WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher plant biomass

  1. Optimization of animal manure vermicomposting based on biomass production of earthworms and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Yan V; Alves, Luciano; Bianchi, Ivan; Espíndola, Jonas C; Oliveira, Juahil M De; Radetski, Claudemir M; Somensi, Cleder A

    2017-11-02

    The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100). In addition, the earthworm biomass and the phytoproductivity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in mixtures (1:1) of natural soil and the most viable vermicomposts were investigated. The C1 and C2 compost compositions were associated with high earthworm mortality rates. The C3 compost provided the highest mineral concentrations and C5 showed the highest lettuce yield (wet biomass). The results verify that stabilized cattle manure is an excellent substrate for the vermicomposting process and that fresh swine manure must be mixed with pre-stabilized cattle manure to ensure an optimized vermicomposting process, which must be controlled in terms of temperature and ammonia levels. It is concluded that small livestock farmers could add value to swine manure by applying the vermicomposting process, without the need for high investments and with a minimal requirement for management of the biodegradation process. These are important technical aspects to be considered when circular economy principles are applied to small farms.

  2. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  3. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  4. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Marine biomass power plant using methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Saito, H.; Amano, T.; Sugawara, H.; Seki, T.; Abe, T. [Technology Research Inst., Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This study presented an effective way to produce biogas from the large quantities of seaweed waste in Japan. A large-scale marine biomass pilot plant was built to produce biogas from marine biomass. Methane fermentation was the process used to produce biogas from Laminaria sp. The maximum treating capacity of the pilot plant is 1 ton of seaweed per day. The pilot plant includes a pretreatment facility, fermentation, biogas storage and power generation. The maximum methane yield from the biomass plant is 22 cubic ton-seaweed. The purified biogas has generated 10 kW of electricity and 23 kW of heat. The biogas was also mixed with natural gas for use in a gas engine generator. The engine operation remained stable despite changes in quantity and composition of the collected biogas caused by changes with the source of biomass and sea conditions. The thermal efficiency of the gas engine running on mixed biogas and natural gas was more than 10 per cent higher than an engine running on biogas fuel alone. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Biomass boilers: towards a higher efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline; Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Dejeu, Mathieu; Tachet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the situation and perspectives of biomass fuelled boilers in France. As outlined in an interview, professionals are supported by ADEME and the Heat Fund (Fonds Chaleur) for a continuous development of wood-energy in order to reach national objectives for renewable energies by 2020. The next article discusses issues related to wood supply, with some concerns regarding forest exploitation, and needs to find new management ways and to use other sources than forests. The technical status and perspectives of smoke condensation in wood-fuelled boilers are discussed. The example of a malt-house near Issoudun fuelled by biomass since 2013 is presented. Other examples concern a small town of Burgundy which developed and is still improving a heat network, a wood-fuelled heat network in Saint-Denis, and a biomass wood-fuelled heat production plant for the Toulouse University hospital. Graphs indicate evolutions of prices for different wood-based fuel products. The last article outlines the role of forests and the importance of their protection in the struggle against climate change, and discusses problems faced to support this preservation and its financing

  8. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  9. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  10. Materials for higher steam temperatures (up to 600 deg C) in biomass and waste fired plant. A review of present knowledge; Material foer hoegre aangtemperaturer (upp till 600 grader C) i bio- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalenheim, Annika; Henderson, Pamela

    2011-02-15

    A goal for the Swedish power industry is to build a demonstration biomass-fired plant with 600 deg C steam data in 2015. Vaermeforsk also has a goal to identify materials that can be used in such a plant. This project involves a survey of present knowledge and published articles concerning materials that are suitable for use in biomass and wastefired plants with steam data up to 600 deg C. The information has been gathered from plants presently in operation, and from field tests previously performed with probes. Plants firing only household waste are excluded. The components considered are waterwalls/furnace walls (affected because of higher steam pressures) and superheaters. Fireside corrosion and steam-side oxidation are dealt with. Candidate materials (or coatings) are suggested and areas for further research have been identified. The purpose of this project is to give state-of-the-art information on what materials could be used in biomass and waste-fired plant to reach a maximum steam temperature of 600 deg C. This report is aimed at suppliers of boilers and materials, energy utility companies and others involved in building new plant with higher steam data. In accordance with the goals of this project: - Materials suitable for use at higher steam temperatures (up to 600 deg C steam) in wood-based biomass and waste-fired plant have been identified. Austenitic stainless steels HR3C, TP 347 HFG and AC66 all have adequate strength, steam-side oxidation and fireside corrosion resistance for use as superheaters. AC66 and HR3C have better steam-side oxidation resistance than TP 347 HFG , but TP 347 HFG has better fireside corrosion resistance. It is recommended that TP 347 HFG be shot-peened on the inside to improve the oxidation resistance if in service with steam temperatures above 580 deg C. - Furnace walls coated with Ni-based alloys or a mixture of Ni- alloy and ceramic show good corrosion resistance at lower temperatures and should be evaluated at higher

  11. Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Lanoue, Arnaud; Strecker, Tanja; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, Liesje

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  12. Data from: Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Strecker, Tanja; Lanoue, Arnaud; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  13. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...

  14. Plant biomass briquetting : a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Tabil, L.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The technology of converting straws into briquettes for biofuel or energy applications was discussed with particular reference to the factors that affect the quality of briquette, such as the loading pressure, particle size of the chopped material, the preheating temperature, the moisture content and residence time of the die. The study results of briquetting materials such as corn stover, switch grass, alfalfa, cotton stalks and reed canary grass were also presented. The main briquetting related technologies, systems and equipment were also reviewed. The study showed that in order to produce an economically competitive feedstock, further research should be extended to other biomass materials as well as developing technologies to obtain a high quality briquette with better efficiencies from a wide range of biomass materials.

  15. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  16. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  17. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...... temperature in terms of sample volume, mass-scaling seems more physically correct for the self-ignition of solids. Findings also suggest that the transition between self-heating and self-ignition is controlled both by the availability of reactive material and temperature. Comparison of experiments at 20...

