes are gentle, the agreement between observations and the 5 km SMB is better than with the 10 km SMB. It is again improved at 2.5 km but the gain is relatively small, showing the interest of our method rather than running a time consuming classic 2.5 km resolution simulation. On Spitsbergen, we show that a spatial resolution of 2.5 km is still not enough to represent the complex pattern of topography, precipitation and SMB. Due to a change in the summer atmospheric circulation, from a westerly flow over Svalbard to a northwesterly flow bringing colder air, the SMB of Svalbard was stable between 2006 and 2012, while several melt records were broken in Greenland, due to conditions more

  6. [Osteoarthritis from long-distance running?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, E; Wörtler, K; Imhoff, A

    2005-06-01

    Long distance running has become a fashionable recreational activity. This study investigated the effects of external impact loading on bone and cartilage introduced by performing a marathon race. Seven beginners were compared to six experienced recreational long distance runners and two professional athletes. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and knee before and after a marathon run. Coronal T1 weighted and STIR sequences were used. The pre MRI served as a baseline investigation and monitored the training effect. All athletes demonstrated normal findings in the pre run scan. All but one athlete in the beginner group demonstrated joint effusions after the race. The experienced and professional runners failed to demonstrate pathology in the post run scans. Recreational and professional long distance runners tolerate high impact forces well. Beginners demonstrate significant changes on the post run scans. Whether those findings are a result of inadequate training (miles and duration) warrant further studies. We conclude that adequate endurance training results in adaptation mechanisms that allow the athlete to compensate for the stresses introduced by long distance running and do not predispose to the onset of osteoarthritis. Significant malalignment of the lower extremity may cause increased focal loading of joint and cartilage.

  7. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  8. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, R M; Gallas, E J; Tseng, J C-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called 'runBrowser' makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  9. Energy expenditure and influence of physiologic factors during marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Mark; Sothern, Melinda; Koss, Cathie; Tuuri, Georgianna; Vanvrancken, Connie; Kontos, Anthony; Bonis, Marc

    2007-11-01

    This study examined energy expenditure and physiologic determinants for marathon performance in recreational runners. Twenty recreational marathon runners participated (10 males aged 41 +/- 11.3 years, 10 females aged 42.7 +/- 11.7 years). Each subject completed a V(.-)O2max and a 1-hour treadmill run at recent marathon pace, and body composition was indirectly determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The male runners exhibited higher V(.-)O2max (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) values (52.6 +/- 5.5) than their female counterparts (41.9 +/- 6.6), although ventilatory threshold (T-vent) values were similar between groups (males: 76.2 +/- 6.1 % of V(.-)O2max, females: 75.1 +/- 5.1%). The male runners expended more energy (2,792 +/- 235 kcal) for their most recent marathon as calculated from the 1-hour treadmill run at marathon pace than the female runners (2,436 +/- 297 kcal). Body composition parameters correlated moderately to highly (r ranging from 0.50 to 0.87) with marathon run time. Also, V(.-)O2max (r = -0.73) and ventilatory threshold (r = -0.73) moderately correlated with marathon run time. As a group, the participants ran near their ventilatory threshold for their most recent marathon (r = 0.74). These results indicate the influence of body size on marathon run performance. In general, the larger male and female runners ran slower and expended more kilocalories than smaller runners. Regardless of marathon finishing time, the runners maintained a pace near their T-vent, and as T-vent or V(.-)O2max increased, marathon performance time decreased.

  10. The influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2017-07-01

    Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first. Furthermore, mechanical cushioning properties of shoes were evaluated before and after in-vivo aging. After 4months of use, the sole stiffness increased by 16% and the energy loss capacity decreased by 18% (pknee kinematic adjustment was found at foot strike in used shoes but changes were observed later during stance. Running with used shoes produced a higher loading rate of the vertical ground reaction force (+23%, p=0.016), suggesting higher compressive forces under the heel and placing children at risk to experience impact-related injuries. Nevertheless, the decreased peak ankle and knee power absorption in used shoes (-11%, p=0.010 and -12%, p=0.029, respectively) suggests a lower ankle and knee joints loading during the absorption phase that may be beneficial regarding stretch-related injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of genetic background and environmental novelty on wheel running as a rewarding behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Stoker, Astrid K; Kas, Martien J H; Spruijt, Berry M

    2007-02-27

    Recent studies suggest running wheel activity to be naturally rewarding and reinforcing; considering the shared neuro-behavioural characteristics with drug-induced reward situations, wheel running behaviour gains interest as a tool to study mechanisms underlying reward-sensitivity. Previously, we showed that wheel running has the potential to disrupt the daily organization of home cage behaviour in female C57BL/6 [de Visser L, van den Bos R, Spruijt BM. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion. Behav Brain Res 2005;160:382-8]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of novelty-induced stress on wheel running and its impact on home cage behaviour in male C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Our aim was to determine whether wheel running may be used as a tool to study both genetic and environmentally induced differences in sensitivity to rewarding behaviour in mice. One group of male mice was placed in an automated home cage observation system for 2 weeks with a wheel integrated in the cage. A second group of mice was allowed to habituate to this cage for 1 week before a running wheel was introduced. Results showed a pronounced sensitising effect of novelty on the level of wheel running in C57Bl/6 mice but not in DBA mice. Overall levels of wheel running were higher in DBA/2 mice. Furthermore, wheel running affected circadian rhythmicity in DBA/2 mice but not in C57BL/6 mice. From these findings we tentatively suggest that wheel running behaviour could serve as a tool to study the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in sensitivity to rewarding behaviour in mice. As it is displayed spontaneously and easy to monitor, wheel running may be well suitable to be included in high-throughput phenotyping assays.

  12. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tau trigger is designed to select hadronic decays of the tau leptons. Tau lepton plays an important role in Standard Model (SM) physics, such as in Higgs boson decays. Tau lepton is also important in beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles, as they are often produced preferentially in these models. During the 2010-2012 LHC run (Run1), the tau trigger was accomplished successfully, which leads several rewarding results such as evidence for $H\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$. From the 2015 LHC run (Run2), LHC will be upgraded and overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) are expected to increase by a factor two. It will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping interesting physics events. This paper summarized the tau trigger performance in Run1 and its prospects for Run2.

  13. Not Just Running: Coping with and Managing Everyday Life through Road-Running

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Simon

    2014-01-01

    From the external form, running looks like running. Yet this alikeness masks a hugely divergent practice consisting of different movements, meanings and experiences. In this paper I wish to shed light upon some of these different ‘ways of running’ and in turn identify a range of the sometimes surprising, sometimes significant and sometimes banal benefits that road-running can gift its practitioners beyond simply exercise and physical fitness. Drawing on an innovative mapping and ethnographic ...

  14. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  15. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  16. ALICE HLT Run 2 performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Lindenstruth, Volker; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    For the LHC Run 2 the ALICE HLT architecture was consolidated to comply with the upgraded ALICE detector readout technology. The software framework was optimized and extended to cope with the increased data load. Online calibration of the TPC using online tracking capabilities of the ALICE HLT was deployed. Offline calibration code was adapted to run both online and offline and the HLT framework was extended to support that. The performance of this schema is important for Run 3 related developments. An additional data transport approach was developed using the ZeroMQ library, forming at the same time a test bed for the new data flow model of the O2 system, where further development of this concept is ongoing. This messaging technology was used to implement the calibration feedback loop augmenting the existing, graph oriented HLT transport framework. Utilising the online reconstruction of many detectors, a new asynchronous monitoring scheme was developed to allow real-time monitoring of the physics performance of the ALICE detector, on top of the new messaging scheme for both internal and external communication. Spare computing resources comprising the production and development clusters are run as a tier-2 GRID site using an OpenStack-based setup. The development cluster is running continuously, the production cluster contributes resources opportunistically during periods of LHC inactivity.

  17. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  18. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  19. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation of the app......While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation...... of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...... the possibility that the running could be due to some other less UV sensitive degree of freedom. As an example, we ask if it is possible that the curvature perturbation spectrum has a contribution from a curvaton, which makes up for the large running in the spectrum. We find that this effect could mask...

  20. Habitual Minimalist Shod Running Biomechanics and the Acute Response to Running Barefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Darragh, Ian A J; Divekar, Nikhil V; Lamberts, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether habitual minimalist shoe runners present with purported favorable running biomechanithat reduce running injury risk such as initial loading rate. Eighteen minimalist and 16 traditionally cushioned shod runners were assessed when running both in their preferred training shoe and barefoot. Ankle and knee joint kinetics and kinematics, initial rate of loading, and footstrike angle were measured. Sagittal ankle and knee joint stiffness were also calculated. Results of a two-factor ANOVA presented no group difference in initial rate of loading when participants were running either shod or barefoot; however, initial loading rate increased for both groups when running barefoot (p=0.008). Differences in footstrike angle were observed between groups when running shod, but not when barefoot (minimalist:8.71±8.99 vs. traditional: 17.32±11.48 degrees, p=0.002). Lower ankle joint stiffness was found in both groups when running barefoot (p=0.025). These findings illustrate that risk factors for injury potentially differ between the two groups. Shoe construction differences do change mechanical demands, however, once habituated to the demands of a given shoe condition, certain acute favorable or unfavorable responses may be moderated. The purported benefits of minimalist running shoes in mimicking habitual barefoot running is questioned, and risk of injury may not be attenuated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Neural network-based run-to-run controller using exposure and resist thickness adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Shane; Barry, Ronan

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a run-to-run control algorithm using a feedforward neural network, trained using the backpropagation training method. The algorithm is used to predict the critical dimension of the next lot using previous lot information. It is compared to a common prediction algorithm - the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and is shown to give superior prediction performance in simulations. The manufacturing implementation of the final neural network showed significantly improved process capability when compared to the case where no run-to-run control was utilised.

  2. The running pattern and its importance in running long-distance gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Hoffman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The running pattern is individual for each runner, regardless of distance. We can characterize it as the sum of the data of the runner (age, height, training time, etc. and the parameters of his run. Building the proper technique should focus first and foremost on the work of movement coordination and the power of the runner. In training the correct running steps we can use similar tools as working on deep feeling. The aim of this paper was to define what we can call a running pattern, what is its influence in long-distance running, and the relationship between the training technique and the running pattern. The importance of a running pattern in long-distance racing is immense, as the more distracted and departed from the norm, the greater the harm to the body will cause it to repetition in long run. Putting on training exercises that shape the technique is very important and affects the running pattern significantly.

  3. Transport of mass goods on the top run and bottom run of belt conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, D

    1977-06-01

    For combined coal winning from the collieries 'General Blumenthal' and 'Ewald Fortsetzung' a large belt conveyor plant was taken into operation which is able to transport 1360 tons/h in the top run and 300 tons/h of dirt in the bottom run. The different types of coal are transported separately in intermittent operation with the aid of bunker systems connected to the front and rear of the belt conveyor. Persons can be transported in the top run as well as in the bottom run.

  4. Regional modelling of tracer transport by tropical convection – Part 2: Sensitivity to model resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arteta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this series of two papers is to evaluate long duration limited-area simulations with idealised tracers as a possible tool to assess the tracer transport in chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this second paper we analyse the results of three simulations using different horizontal and vertical resolutions. The goal is to study the impact of the model spatial resolution on convective transport of idealized tracer in the tropics. The reference simulation (REF uses a 60 km horizontal resolution and 300 m vertically in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS. A 20 km horizontal resolution simulation (HR is run as well as a simulation with 850 m vertical resolution in the UTLS (CVR. The simulations are run for one month during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Aircraft data, TRMM rainrate estimates and radiosoundings have been used to evaluate the simulations. They show that the HR configuration gives generally a better agreement with the measurements than the REF simulation. The CVR simulation gives generally the worst results. The vertical distribution of the tropospheric tracers for the simulations has a similar shape with a ~15 km altitude maximum for the 6h-lifetime tracer of 0.4 ppbv for REF, 1.2 for HR and 0.04 for CVR. These differences are related to the dynamics produced by the three simulations that leads to larger values of the upward velocities on average for HR and lower for CVR compared to REF. HR simulates more frequent and stronger convection leading to enhanced fluxes compared to REF and higher detrainment levels compared to CVR. HR provides also occasional overshoots over the cold point dynamical barrier. For the stratospheric tracers the differences between the three simulations are small. The diurnal cycle of the fluxes of all tracers in the Tropical Tropopause Layer exhibits a maximum linked to the maximum of convective activity.

  5. CMS detector tracking performance in Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Brondolin, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Since the start of Run-II in June 2015, LHC has delivered pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 13TeV and with a bunch time separation of 25 ns. On avarage, more than 25 inelastic collisions are superimposed on the event of interest. Under these new conditions, the CMS collaboration has re-calibrated and verified the performance of the whole detector. In particular, the CMS tracking performance has been measured both directly and indirectly. Direct measurements are, among others, the beam spot determination, the vertex resolution and the muon reconstruction efficiency with the tag and probe technique. An indirect assessment can be given by the pion reconstruction efficiency and the low-mass resonance parameters as a function of different single track kinematics.

  6. The updated ATLAS Jet Trigger for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00359694; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After the current shutdown, the LHC is about to resume operation for a new data-taking period, when it will operate with increased luminosity, event rate and center of mass energy. The new conditions will impose more demanding constraints on the ATLAS online trigger reconstruction and selection system. To cope with such increased constraints, the ATLAS High-Level Trigger, placed after a first hardware-based Level~1 trigger, has been redesigned by merging two previously separated software-based processing levels. In the new joint processing level, the algorithms run in the same computing nodes, thus sharing resources, minimizing the data transfer from the detector buffers and increasing the algorithm flexibility. The jet trigger software selects events containing high transverse momentum hadronic jets. It needs optimal jet energy resolution to help rejecting an overwhelming background while retaining good efficiency for interesting jets. In particular, this requires the CPU-intensive reconstruction of tridimen...

  7. ATLAS Jet Trigger Update for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Sebastien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After the current shutdown, the LHC is about to resume operation for a new data-taking period, when it will operate with increased luminosity, event rate and centre of mass energy. The new conditions will impose more demanding constraints on the ATLAS online trigger reconstruction and selection system. To cope with such increased constraints, the ATLAS High Level Trigger, placed after a first hardware-based Level-1 trigger, has been redesigned by merging two previously separated software-based processing levels. In the new joint processing level, the algorithms run in the same computing nodes, thus sharing resources, minimizing the data transfer from the detector buffers and increasing the algorithm flexibility. The Jet trigger software selects events containing high transverse momentum hadronic jets. It needs optimal jet energy resolution to help rejecting an overwhelming background while retaining good efficiency for interesting jets. In particular, this requires the CPU-intensive reconstruction of tridimen...

  8. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities

  9. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-01-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes

  10. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    In the study of long-run economic growth, it is common to use historical or geographical variables as instruments for contemporary endogenous regressors. We study the interpretation of these conventional instrumental variable (IV) regressions in a general, yet simple, framework. Our aim...... quantitative implications for the field of long-run economic growth. We also use our framework to examine related empirical techniques. We find that two prominent regression methodologies - using gravity-based instruments for trade and including ancestry-adjusted variables in linear regression models - have...... is to estimate the long-run causal effect of changes in the endogenous explanatory variable. We find that conventional IV regressions generally cannot recover this parameter of interest. To estimate this parameter, therefore, we develop an augmented IV estimator that combines the conventional regression...