  18. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-01-01

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs

  19. Predicting plant biomass accumulation from image-derived parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dijun; Shi, Rongli; Pape, Jean-Michel; Neumann, Kerstin; Graner, Andreas; Chen, Ming; Klukas, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Image-based high-throughput phenotyping technologies have been rapidly developed in plant science recently, and they provide a great potential to gain more valuable information than traditionally destructive methods. Predicting plant biomass is regarded as a key purpose for plant breeders and ecologists. However, it is a great challenge to find a predictive biomass model across experiments. Results In the present study, we constructed 4 predictive models to examine the quantitative relationship between image-based features and plant biomass accumulation. Our methodology has been applied to 3 consecutive barley (Hordeum vulgare) experiments with control and stress treatments. The results proved that plant biomass can be accurately predicted from image-based parameters using a random forest model. The high prediction accuracy based on this model will contribute to relieving the phenotyping bottleneck in biomass measurement in breeding applications. The prediction performance is still relatively high across experiments under similar conditions. The relative contribution of individual features for predicting biomass was further quantified, revealing new insights into the phenotypic determinants of the plant biomass outcome. Furthermore, methods could also be used to determine the most important image-based features related to plant biomass accumulation, which would be promising for subsequent genetic mapping to uncover the genetic basis of biomass. Conclusions We have developed quantitative models to accurately predict plant biomass accumulation from image data. We anticipate that the analysis results will be useful to advance our views of the phenotypic determinants of plant biomass outcome, and the statistical methods can be broadly used for other plant species. PMID:29346559

  20. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  1. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  2. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Research and Development; Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall AB, Gothenburg (Sweden). Power Consultant

    2010-07-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures. Assuming that the fuel is well-mixed and that there is good combustion control, there are in addition a number of other measures which can be used to reduce superheater corrosion in biomass and waste fired plants, and these are described in this paper. These include the use of fuel additives, specifically sulphur-containing ones; design aspects like placing superheaters in less corrosive positions in a boiler, using tube shielding, a wider pitch between the tubes; operational considerations such as more controlled soot-blowing and the use of better materials. (orig.)

  3. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  4. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  5. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  6. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant portion derived...

  7. Biomass Allocation and Growth Data of Seeded Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set of leaf, stem, and root biomass for various plant taxa was compiled from the primary literature of the 20th century with a significant...

  8. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft... financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW...

  9. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    efficiency of the plant increases, although the higher pressure losses of the flue-gas path increase the requirements of the air compressor. Finally, replacing the two heat exchangers of the electrolyzer unit with one that uses extracted steam from the biomass power plant can lead to an overall decrease in the operating and investment costs of the plant.

  10. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  11. Biomass of tree species as a response to planting density and interspecific competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting trees is an important way to promote the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga region. Experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with three, three, and five replicates, respectively. The objectives were to evaluate biomass of the shoots of: a gliricidia (G and sabiá (S, as a response to planting density; b G, S, and neem (N in competition; c G, and S in agroforestry. E1 was conducted in split-plots, and planting densities (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 as subplots. E2 consisted of a factorial comprising the following plots: GGG, NGN, SGS, NNN, GNG, SNS, SSS, GSG, NSN (each letter represents a row of plants. E3 was conducted with G and S in agroforestry experiment. The trees were harvested after 54, 42, and 27 months old, in E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In E1, G presented higher green biomass of the stems and leaf at smaller densities than S, but lower green biomass of branches at most densities. The species did not differ for mean stem dry biomass and leaf dry biomass, but G showed higher branch dry biomass at most densities. Higher planting densities increased green and dry biomass of stems, branches, and leaves in S, but decreased those characteristics in G, with the exception of leaf dry mass, which was not influenced by density. In E2, the behavior of each species was identical in plots containing the same or different species. Griricidia showed the highest green biomass of stems and branches, and the highest values for geren biomass of the leaf were observed for gliricidia and neem. The highest stem, branch, and leaf dry biomass values were obtained for G, S, and N, respectively. In E3, G was superior for stem and leaf green biomass, and for stem and branch dry biomass. There were no differences between species for the other biomass values.

  12. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  13. Radiation hormesis in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung

    1996-03-01

    The most remarkable aspect in the hormesis law is that low dose of harmful agents can produce effect that are diametrically opposite to the effect found with high doses of the same agent. Minute quantities of a harmful agent bring about very small change in the organism and control mechanisms appear to subjugate normal processes to place the organism in a state of alert and repair. The stimulated organism is more responsive to changes in environmental factors than it did before being alerted. Routine functions, including repair and defense, have priority for available energy and material. The alerted organism utilizes nutrients more efficiently, grows faster, shows improved defense reactions, matures faster, reproduces more effectively, has less disease, and lives longer. Accelerated germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and ripening, and increased crop yield and resistance to disease are found in plants. Another concept supported by the data is that low doses of ionizing radiation provide increased resistance to subsequent high doses of radiation. The hormesis varies with subject plant, variety, state of seed, environmental and cultural conditions, physiologic function measured, dose rate and total exposure. The results of hormesis are less consistently found, probably due to the great number of uncontrolled variables in the experiments. The general dosage for radiation hormesis in about 100 (10 to 1,000) times ambient or 100 (10 to 1,000) times less than a definitely harmful dose, but these must be modified to the occasion. Although little is known about most mechanisms of hormesis reaction, overcompensation of repair mechanism is offered as on mechanism. Radiation hormesis can provide more efficient use of resources, maximum production of foods, and increased health by the use of ionizing radiation as a useful tool in our technologic society. Efficient utilization of nature's resources demands support to explore the practical application of

  14. Radiation hormesis in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    The most remarkable aspect in the hormesis law is that low dose of harmful agents can produce effect that are diametrically opposite to the effect found with high doses of the same agent. Minute quantities of a harmful agent bring about very small change in the organism and control mechanisms appear to subjugate normal processes to place the organism in a state of alert and repair. The stimulated organism is more responsive to changes in environmental factors than it did before being alerted. Routine functions, including repair and defense, have priority for available energy and material. The alerted organism utilizes nutrients more efficiently, grows faster, shows improved defense reactions, matures faster, reproduces more effectively, has less disease, and lives longer. Accelerated germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and ripening, and increased crop yield and resistance to disease are found in plants. Another concept supported by the data is that low doses of ionizing radiation provide increased resistance to subsequent high doses of radiation. The hormesis varies with subject plant, variety, state of seed, environmental and cultural conditions, physiologic function measured, dose rate and total exposure. The results of hormesis are less consistently found, probably due to the great number of uncontrolled variables in the experiments. The general dosage for radiation hormesis in about 100 times ambient or 100 times less than a definitely harmful dose, but these must be modified to the occasion. Although little is known about most mechanisms of hormesis reaction, overcompensation of repair mechanism is offered as on mechanism. Radiation hormesis can provide more efficient use of resources, maximum production of foods, and increased health by the use of ionizing radiation as a useful tool in our technologic society. Efficient utilization of nature`s resources demands support to explore the practical application of radiation hormesis.

  15. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  16. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Sandra; Núñez-López, Lizeth; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca E.; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize) or proposed species (large grass families). The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass. PMID:28951875

  17. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  18. Is biomass a reliable estimate of plant fitness?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Younginger, B.S.; Sirová, Dagmara; Cruzan, M.B.; Ballhorn, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 1600094. ISSN 2168-0450 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biomass * fecundity * fitness * plant performance * selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2016

  19. Efficient plant biomass degradation by thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.; van Muiswinkel, G.C.; Theelen, B.; Hinz, S.W.; de Vries, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and efficient enzymatic degradation of plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a major challenge for the sustainable production of biochemicals and biofuels. Enzymes that are more thermostable (up to 70 degrees C) use shorter reaction times for the complete saccharification of plant

  20. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  1. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  2. Communal biomass conversion plants. From idea to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The first Danish biomass conversion plant for the production of methane was built in the nineteen seventies. It was just a little plant based on manure slurries from a local herd of farm animals. It was not until the nineteen eighties that larger plants were established so that enough methane could be produced as part fuels for decentral district heating and/or cogeneration plants. By November 1995 there were 15 communal biomass conversion plants producing methane in Denmark, three more plants were in the course of establishment and a number of similar projects were on the drawing board. The history of this development is narrated and plans for the future are indicated. The document also deals with the technological aspects, operational economics, environmental impacts, resources and re-use, wastes used as fertilizers, household organic wastes and sewage slam, standards of hygiene and reduction of infection risks, exports and commercial development and socio-economic evaluations in addition to areas within this field which need special attention in the very near future. It is concluded that the economics of Danish biomass conversion plants have improved significantly since 1987, and many older plants have been brought right up to date. Improvements in technology and an increase in the supply of industrial wastes have increased production. Details of the basis of many other betterments that have taken place in recent years are also given. (AB) 27 refs

  3. From the idea to the construction of a biomass fuelled plant. The marketing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Ranveig Vaa

    2000-12-01

    The report deals with the case handling in connection with the planning of a biomass fuelled plant as well as the market potential for a biomass fuelled Stirling engines and direct combustion of biomass with a steam circuit

  4. Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.

  5. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants......Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel...... resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly...

  6. Relationships between Plant Biomass and Species Richness under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in a montane grassland of Kokosa District, West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between aboveground plant biomass and species richness in three farming systems and four grazing management systems. A total of 180 ...

  7. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... related to possible financial assistance to Oglethorpe Power Corporation's (Oglethorpe) for the... online at the following Web site: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-OglethorpePower.html and at the: Warren...

  8. Hydrothermal processing of biomass from invasive aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. James Catallo; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hydrothermal (HT) treatment of three invasive aquatic plants (i.e., Lemna sp., Hydrilla sp., and Eichhornia sp.) with respect to the generation of semi-volatile hydrocarbon product mixtures and biomass volume reduction. Identical HT treatments yielded similar semi-...

  9. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) has issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the.... Accordingly, comments submitted in the EIS process also informed RUS's decision making in the Section 106... Oglethorpe for RUS financing to construct the 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities...

  10. Marine macroscopic plants as biomass sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of marine plants, recent and current research, and studies at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and California Institute of Technology are reviewed. The latter program including laboratory and field studies on giant kelp is discussed. The use of deep ocean water and the nutrient requirements of giant kelp were studied. Test farm structure and problems are presented. (MHR)

  11. Measuring Biomass and Carbon Stock in Resprouting Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Radim; Damborská, Lenka; Nečasová, Monika; Geršl, Milan; Šrámek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Resprouting multi-stemmed woody plants form an important component of the woody vegetation in many ecosystems, but a clear methodology for reliable measurement of their size and quick, non-destructive estimation of their woody biomass and carbon stock is lacking. Our goal was to find a minimum number of sprouts, i.e., the most easily obtainable, and sprout parameters that should be measured for accurate sprout biomass and carbon stock estimates. Using data for 5 common temperate woody species, we modelled carbon stock and sprout biomass as a function of an increasing number of sprouts in an interaction with different sprout parameters. The mean basal diameter of only two to five of the thickest sprouts and the basal diameter and DBH of the thickest sprouts per stump proved to be accurate estimators for the total sprout biomass of the individual resprouters and the populations of resprouters, respectively. Carbon stock estimates were strongly correlated with biomass estimates, but relative carbon content varied among species. Our study demonstrated that the size of the resprouters can be easily measured, and their biomass and carbon stock estimated; therefore, resprouters can be simply incorporated into studies of woody vegetation. PMID:25719601

  12. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant biomass–density relationships during self-thinning are determined mainly by allometry. Both allometry and biomass–density relationship have been shown to vary with abiotic conditions, but the effects of biotic interactions have not been investigated. Arbuscular mycorrhizal....... In self-thinning populations, the slope of the log (mean shoot biomass) vs. log density relationship was significantly steeper for the high AMF treatment (slope = –1·480) than for the low AMF treatment (–1·133). The canopy radius–biomass allometric exponents were not significantly affected by AMF level...

  13. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    , in the future it is expected to become relevant to cofire in more advanced plants as the trend in the power plant structure is towards older plants having fewer operating hours or being decommissioned. A major product of this project is an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based...... modelling tool adapted to accommodate biomass cofiring combustion features. The CFD tool will be able to predict deposit accumulation, particle conversion, fly ash composition, temperatures, velocities, and composition of furnace gases, etc. The computer model will primarily be used in the development...

  14. Review about corrosion of superheaters tubes in biomass plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2006-01-01

    The design of new biomass-fired power plants with increased steam temperature raises concerns of high-temperature corrosion. The high potassium and chlorine contents in many biomass, specially in wheat straw, are potentially harmful elements with regard to corrosion. Chlorine may cause accelerated corrosion resulting in increased oxidation, metal wastage, internal attack, void formations and loose non-adherent scales. The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are expected to occur due to Cl-rich deposits formed on superheater tubes. In the first part of this revision the corrosion mechanism proposed are described in function of the conditions and compounds involved. The second part is focused on the behaviour of the materials tested so far in the boiler and in the laboratory. First the traditional commercial alloys are studied and secondly the new alloys and the coasting. (Author). 102 refs

  15. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Cofiring of straw (10 and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw fired......Owing to Denmark's pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is being increasingly utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and development projects, especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers, have been undertaken to make biomass a viable...... fuel resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can...

  16. Tundra plant above-ground biomass and shrub dominance mapped across the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Jantz, Patrick; Tape, Ken D.; Goetz, Scott J.

    2018-03-01

    Arctic tundra is becoming greener and shrubbier due to recent warming. This is impacting climate feedbacks and wildlife, yet the spatial distribution of plant biomass in tundra ecosystems is uncertain. In this study, we mapped plant and shrub above-ground biomass (AGB; kg m-2) and shrub dominance (%; shrub AGB/plant AGB) across the North Slope of Alaska by linking biomass harvests at 28 field sites with 30 m resolution Landsat satellite imagery. We first developed regression models (p plant AGB (r 2 = 0.79) and shrub AGB (r 2 = 0.82) based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from imagery acquired by Landsat 5 and 7. We then predicted regional plant and shrub AGB by combining these regression models with a regional Landsat NDVI mosaic built from 1721 summer scenes acquired between 2007 and 2016. Our approach employed a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis that propagated sampling and sensor calibration errors. We estimated that plant AGB averaged 0.74 (0.60, 0.88) kg m-2 (95% CI) and totaled 112 (91, 135) Tg across the region, with shrub AGB accounting for ~43% of regional plant AGB. The new maps capture landscape variation in plant AGB visible in high resolution satellite and aerial imagery, notably shrubby riparian corridors. Modeled shrub AGB was strongly correlated with field measurements of shrub canopy height at 25 sites (rs  = 0.88) and with a regional map of shrub cover (rs  = 0.76). Modeled plant AGB and shrub dominance were higher in shrub tundra than graminoid tundra and increased between areas with the coldest and warmest summer air temperatures, underscoring the fact that future warming has the potential to greatly increase plant AGB and shrub dominance in this region. These new biomass maps provide a unique source of ecological information for a region undergoing rapid environmental change.