  11. Effect of treadmill versus overground running on the structure of variability of stride timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Timothy R; Noakes, Timothy D; McGregor, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Gait timing dynamics of treadmill and overground running were compared. Nine trained runners ran treadmill and track trials at 80, 100, and 120% of preferred pace for 8 min. each. Stride time series were generated for each trial. To each series, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), power spectral density (PSD), and multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis were applied to infer the regime of control along the randomness-regularity axis. Compared to overground running, treadmill running exhibited a higher DFA and PSD scaling exponent, as well as lower entropy at non-preferred speeds. This indicates a more ordered control for treadmill running, especially at non-preferred speeds. The results suggest that the treadmill itself brings about greater constraints and requires increased voluntary control. Thus, the quantification of treadmill running gait dynamics does not necessarily reflect movement in overground settings.

  12. The NLstart2run study: running related injuries in novice runners : Running related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Hardlopen is wereldwijd een populaire sport welke vaak wordt beoefend voor de positieve gezondheidseffecten. Er is echter een keerzijde. Hardlopers worden vaak geplaagd door blessures. Een probleem waar veelal beginners tegenaan lopen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de NLstart2run studie, een onderzoek

  13. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  14. Luminosity Measurements at LHCb for Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Coombs, George

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of the luminosity is a necessary component of many physics analyses, especially cross-section measurements. At LHCb two different direct measurement methods are used to determine the luminosity: the “van der Meer scan” (VDM) and the “Beam Gas Imaging” (BGI) methods. A combined result from these two methods gave a precision of less than 2% for Run I and efforts are ongoing to provide a similar result for Run II. Fixed target luminosity is determined with an indirect method based on the single electron scattering cross-section.

  15. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  16. Running-mass inflation model and WMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Odman, Carolina J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the observational constraints on the running-mass inflationary model, and, in particular, on the scale dependence of the spectral index, from the new cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements performed by WMAP and from new clustering data from the SLOAN survey. We find that the data strongly constraints a significant positive scale dependence of n, and we translate the analysis into bounds on the physical parameters of the inflaton potential. Looking deeper into specific types of interaction (gauge and Yukawa) we find that the parameter space is significantly constrained by the new data, but that the running-mass model remains viable

  17. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  18. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need...... evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running...... and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. METHODS/DESIGN: The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week...

  19. THE COUPLING CORRECTION SYSTEM AT RHIC: RESULTS FOR THE RUN 2000 AND PLANS FOR 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Fischer, W.; Peggs, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Tepikian, S.

    2001-01-01

    The RHIC coupling correction system has been commissioned during the Year 2000 run, which marked the successful first year of operation of the machine. The RHIC coupling correction system is described with particular emphasis on its flexibility, which allows using both global and local coupling compensation techniques. Coupling measurements and correction data are presented for the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings, together with the procedure used to reduce the minimum tune separation to 0.001, the typical resolution for tune measurements during run 2000. They further demonstrate how local coupling compensation in the interaction region substantially reduces the strength of the skew quadrupole families used for global coupling compensation

  20. Short-run and long-run elasticities of import demand for crude oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinay, Galip

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to attempt to estimate the short-run and the long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in Turkey by the recent autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. As a developing country, Turkey meets its growing demand for oil principally by foreign suppliers. Thus, the study focuses on modelling the demand for imported crude oil using annual data covering the period 1980-2005. The bounds test results reveal that a long-run cointegration relationship exists between the crude oil import and the explanatory variables: nominal price and income, but not in the model that includes real price in domestic currency. The long-run parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and then the short-run dynamics are estimated by the error correction model. The estimated models pass the diagnostic tests successfully. The findings reveal that the income and price elasticities of import demand for crude oil are inelastic both in the short run and in the long run

  1. Short-Run and Long-Run Elasticities of Diesel Demand in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the demand function for diesel in Korea covering the period 1986–2011. The short-run and long-run elasticities of diesel demand with respect to price and income are empirically examined using a co-integration and error-correction model. The short-run and long-run price elasticities are estimated to be −0.357 and −0.547, respectively. The short-run and long-run income elasticities are computed to be 1.589 and 1.478, respectively. Thus, diesel demand is relatively inelastic to price change and elastic to income change in both the short-run and long-run. Therefore, a demand-side management through raising the price of diesel will be ineffective and tightening the regulation of using diesel more efficiently appears to be more effective in Korea. The demand for diesel is expected to continuously increase as the economy grows.

  2. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (precruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of fractions of inactive modules between Run1 and Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Fraction of inactive modules for each component of the ATLAS pixel detector at the end of Run 1 and the beginning of Run 2. A similar plot which uses a result of functionality tests during LS1 can be found in ATL-INDET-SLIDE-2014-388.

  4. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  5. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  6. The ATLAS Trigger System : Ready for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211007; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware based Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. During the course of the ongoing Run-2 data-taking campaign at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy the trigger rates will be approximately 5 times higher compared to Run-1. In these proceedings we briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger system, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger subsystem and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single ev...

  7. ATLAS LAr calorimeter performance and LHC Run-2 commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366625; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of $8 \\times 10^{33} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. During the next run, peak luminosities of $1.5 \\times 10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$ and even higher are expected at a 25ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminos...

  8. Optimisation of the ATLAS Track Reconstruction Software for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Salzburger, Andreas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most complex element of the reconstruction of events recorded by ATLAS from collisions delivered by the LHC. It is the most time consuming reconstruction component in high luminosity environments. The flat budget projections for computing resources for Run-2 of the LHC together with the demands of reconstructing higher pile-up collision data at rates more than double those in Run-1 (an increase from 400 Hz to 1 kHz in trigger output) have put stringent requirements on the track reconstruction software. The ATLAS experiment has performed a two year long software campaign which aimed to reduce the reconstruction rate by a factor of three to meet the resource limitations for Run-2: the majority of the changes to achieve this were improvements to the track reconstruction software. The CPU processing time of ATLAS track reconstruction was reduced by more than a factor of three during this campaign without any loss of output information of the track reconstruction. We present the ...

  9. The gearing function of running shoe longitudinal bending stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwacher, Steffen; König, Manuel; Braunstein, Björn; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether altered longitudinal bending stiffness (LBS) levels of the midsole of a running shoe lead to a systematic change in lower extremity joint lever arms of the ground reaction force (GRF). Joint moments and GRF lever arms in the sagittal plane were determined from 19 male subjects running at 3.5 m/s using inverse dynamics procedures. LBS was manipulated using carbon fiber insoles of 1.9 mm and 3.2 mm thickness. Increasing LBS led to a significant shift of joint lever arms to a more anterior position. Effects were more pronounced at distal joints. Ankle joint moments were not significantly increased in the presence of higher GRF lever arms when averaged over all subjects. Still, two individual strategies (1: increase ankle joint moments while keeping push-off times almost constant, 2: decrease ankle joint moments and increase push-off times) could be identified in response to increased ankle joint lever arms that might reflect individual differences between subjects with respect to strength capacities or anthropometric characteristics. The results of the present study indicate that LBS systematically influences GRF lever arms of lower extremity joints during the push-off phase in running. Further, individual responses to altered LBS levels could be identified that could aid in finding optimum LBS values for a given individual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  11. Effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Kojima, Atsushi; Goto, Katsumasa; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5) or training (n = 12) group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p run in the training group (r = 0.61, p running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run. Key pointsThere is no study about the effect of voluntary running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running training causes an increase of citrate synthase activity in the rat plantaris muscle but does not affect muscle weight and mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without hypertrophy of the rat plantaris muscle.

  12. Initiating running barefoot: Effects on muscle activation and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio; Giménez, José Vicente; Aparicio, Inma; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Runners tend to shift from a rearfoot to a forefoot strike pattern when running barefoot. However, it is unclear how the first attempts at running barefoot affect habitually rearfoot shod runners. Due to the inconsistency of their recently adopted barefoot technique, a number of new barefoot-related running injuries are emerging among novice barefoot runners. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the influence of three running conditions (natural barefoot [BF], barefoot with a forced rearfoot strike [BRS], and shod [SH]) on muscle activity and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners. Twenty-two participants ran at 60% of their maximal aerobic speed while foot strike, tibial and head impact accelerations, and tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscle activity were registered. Only 68% of the runners adopted a non-rearfoot strike pattern during BF. Running BF led to a reduction of TA activity as well as to an increase of GL and GM activity compared to BRS and SH. Furthermore, BRS increased tibial peak acceleration, tibial magnitude and tibial acceleration rate compared to SH and BF. In conclusion, 32% of our runners showed a rearfoot strike pattern at the first attempts at running barefoot, which corresponds to a running style (BRS) that led to increased muscle activation and impact accelerations and thereby to a potentially higher risk of injury compared to running shod.

  13. Long-Run Neutrality and Superneutrality in an ARIMA Framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Mark E; Seater, John J

    1993-01-01

    The authors formalize long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality in the context of a bivariate ARIMA model; show how the restrictions implied by long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality depend on the orders of integration of the variables; apply their analysis to previous work, showing how that work is related to long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality; and provide some new evidence on long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality. Copyright 1993 by American Economic...

  14. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min outdoor trail running.Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg. Running time, heart rate and muscle oxygenation of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (measured using portable near-infrared spectroscopy were monitored continuously. Muscle functional capabilities (power, stiffness were determined using 20 s of maximal hopping before and after both sessions. Running biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness were determined at 12 km·h−1 at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS were assessed using visual analog scales.Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p < 0.05, without any difference in deoxygenation kinetics during the run, and without any significant change in run times. Wearing CS was associated with (i higher aerial time and leg stiffness in running at constant rate, (ii with lower ground contact time, higher leg stiffness, and higher vertical stiffness in all-out running, and (iii with lower ground contact time in hopping. Significant DOMS were induced in both CS and CON (>6 on a 10-cm scale with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p < 0.05.Discussion: Calf compression did not modify muscle oxygenation during ~2 h 30

  15. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  16. Habituation contributes to the decline in wheel running within wheel-running reinforcement periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2005-02-28

    Habituation appears to play a role in the decline in wheel running within an interval. Aoyama and McSweeney [Aoyama, K., McSweeney, F.K., 2001. Habituation contributes to within-session changes in free wheel running. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 76, 289-302] showed that when a novel stimulus was presented during a 30-min interval, wheel-running rates following the stimulus increased to levels approximating those earlier in the interval. The present study sought to assess the role of habituation in the decline in running that occurs over a briefer interval. In two experiments, rats responded on fixed-interval 30-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 45 s. Forty reinforcers were completed in each session. In the first experiment, the brake and chamber lights were repeatedly activated and inactivated after 25 s of a reinforcement interval had elapsed to assess the effect on running within the remaining 20 s. Presentations of the brake/light stimulus occurred during nine randomly determined reinforcement intervals in a session. In the second experiment, a 110 dB tone was emitted after 25 s of the reinforcement interval. In both experiments, presentation of the stimulus produced an immediate decline in running that dissipated over sessions. No increase in running following the stimulus was observed in the first experiment until the stimulus-induced decline dissipated. In the second experiment, increases in running were observed following the tone in the first session as well as when data were averaged over several sessions. In general, the results concur with the assertion that habituation plays a role in the decline in wheel running that occurs within both long and short intervals. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  18. The QCD Running Coupling and its Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    In this lecture, after recalling the basic definitions and facts about the running coupling in QCD, I present a critical discussion of the methods for measuring $\\alpha_s$ and select those that appear to me as the most reliably precise

  19. Daytime running lights : its safety evidence revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospective in-depth accident studies from several countries confirm that human perception errors are the main causal factor in road accidents. The share of accident types which are relevant for the effect of daytime running lights (DRL), such as overtaking and crossing accidents, in the total of

  20. 105-KE Basin Pilot Run design plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies all design deliverables and procedures applicable to the 105-KE Basin Pilot Run. It also establishes a general design strategy, defines interface control requirements, and covers planning for mechanical, electrical, instrument/control system, and equipment installation design

  1. Collagen gene interactions and endurance running performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to complete any of the individual components (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike or 42.2 km run) of the 226 km event. The major ... may affect normal collagen fibrillogenesis and alter the mechanical properties of ... using a XP Thermal Cycler (Block model XP-G, BIOER Technology Co.,. Japan). ..... New insights into the function of.

  2. Jet physics at CDF Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, A.; /UC, Davis

    2004-12-01

    The latest results on jet physics at CDF are presented and discussed. Particular attention is paid to studies of the inclusive jet cross section using 177 pb{sup -1} of Run II data. Also discussed is a study of gluon and quark jet fragmentation.

  3. EMBL rescue package keeps bioinformatics centre running

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    The threat to the EBI arising from the EC refusal to fund its running costs seems to have been temporarily lifted. At a meeting in EMBL, Heidelberg, delegates agreed in principle to make up the shortfall of 5 million euros. A final decision will be taken at a special meeting of the EMBL council in March (1 page).

  4. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenfeld, Ulrich; Uwer, Peter

    2010-06-01

    In this contribution we discuss conceptual issues of current mass measurements performed at the Tevatron. In addition we propose an alternative method which is theoretically much cleaner and to a large extend free from the problems encountered in current measurements. In detail we discuss the direct determination of the top-quark's running mass from the cross section measurements performed at the Tevatron. (orig.)

  5. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  6. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  7. Daytime running lights : costs or benefits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.F.T.; Janssen, W.H.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Duistermaat, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with the possibility that road users in the vicinity of a vehicle with daytime running lights (DRL) would suffer from a decreased conspicuity because of (he presence of that vehicle. In an experiment the primary effects of DRL on the conspicuity of other road users were

  8. Running coupling constants of the Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boose, D.; Jacquot, J.L.; Polonyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We compute the one-loop expressions of two running coupling constants of the Luttinger model. The obtained expressions have a nontrivial momentum dependence with Landau poles. The reason for the discrepancy between our results and those of other studies, which find that the scaling laws are trivial, is explained

  9. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.

  10. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Paul; Lammel, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiproton interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year. The duration of the run is expected to be over two years. One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for Run II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space. A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk, to coordinate user access to the data, and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process, a user and administrator command line interfaces, and a library with the routines of the client API. Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files. The system keeps track of user access to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk. Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed. For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard

  11. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  12. The running athlete: Roentgenograms and remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have put together an atlas of radiographs of almost every conceivable running injury to the foot, ankle, leg, knee, femur, groin, and spine. Text material is limited to legends which describe the figures, and the remedies listed are brief. The text indicates conservative versus surgical treatment and, in some instances, recommends a surgical procedure

  13. ATLAS Data Preparation in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. Online data quality uses a new hybrid software release that incorporates the latest offline data quality monitoring software for the online environment. This is used to provide fast feedback in the control room during a data acquisition (DAQ) run, via a histogram-based monitoring framework as well as the online Event Display. Data are sent to several streams for offline processing at the dedicated Tier-0 computing facility, including dedicated calibration streams and an "express" physics stream containing approximately 2% of the main physics stream. This express stream is processed as data arrives, allowing a first look at the offline data quality within hours of a run end. A prompt calibration loop starts once an ATLAS DAQ run ends, nominally defining a 48 hour period in which calibrations and alignments can be derived using the dedicated calibration and express streams. The bulk processing of the main physics stream starts on expi...