  17. Efficient plant biomass degradation by thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Joost; van Muiswinkel, Gonny C J; Theelen, Bart; Hinz, Sandra W A; de Vries, Ronald P

    2013-02-01

    Rapid and efficient enzymatic degradation of plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a major challenge for the sustainable production of biochemicals and biofuels. Enzymes that are more thermostable (up to 70°C) use shorter reaction times for the complete saccharification of plant polysaccharides compared to hydrolytic enzymes of mesophilic fungi such as Trichoderma and Aspergillus species. The genus Myceliophthora contains four thermophilic fungi producing industrially relevant thermostable enzymes. Within this genus, isolates belonging to M. heterothallica were recently separated from the well-described species M. thermophila. We evaluate here the potential of M. heterothallica isolates to produce efficient enzyme mixtures for biomass degradation. Compared to the other thermophilic Myceliophthora species, isolates belonging to M. heterothallica and M. thermophila grew faster on pretreated spruce, wheat straw, and giant reed. According to their protein profiles and in vitro assays after growth on wheat straw, (hemi-)cellulolytic activities differed strongly between M. thermophila and M. heterothallica isolates. Compared to M. thermophila, M. heterothallica isolates were better in releasing sugars from mildly pretreated wheat straw (with 5% HCl) with a high content of xylan. The high levels of residual xylobiose revealed that enzyme mixtures of Myceliophthora species lack sufficient β-xylosidase activity. Sexual crossing of two M. heterothallica showed that progenies had a large genetic and physiological diversity. In the future, this will allow further improvement of the plant biomass-degrading enzyme mixtures of M. heterothallica.

  18. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (65 °C) temperatures.

  19. High yielding tropical energy crops for bioenergy production: Effects of plant components, harvest years and locations on biomass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, K C; Ogoshi, Richard; Zaleski, Halina M; Hashimoto, Andrew G; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The composition of lignocellulosic feedstock, which depends on crop type, crop management, locations and plant parts, significantly affects the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuels and biobased products. Thus, this study examined the composition of different parts of two high yielding tropical energy crops, Energycane and Napier grass, collected across three locations and years. Significantly higher fiber content was found in the leaves of Energycane than stems, while fiber content was significantly higher in the stems than the leaves of Napier grass. Similarly, fiber content was higher in Napier grass than Energycane. Due to significant differences in biomass composition between the plant parts within a crop type, neither biological conversion, including anaerobic digestion, nor thermochemical pretreatment alone is likely to efficiently convert biomass components into biofuels and biobased products. However, combination of anaerobic digestion with thermochemical conversion technologies could efficiently utilize biomass components in generating biofuels and biobased products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  1. Sugar catabolism in Aspergillus and other fungi related to the utilization of plant biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, Claire; Benocci, Tiziano; Battaglia, Evy; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are found in all natural and artificial biotopes and can use highly diverse carbon sources. They play a major role in the global carbon cycle by decomposing plant biomass and this biomass is the main carbon source for many fungi. Plant biomass is composed of cell wall polysaccharides

  2. The Evritania (Greece) demonstration plant of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.A.; Karabela, A.J. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute

    1999-06-01

    This paper is focused on describing the Evritania demonstration plant for pyrolysis of forestry biomass. This plant was constructed in the village of Voulpi, district of Evritania, in central Greece, in 1995, with a threefold purpose; development of know-how, forest fire prevention and rural development. The products are charcoal and bio-oil. The plant capacity is 1200-1450 kg/h of wet biomass and the pyrolysis temperature is approx. 400 deg C. The raw material used is Arbutus unedo, which is an evergreen broad-leaf tree which covers the area. Other agricultural waste could also be used, such as olive pits and cuttings, almond shells and cotton kernels. The paper includes the conceptual process flow sheet, the changes and improvements made during the trial phase, data from the start-up phase, and product characteristics. Comparison of the process with the Alten process is presented. Additionally, comparisons are made of product characteristics with those from other pyrolysis processes. In general, the results obtained are encouraging even though several improvements of the pilot plant are required. (author)

  3. Digital Biomass Accumulation Using High-Throughput Plant Phenotype Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Matiur; Ahsan, Md Asif; Gillani, Zeeshan; Chen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Biomass is an important phenotypic trait in functional ecology and growth analysis. The typical methods for measuring biomass are destructive, and they require numerous individuals to be cultivated for repeated measurements. With the advent of image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping facilities, non-destructive biomass measuring methods have attempted to overcome this problem. Thus, the estimation of plant biomass of individual plants from their digital images is becoming more important. In this paper, we propose an approach to biomass estimation based on image derived phenotypic traits. Several image-based biomass studies state that the estimation of plant biomass is only a linear function of the projected plant area in images. However, we modeled the plant volume as a function of plant area, plant compactness, and plant age to generalize the linear biomass model. The obtained results confirm the proposed model and can explain most of the observed variance during image-derived biomass estimation. Moreover, a small difference was observed between actual and estimated digital biomass, which indicates that our proposed approach can be used to estimate digital biomass accurately.

  4. Plant design aspects of catalytic biosyngas conversion to higher alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsonios, K.; Christodoulou, Ch.; Koytsoumpa, E.-I.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Kakaras, Em.

    2013-01-01

    Although biomethanol production has attracted most of the attention in the past years, there is a current trend for the synthesis of higher alcohols (i.e. ethanol, plus C 3 –C 4 ) from biomass gasification. These compounds could be used directly as fuel or fuel additives for octane or cetane number enhancement. These also serve as important intermediates for the chemical industry. In this paper a comparison is performed between the different process configurations a higher alcohols production plant from biomass gasification can take. These options are modelled in Aspenplus™; all steps and important unit operations are presented with the aim to correctly evaluate the peripheral energy requirements and conclude with the overall thermodynamic limitations of the processes. The differentiation between black liquor and solid biomass gasification, the type of catalyst employed, and the effect of the recycling scheme adopted for the reutilization of unreacted syngas are evaluated. The design has to cope with the limited yields and poor selectivity of catalysts developed so far. The gas cleaning is different depending on the different requirements of the catalysts as far as H 2 S purity. The process modelling results reveal that the hydrogenation of CO to higher alcohols is favoured by high pressure, temperature around 325 °C and high reactor residence times. A biorefinery using modified Fisher–Tropsch (FT) catalysts (MoS 2 ) prevail over modified MeOH catalyst (Cu–Zn based) for HA production. The efficiency of HA production in HHV terms can reach up to 25%. -- Graphical abstract: Process flow diagrams of different biorefinery systems derived from a) woody biomass and b) black liquor. Highlights: ► An integrated gasification/gas-cleaning/synthesis system was modelled in Aspenplus. ► HA production from wood and black liquor gasification is compared. ► Modified FT catalysts prevail over modified methanol catalyst for HA production. ► HA productivity is

  5. The opportunities for obtaining of the biogas on methane fermentation from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Jachniak Ewa; Chmura Joanna; Kuglarz Mariusz; Wiktor Józef

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to try to obtain of the biogas on a laboratory scale from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass. The research was conducted in 2016 year and samples were taken from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. In laboratory work, algae and plant species were first identified. The next, in order to subject them to methane fermentation processes and to obtain biogas,partial mechanical treatment of the biomass was conducted. Dry matter content and dry organic matter con...

  6. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  7. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  8. Cytoplasniic differentiation during microsporogenesis in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dichinnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conspicuous cytoplasmic dedifferentiation in the pollen mother cells takes place early in the meiotic prophase of many plants. This event involves the removal of much of the cytoplasmic RNA. and the differentiation of both plastids and mitochondria to approaching the sole expression of their genomes. Much of the RNA removed from the cytoplasm passes to the nucleoplasm where it is utilised in the construction of a new `generation' of ribusomes. These new ribosomes are incorporated into cytoplasmic `nuclewhich disintegrate in the post-meiotic cytoplasm, restoring its ribosomes to pre-prophase levels. These changes are interpreted as evidence of a process by which the cytoplasm is cleansed of sporophytic control elements, both for the expression of the new gametophytic genome, and in the female cells of higher plants, for transmission to the new generation. The absence of control elements (presumably long-term messenger RNA from the cytoplasm would result in the dedifferentiation observed in the organelles, and the low levels of reserves in these cells presumably results in characteristically lengthy and unusual redifferentiation of both plastids and mitochondria, once information-carrying molecules again enter the cytosol.

  9. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yasuo [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them.

  10. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them. (Kaihara, S.)

  11. Visual comparative omics of fungi for plant biomass deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Miyauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood-decay fungi are able to decompose plant cell wall components such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Such fungal capabilities may be exploited for the enhancement of directed enzymatic degradation of recalcitrant plant biomass. The comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi using a multi-omics approach gives not only new insights into the strategies for decomposing complex plant materials but also basic knowledge for the design of combinations of enzymes for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT, to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data. The ABCDEFGT workflow is primarily constructed of self-organizing maps for grouping genes with similar transcription patterns and an overlay with secreted proteins. The ABCDEFGT workflow produces simple graphic outputs of genome-wide transcriptomes and secretomes. It enables visual inspection without a priori of the omics data, facilitating discoveries of co-regulated genes and proteins. Genome-wide omics landscapes were built with the newly sequenced fungal species Pycnoporus coccineus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus grown on various carbon sources. Integration of the post-genomic data showed a global overlap, confirming the pertinence of the genome-wide approach to study the fungal biological responses to the carbon sources. Our method was compared to a recently-developed clustering method in order to assess the biological relevance of the method and ease of interpretation. Our approach provided a better biological representation of fungal behaviors. The genome-wide multi-omics strategy allowed us to determine the potential synergy of enzymes participating in the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin such as Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (LPMO, modular enzymes associated with a cellulose binding module

  12. How does biomass distribution change with size and differ among species? An analysis for 1200 plant species from five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Hendrik; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo; Kuyah, Shem; Luo, Yunjian; Oleksyn, Jacek; Usoltsev, Vladimir A; Buckley, Thomas N; Reich, Peter B; Sack, Lawren

    2015-11-01

    We compiled a global database for leaf, stem and root biomass representing c. 11 000 records for c. 1200 herbaceous and woody species grown under either controlled or field conditions. We used this data set to analyse allometric relationships and fractional biomass distribution to leaves, stems and roots. We tested whether allometric scaling exponents are generally constant across plant sizes as predicted by metabolic scaling theory, or whether instead they change dynamically with plant size. We also quantified interspecific variation in biomass distribution among plant families and functional groups. Across all species combined, leaf vs stem and leaf vs root scaling exponents decreased from c. 1.00 for small plants to c. 0.60 for the largest trees considered. Evergreens had substantially higher leaf mass fractions (LMFs) than deciduous species, whereas graminoids maintained higher root mass fractions (RMFs) than eudicotyledonous herbs. These patterns do not support the hypothesis of fixed allometric exponents. Rather, continuous shifts in allometric exponents with plant size during ontogeny and evolution are the norm. Across seed plants, variation in biomass distribution among species is related more to function than phylogeny. We propose that the higher LMF of evergreens at least partly compensates for their relatively low leaf area : leaf mass ratio. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Allica, Javier; Becerril, Jose M.; Garbisu, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg -1 ), Zn (10 916 mg kg -1 ), and Cd (242 mg kg -1 ), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot -1 . We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used

  14. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Allica, Javier [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Becerril, Jose M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain)], E-mail: cgarbisu@neiker.net

    2008-03-15

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg{sup -1}), Zn (10 916 mg kg{sup -1}), and Cd (242 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot{sup -1}. We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used.

  15. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  16. BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falster, Daniel; Duursma, Remko; Ishihara, Masae; Barneche, Diego; Fitzjohn, Richard; Varhammar, Angelica; Aiba, Masahiro; Ando, M.; Anten, Niels; Aspinwall, Michael J.; Baltzer, Jennifer; Baraloto, Christopher; Battaglia, Michael; Battles, John; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; van Breugel, Michiel; Camac, James; Claveau, Yves; Coll Mir, Llus; Dannoura, Dannoura; Delagrange, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Cristophe; Fatemi, Farrah; Feng, Wang; Gargaglione, Veronica; Goto, Yoshiaki; Hagihara, Akio; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hamilton, Steve; Harja, Degi; Hiura, Tsutom; Holdaway, Robert; Hutley, L. B.; Ichie, Tomoaki; Jokela, Eric; Kantola, Anu; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Kenzo, Tanaka; King, David A.; Kloeppel, Brian; Kohyama, Takashi; Komiyama, Akira; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Lusk, Christopher; Maguire, Doug; le Maire, Guerric; Makela, Annikki; Markesteijn, Lars; Marshall, John; McCulloh, Kate; Miyata, Itsuo; Mokany, Karen; Mori, Shigeta; Myster, Randall; Nagano, Masahiro; Naidu, Shawna; Nouvellon, Yann; O' Grady, Anthony; O' Hara, Kevin; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Osada, Noriyuki; Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Luis Peri, Pablo; Petritan, Mary; Poorter, Lourens; Portsmuth, Angelika; Potvin, Catherine; Ransijn, Johannes; Reid, Douglas; Ribeiro, Sabina C.; Roberts, Scott; Rodriguez, Rolando; Saldana-Acosta, Angela; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Sasa, Kaichiro; Gailia Selaya, Nadezhda; Sillett, Stephen; Sterck, Frank; Takagi, Kentaro; Tange, Takeshi; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Tissue, David; Umehara, Tohru; Utsugi, Hajime; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew; Valladares, Fernando; Vanninen, Petteri; Wang, Jian; Wenk, Elizabeth; Williams, Dick; Ximenes, Fabiano de Aquino; Yamaba, Atsushi; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamakura, Takuo; Yanai, Ruth; York, Robert