  14. RHIC FY15 pp Run RHIC and AGS polarization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adams, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The polarization information is important for the spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). There are discrepancies between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements. First, the face value of AGS polarization is higher than RHIC ones in general. Second, the measured polarization profile (described by the profile ratio R) is stronger in AGS than in RHIC. This note analyzes the polarization data from FY15 pp run period. The results show that the differences between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements are reasonable, but the R value difference is puzzling. The difference between blue and yellow ring is worth of spin simulation to explain.

  15. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger Menu for higher luminosities: Design, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Montejo Berlingen, Javier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC, at design capacity, has a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz whereas the ATLAS experiment has an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. To reduce the rate of events, but maintain high selection efficiency for rare events such as physics signals beyond the Standard Model, a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. Despite the limited time available for processing collision events the trigger system is able to exploit topological information, as well as using multi-variate methods. In total, the ATLAS trigger systems consists of thousands of different individual triggers. The ATLAS trigger menu specifies which triggers are used during data taking and how much rate a given trigger is allocated. This menu reflects not only the physics goals of the collaboration but also takes into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and the design limits of the ATLAS detector and offline pro...

  16. Collider shot setup for Run 2 observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annala, J.; Joshel, B.

    1996-01-01

    This note is intended to provoke discussion on Collider Run II shot setup. We hope this is a start of activities that will converge on a functional description of what is needed for shot setups in Collider Run II. We will draw on observations of the present shot setup to raise questions and make suggestions for the next Collider run. It is assumed that the reader has some familiarity with the Collider operational issues. Shot setup is defined to be the time between the end of a store and the time the Main Control Room declares colliding beams. This is the time between Tevatron clock events SCE and SCB. This definition does not consider the time experiments use to turn on their detectors. This analysis was suggested by David Finley. The operational scenarios for Run II will require higher levels of reliability and speed for shot setup. See Appendix I and II. For example, we estimate that a loss of 3 pb -1 /week (with 8 hour stores) will occur if shot setups take 90 minutes instead of 30 minutes. In other words: If you do 12 shots for one week and accept an added delay of one minute in each shot, you will loose more than 60 nb -1 for that week alone (based on a normal shot setup of 30 minutes). These demands should lead us to be much more pedantic about all the factors that affect shot setups. Shot setup will be viewed as a distinct process that is composed of several inter- dependent 'components': procedures, hardware, controls, and sociology. These components don't directly align with the different Accelerator Division departments, but are topical groupings of the needed accelerator functions. Defining these components, and categorizing our suggestions within them, are part of the goal of this document. Of course, some suggestions span several of these components

  17. KINETIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONSTRAINING RUNNING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that impact forces increase with running velocity as well as when stride length increases. Since stride length naturally changes with changes in submaximal running velocity, it was not clear which factor, running velocity or stride length, played a critical role in determining impact characteristics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not stride length influences the relationship between running velocity and impact characteristics. Eight volunteers (mass=72.4 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; age = 25 ± 3.4 years completed two running conditions: preferred stride length (PSL and stride length constrained at 2.5 m (SL2.5. During each condition, participants ran at a variety of speeds with the intent that the range of speeds would be similar between conditions. During PSL, participants were given no instructions regarding stride length. During SL2.5, participants were required to strike targets placed on the floor that resulted in a stride length of 2.5 m. Ground reaction forces were recorded (1080 Hz as well as leg and head accelerations (uni-axial accelerometers. Impact force and impact attenuation (calculated as the ratio of head and leg impact accelerations were recorded for each running trial. Scatter plots were generated plotting each parameter against running velocity. Lines of best fit were calculated with the slopes recorded for analysis. The slopes were compared between conditions using paired t-tests. Data from two subjects were dropped from analysis since the velocity ranges were not similar between conditions resulting in the analysis of six subjects. The slope of impact force vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 0.178 ± 0.16 BW/m·s-1; SL2.5: -0.003 ± 0.14 BW/m·s-1; p < 0.05. The slope of the impact attenuation vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 5.12 ± 2.88 %/m·s-1; SL2.5: 1.39 ± 1.51 %/m·s-1; p < 0.05. Stride length was an important factor

  18. Overview and analysis of the 2016 Gold Run in the Booster and AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Alternating Gradient Synchrotron

    2016-09-16

    Run 16 differed from preceding Au runs in that during most of it a 12:6:2 merge was employed in the AGS instead of an 8:4:2 merge. This was done to provide higher bunch intensities for RHIC. Since the approach to providing higher bunch intensities is, and has been, to merge more Booster bunches of the same intensity into one final bunch, detailing the longitudinal aspects of this setup seems quite relevant. So, aside from providing an overview of the Au portion of Run 16, this note also contains a series of emittance measurements in the Booster and AGS. Comparisons of these to similar measurements in previous runs are also made in hopes of gaining a better understanding of what factors contribute to the emittance of a bunch at AGS extraction. The note also tries to provide some context in which to understand the various merge schemes and describes a potential 8 to 1 type merge.

  19. Technical design report for the upgrade of the ICD for D-Zero Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, L.; De, K.; Draper, P.; Gallas, E.; Li, J.; Sosebee, M.; Stephens, R.W.; White, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Inter Cryostat Detector (ICD) used in Run I of the D0 Experiment will be inoperable in the central, high magnetic field planned for Run II. In Run I, the ICD enhanced the hermeticity and uniformity of the D0 calorimeter system, improving both missing transverse energy and jet energy resolution. The goals for the Run II ICD are the same. In this document, the physics arguments for maintaining the ICD are presented, followed by a detailed description of the planned design changes, prototype tests, construction, installation, and commissioning of the device for the Run II D0 detector. Estimates of costs and schedule can be found on //DOSERVER2/Operations/Upgrade Project/ subareas available via DZERO's WinFrame Program Manager. This detector is not intended to provide any ''L0'' capabilities (for luminosity monitoring), or to provide any EM coverage in the intermediate region, or to provide additional coverage in the intermediate regions, unlike previous upgrades proposed in this detector region. The ICD upgrade described here maintains most of the Run I capabilities in a high magnetic field environment

  20. Minimal free resolutions over complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbud, David

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a theory of higher matrix factorizations for regular sequences and uses it to describe the minimal free resolutions of high syzygy modules over complete intersections. Such resolutions have attracted attention ever since the elegant construction of the minimal free resolution of the residue field by Tate in 1957. The theory extends the theory of matrix factorizations of a non-zero divisor, initiated by Eisenbud in 1980, which yields a description of the eventual structure of minimal free resolutions over a hypersurface ring. Matrix factorizations have had many other uses in a wide range of mathematical fields, from singularity theory to mathematical physics.

  1. Resolution effects in reconstructing ancestral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunfang; Jeong, Yuji; Turcotte, Madisyn Gabrielle; Sankoff, David

    2018-05-09

    The reconstruction of ancestral genomes must deal with the problem of resolution, necessarily involving a trade-off between trying to identify genomic details and being overwhelmed by noise at higher resolutions. We use the median reconstruction at the synteny block level, of the ancestral genome of the order Gentianales, based on coffee, Rhazya stricta and grape, to exemplify the effects of resolution (granularity) on comparative genomic analyses. We show how decreased resolution blurs the differences between evolving genomes, with respect to rate, mutational process and other characteristics.

  2. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  3. Calcaneus length determines running economy: implications for endurance running performance in modern humans and Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Armstrong, Hunter; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    The endurance running (ER) hypothesis suggests that distance running played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo. Most researchers have focused on ER performance in modern humans, or on reconstructing ER performance in Homo erectus, however, few studies have examined ER capabilities in other members of the genus Homo. Here, we examine skeletal correlates of ER performance in modern humans in order to evaluate the energetics of running in Neandertals and early Homo sapiens. Recent research suggests that running economy (the energy cost of running at a given speed) is strongly related to the length of the Achilles tendon moment arm. Shorter moment arms allow for greater storage and release of elastic strain energy, reducing energy costs. Here, we show that a skeletal correlate of Achilles tendon moment arm length, the length of the calcaneal tuber, does not correlate with walking economy, but correlates significantly with running economy and explains a high proportion of the variance (80%) in cost between individuals. Neandertals had relatively longer calcaneal tubers than modern humans, which would have increased their energy costs of running. Calcaneal tuber lengths in early H. sapiens do not significantly differ from those of extant modern humans, suggesting Neandertal ER economy was reduced relative to contemporaneous anatomically modern humans. Endurance running is generally thought to be beneficial for gaining access to meat in hot environments, where hominins could have used pursuit hunting to run prey taxa into hyperthermia. We hypothesize that ER performance may have been reduced in Neandertals because they lived in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  5. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  6. Influence of treadmill acceleration on actual walk-to-run transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caekenberghe, I; Segers, V; De Smet, K; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D

    2010-01-01

    When accelerating continuously, humans spontaneously change from a walking to a running pattern by means of a walk-to-run transition (WRT). Results of previous studies indicate that when higher treadmill accelerations are imposed, higher WRT-speeds can be expected. By studying the kinematics of the WRT at different accelerations, the underlying mechanisms can be unravelled. 19 young, healthy female subjects performed walk-to-run transitions on a constantly accelerating treadmill (0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 m s(-2)). A higher acceleration induced a higher WRT-speed, by effecting the preparation of transition, as well as the actual transition step. Increasing the acceleration caused a higher WRT-speed as a result of a greater step length during the transition step, which was mainly a consequence of a prolonged airborne phase. Besides this effect on the transition step, the direct preparation phase of transition (i.e. the last walking step before transition) appeared to fulfil specific constraints required to execute the transition regardless of the acceleration imposed. This highlights an important role for this step in the debate regarding possible determinants of WRT. In addition spatiotemporal and kinematical data confirmed that WRT remains a discontinuous change of gait pattern in all accelerations imposed. It is concluded that the walk-to-run transition is a discontinuous switch from walking to running which depends on the magnitude of treadmill belt acceleration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the mainline freight locomotives characterizing the safe motion in tangent and curved track sections at all operational speeds, one needs a whole set of studies, which includes a selection of the design scheme, development of the corresponding mathematical model of the locomotive spatial fluctuations, construction of the computer calculation program, conducting of the theoretical and then experimental studies of the new designs. In this case, one should compare the results with existing designs. One of the necessary conditions for the qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock is to define the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, an important place is occupied by the task of determining the locomotive dynamic properties on the stage of projection, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the running gear design. Methodology. The mathematical modeling studies are carried out by the numerical integration method of the dynamic loading for the mainline locomotive using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles » («DYNRAIL». Findings. As a result of research for the improvement of locomotive running gear design it can be seen that the creation of the modern locomotive requires from engineers and scientists the realization of scientific and technical solutions. The solutions enhancing design speed with simultaneous improvement of the traction, braking and dynamic qualities to provide a simple and reliable design, especially the running gear, reducing the costs for maintenance and repair, low initial cost and operating costs for the whole service life, high traction force when starting, which is as close as possible to the ultimate force of adhesion, the ability to work in multiple traction mode and sufficient design speed. Practical Value. The generalization of theoretical, scientific and methodological, experimental studies aimed

  8. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Battaglia et al. email = crathbun@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb -1 could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at √s ≤ 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e - e - runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab -1 program, expected to take the first 6-7 years of LC operation, one can do

  9. runDM: Running couplings of Dark Matter to the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Panci, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    runDM calculates the running of the couplings of Dark Matter (DM) to the Standard Model (SM) in simplified models with vector mediators. By specifying the mass of the mediator and the couplings of the mediator to SM fields at high energy, the code can calculate the couplings at low energy, taking into account the mixing of all dimension-6 operators. runDM can also extract the operator coefficients relevant for direct detection, namely low energy couplings to up, down and strange quarks and to protons and neutrons.

  10. Reducing gravity takes the bounce out of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Delyle T; Schroeder, Ryan T; Bertram, John E A

    2018-02-13

    In gravity below Earth-normal, a person should be able to take higher leaps in running. We asked 10 subjects to run on a treadmill in five levels of simulated reduced gravity and optically tracked centre-of-mass kinematics. Subjects consistently reduced ballistic height compared with running in normal gravity. We explain this trend by considering the vertical take-off velocity (defined as maximum vertical velocity). Energetically optimal gaits should balance the energetic costs of ground-contact collisions (favouring lower take-off velocity), and step frequency penalties such as leg swing work (favouring higher take-off velocity, but less so in reduced gravity). Measured vertical take-off velocity scaled with the square root of gravitational acceleration, following energetic optimality predictions and explaining why ballistic height decreases in lower gravity. The success of work-based costs in predicting this behaviour challenges the notion that gait adaptation in reduced gravity results from an unloading of the stance phase. Only the relationship between take-off velocity and swing cost changes in reduced gravity; the energetic cost of the down-to-up transition for a given vertical take-off velocity does not change with gravity. Because lower gravity allows an elongated swing phase for a given take-off velocity, the motor control system can relax the vertical momentum change in the stance phase, thus reducing ballistic height, without great energetic penalty to leg swing work. Although it may seem counterintuitive, using less 'bouncy' gaits in reduced gravity is a strategy to reduce energetic costs, to which humans seem extremely sensitive. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  12. Lower limb dynamics vary in shod runners who acutely transition to barefoot running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Powers, Christopher M; Salem, George J

    2016-01-25

    Relative to traditional shod rear-foot strike (RFS) running, habituated barefoot running is associated with a forefoot-strike (FFS) and lower loading rates. Accordingly, barefoot running has been purported to reduce lower-extremity injury risk. Investigations, however, indicate that novice barefoot runners may not innately adopt a FFS. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine lower-extremity dynamics of habitually shod runners who acutely transition to barefoot running. 22 recreational RFS runners were included in this investigation. This laboratory controlled study consisted of two visits one-week apart, examining habitually shod, then novice barefoot running. Foot-strike patterns and loading rates were determined using motion analysis and force plates, and joint energy absorption was calculated using inverse dynamics. Of the 22 runners, 8 maintained a RFS, 9 adopted a MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. All runners demonstrated a reduction in knee energy absorption when running barefoot; MFS and FFS runners also demonstrated a significant increase in ankle energy absorption. Runners who maintained a RFS presented with loading rates significantly higher than traditional shoe running, whereas FFS runners demonstrated a significant reduction in loading rate. Mid-foot strikers did not demonstrate a significant change in loading rate. These results indicate that habitually shod RFS runners demonstrate a variety of foot-strike and lower-extremity dynamic responses during the acute transition to barefoot running. Accordingly, explicit instruction regarding foot-strike patterns may be necessary if transitioning to barefoot. Long-term prospective studies are required in order to determine the influence of FFS barefoot running on injury rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultra-obligatory running among ultramarathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Krouse, Rhonna

    2018-01-01

    Participants in the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study were asked to answer "yes" or "no" to the question "If you were to learn, with absolute certainty, that ultramarathon running is bad for your health, would you stop your ultramarathon training and participation?" Among the 1349 runners, 74.1% answered "no". Compared with those answering "yes", they were younger (p life meaning (p = 0.0002) scores on the Motivations of Marathoners Scales. Despite a high health orientation, most ultramarathon runners would not stop running if they learned it was bad for their health as it appears to serve their psychological and personal achievement motivations and their task orientation such that they must perceive enhanced benefits that are worth retaining at the risk of their health.