    2015-05-07

    Quantifying the amount of mass or energy invested in plant tissues is of fundamental interest across a range of disciplines, including ecology, forestry, ecosystem science, and climate change science (Niklas, 1994; Chave et al. 2005; Falster et al. 2011). The allocation of net primary production into different plant components is an important process affecting the lifetime of carbon in ecosystems, and resource use and productivity by plants (Cannell & Dewar, 1994; Litton et al. 2007; Poorter et al. 2012). While many studies in have destructively harvested woody plants in the name of science, most of these data have only been made available in the form of summary tables or figures included in publications. Until now, the raw data has resided piecemeal on the hard drives of individual scientists spread around the world. Several studies have gathered together the fitted (allometric) equations for separate datasets (Ter-Mikaelian & Korzukhin, 1997; Jenkins et al. 2003; Zianis et al. 2005; Henry et al. 2013), but none have previously attempted to organize and share the raw individual plant data underpinning these equations on a large scale. Gathered together, such data would represent an important resource for the community, meeting a widely recognised need for rich, open data resources to solve ecological problems (Costello et al. 2013; Fady et al. 2014; Harfoot & Roberts, 2014; Costello et al. 2013). We (D.S. Falster and R.A. Duursma, with the help of D.R. Barneche, R.G. FitzJohn and A. Vårhammar) set out to create such a resource, by asking authors directly whether they would be willing to make their raw data files freely available. The response was overwhelming: nearly everyone we contacted was interested to contribute their raw data. Moreover, we were invited to incorporate another compilation led by M. Ishihara and focussing on Japanese literature. As a result, we present BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants, comprising data collected in 174

  17. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  18. Biomass and biomass and biogas yielding potential of sorghum as affected by planting density, sowing time and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Hussain, A.; Shahzad, A. N.; Honermeier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Biogas from biomass is a promising renewable energy source whose importance is increasing in European as well as in other countries. A field experiment at one location (Experimental Station Giessen, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany) over two years was designed to study the effect of altering sowing time (ST), planting density and cultivar on the biomass yield and chemical composition of biomass sorghum, and its potential for methane production. Of the two cultivars tested, cv. Goliath (intraspecific hybrid) was more productive with respect to biomass yield than cv. Bovital (S. bicolor x S. sudanense hybrid). ST also influenced biomass yield and most of the quality parameters measured. Delayed sowing was in general advantageous. The choice of cultivar had a marked effect on biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas and methane yields were produced by late sown cv. Bovital. Sub-optimal planting densities limited biomass accumulation of the crop, however neither the chemical composition nor the methane yield was affected by planting density. (author)

  19. Production characteristics of the "higher plants-soil-like substrate" system as an element of the bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Shihov, V. N.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addresses the possibility of long-duration operation of a higher plant conveyor, using a soil-like substrate (SLS) as the root zone. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as study material. A chufa community consisting of 4 age groups and radish and lettuce communities consisting of 2 age groups were irrigated with a nutrient solution, which contained mineral elements extracted from the SLS. After each harvest, inedible biomass of the harvested plants and inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort were added to the SLS. The amounts of the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort to be added to the SLS were determined based on the nitrogen content of the edible mass of harvested plants. CO2 concentration in the growth chamber was maintained within the range of 1100-1700 ppm. The results of the study show that higher plants can be grown quite successfully using the proposed process of plant waste utilization in the SLS. The addition of chufa inedible biomass to the SLS resulted in species-specific inhibition of growth of both cultivated crops and microorganisms in the "higher plants - SLS" system. There were certain differences between the amounts of some mineral elements removed from the SLS with the harvested edible biomass and those added to it with the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort.

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)

  1. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha"−"1 application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha"−"1 straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil.

  2. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoxi, E-mail: Xiaoxi.Li@agro.au.dk; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha{sup −1} application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha{sup −1} straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil

  3. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Solantausta, Y; Wilen, C

    1996-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  4. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  5. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  6. Experience with a biomass-fuelled power plant in Peru. Peru kokunai no biomass nenryoka no hatsuden plant no keiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the result of operating a 25-kW biomass-fuelled power plant for 500 hours installed for people in a small village in jungle along the Amazon basin in Peru. The gasifier plant consists of two invert type gas combustors combined with series cyclone dryer filters. Filtration used activated carbons and cotton cloths. The fuel for the plant is wood chips containing water at 5.5% to 11% with calorific power of 20 mJ/kg, consumed at 2.0 kg of lumber per kWh (25 kWh). A gas analysis showed values of CO2 at 13%, CO at 14%, H2 at 18%, CH4 at 3%, and N2 at 52%. Because the fuel of wood chips may cause problems if the size is too large, a size of about 10[times]20[times]30 mm was selected finally. Pressure drop in the gas purifying system was measured using a manometer, which verified that a textile filtering material can be used. The gasoline engine rotation was fixed at 2700 rpm upon discussions. The gasoline engine had no need of modification except at a pipe to the carburetor. This system can be installed at any small village. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  7. Plant Biomass Leaching for Nutrient Recovery in Closed Loop Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy P.; Wheeler, Raymond (Compiler); Lunn, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Plants will be important for food and O2 production during long term human habitation in space. Recycling of nutrients (e.g., from waste materials) could reduce the resupply costs of fertilizers for growing these plants. Work at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has shown that ion exchange resins can extract fertilizer (plant essential nutrients) from human waste water, after which the residual brine could be treated with electrodialysis to recover more water and produce high value chemicals (e.g., acids and bases). In habitats with significant plant production, inedible biomass becomes a major source of solid waste. To "close the loop" we also need to recover useful nutrients and fertilizer from inedible biomass. We are investigating different approaches to retrieve nutrients from inedible plant biomass, including physical leaching with water, processing the biomass in bioreactors, changing the pH of leaching processing, and/or conducting multiple leaches of biomass residues.

  8. Input of biomass in power plants for power generation. Calculation of the financial gap. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; De Vries, H.J.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Cleijne, J.W.