  14. CMS Computing Operations During Run1

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this presentation we will discuss the operational experience from the first run. We will present the workflows and data flows that were executed, we will discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. In this presentation we will also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  15. Effects of intermittent hypoxia on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, M; Gatterer, H; Faulhaber, M; Gerstgrasser, W; Schenk, K

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effects of two 5-wk periods of intermittent hypoxia on running economy (RE). 11 male and female middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to the intermittent hypoxia group (IHG) or to the control group (CG). All athletes trained for a 13-wk period starting at pre-season until the competition season. The IHG spent additionally 2 h at rest on 3 days/wk for the first and the last 5 weeks in normobaric hypoxia (15-11% FiO2). RE, haematological parameters and body composition were determined at low altitude (600 m) at baseline, after the 5 (th), the 8 (th) and the 13 (th) week of training. RE, determined by the relative oxygen consumption during submaximal running, (-2.3+/-1.2 vs. -0.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg, Ptraining phase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  16. CMS computing operations during run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, J; Artieda, J; Bagliese, G; Ballestero, D; Bansal, S; Bauerdick, L; Behrenhof, W; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blyweert, S; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Contreras, L; Cristofori, A; Cury, S; da Silva Gomes, D; Dolores Saiz Santos, M; Dost, J; Dykstra, D; Fajardo Hernandez, E; Fanzango, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Georges, A; Gi ffels, M; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Janssen, X; Kaselis, R; Kcira, D; Kim, B; Klein, D; Klute, M; Kress, T; Kreuzer, P; Lahi , A; Larson, K; Letts, J; Levin, A; Linacre, J; Linares, J; Liu, S; Luyckx, S; Maes, M; Magini, N; Malta, A; Marra Da Silva, J; Mccartin, J; McCrea, A; Mohapatra, A; Molina, J; Mortensen, T; Padhi, S; Paus, C; Piperov, S; Ralph; Sartirana, A; Sciaba, A; S ligoi, I; Spinoso, V; Tadel, M; Traldi, S; Wissing, C; Wuerthwein, F; Yang, M; Zielinski, M; Zvada, M

    2014-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this document we discuss the operational experience from this first run. We present the workflows and data flows that were executed, and we discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. We also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  17. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events. ...

  18. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; de Walle, Bjorn Van; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full-scale wave run-up measurements have been carried out on the Zeebrugge rubble mound breakwater in the frame of the EU-funded OPTICREST project. Wave run-up has been measured by a run-up gauge and by a so-called spiderweb system. The dimensionless wave run-up value Ru2%Hm0 measured in Zeebrugg...

  19. The ATLAS Trigger System: Ready for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Junpei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software based high-level trigger that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. During the data-taking period of Run-2 the LHC will operate at a centre-of-mass energy of about 13 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. In these proceedings, we briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger system, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and themerging of the previously two-level higher-level trigger system into a single even...

  20. 1987 DOE review: First collider run operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, S.; Crawford, J.; Dugan, G.

    1987-05-01

    This review covers the operations of the first run of the 1.8 TeV superconducting super collider. The papers enclosed cover: PBAR source status, fixed target operation, Tevatron cryogenic reliability and capacity upgrade, Tevatron Energy upgrade progress and plans, status of the D0 low beta insertion, 1.8 K and 4.7 K refrigeration for low-β quadrupoles, progress and plans for the LINAC and booster, near term and long term and long term performance improvements

  1. CERN Running Club – Sale of Items

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN Running Club is organising a sale of items  on 26 June from 11:30 – 13:00 in the entry area of Restaurant 2 (504 R-202). The items for sale are souvenir prizes of past Relay Races and comprise: Backpacks, thermos, towels, gloves & caps, lamps, long sleeve winter shirts and windproof vest. All items will be sold at 5 CHF.

  2. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhang; Xinping You; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to midd...

  3. Marathon Running for Amateurs: Benefits and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Kapadia

    2017-01-01

    The habitual level of physical activity of the human race has significantly and abruptly declined in the last few generations due to technological developments. The professional societies and government health agencies have published minimum physical activity requirement guidelines to educate the masses about the importance of exercise and to reduce cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality at the population level. There is growing participation in marathon running by amateur, middle-aged c...

  4. Forecasting Long-Run Electricity Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Gregory; Borison, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of long-run electricity prices is extremely important but it is also very difficult because of the many uncertainties that will determine future prices, and because of the lack of sufficient historical and forwards data. The difficulty is compounded when forecasters ignore part of the available information or unnecessarily limit their thinking about the future. The authors present a practical approach that addresses these problems. (author)

  5. Run-to-Run Optimization Control Within Exact Inverse Framework for Scan Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Ivan L; Reinhall, Per G; Berg, Martin C; Chizeck, Howard J; Seibel, Eric J

    2017-09-01

    A run-to-run optimization controller uses a reduced set of measurement parameters, in comparison to more general feedback controllers, to converge to the best control point for a repetitive process. A new run-to-run optimization controller is presented for the scanning fiber device used for image acquisition and display. This controller utilizes very sparse measurements to estimate a system energy measure and updates the input parameterizations iteratively within a feedforward with exact-inversion framework. Analysis, simulation, and experimental investigations on the scanning fiber device demonstrate improved scan accuracy over previous methods and automatic controller adaptation to changing operating temperature. A specific application example and quantitative error analyses are provided of a scanning fiber endoscope that maintains high image quality continuously across a 20 °C temperature rise without interruption of the 56 Hz video.

  6. Financial Performance of Health Insurers: State-Run Versus Federal-Run Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J; Palazzolo, Jennifer R

    2018-06-01

    Many insurers incurred financial losses in individual markets for health insurance during 2014, the first year of Affordable Care Act mandated changes. This analysis looks at key financial ratios of insurers to compare profitability in 2014 and 2013, identify factors driving financial performance, and contrast the financial performance of health insurers operating in state-run exchanges versus the federal exchange. Overall, the median loss of sampled insurers was -3.9%, no greater than their loss in 2013. Reduced administrative costs offset increases in medical losses. Insurers performed better in states with state-run exchanges than insurers in states using the federal exchange in 2014. Medical loss ratios are the underlying driver more than administrative costs in the difference in performance between states with federal versus state-run exchanges. Policy makers looking to improve the financial performance of the individual market should focus on features that differentiate the markets associated with state-run versus federal exchanges.

  7. Run-off from roofing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the runn-off from roof material, a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg. and 45 deg.). 7 Be and 137 Cs have been used as tracers. Considering new roof material, the pollution removed by run-off processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Cesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of cesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less porous roof materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. The last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicate a removal of 44-86% of cesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new material showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater

  8. Metadata Aided Run Selection at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buckingham, RM; The ATLAS collaboration; Tseng, JC-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2010-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale sci- entific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user in- terfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called “runBrowser” makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on php and javascript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions at...

  9. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buckingham, RM; The ATLAS collaboration; Tseng, JC-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called “runBrowser” makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on php and javascript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attrib...

  10. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perico, E.L.D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1371, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tamayo, D.A., E-mail: elduartep@usp.br, E-mail: tamayo@if.usp.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ( H {sup 2}) or Λ( R ). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by P-bar {sub Λ} = - ρ-bar {sub Λ}, relating its background pressure P-bar {sub Λ} with its mean energy density ρ-bar {sub Λ} ≡ Λ/8π G . This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely ρ-bar {sub Λ} = Σ {sub i} ρ-bar {sub Λ} {sub i} . Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ( H {sup 2}) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ( R ) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  11. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Casas

    Full Text Available Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.

  12. Local gauge coupling running in supersymmetric gauge theories on orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbach, M.

    2007-01-01

    By extending Feynman's path integral calculus to fields which respect orbifold boundary conditions we provide a straightforward and convenient framework for loop calculations on orbifolds. We take advantage of this general method to investigate supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in five, six and ten dimensions where the extra dimensions are compactified on an orbifold. We consider hyper and gauge multiplets in the bulk and calculate the renormalization of the gauge kinetic term which in particular allows us to determine the gauge coupling running. The renormalization of the higher dimensional theories in orbifold spacetimes exhibits a rich structure with three principal effects: Besides the ordinary renormalization of the bulk gauge kinetic term the loop effects may require the introduction of both localized gauge kinetic terms at the fixed points/planes of the orbifold and higher dimensional operators. (orig.)

  13. Local gauge coupling running in supersymmetric gauge theories on orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenbach, M.

    2007-11-21

    By extending Feynman's path integral calculus to fields which respect orbifold boundary conditions we provide a straightforward and convenient framework for loop calculations on orbifolds. We take advantage of this general method to investigate supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in five, six and ten dimensions where the extra dimensions are compactified on an orbifold. We consider hyper and gauge multiplets in the bulk and calculate the renormalization of the gauge kinetic term which in particular allows us to determine the gauge coupling running. The renormalization of the higher dimensional theories in orbifold spacetimes exhibits a rich structure with three principal effects: Besides the ordinary renormalization of the bulk gauge kinetic term the loop effects may require the introduction of both localized gauge kinetic terms at the fixed points/planes of the orbifold and higher dimensional operators. (orig.)

  14. Improvements to ATLAS track reconstruction for Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairo, Valentina Maria Martina, E-mail: valentina.maria.cairo@cern.ch [University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); CERN, Meyrin (Switzerland)

    2016-07-11

    Run II of the LHC will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. A major change to the Inner Detector layout during the shutdown period has been the installation of the Insertable B-Layer, a fourth pixel layer located at a radius of 33 mm. This contribution discusses improvements to track reconstruction developed during the two year shutdown of the LHC. These include novel techniques developed to improve the performance in the dense cores of jets, optimisation for the expected conditions, and a big software campaign which lead to more than a factor of three decrease in the CPU time needed to process each recorded event.

  15. Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Boyd, Jennifer; Yoder, Jordan C.; Abbey, Alicia N.; Nunley, James A.; Queen, Robin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37

  16. The Relationship between Running Velocity and the Energy Cost of Turning during Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs) while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18–22 years) participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h). Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute), and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110). The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = −0.012+0.066x +0.008x2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001]), but is also well represented by a linear (y = −0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, prunning velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs. PMID:24497913

  17. Short-run and long-run effects of unemployment on suicides: does welfare regime matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Pawel; Zhukovska, Kateryna

    2017-12-01

    Disentangling the immediate effects of an unemployment shock from the long-run relationship has a strong theoretical rationale. Different economic and psychological forces are at play in the first moment and after prolonged unemployment. This study suggests a diverse impact of short- and long-run unemployment on suicides in liberal and social-democratic countries. We take a macro-level perspective and simultaneously estimate the short- and long-run relationships between unemployment and suicide, along with the speed of convergence towards the long-run relationship after a shock, in a panel of 10 high-income countries. We also account for unemployment benefit spending, the share of the population aged 15-34, and the crisis effects. In the liberal group of countries, only a long-run impact of unemployment on suicides is found to be significant (P = 0.010). In social-democratic countries, suicides are associated with initial changes in unemployment (P = 0.028), but the positive link fades over time and becomes insignificant in the long run. Further, crisis effects are a much stronger determinant of suicides in social-democratic countries. Once the broad welfare regime is controlled for, changes in unemployment-related spending do not matter for preventing suicides. A generous welfare system seems efficient at preventing unemployment-related suicides in the long run, but societies in social-democratic countries might be less psychologically immune to sudden negative changes in their professional lives compared with people in liberal countries. Accounting for the different short- and long-run effects could thus improve our understanding of the unemployment-suicide link. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Test results of Run-1 and Run-2 in steam generator safety test facility (SWAT-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, A.; Yatabe, Toshio; Tanabe, Hiromi; Hiroi, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Large leak sodium-water reaction tests were carried out using SWAT-1 rig and SWAT-3 facility in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) O-arai Engineering Center to obtain the data on the design of the prototype LMFBR Monju steam generator against a large leak accident. This report provides the results of SWAT-3 Runs 1 and 2. In Runs 1 and 2, the heat transfer tube bundle of the evaporator, fabricated by TOSHIBA/IHI, were used, and the pressure relief line was located at the top of evaporator. The water injection rates in the evaporator were 6.7 kg/s and 14.2 (initial)-9.7 kg/s in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, which corresponded to 3.3 tubes and 7.1 (initial)-4.8 tubes failure in actual size system according to iso-velocity modeling. Approximately two hundreds of measurement points were provided to collect data such as pressure, temperature, strain, sodium level, void, thrust load, acceleration, displacement, flow rate, and so on in each run. Initial spike pressures were 1.13 MPa and 2.62 MPa nearest to injection point in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, and the maximum quasi-steady pressures in evaporator were 0.49 MPa and 0.67 MPa in Runs 1 and 2. No secondary tube failure was observed. The rupture disc of evaporator (RD601) burst at 1.1s in Run-1 and at 0.7s in Run-2 after water injected, and the pressure relief system was well-functioned though a few items for improvement were found. (author)

  19. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI; Jacob TSADO; Mark NWOHU; Usman Abraham USMAN; Odu Ayo IMORU

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  20. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalign...

  1. Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Lonquich, Brian P; Hannon, Robert M; Garland, Theodore

    2009-09-15

    Mice from four lines bred for high voluntary wheel activity run approximately 3-fold more revolutions per day and have elevated maximal oxygen consumption during forced treadmill exercise, as compared with four unselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that these high runner (HR) lines would have greater treadmill endurance-running capacity. Ninety-six mice from generation 49 were familiarized with running on a motorized treadmill for 3 days. On days 4 and 5, mice were given an incremental speed test (starting at 20 m min(-1), increased 1.5 m min(-1) every 2 min) and endurance was measured as the total time or distance run to exhaustion. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and lactate concentrations at rest during the photophase, during peak nightly wheel running, and immediately following the second endurance test. Individual differences in endurance time were highly repeatable between days (r=0.79), and mice tended to run longer on the second day (paired t-test, Pwheel running and treadmill endurance differed between the sexes, reinforcing previous studies that indicate sex-specific responses to selective breeding. HR mice appear to have a higher endurance capacity than reported in the literature for inbred strains of mice or transgenics intended to enhance endurance.

  2. Nesting behavior of house mice (Mus domesticus) selected for increased wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Davis, S J; Garland, T

    2000-03-01

    Nest building was measured in "active" (housed with access to running wheels) and "sedentary" (without wheel access) mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines selected for 10 generations for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, and from four randombred control lines. Based on previous studies of mice bidirectionally selected for thermoregulatory nest building, it was hypothesized that nest building would show a negative correlated response to selection on wheel-running. Such a response could constrain the evolution of high voluntary activity because nesting has also been shown to be positively genetically correlated with successful production of weaned pups. With wheel access, selected mice of both sexes built significantly smaller nests than did control mice. Without wheel access, selected females also built significantly smaller nests than did control females, but only when body mass was excluded from the statistical model, suggesting that body mass mediated this correlated response to selection. Total distance run and mean running speed on wheels was significantly higher in selected mice than in controls, but no differences in amount of time spent running were measured, indicating a complex cause of the response of nesting to selection for voluntary wheel running.

  3. Performance environment and nested task constraints influence long jump approach run: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Flora; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Theodorou, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate possible changes at step pattern and technical performance of the long jump approach run in seven young long jumpers by modifying the performance environment (long jump runway versus track lane) and the nested actions (run-through with take-off versus complete long jump). Our findings suggest that the step pattern and technical aspects of the approach run are affected by environmental context and nested task constraints. In terms of environmental context, it appears that practising the training routine of run-through followed by take-off on the long jump runway allows athletes to simulate competition conditions in terms of step regulation and technical efficacy. The task of run-through followed by take-off on the track lane failed to initiate visual perception, step regulation and technical efficiency at the steps preceding the instant of take-off. In terms of nested task constraints, when run-ups were followed by jump for distance instead of only a take-off, a higher level of consistency was achieved and step regulation was based on perception-action coupling. Practising long jump run-up accuracy at a setting not containing the informational elements of the performance environment fails to develop the key elements of the skill.

  4. A meteorological distribution system for high-resolution terrestrial modeling (MicroMet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly Elder

    2006-01-01

    An intermediate-complexity, quasi-physically based, meteorological model (MicroMet) has been developed to produce high-resolution (e.g., 30-m to 1-km horizontal grid increment) atmospheric forcings required to run spatially distributed terrestrial models over a wide variety of landscapes. The following eight variables, required to run most terrestrial models, are...

  5. Level-3 Calorimetric Resolution available for the Level-1 and Level-2 CDF Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Canepa, A.; Liu, T.; Cortiana, G.; Flanagan, G.; Frisch, H.; Krop, D.; Pilcher, C.; Rusu, V.; Cavaliere, V.; Greco, V.; Giannetti, P.; Piendibene, M.; Sartori, L.; Vidal, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    As the Tevatron luminosity increases sophisticated selections are required to be efficient in selecting rare events among a very huge background. To cope with this problem, CDF has pushed the offline calorimeter algorithm reconstruction resolution up to Level 2 and, when possible, even up to Level 1, increasing efficiency and, at the same time, keeping under control the rates. The CDF Run II Level 2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on a simple algorithm that was used in Run I. This system has worked well for Run II at low luminosity. As the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitation due to this simple algorithm starts to become clear: some of the most important jet and MET (Missing ET) related triggers have large growth terms in cross section at higher luminosity. In this paper, we present an upgrade of the Level 2 Calorimeter system which makes the calorimeter trigger tower information available directly to a CPU allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be impleme...

  6. The Robust Running Ape: Unraveling the Deep Underpinnings of Coordinated Human Running Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kiely

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term ‘coordination’ is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature. However, the specific neural and biological underpinnings of ‘running coordination,’ and the nature of their integration, remain poorly elaborated. Conventionally running is considered a mundane, readily mastered coordination skill. This illusion of coordinative simplicity, however, is founded upon a platform of immense neural and biological complexities. This extensive complexity presents extreme organizational difficulties yet, simultaneously, provides a multiplicity of viable pathways through which the computational and mechanical burden of running can be proficiently dispersed amongst expanded networks of conditioned neural and peripheral tissue collaborators. Learning to adequately harness this available complexity, however, is a painstakingly slowly emerging, practice-driven process, greatly facilitated by innate evolutionary organizing principles serving to constrain otherwise overwhelming complexity to manageable proportions. As we accumulate running experiences persistent plastic remodeling customizes networked neural connectivity and biological tissue properties to best fit our unique neural and architectural idiosyncrasies, and personal histories: thus neural and peripheral tissue plasticity embeds coordination habits. When, however, coordinative processes are compromised—under the integrated influence of fatigue and/or accumulative cycles of injury, overuse

  7. Ultra-high resolution HLA genotyping and allele discovery by highly multiplexed cDNA amplicon pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lank Simon M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution HLA genotyping is a critical diagnostic and research assay. Current methods rarely achieve unambiguous high-resolution typing without making population-specific frequency inferences due to a lack of locus coverage and difficulty in exon-phase matching. Achieving high-resolution typing is also becoming more challenging with traditional methods as the database of known HLA alleles increases. Results We designed a cDNA amplicon-based pyrosequencing method to capture 94% of the HLA class I open-reading-frame with only two amplicons per sample, and an analogous method for class II HLA genes, with a primary focus on sequencing the DRB loci. We present a novel Galaxy server-based analysis workflow for determining genotype. During assay validation, we performed two GS Junior sequencing runs to determine the accuracy of the HLA class I amplicons and DRB amplicon at different levels of multiplexing. When 116 amplicons were multiplexed, we unambiguously resolved 99%of class I alleles to four- or six-digit resolution, as well as 100% unambiguous DRB calls. The second experiment, with 271 multiplexed amplicons, missed some alleles, but generated high-resolution, concordant typing for 93% of class I alleles, and 96% for DRB1 alleles. In a third, preliminary experiment we attempted to sequence novel amplicons for other class II loci with mixed success. Conclusions The presented assay is higher-throughput and higher-resolution than existing HLA genotyping methods, and suitable for allele discovery or large cohort sampling. The validated class I and DRB primers successfully generated unambiguously high-resolution genotypes, while further work is needed to validate additional class II genotyping amplicons.

  8. Effect of 8 weeks of concurrent plyometric and running training on spatiotemporal and physiological variables of novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Camara, Jesus; Stickley, Christopher; García-López, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Concurrent plyometric and running training has the potential to improve running economy (RE) and performance through increasing muscle strength and power, but the possible effect on spatiotemporal parameters of running has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 8 weeks of concurrent plyometric and running training on spatiotemporal parameters and physiological variables of novice runners. Twenty-five male participants were randomly assigned into two training groups; running group (RG) (n = 11) and running + plyometric group (RPG) (n = 14). Both groups performed 8 weeks of running training programme, and only the RPG performed a concurrent plyometric training programme (two sessions per week). Anthropometric, physiological (VO 2max , heart rate and RE) and spatiotemporal variables (contact and flight times, step rate and length) were registered before and after the intervention. In comparison to RG, the RPG reduced step rate and increased flight times at the same running speeds (P running training entails a reduction in step rate, as well as increases in VT speed, RCT speed, peak speed and VO 2max . Athletes could benefit from plyometric training in order to improve their strength, which would contribute to them attaining higher running speeds.

  9. Strong normalization by type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  10. Strong Normalization by Type-Directed Partial Evaluation and Run-Time Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  11. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  12. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  13. Ground reaction forces in shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupenthal, Alessandro; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Ruschel, Caroline; dos Santos, Daniela Pacheco; Roesler, Helio

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the effect of depth of immersion, running speed and gender on ground reaction forces during water running. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty adults (ten male and ten female) participated by running at two levels of immersion (hip and chest) and two speed conditions (slow and fast). Data were collected using an underwater force platform. The following variables were analyzed: vertical force peak (Fy), loading rate (LR) and anterior force peak (Fx anterior). Three-factor mixed ANOVA was used to analyze data. Significant effects of immersion level, speed and gender on Fy were observed, without interaction between factors. Fy was greater when females ran fast at the hip level. There was a significant increase in LR with a reduction in the level of immersion regardless of the speed and gender. No effect of speed or gender on LR was observed. Regarding Fx anterior, significant interaction between speed and immersion level was found: in the slow condition, participants presented greater values at chest immersion, whereas, during the fast running condition, greater values were observed at hip level. The effect of gender was only significant during fast water running, with Fx anterior being greater in the men group. Increasing speed raised Fx anterior significantly irrespective of the level of immersion and gender. The magnitude of ground reaction forces during shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender and, for this reason, these factors should be taken into account during exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dye laser light for high-resolution classical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    The test run with the bubble chamber HOLEBC in October 1981 offered the opportunity of checking the usefulness of de-speckled dye laser light for illumination purposes in high-resolution classical dark field photography of small bubble chambers. (orig./HSI)

  15. Design and Development of RunForFun Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anci Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Race run for 5 km or 10 km has been trending recently in many places in Indonesia, especially in Surabaya where there were at least 11 events of race run. The participant's number also increased significantly compared to years before. However, among several race run events, it was seen that some events tended to be replicative and monotone, while among the participants recently were identified the need for increasing the fun factor. RunForFun is a mobile application which designed for participants to reach new experience when participating in a race run event. The mobile application will run on Android OS. The development method of this mobile application would use Reverse Waterfall method. The development of this mobile application uses Ionic Framework which utilizes Cordova as its base to deploy to smartphone devices. Subsequently, RunForRun was tested on 10 participants, and the test shows a significant increase in the fun factor from run race participants.

  16. Towards a measurement of the spectral runnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph, E-mail: julianmunoz@jhu.edu, E-mail: ekovetz1@jhu.edu, E-mail: alvise@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: mkamion1@jhu.edu, E-mail: joseph.silk@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Single-field slow-roll inflation predicts a nearly scale-free power spectrum of perturbations, as observed at the scales accessible to current cosmological experiments. This spectrum is slightly red, showing a tilt (1− n {sub s} )∼ 0.04. A direct consequence of this tilt are nonvanishing runnings α {sub s} = d n {sub s} / dlog k , and β {sub s} = dα {sub s} / dlog k , which in the minimal inflationary scenario should reach absolute values of 10{sup −3} and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In this work we calculate how well future surveys can measure these two runnings. We consider a Stage-4 (S4) CMB experiment and show that it will be able to detect significant deviations from the inflationary prediction for α {sub s} , although not for β {sub s} . Adding to the S4 CMB experiment the information from a WFIRST-like or a DESI-like survey improves the sensitivity to the runnings by ∼ 20%, and 30%, respectively. A spectroscopic survey with a billion objects, such as the SKA, will add enough information to the S4 measurements to allow a detection of α {sub s} =10{sup −3}, required to probe the single-field slow-roll inflationary paradigm. We show that only a very-futuristic interferometer targeting the dark ages will be capable of measuring the minimal inflationary prediction for β {sub s} . The results of other probes, such as a stochastic background of gravitational waves observable by LIGO, the Ly-α forest, and spectral distortions, are shown for comparison. Finally, we study the claims that large values of β {sub s} , if extrapolated to the smallest scales, can produce primordial black holes of tens of solar masses, which we show to be easily testable by the S4 CMB experiment.

  17. Increasing Running Step Rate Reduces Patellofemoral Joint Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Rachel L.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Wille, Christa M.; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increasing step rate has been shown to elicit changes in joint kinematics and kinetics during running, and has been suggested as a possible rehabilitation strategy for runners with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine how altering step rate affects internal muscle forces and patellofemoral joint loads, and then to determine what kinematic and kinetic factors best predict changes in joint loading. Methods We recorded whole body kinematics of 30 healthy adults running on an instrumented treadmill at three step rate conditions (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred step rate). We then used a 3D lower extremity musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle, patellar tendon, and patellofemoral joint forces throughout the running gait cycles. Additionally, linear regression analysis allowed us to ascertain the relative influence of limb posture and external loads on patellofemoral joint force. Results Increasing step rate to 110% of preferred reduced peak patellofemoral joint force by 14%. Peak muscle forces were also altered as a result of the increased step rate with hip, knee and ankle extensor forces, and hip abductor forces all reduced in mid-stance. Compared to the 90% step rate condition, there was a concomitant increase in peak rectus femoris and hamstring loads during early and late swing, respectively, at higher step rates. Peak stance phase knee flexion decreased with increasing step rate, and was found to be the most important predictor of the reduction in patellofemoral joint loading. Conclusion Increasing step rate is an effective strategy to reduce patellofemoral joint forces and could be effective in modulating biomechanical factors that can contribute to patellofemoral pain. PMID:23917470

  18. Peak Running Intensity of International Rugby: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Pryor, John F; Stewart, Andrew M; Dascombe, Ben J; Duthie, Grant M

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies. Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from 2 nations across 33 international matches. A moving-average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m/min), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m/s 2 ), and average metabolic power (P met ) for a range of durations (1-10 min). Differences between positions and durations were described using a magnitude-based network. Peak running intensity increased as the length of the moving average decreased. There were likely small to moderate increases in relative distance and AveAcc for outside backs, halfbacks, and loose forwards compared with the tight 5 group across all moving-average durations (effect size [ES] = 0.27-1.00). P met demands were at least likely greater for outside backs and halfbacks than for the tight 5 (ES = 0.86-0.99). Halfbacks demonstrated the greatest relative distance and P met outputs but were similar to outside backs and loose forwards in AveAcc demands. The current study has presented a framework to describe the peak running intensities achieved during international rugby competition by position, which are considerably higher than previously reported whole-period averages. These data provide further knowledge of the peak activity profiles of international rugby competition, and this information can be used to assist coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

  19. Barefoot versus shoe running: from the past to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan

    2014-02-01

    Barefoot running is not a new concept, but relatively few people choose to engage in barefoot running on a regular basis. Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, as many as 79% of runners are injured every year. Although benefits of barefoot running have been proposed, there are also potential risks associated with it. To review the evidence-based literature concerning barefoot/minimal footwear running and the implications for the practicing physician. Multiple publications were reviewed using an electronic search of databases such as Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Database from inception until August 30, 2013 using the search terms barefoot running, barefoot running biomechanics, and shoe vs. barefoot running. Ninety-six relevant articles were found. Most were reviews of biomechanical and kinematic studies. There are notable differences in gait and other parameters between barefoot running and shoe running. Based on these findings and much anecdotal evidence, one could conclude that barefoot runners should have fewer injuries, better performance, or both. Several athletic shoe companies have designed running shoes that attempt to mimic the barefoot condition, and thus garner the purported benefits of barefoot running. Although there is no evidence that confirms or refutes improved performance and reduced injuries in barefoot runners, many of the claimed disadvantages to barefoot running are not supported by the literature. Nonetheless, it seems that barefoot running may be an acceptable training method for athletes and coaches, as it may minimize the risks of injury.

  20. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Manipulation of Foot Strike and Footwear Increases Achilles Tendon Loading During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Patel, Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. Controlled laboratory study. Synchronized kinematic and force data were collected from 22 habitual rearfoot strikers (11 male), who habitually ran in nonminimal running shoes, during overground running at 3.6 m·s -1 . Participants ran in 3 different footwear conditions (standard running shoe, minimal running shoe, and barefoot) with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon loading was estimated by use of inverse dynamics, where the Achilles tendon moment arm was determined with a regression equation. A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare conditions. Achilles tendon impulse was greater when subjects ran with an FFS rather than an RFS in minimal shoes. Achilles tendon loading rates were higher when subjects ran either in minimal shoes or barefoot than in standard shoes, regardless of foot strike. In runners who habitually rearfoot strike in standard running shoes, running in minimal shoes or barefoot increased the rate of tendon loading, and running with a forefoot strike in minimal shoes increased the magnitude of tendon loading. Transitioning to these running conditions may increase the risk of tendinopathy.