    2005-09-01

    The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested ECN and KEMA to answer two questions. (1) Are the costs and benefits of projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coal fired power plant representative for those of bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas fired plant?; and (2) Are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer these questions, ECN and KEMA have calculated the financial gaps in six different situations: co-firing bio-oil in a gas fired power plant; co-firing bio-oil in a coal fired power plant; gasification of solid biomass; co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant; co-firing agricultural residues in a coal fired power plant; and co-firing waste wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that when using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps are smaller. Based on these findings it is concluded that: (1) The reference case of co-firing wood pellets in a coal fired power plant are not representative for bio-fuel options. A new category for bio-oil options seems appropriate; and (2) The financial gap of new projects as calculated in November 2004, is often higher then the ranges for existing projects indicate [nl

  9. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  10. Hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic degradation of plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverlov, Vladimir V.; Hiegl, Wolfgang; Koeck, Daniela E.; Koellmeier, Tanja; Schwarz, Wolfgang H. [Department of Microbiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kellermann, Josef [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz, Martinsried (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Adding plant biomass to a biogas reactor, hydrolysis is the first reaction step in the chain of biological events towards methane production. Maize silage was used to enrich efficient hydrolytic bacterial consortia from natural environments under conditions imitating those in a biogas plant. At 55-60 C a more efficient hydrolyzing culture could be isolated than at 37 C. The composition of the optimal thermophilic bacterial consortium was revealed by sequencing clones from a 16S rRNA gene library. A modified PCR-RFLP pre-screening method was used to group the clones. Pure anaerobic cultures were isolated. 70% of the isolates were related to Clostridium thermocellum. A new culture-independent method for identification of cellulolytic enzymes was developed using the isolation of cellulose-binding proteins. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and end-sequencing of peptides from prominent protein bands revealed cellulases from the cellulosome of C. thermocellum and from a major cellulase of Clostridium stercorarium. A combined culture of C. thermocellum and C. stercorarium was shown to excellently degrade maize silage. A spore preparation method suitable for inoculation of maize silage and optimal hydrolysis was developed for the thermophilic bacterial consortium. This method allows for concentration and long-term storage of the mixed culture for instance for inoculation of biogas fermenters. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Effects of uranium on soil microbial biomass carbon, enzymes, plant biomass and microbial diversity in yellow soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, X.; Yu, L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of uranium (U) on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), enzymes, plant biomass and microbial diversity in yellow soils under three concentrations: 0 mg kg"-"1 (T1, control), 30 mg kg"-"1 (T2) and 60 mg kg"-"1 (T3). Under each treatment, elevated U did not reduce soil MBC or plant biomass, but inhibited the activity of the soil enzymes urease (UR), dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase (PHO). The microbial diversity was different, with eight dominant phyla in T1 and six in T2 and T3. Furthermore, Proteobacteria and material X were both detected in each treatment site (T1, T2 and T3). Pseudomonas sp. was the dominant strain, followed by Acidiphilium sp. This initial study provided valuable data for further research toward a better understanding of U contamination in yellow soils in China. (authors)

  12. Absorption and conversion of nitrogen dioxide by higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmishidze, S.V.; Nutsubidze, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the ability of plants to absorb and metabolize NO 2 , as well as to reduce and incorporate nitrogen into amino acid molecules. Experiments on the absorption of NO 2 labeled with 15 N were conducted in special chambers, both on whole plants and on fresh-cut branches. NO 2 was used in various concentrations from 0.01 to 5% of the volume. The exposure of the experiments ranged from 5 min to 7 days, involving more than 60 species of perennial and annual plants. The processes of assimilation and conversion of NO 2 from the air to amino acids by plants are related. The conversion scheme showed close association with physiological state of the plant and with external factors of its vital activity. It is conceivable that plants that intensively absorb and convert oxides of nitrogen and give a large biomass can be used for the purification air

  13. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  14. The cytoskeleton and gravitropism in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the gravitropic response of plants have continued to elude plant biologists despite more than a century of research. Lately there has been increased attention on the role of the cytoskeleton in plant gravitropism, but several controversies and major gaps in our understanding of cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism remain. A major question in the study of plant gravitropism is how the cytoskeleton mediates early sensing and signal transduction events in plants. Much has been made of the actin cytoskeleton as the cellular structure that sedimenting amyloplasts impinge upon to trigger the downstream signaling events leading to the bending response. There is also strong molecular and biochemical evidence that the transport of auxin, an important player in gravitropism, is regulated by actin. Organizational changes in microtubules during the growth response phase of gravitropism have also been well documented, but the significance of such reorientations in controlling differential cellular growth is unclear. Studies employing pharmacological approaches to dissect cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism have led to conflicting results and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. Despite the current controversies, the revolutionary advances in molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques have opened up several possibilities for further research into this difficult area. The myriad proteins associated with the plant cytoskeleton that are being rapidly characterized provide a rich assortment of candidate regulators that could be targets of the gravity signal transduction chain. Cytoskeletal and ion imaging in real time combined with mutant analysis promises to provide a fresh start into this controversial area of research.

  15. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  16. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant and covers the on-site electricity consumption. The plant model predicts a fuel production efficiency of 67...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  17. Fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in biomass power and heat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, Ulli; Brueggemann, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    In small solid biomass power and heat plants, the ORC is used for cogeneration. This application shows constraints different from other ORC. These constraints are described and an adapted power plant design is presented. The new design influences the selection criteria of working fluids. A software has been developed to find thermodynamic suitable fluids for ORC in biomass power and heat plants. Highest efficiencies are found within the family of alkylbenzenes

  18. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    -scale DME plants based on gasification of torrefied biomass. 2. Small-scale DME/methanol plants based on gasification of wood chips. 3. Alternative methanol plants based on electrolysis of water and gasification of biomass. The plants were modeled by using the component based thermodynamic modeling...... why the differences, in biomass to DME/methanol efficiency, between the small-scale and the large-scale plants, showed not to be greater, was the high cold gas efficiency of the gasifier used in the small-scale plants (93%). By integrating water electrolysis in a large-scale methanol plant, an almost...... large-scale DME plant) to 63%, due to the relatively inefficient electrolyser....

  20. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanum, F.; Kudus, K.A.; Saari, N.S

    2012-01-01

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  1. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20–25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  2. Climate-related variation in plant peak biomass and growth phenology across Pacific Northwest tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of tidal marsh plant phenology is largely unknown and may have important ecological consequences. Marsh plants are critical to the biogeomorphic feedback processes that build estuarine soils, maintain marsh elevation relative to sea level, and sequester carbon. We calculated Tasseled Cap Greenness, a metric of plant biomass, using remotely sensed data available in the Landsat archive to assess how recent climate variation has affected biomass production and plant phenology across three maritime tidal marshes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. First, we used clipped vegetation plots at one of our sites to confirm that tasseled cap greenness provided a useful measure of aboveground biomass (r2 = 0.72). We then used multiple measures of biomass each growing season over 20-25 years per study site and developed models to test how peak biomass and the date of peak biomass varied with 94 climate and sea-level metrics using generalized linear models and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection. Peak biomass was positively related to total annual precipitation, while the best predictor for date of peak biomass was average growing season temperature, with the peak 7.2 days earlier per degree C. Our study provides insight into how plants in maritime tidal marshes respond to interannual climate variation and demonstrates the utility of time-series remote sensing data to assess ecological responses to climate stressors.