  2. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac W; Joyce, Kenneth M; Kennedy, Ann-Marie; Kelly, Jack L

    2014-04-01

    Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  3. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  4. ATLAS data preparation in run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00037318; The ATLAS collaboration; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Guenther, Jaroslav; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Strandberg, Jonas; Taffard, Anyes; Wang, Song-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. The challenges posed by the excellent performance and high live time fraction of the LHC are discussed, and the solutions implemented by ATLAS are described. The prompt calibration loop procedures are described and examples are given. Several levels of data quality assessment are used to quickly spot problems in the control room and prevent data loss, and to provide the final selection used for physics analysis. Finally the data quality efficiency for physics analysis is shown.

  5. Electron ID in ATLAS Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Thais, Savannah Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Efficient and accurate electron identification is of critical importance to measuring many physics processes with leptons in the final state, including H->4l, dark vector boson searches, and various SUSY searches. This poster will describe the current status of the Likelihood driven Electron ID, highlighting the recent move from a MC driven ID to a data-driven ID. It will include the most recent identification efficiency and scale-factor measurements. Additionally, it will describe continued improvements for Run 2 electron ID, highlighting improvements in the low pt region and potential Machine Learning improvements.

  6. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker: Running experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. After presenting our production and comissioning issues in TWEPP 2008, we report on our running experience. Focusing on electronic and hardware issues as well as operation and maintenance adversities, we describe the lessons learned and the pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  7. Influence of midsole hardness of standard cushioned shoes on running-related injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Genin, Joakim; Delattre, Nicolas; Seil, Romain; Urhausen, Axel

    2014-03-01

    In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, we tested if leisure-time runners using shoes with less compliant midsoles have a higher running-related injury (RRI) risk. We provided 247 runners with standard running shoes having either a soft study shoes (soft-SS) or a hard study shoes (hard-SS) midsole and followed them prospectively for 5 months regarding RRI. All information about sports practice and injuries was uploaded on a dedicated internet platform and checked for consistency and completeness. RRI was defined as any first-time pain sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding normal running activity for at least 1 day. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to identify RRI risk factors. The type of study shoes used for running was not associated with RRIs (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.48). The hard-SS had a 15% greater overall stiffness in the heel region. The two study groups were similar regarding personal and sports participation characteristics, except for years of running experience, which was higher (prunning. No between-group differences were found regarding injury location, type, severity or category. Nevertheless, the adjusted regression model revealed positive associations with RRI risk for body mass index (HR=1.126; 95% CI 1.033 to 1.227), previous injury (HR=1.735; 95% CI 1.037 to 2.902) and mean session intensity (HR=1.396; 95% CI 1.040 to 1.874). Protective factors were previous regular running activity (HR=0.422; 95% CI 0.228 to 0.779) and weekly volume of other sports activities (HR=0.702; 95% CI 0.561 to 0.879). Midsole hardness of modern cushioned running shoes does not seem to influence RRI risk.

  8. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.

    2007-05-01

    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  9. Cardiovascular responses during deep water running versus shallow water running in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anerao Urja M, Shinde Nisha K, Khatri SM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview: As the school going children especially the adolescents’ need workout routine; it is advisable that the routine is imbibed in the school’s class time table. In India as growing number of schools provide swimming as one of the recreational activities; school staff often fails to notice the boredom that is caused by the same activity. Deep as well as shallow water running can be one of the best alternatives to swimming. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the cardiovascular response in these individuals. Methods: This was a Prospective Cross-Sectional Comparative Study done in 72 healthy school going students (males grouped into 2 according to the interventions (Deep water running and Shallow water running. Cardiovascular parameters such as Heart rate (HR, Saturation of oxygen (SpO2, Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE were assessed. Results: Significant improvements in cardiovascular parameters were seen in both the groups i.e. by both the interventions. Conclusion: Deep water running and Shallow water running can be used to improve cardiac function in terms of various outcome measures used in the study.

  10. The influence of model spatial resolution on simulated ozone and fine particulate matter for Europe: implications for health impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Sara; Doherty, Ruth M.; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Macintyre, Helen L.; O'Connor, Fiona M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the impact of model horizontal resolution on simulated concentrations of surface ozone (O3) and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), and the associated health impacts over Europe, using the HadGEM3-UKCA chemistry-climate model to simulate pollutant concentrations at a coarse (˜ 140 km) and a finer (˜ 50 km) resolution. The attributable fraction (AF) of total mortality due to long-term exposure to warm season daily maximum 8 h running mean (MDA8) O3 and annual-average PM2.5 concentrations is then calculated for each European country using pollutant concentrations simulated at each resolution. Our results highlight a seasonal variation in simulated O3 and PM2.5 differences between the two model resolutions in Europe. Compared to the finer resolution results, simulated European O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are higher on average in winter and spring (˜ 10 and ˜ 6 %, respectively). In contrast, simulated O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are lower in summer and autumn (˜ -1 and ˜ -4 %, respectively). These differences may be partly explained by differences in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations simulated at the two resolutions. Compared to O3, we find the opposite seasonality in simulated PM2.5 differences between the two resolutions. In winter and spring, simulated PM2.5 concentrations are lower at the coarse compared to the finer resolution (˜ -8 and ˜ -6 %, respectively) but higher in summer and autumn (˜ 29 and ˜ 8 %, respectively). Simulated PM2.5 values are also mostly related to differences in convective rainfall between the two resolutions for all seasons. These differences between the two resolutions exhibit clear spatial patterns for both pollutants that vary by season, and exert a strong influence on country to country variations in estimated AF for the two resolutions. Warm season MDA8 O3 levels are higher in most of southern Europe, but lower in areas of northern and eastern Europe when

  11. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quant...

  12. The Influence of a Pacesetter on Psychological Responses and Pacing Behavior during a 1600 m Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Fullerton, Andrew M. Lane, Tracey J. Devonport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of following a pacer versus following a self-paced plan on psychological responses and pacing behavior in well-trained distance runners. Pacing in the present study was individually tailored where each participant developed a personal strategy to ensure their goal time was achieved. We expected that following a pacer would associate with goal achievement, higher pre-run confidence, positive emotions and lower perceived exertion during performance. In a mixed-design repeated-measures study, nineteen well-trained runners completed two 1600m running time trials. Ten runners had a pacer (paced group who supported their individual pacing strategy, and nine participants self-paced running alone (control group. Both groups could check pace using their wrist watch. In contrast to our expectation, results indicated that the paced group reported higher pre-run anxiety with no significant differences in finish time, goal confidence, goal difficulty, perceived exertion, and self-rated performance between groups. We suggest that following a pacer is a skill that requires learning. Following a personalised pacer might associate with higher anxiety due to uncertainty in being able to keep up with the pacer and public visibility of dropping behind, something that is not so observable in a self-paced run completed alone. Future research should investigate mechanisms associated with effective pacing.

  13. Mu-opioid receptor inhibition decreases voluntary wheel running in a dopamine-dependent manner in rats bred for high voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Brown, Jacob D; Kovarik, M Cathleen; Miller, Dennis K; Booth, Frank W

    2016-12-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The ATLAS Trigger System: Ready for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Nakahama, Yu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. During the next data-taking period starting in early 2015 (Run-2) the LHC will operate at a centre-of-mass energy of about 13 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will review the upgrades to the ATLAS Trigger system that have been implemented during the shutdown and that will allow us to cope with these increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter trigger, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module, improvements in the L1 muon system and the merging of the prev...

  15. Effects of muscular biopsy on the mechanics of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoit; Samozino, Pierre; Féasson, Léonard; Geyssant, André; Millet, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a widely used technique in protocols aiming at studying physical capacities and fiber profiles of athletes, and muscular adaptations to exercise. Side effects of biopsy alone on physiological parameters have recently been pointed out, and we sought to determine whether a single biopsy had effects on the main stride mechanical parameters. Ten male runners performed 4-min runs before and after undergoing a biopsy of their left vastus lateralis muscle. Step frequency and duty factor were significantly higher after biopsy (2.86 +/- 0.14 vs. 2.82 +/- 0.15 Hz, and 0.77 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.75 +/- 0.05, respectively), whereas other factors were significantly lower: maximal vertical ground reaction force (1,601 +/- 240 vs. 1,643 +/- 230 N), loading rate (53.9 +/- 12.8 vs. 58.4 +/- 13.5 bw s(-1)), center of mass vertical displacement (0.056 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.058 +/- 0.008 m) and external mechanical work at each step (1.14 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.10 J kg(-1) step(-1)). These effects were observed on the left (biopsed) leg, but also on the right one for the external mechanical work, the duty factor and the maximal vertical ground reaction force, showing that a single biopsy had both ipsi- and contralateral effects on running mechanics.

  16. Glucose turnover in 48-hour-fasted running rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonne, B.; Mikines, K.J.; Galbo, H.

    1987-01-01

    In fed rats, hyperglycemia develops during exercise. This contrasts with the view based on studies of fasted human and dog that euglycemia is maintained in exercise and glucose production (R/sub a/) controlled by feedback mechanisms. Forty-eight-hour-fasted rats (F) were compared to fed rats (C) and overnight food-restricted (FR) rats. [3- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]glucose were infused and blood and tissue sampled. During running (21 m/min, 0% grade) R/sub a/ increased most in C and least in F and only in F did R/sub a/ not significantly exceed glucose disappearance. Plasma glucose increased more in C (3.3 mmol/1) than in FR (1.6 mmol/l) and only modestly (0.6 mmol/l) and transiently in F. Resting liver glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and similar in FR and F. Resting muscle glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and lowest in F. During running, lactate production and gluconeogenesis were higher in FR than in F. At least in rats, responses of production and plasma concentration of glucose to exercise depend on size of liver and muscle glycogen stores; glucose production matches increase in clearance better in fasted than in fed states. Probably glucose production is stimulated by feedforward mechanisms and feedback mechanisms are added if plasma glucose decreases

  17. The ATLAS Data Acquisition System in LHC Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro Vazquez, William; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The LHC has been providing pp collisions with record luminosity and energy since the start of Run 2 in 2015. The Trigger and Data Acquisition system of the ATLAS experiment has been upgraded to deal with the increased performance required by this new operational mode. The dataflow system and associated network infrastructure have been reshaped in order to benefit from technological progress and to maximize the flexibility and efficiency of the data selection process. The new design is radically different from the previous implementation both in terms of architecture and performance, with the previous two-level structure merged into a single processing farm, performing incremental data collection and analysis. In addition, logical farm slicing, with each slice managed by a dedicated supervisor, has been dropped in favour of global management by a single farm master operating at 100 kHz. This farm master has also been integrated with a new software-based Region of Interest builder, replacing the previous VMEbus-based system. Finally, the Readout system has been completely refitted with new higher performance, lower footprint server machines housing a new custom front-end interface card. Here we will cover the overall design of the system, along with performance results from the start-up phase of LHC Run 2.

  18. THE ATLAS DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM IN LHC RUN 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC has been providing proton-proton collisions with record intensity and energy since the start of Run 2 in 2015. In the ATLAS experiment the Data Acquisition is responsible for the transport and storage of the more complex event data at higher rates that the new collision environment implies. Data from events selected by the first level hardware trigger are subject to further filtration from software running on a commodity server farm. During this time the data are transferred from detector electronics across 1900 optical links to custom buffer hardware hosted across 100 commodity server PCs, and then across the system for processing by high bandwidth network at an average throughput of 30 GB/s. Accepted events are transported to a data logging system for final packaging and transfer to permanent storage, with an average output rate of 1.5 GB/s. The whole system is actively monitored to maximise efficiency and minimise downtime. Due to the scale of the system and the challenging collision environment th...

  19. The ATLAS Data Acquisition System in LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC has been providing proton-proton collisions with record intensity and energy since the start of Run 2 in 2015. In the ATLAS experiment the Data Acquisition is responsible for the transport and storage of the more complex event data at higher rates that the new collision environment implies. Data from events selected by the first level hardware trigger are subject to further filtration from software running on a commodity load balanced processing farm of some 2000 servers. During this time the data transferred from detector electronics across 1900 optical links to custom buffer hardware hosted across 100 commodity server PCs, and transferred across the system for processing by high bandwidth network at an average throughput of 30 GB/s. Accepted events are then transported to a data logging system for final packaging and transfer to permanent storage, with a final average output bandwidth of 1.5 GB/s. The whole system is actively monitored to maximise efficiency and minimise downtime. Due to the scale o...

  20. The ATLAS Trigger System: Ready for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211007; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. During the next data-taking period starting in 2015 (Run-2) the LHC will operate at a centre-of-mass energy of about 13 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger system, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter fa...

  1. Three run-of-river power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Three 'run-of-river' hydroelectric power plants in the Montreal area in the province of Quebec were described visually and in sound. A run-of-river generating station is one that has no reservoir behind the generating facilities. Instead of a reservoir, the generating station draws its power from the strong flow of the whole river as it passes through the turbines. The first generating station described was the Beauharnois power plant completed in 1963 which became the most powerful generating station in Canada at that time. Today, it ranks fourth after the La Grande complex. In winter, it supplies electricity primarily to the Quebec power system, but between April and November, 90 per cent of its power is destined for export. The Carillon power station on the Ottawa River, the second to be discussed in this videotape presentation, was completed in 1964 with a total generating capacity of 654 MW. Today, it is the tenth largest of its kind in Quebec. The Rivieres des Prairies generating station, the third and last one described was completed in 1930; today it has a generating capacity of 45 MW. Some of the efforts made by Hydro-Quebec to protect and enhance the natural environment were shown in action, including regular removal and recycling of debris at the gateways to the generating stations, construction of fish spawning ladders, and the control of zebra mussels

  2. The run permit protection system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A Run Permit system has been designed for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The system implements mode-dependent software interlocks to ensure proper operation of the accelerator, enabling the ion source extractor and RF systems when proper conditions are met. The system is implemented using the GTA control system; thus all information available to the control system is also available for use in interlock logic. The logic is defined in terms of control system channels, which reflect accelerator parameters such as actuator positions, power supply values, temperatures, etc. A mode switch in the control room selects the accelerator operating mode, for example i njector only . The Run Permit software selects interlock logic as appropriate operating mode. This implementation easily accommodates logic changes as requirements evolve. To ensure reliable operation of a software-based system, a special circuit with a watch-dog timer is employed to produce the system's output signals. The software must periodically address the circuit, or the output signals are forced to a disabled state. For additional protection, there are self-test provisions for detecting and reacting to failures of the control system. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  3. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, S L; Hokanson, J F; Wells, D J; Swain, S D; Hoppeler, H; Navarro, V

    1991-10-24

    The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) has an alleged top speed of 100 km h-1, second only to the cheetah (Acionyx jubatus) among land vertebrates, a possible response to predation in the exposed habitat of the North American prairie. Unlike cheetahs, however, pronghorn antelope are distance runners rather than sprinters, and can run 11 km in 10 min, an average speed of 65 km h-1. We measured maximum oxygen uptake in pronghorn antelope to distinguish between two potential explanations for this ability: either they have evolved a uniquely high muscular efficiency (low cost of transport) or they can supply oxygen to the muscles at unusually high levels. Because the cost of transport (energy per unit distance covered per unit body mass) varies as a predictable function of body mass among terrestrial vertebrates, we can calculate the predicted cost to maintain speeds of 65 and 100 km h-1 in an average 32-kg animal. The resulting range of predicted values, 3.2-5.1 ml O2 kg-1 s-1, far surpasses the predicted maximum aerobic capacity of a 32-kg mammal (1.5 ml O2 kg-1 s-1). We conclude that their performance is achieved by an extraordinary capacity to consume and process enough oxygen to support a predicted running speed greater than 20 ms-1 (70 km h-1), attained without unique respiratory-system structures.

  4. Analysis of Clinical Predictors of Resolution of Sleep Disturbance Related to Frequent Nighttime Heartburn and Acid Regurgitation Symptoms in Individuals Taking Esomeprazole 20 mg or Placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A; Le Moigne, Anne; Li, Jing; Pollack, Charles; Nagy, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbances related to reflux symptoms have a significant impact on the daily lives of affected individuals. These analyses identified clinical factors related to resolution of reflux-related sleep disturbance in subjects treated with esomeprazole 20 mg for 14 days. Data from the first 14 days of 2 similar randomized, double-blind studies were pooled for subjects experiencing frequent heartburn and related sleep disturbances receiving esomeprazole 20 mg (n = 357) or placebo (n = 346). A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed with pooled and individual study data to evaluate relationships between clinical factors [treatment (esomeprazole vs. placebo), run-in sleep disturbance frequency, occurrence (yes/no) of 24-h, daytime, and nighttime heartburn (yes: ≥1 episode in 14-day treatment period)] and complete sleep disturbance resolution (no disturbances for 7 consecutive days). Absence of daytime (p = 0.0018) or nighttime (p heartburn during treatment was a significant predictor of complete sleep disturbance resolution at 14 days for the total population, while higher run-in sleep disturbance frequency (p heartburn during therapy, and esomeprazole treatment predicted complete reflux-related sleep disturbance resolution. The magnitude of therapeutic benefit for esomeprazole 20 mg over placebo increased with increasing baseline sleep disturbance.

  5. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  6. Run II jet physics: Proceedings of the Run II QCD and weak boson physics workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerald C. Blazey

    2000-01-01

    The Run II jet physics group includes the Jet Algorithms, Jet Shape/Energy Flow, and Jet Measurements/Correlations subgroups. The main goal of the jet algorithm subgroup was to explore and define standard Run II jet finding procedures for CDF and D0. The focus of the jet shape/energy flow group was the study of jets as objects and the energy flows around these objects. The jet measurements/correlations subgroup discussed measurements at different beam energies; α S measurements; and LO, NLO, NNLO, and threshold jet calculations. As a practical matter the algorithm and shape/energy flow groups merged to concentrate on the development of Run II jet algorithms that are both free of theoretical and experimental difficulties and able to reproduce Run I measurements. Starting from a review of the experience gained during Run I, the group considered a variety of cone algorithms, and K T algorithms. The current understanding of both types of algorithms, including calibration issues, are discussed in this report along with some preliminary experimental results. The jet algorithms group recommends that CDF and D0 employ the same version of both a cone algorithm and a K T algorithm during Run II. Proposed versions of each type of algorithm are discussed. The group also recommends the use of full 4-vector kinematic variables whenever possible. The recommended algorithms attempt to minimize the impact of seeds in the case of the cone algorithm and preclustering in the case of the K T algorithm. Issues regarding precluster definitions and merge/split criteria require further study

  7. Can parallel use of different running shoes decrease running-related injury risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, L; Ramesh, J; Mann, R; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Theisen, D

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if runners who use concomitantly different pairs of running shoes are at a lower risk of running-related injury (RRI). Recreational runners (n = 264) participated in this 22-week prospective follow-up and reported all information about their running session characteristics, other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated Internet platform. A RRI was defined as a physical pain or complaint located at the lower limbs or lower back region, sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding planned running activity for at least 1 day. One-third of the participants (n = 87) experienced at least one RRI during the observation period. The adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that the parallel use of more than one pair of running shoes was a protective factor [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.614; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.389-0.969], while previous injury was a risk factor (HR = 1.722; 95%CI = 1.114-2.661). Additionally, increased mean session distance (km; HR = 0.795; 95%CI = 0.725-0.872) and increased weekly volume of other sports (h/week; HR = 0.848; 95%CI = 0.732-0.982) were associated with lower RRI risk. Multiple shoe use and participation in other sports are strategies potentially leading to a variation of the load applied to the musculoskeletal system. They could be advised to recreational runners to prevent RRI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Option Valuation with Long-run and Short-run Volatility Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    This paper presents a new model for the valuation of European options, in which the volatility of returns consists of two components. One of these components is a long-run component, and it can be modeled as fully persistent. The other component is short-run and has a zero mean. Our model can...... be viewed as an affine version of Engle and Lee (1999), allowing for easy valuation of European options. The model substantially outperforms a benchmark single-component volatility model that is well-established in the literature, and it fits options better than a model that combines conditional...... model long-maturity and short-maturity options....

  9. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00207984

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region < 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  10. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region lt 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  11. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caekenberghe, Ine Van; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-07-06

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior-posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level of

  12. Short-run and long-run dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and estimates a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ land allocation decisions that allows for the gradual adjustment of allocations that can result from crop rotation practices and quasi-fixed capital constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers...... that include acreage, output, and variable input utilization at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the short-run and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops...

  13. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior–posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level

  14. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  15. Short-term changes in running mechanics and foot strike pattern after introduction to minimalistic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, John D; Bjorhus, Jordan S; Williams, D S Blaise; Butler, Robert J; Porcari, John P; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Minimalistic footwear has garnered widespread interest in the running community, based largely on the premise that the footwear may reduce certain running-related injury risk factors through adaptations in running mechanics and foot strike pattern. To examine short-term adaptations in running mechanics among runners who typically run in conventional cushioned heel running shoes as they transition to minimalistic footwear. A 2-week, prospective, observational study. A movement science laboratory. Nineteen female runners with a rear foot strike (RFS) pattern who usually train in conventional running shoes. The participants trained for 20 minutes, 3 times per week for 2 weeks by using minimalistic footwear. Three-dimensional lower extremity running mechanics were analyzed before and after this 2-week period. Hip, knee, and ankle joint kinematics at initial contact; step length; stance time; peak ankle joint moment and joint work; impact peak; vertical ground reaction force loading rate; and foot strike pattern preference were evaluated before and after the intervention. The knee flexion angle at initial contact increased 3.8° (P < .01), but the ankle and hip flexion angles at initial contact did not change after training. No changes in ankle joint kinetics or running temporospatial parameters were observed. The majority of participants (71%), before the intervention, demonstrated an RFS pattern while running in minimalistic footwear. The proportion of runners with an RFS pattern did not decrease after 2 weeks (P = .25). Those runners who chose an RFS pattern in minimalistic shoes experienced a vertical loading rate that was 3 times greater than those who chose to run with a non-RFS pattern. Few systematic changes in running mechanics were observed among participants after 2 weeks of training in minimalistic footwear. The majority of the participants continued to use an RFS pattern after training in minimalistic footwear, and these participants experienced higher

  16. LHCb: The LHCb Muon detector commissioning and first running scenarios

    CERN Multimedia

    Furcas, S

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb Muon detector, being part of the first trigger level (L0), has been optimized in order to provide a fast and efficient identification of the muons produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The expected performances are: 95% L0 trigger efficiency within a 25ns time window and muon identification in L0 with a pT resolution of ~20%. The detector has been built, to met those stringent requirements, using Multi Wire Proportional Chambers and Gas Electron Multiplier (in the innermost region, closest to the IP) technology. The chambers (1368 MWPC + 12 GEM) are arranged in 5 detector stations, interspersed with iron filters placed along the beam pipe. While the installation of chambers in stations 2 to 5 has already been completed, the work on the first and most challenging station is still ongoing and expected to end by July 09. The results obtained in the commissioning of all the installed chambers as well as the performances measured by means of data acquired during cosmics runs since September 08 are reviewe...

  17. Helicopter blades running elevation measurement using omnidirectional vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengtao CAI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omnidirectional dynamic space parameters of high-speed rotating helicopter blades are precise 3D vector description of the blades. In particular, the elevation difference is directly related to the aerodynamic performance and maneuverability of the helicopter. The state of the art detection techniques based on optics and common vision have several drawbacks, such as high demands on devices but poor extensibility, limited measurement range and fixed measurement position. In this paper, a novel approach of helicopter blades running elevation measurement is proposed based on omnidirectional vision. With the advantages of panoramic visual imaging integration, 360° field of view and rotation in-variance, high-resolution images of all rotating blades positions are obtained at one time. By studying the non-linear calibration and calculation model of omnidirectional vision system, aiming at solving the problem of inaccurate visual space mapping model, the omnidirectional and full-scale measurement of the elevation difference are finalized. Experiments are carried out on our multifunctional simulation blades test system and the practical blades test tower, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the proposed method can considerably reduce the complexity of measurement. Keywords: Full-scale measurement, Helicopter blades elevation, Non-linear calibration, Omnidirectional vision, Unified sphere model

  18. The CDF calorimeter upgrade for RunIIb

    CERN Document Server

    Huston, J; Kuhlmann, S; Lami, S; Miller, R; Paoletti, R; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F

    2004-01-01

    The physics program at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider will continue to explore the high energy elementary particle physics until the LHC commissioning. The upgrade of the CDF calorimeter opens a new window for improving the jet energy resolution, important in finding various signals such as Higgs by correcting the energy loss in the dead material and adding information in the jet algorithms using charged particles. It plays an important role in soft electron tagging of b- jets and photon identification in SUSY. The upgrade of the CDF calorimeter includes: a) the replacement of slow gas detector on the front face of the Central Calorimeter with Preshower (CPR) based on 2cm thick scintillator tiles segmented in eta and Phi and read out by WLS fibers running into a groove on the surface of each tiles. The WLS fibers are placed to clear fibers after leaving the tiles; b) the replacement of the Central Crack Chamber (CCR) with 5mm thick scintillator tiles read with the same technique: To finalize the design parame...

  19. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance and Commissioning for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Spettel, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton colli- sions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and in- stantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2} \\text{s}^{-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=1.5$ to $|\\eta|=4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 $\\text{fb}^{-1}$ as been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV with very high operational efficiency of the LAr Calorimeters and excellent performance. The well calibrated and highly granular detector achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successul discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. The talk will give an overview of the procedures applied to calibrate the 180.000 read-out channels electronically as well as from using refe...

  20. Reduction in ground reaction force variables with instructed barefoot running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia D. Samaan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: As impact loading has been associated with certain running-related injuries, instruction and feedback on the proper forefoot strike pattern may help reduce the injury risk associated with transitioning to BF running.

  1. The psychological benefits of recreational running: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Abrahám, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Running yields positive changes in affect, but the external validity of controlled studies has received little attention in the literature. In this inquiry, 50 recreational runners completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (Gauvin & Rejeskí, 1993) before and after a bout of self-planned running on an urban running path. Positive changes were seen in all four measures of affect (p run, weekly running time, weekly running distance, and running experience) to the observed changes in affect. The results have revealed that exercise characteristics accounted for only 14-30% of the variance in the recreational runners' affect, in both directions. It is concluded that psychological benefits of recreational running may be linked to placebo (conditioning and/or expectancy) effects.

  2. Running Performance Differences Between Men and Women (An Update)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, C. N; Carter, R; DeRuisseau, K. C; Moffatt, R. J

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago it was reported in the journal Nature that the slope of improvement in the men's and women's running records, extrapolated from mean running velocity plotted against historical...

  3. Environmental impacts by running an osmotic power plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalstroem, A.; Gitmark, J.

    2012-07-01

    The possible environmental impact by running an osmotic power plant is assessed by using results from monitoring of the prototype plant at Tofte in the Oslofjord, where a water flow of approximately 13 L/s of freshwater is mixed with 20 L/s of saltwater and discharged at 2 m depth. The results from the biological investigations show no impact of the discharge water on the benthic communities in the area. Eutrophication effects near the discharge point are identified as the main environmental concern in an up-scaled power plant. Water samples from the saltwater intake indicate that the phosphorous concentration often is higher at 35 m depth than in the euphotic layer, and there will be a net supply of phosphorous to this layer. By diving the outlet plume below the euphotic zone, eutrophication effects as well as possible effects from use of chemicals and possible changed temperature and salinity in the surface layer is avoided. (Author)

  4. The effective Standard Model after LHC Run I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong

    2015-01-01

    We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard S,T formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run 1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.

  5. LHCb-The LHCb trigger in Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb trigger system has been upgraded to exploit the real-time alignment, calibration and analysis capabilities of LHCb in Run-II. An increase in the CPU and disk capacity of the event filter farm, combined with improvements to the reconstruction software, mean that efficient, exclusive selections can be made in the first stage of the High Level Trigger (HLT1). The output of HLT1 is buffered to the 5 PB of disk on the event filter farm, while the detector is aligned and calibrated in real time. The second stage, HLT2, performs complete, offline quality, event reconstruction. Physics analyses can be performed directly on this information, and for the majority of charm physics selections, a reduced event format can be written out, which permits higher event rates.

  6. The Effective Standard Model after LHC Run I

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; You, Tevong

    2015-01-01

    We treat the Standard Model as the low-energy limit of an effective field theory that incorporates higher-dimensional operators to capture the effects of decoupled new physics. We consider the constraints imposed on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators by electroweak precision tests (EWPTs), applying a framework for the effects of dimension-6 operators on electroweak precision tests that is more general than the standard $S,T$ formalism, and use measurements of Higgs couplings and the kinematics of associated Higgs production at the Tevatron and LHC, as well as triple-gauge couplings at the LHC. We highlight the complementarity between EWPTs, Tevatron and LHC measurements in obtaining model-independent limits on the effective Standard Model after LHC Run~1. We illustrate the combined constraints with the example of the two-Higgs doublet model.

  7. LUCID Upgrade for ATLAS Luminosity Measurement in Run II.

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The main ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID and its read-out electronics has been completely rebuilt for the 2015 LHC run in order to cope with a higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The LUCID detector is measuring Cherenkov light produced in photomultiplier quartz windows and in quartz optical fibers. It has a novel calibration system that uses radioactive Bi$^{207}$ sources that produces internal conversion electrons above the Cherenkov threshold in quartz. The new electronics can count particle hits above a threshold but also the integrated pulseheight of the signals from the particles which makes it possible to measure luminosity with new methods. The new detector, calibration system and electronics will be covered by the contribution as well as the results of the luminosity measurements with the detector in 2015.

  8. LUCID Upgrade for ATLAS Luminosity Measurement in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00444244; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The main ATLAS luminosity monitor, LUCID, and its read-out electronics have been completely rebuilt for the LHC Run II in order to cope with a higher center of mass energy ($\\sqrt{s}$=13 TeV) and the 25 ns bunch-spacing. The LUCID detector is measuring Cherenkov light produced in photomultiplier quartz windows and in quartz optical fibers. It has a novel calibration system that uses radioactive $^{207}$Bi sources that produce internal-conversion electrons with energy above the Cherenkov threshold in quartz. The new electronics can count signals with amplitude above a predefined threshold (hits) as well as the integrated pulseheight of the signals, which makes it possible to measure luminosity with complementary methods. The new detector, calibration system and electronics will be described, together with the results of the 2015 luminosity measurement.

  9. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners. The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years), who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection. The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR), and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042), but not thereafter (p = 0.247), remained significantly associated with running

  10. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  11. Process-independent strong running coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binosi, Daniele; Mezrag, Cedric; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodriguez-Quintero, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Here, we unify two widely different approaches to understanding the infrared behavior of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), one essentially phenomenological, based on data, and the other computational, realized via quantum field equations in the continuum theory. Using the latter, we explain and calculate a process-independent running-coupling for QCD, a new type of effective charge that is an analogue of the Gell-Mann–Low effective coupling in quantum electrodynamics. The result is almost identical to the process-dependent effective charge defined via the Bjorken sum rule, which provides one of the most basic constraints on our knowledge of nucleon spin structure. As a result, this reveals the Bjorken sum to be a near direct means by which to gain empirical insight into QCD's Gell-Mann–Low effective charge.

  12. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  13. Prospettive per il Run 2 ad LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ciulli, Vitaliano

    2015-01-01

    With the approach of resumption of the activity of the Large Hadron Collider at the CERN, scheduled for the spring of 2015, the physicists of the ATLAS and CMS experiments are pondering the prospects that will be opened up by the increase of centre-of-mass energy from 8 to 13 TeV, after the discovery of the Higgs boson. However the results from Run 2 go, they will mark an important new chapter in the physics of fundamental interactions, making it possible to explore the region up to around 1 TeV of mass in the search for new particles that can explain dark matter and the other unresolved questions of the Standard Model.

  14. Quintessence as a run-away dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, M; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    We consider a late-time cosmological model based on a recent proposal that the infinite-bare-coupling limit of superstring/M-theory exists and has good phenomenological properties, including a vanishing cosmological constant, and a massless, decoupled dilaton. As it runs away to $+ \\infty$, the dilaton can play the role of the quintessence field recently advocated to drive the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe. If, as suggested by some string theory examples, appreciable deviations from General Relativity persist even today in the dark matter sector, the Universe may smoothly evolve from an initial "focussing" stage, lasting till radiation-matter equality, to a "dragging" regime, which eventually gives rise to an accelerated expansion with frozen $\\Omega(\\rm{dark energy})/\\Omega(\\rm{dark matter})$.

  15. ATLAS Run 1 Pythia8 tunes

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We present tunes of the Pythia8 Monte~Carlo event generator's parton shower and multiple parton interaction parameters to a range of data observables from ATLAS Run 1. Four new tunes have been constructed, corresponding to the four leading-order parton density functions, CTEQ6L1, MSTW2008LO, NNPDF23LO, and HERAPDF15LO, each simultaneously tuning ten generator parameters. A set of systematic variations is provided for the NNPDF tune, based on the eigentune method. These tunes improve the modeling of observables that can be described by leading-order + parton shower simulation, and are primarily intended for use in situations where next-to-leading-order and/or multileg parton-showered simulations are unavailable or impractical.

  16. ATLAS Distributed Computing in LHC Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Simone; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing infrastructure has evolved after the first period of LHC data taking in order to cope with the challenges of the upcoming LHC Run2. An increased data rate and computing demands of the Monte-Carlo simulation, as well as new approaches to ATLAS analysis, dictated a more dynamic workload management system (ProdSys2) and data management system (Rucio), overcoming the boundaries imposed by the design of the old computing model. In particular, the commissioning of new central computing system components was the core part of the migration toward the flexible computing model. The flexible computing utilization exploring the opportunistic resources such as HPC, cloud, and volunteer computing is embedded in the new computing model, the data access mechanisms have been enhanced with the remote access, and the network topology and performance is deeply integrated into the core of the system. Moreover a new data management strategy, based on defined lifetime for each dataset, has been defin...

  17. Reflections on Daily Runs and Material Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This essay reflects on the material flows and intensive states that surround us in our everyday lives, to provide an understanding of the ways in which they permeate and affect our bodies and cause a change in them, when we are moving through a landscape alongside various materialities, rhythms...... and movements. Based on my felt experiences during daily runs, it analyzes these vibrant land-scapes as heterogeneous assemblages, as collectives co-constituted between human-nonhuman actors, to study the material flows that move our bodies and expose them to new organizations. It sums up, that technologies......, milieus and human-nonhuman beings that lives alongside each other, have an immediate impact on each other caused by the circulating intensities within the heterogeneous collectives. We discover that changes in one context interface with changes in another, rhythms resonate and create new movements...

  18. Giving students the run of sprinting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, André; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2009-11-01

    A biomechanical study of sprinting is an interesting task for students who have a background in mechanics and calculus. These students can work with real data and do practical investigations similar to the way sports scientists do research. Student research activities are viable when the students are familiar with tools to collect and work with data from sensors and video recordings and with modeling tools for comparing simulation and experimental results. This article describes a multipurpose system, named COACH, that offers a versatile integrated set of tools for learning, doing, and teaching mathematics and science in a computer-based inquiry approach. Automated tracking of reference points and correction of perspective distortion in videos, state-of-the-art algorithms for data smoothing and numerical differentiation, and graphical system dynamics based modeling are some of the built-in techniques that are suitable for motion analysis. Their implementation and their application in student activities involving models of running are discussed.

  19. Shock Transmission and Fatigue in Human Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitsky, Oleg; Mizrahi, Joseph; Voloshin, Arkady; Treiger, July; Isakov, Eli

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effects of fatigue on the shock waves generated by foot strike. Twenty-two subjects were instrumented with an externally attached, lightweight accelerometer placed over the tibial tuberosity. The subjects ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed near their anaerobic threshold. Fatigue was established when the end-tidal CO 2 pressure decreased. The results indicated that approximately half of the subjects reached the fatigue state toward the end of the test. Whenever fatigue occurred, the peak acceleration was found to increase. It was thus concluded that there is a clear association between fatigue and increased heel strike-induced shock waves. These results have a significant implication for the etiology of running injuries, since shock wave attenuation has been previously reported to play an important role in preventing such injuries.

  20. What is a Proper Resolution of Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates for Urban Drainage Modelling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of distributed rainfall input for drainage models is the topic of this paper. The study is based on data from high resolution X-band weather radar used together with an urban drainage model of a medium size Danish village. The flow, total run-off volume and CSO volume are evaluated...

  1. Tele-AAC Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide.  Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems.  The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation; determine the communication competence levels achieved  by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders’  perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability; maximize Tele-AAC’s capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions. 

  2. Modular Control of Treadmill vs Overground Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Motorized treadmills have been widely used in locomotion studies, although a debate remains concerning the extrapolation of results obtained from treadmill experiments to overground locomotion. Slight differences between treadmill (TRD) and overground running (OVG) kinematics and muscle activity have previously been reported. However, little is known about differences in the modular control of muscle activation in these two conditions. Therefore, we aimed at investigating differences between motor modules extracted from TRD and OVG by factorization of multi-muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals. Twelve healthy men ran on a treadmill and overground at their preferred speed while we recorded tibial acceleration and surface EMG from 11 ipsilateral lower limb muscles. We extracted motor modules representing relative weightings of synergistic muscle activations by non-negative matrix factorization from 20 consecutive gait cycles. Four motor modules were sufficient to accurately reconstruct the EMG signals in both TRD and OVG (average reconstruction quality = 92±3%). Furthermore, a good reconstruction quality (80±7%) was obtained also when muscle weightings of one condition (either OVG or TRD) were used to reconstruct the EMG data from the other condition. The peak amplitudes of activation signals showed a similar timing (pattern) across conditions. The magnitude of peak activation for the module related to initial contact was significantly greater for OVG, whereas peak activation for modules related to leg swing and preparation to landing were greater for TRD. We conclude that TRD and OVG share similar muscle weightings throughout motion. In addition, modular control for TRD and OVG is achieved with minimal temporal adjustments, which were dependent on the phase of the running cycle. PMID:27064978

  3. [Comparing the young asthmatics running fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belányi, Kinga; Gyene, István; Bak, Zsuzsa; Mezei, Györgyi

    2007-02-25

    Nowadays, doctors strongly recommend physical activity for asthmatic children, since the resulting improved physical fitness and psychological change also raise the quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of asthmatic children who regularly participate in therapeutic swimming, with asthmatic children who do not participate in this training and with non-swimming, healthy children using the 12 minute free running, Cooper test. The children from the swimmer asthmatic group (n= 51, age = 9-22 yrs) took part in a special, long term, swimming exercise program (Gyene method). Whereas, the non-swimmer asthmatics (n = 28, age = 8-22 yrs) and the healthy children (n: 179, age: 9-22 yrs) only took part in the normal school physical education classes. Fitness was measured using the Cooper test. Data was collected from 258 subjects and showed that the fitness of swimmer asthmatics is significantly better than that of the non-swimmer asthmatics and even better than that of the healthy subjects (swimmer/ non swimmer asthmatic p = 0.01; swimmer asthmatic/ healthy p test). The difference in the fitness acquired from swimming was the most pronounced for the 8-11 years old asthmatics, presumably because of greater motivational factors. No differences were found between genders for the two asthmatic groups, whereas healthy boys were found to have significantly greater levels of fitness than healthy girls. Fitness is substantially increased with regular swimming. The favourable effects of swimming are expressed not only in comparison with the non-swimmer asthmatics but with the healthy subjects too. The regular therapeutic swimming program helps the formation of running fitness too.

  4. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance : Run 1 and initial Run 2.

    CERN Document Server

    Kasahara, Kota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance: Run 1 and Initial Run 2 Performance

Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run 1, the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC reached 7.7x10^33 cm -2s-1 and the average number of events that occur in a same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. 
The performance of muon triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns i...

  5. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; van Oeveren, B.; Francke, A.; Zijlstra, P.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby

  6. LHCb computing in Run II and its evolution towards Run III

    CERN Document Server

    Falabella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    his contribution reports on the experience of the LHCb computing team during LHC Run 2 and its preparation for Run 3. Furthermore a brief introduction on LHCbDIRAC, i.e. the tool to interface to the experiment distributed computing resources for its data processing and data management operations, is given. Run 2, which started in 2015, has already seen several changes in the data processing workflows of the experiment. Most notably the ability to align and calibrate the detector between two different stages of the data processing in the high level trigger farm, eliminating the need for a second pass processing of the data offline. In addition a fraction of the data is immediately reconstructed to its final physics format in the high level trigger and only this format is exported from the experiment site to the physics analysis. This concept have successfully been tested and will continue to be used for the rest of Run 2. Furthermore the distributed data processing has been improved with new concepts and techn...

  7. High resolution magnetic force microscopy using focussed ion beam modified tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is well established for imaging surface magnetic stray fields. With commercial microscopes and magnetic tips, images with 50 nm resolution are quite routine; however, obtaining higher resolutions is experimentally more demanding. Higher

  8. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running loss test. 86.134-96 Section... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.134-96 Running loss test. (a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature urban...

  9. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received, or...

  10. 40 CFR 600.507-86 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-86 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...

  11. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  12. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-12 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emissions data as...

  13. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-08 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...

  14. Prediction of the comparative reinforcement values of running and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PREMACK, D

    1963-03-15

    The probability of free drinking and running in rats was controlled by sucrose concentration and force requirements on an activity wheel. Drinking and running were then made contingent on pressing a bar. Barpressing increased monotonically with the associated response probability, and equally for drinking and running. The results support the assumption that different responses of equal probability have equal reinforcement value.

  15. Endurance and age : evidence from long-distance running data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of aging on long-run endurance. We analyze the determinants of running speed on distances from 5K to the marathon. We model running speed as a function of distance, age, and sex. We find evidence for interaction between age and sex, but not between distance and sex.

  16. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  17. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  18. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  19. Match-to-match variability in high-speed running activity in a professional soccer team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Christopher; Bradley, Paul; McCall, Alan; Dupont, Gregory

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated variability in competitive high-speed running performance in an elite soccer team. A semi-automated tracking system quantified running performance in 12 players over a season (median 17 matches per player, 207 observations). Variability [coefficient of variation (CV)] was compared for total sprint distance (TSD, >25.2 km/h), high-speed running (HSR, 19.8-25.2 km/h), total high-speed running (THSR, ≥19.8 km/h); THSR when the team was in and out of ball possession, in individual ball possession, in the peak 5 min activity period; and distance run according to individual maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Variability for % declines in THSR and distance covered at ≥80% MAS across halves, at the end of play (final 15 min vs. mean for all 15 min periods) and transiently (5 min period following peak 5 min activity period), was analysed. Collectively, variability was higher for TSD versus HSR and THSR and lowest for distance run at ≥80% MAS (CVs: 37.1%, 18.1%, 19.8% and 11.8%). THSR CVs when the team was in/out of ball possession, in individual ball possession and during the peak 5 min period were 31.5%, 26.1%, 60.1% and 23.9%. Variability in THSR declines across halves, at the end of play and transiently, ranged from 37.1% to 142.6%, while lower CVs were observed in these metrics for running at ≥80% MAS (20.9-53.3%).These results cast doubt on the appropriateness of general measures of high-speed activity for determining variability in an elite soccer team, although individualisation of HSR thresholds according to fitness characteristics might provide more stable indicators of running performance and fatigue occurrence.

  20. An overview of Booster and AGS Polarized Proton Operations during Run 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-11

    There were only a few differences in the setup between this year’s Polarized Proton run and the previous one (Run 15). Consequently, this note will focus on these differences as well as a few more notable studies done during the course of the run. This year, the Booster input intensity was kept around 7e11 for the majority of the run whereas in Run 15 it was kept around 9e11. It was lowered because there was some indication that the source polarization was higher with this lower input. Some of the polarization measurements that motivated this change will be discussed. Both the emittance and polarization on the AGS flattop show intensity dependence, thought to be related to the peak current, especially early in the AGS acceleration ramp. In Run 15, the AGS Rf was configured for h=8, but in this run h=6 was used to reduce the peak current and also to allow for the possibility of using a dual harmonic to reduce it further. Eventually, a dual harmonic configuration was used for the first 100 ms or so of the AGS acceleration cycle. Two cavities were set to h=12 and phased differently than the other 8 to accomplish this. Quad pumping was also used at Booster extraction to make the bunch injected into the AGS wider in order to match the dual harmonic bucket right at injection. This configuration, which was used for the majority of the run, will be described. Measurements of the intensity dependence of the transverse emittance and polarization with and without it will be compared.