  3. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  4. The determination of mercury content in the biomass untended for industrial power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the oldest and most widely used renewable energy sources. The biomass is the whole organic matter of vegetable or animal origin which is biodegradable. Biomass includes leftovers from agricultural production, forestry residues, and industrial and municipal waste. The use of biomass in the power industry has become a standard and takes place in Poland and other European countries. This paper discusses the correlation of mercury content in different biomass types used in the power industry and in products of biomass combustion. Different biomass types, which are currently burned in a commercial power plant in Poland, were discussed. A photographic documentation of different biomass types, such as straw briquettes, wood briquettes, pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk and wood husk, wood pellets, wood chips, and agro-biomass (seeds was carried out. The presented paper discusses the results obtained for 15 biomass samples. Five selected biomass samples were burned in controlled conditions in the laboratory at the University of Silesia. The ash resulting from the combustion of five biomass samples was tested for mercury content. A total of twenty biomass samples and its combustion products were tested. Based on the obtained results, it was found that any supply of biomass, regardless of its type, is characterized by variable mercury content in dry matter. In the case of e.g. wood chips, the spread of results reaches 235.1 μm/kg (in dry matter. Meanwhile, the highest mercury content, 472.4 μm/kg (in dry matter was recorded in the biomass of straw, wood pellets, and pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk. In the case of combustion products of five selected biomass types, a three or four fold increase in the mercury content has been observed.

  5. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  6. The opportunities for obtaining of the biogas on methane fermentation from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jachniak Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to try to obtain of the biogas on a laboratory scale from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass. The research was conducted in 2016 year and samples were taken from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. In laboratory work, algae and plant species were first identified. The next, in order to subject them to methane fermentation processes and to obtain biogas,partial mechanical treatment of the biomass was conducted. Dry matter content and dry organic matter content were also determined. The research has shown different production of the biogas depending on the various species of the algae and plants. The percentage composition of the biogas was also determined (% CO2 and % CH4. In this research some kinds and species of algae and aquatic plants were distinguished: Scytosiphon cf. S. tortilis, Fucus vesiculosus, Cladophora, Audouinella, Potamogeton perfoliatus. Production of biogas from selected algae and water plants oscillated between 0.023 dm3·g-1 and 0.303 dm3·g-1. The highest content of the methane in biogas was obtained from the mixture of Ectocarpus from spring and autumn harvest (values oscillated from 80.7 % to 81.2 %, while the highest percentage share of carbon dioxide in the biogas was characterized by the mixture Fucus vesiculosus and Audouinella (22 %. Due to a small amount of the research in this field, more research is needed.

  7. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  8. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: suman.mech09@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Agarpara, Kolkata – 700109, West Bengal (India); Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (r{sub p}) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio

  9. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  10. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  11. Nutrient-enhanced decomposition of plant biomass in a freshwater wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodker, James E.; Turner, Robert Eugene; Tweel, Andrew; Schulz, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied soil decomposition in a Panicum hemitomon (Schultes)-dominated freshwater marsh located in southeastern Louisiana that was unambiguously changed by secondarily-treated municipal wastewater effluent. We used four approaches to evaluate how belowground biomass decomposition rates vary under different nutrient regimes in this marsh. The results of laboratory experiments demonstrated how nutrient enrichment enhanced the loss of soil or plant organic matter by 50%, and increased gas production. An experiment demonstrated that nitrogen, not phosphorus, limited decomposition. Cellulose decomposition at the field site was higher in the flowfield of the introduced secondarily treated sewage water, and the quality of the substrate (% N or % P) was directly related to the decomposition rates. We therefore rejected the null hypothesis that nutrient enrichment had no effect on the decomposition rates of these organic soils. In response to nutrient enrichment, plants respond through biomechanical or structural adaptations that alter the labile characteristics of plant tissue. These adaptations eventually change litter type and quality (where the marsh survives) as the % N content of plant tissue rises and is followed by even higher decomposition rates of the litter produced, creating a positive feedback loop. Marsh fragmentation will increase as a result. The assumptions and conditions underlying the use of unconstrained wastewater flow within natural wetlands, rather than controlled treatment within the confines of constructed wetlands, are revealed in the loss of previously sequestered carbon, habitat, public use, and other societal benefits.

  12. Advanced circulating fluidised bed technology (CFB) for large-scale solid biomass fuel firing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaentti, Timo; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Nuortimo, Kalle [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide the nations are taking initiatives to counteract global warming by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to increase boiler efficiency and the use of biomass and other solid renewable fuels are well in line with these objectives. Circulating fluidised bed boilers (CFB) are ideal for efficient power generation, capable to fire a broad variety of solid biomass fuels from small CHP plants to large utility power plants. Relevant boiler references in commercial operation are made for Finland and Poland.

  13. Drag forces of common plant species in temperate streams: consequences of morphology, velocity and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distributi...... than an uneven distribution with the same biomass confined to dense patches surrounded by open flow channels. Thus, management strategies to ensure a patchy plants distribution should be suitable for combining agricultural drainage and ecological stream quality....

  14. Permitting a biomass-fired power plant in California -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, J.I.; Needham, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the process of preparing an air permit application for a proposed biomass-fired power plant. The plant is designed to produce a net electric power output of 16 megawatts (MW) for sale to Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The biomass fuel will consist of urban wood waste, construction wood waste, and waste from agricultural products, such as tree prunings and fruit pits. The site is located in an industrial park in Soledad, California

  15. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  16. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  17. Sewage sludge conditioning with the application of ash from biomass-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marta; Stachowicz, Feliks; Masłoń, Adam

    2018-02-01

    During biomass combustion, there are formed combustion products. Available data indicates that only 29.1 % of biomass ashes were recycled in Poland in 2013. Chemical composition and sorptive properties of ashes enable their application in the sewage sludge treatment. This paper analyses the impact of ashes from biomass-combustion power plant on sewage sludge dewatering and higienisation. The results obtained in laboratory tests proved the possitive impact of biomass ashes on sewage sludge hydration reduction after dewatering and the increase of filtrate volume. After sludge conditioning with the use of biomass combustion by-products, the final moisture content decreased by approximatelly 10÷25 % in comparison with raw sewage sludge depending on the method of dewatering. The application of biomass combustion products in sewage sludge management could provide an alternative method of their utilization according to law and environmental requirements.

  18. Optimal Level of Woody Biomass Co-Firing with Coal Power Plant Considering Advanced Feedstock Logistics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangpil Ko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-firing from woody biomass feedstock is one of the alternatives toward increased use of renewable feedstock in existing coal power plants. However, the economic level of co-firing at a particular power plant depends on several site-specific factors. Torrefaction has been identified recently as a promising biomass pretreatment option to lead to reduction of the feedstock delivered cost, and thus facilitate an increase in the co-firing ratio. In this study, a mixed integer linear program (MILP is developed to integrate supply chain of co-firing and torrefaction process and find the optimal level of biomass co-firing in terms of minimized transportation and logistics costs, with or without tax credits. A case study of 26 existing coal power plants in three Great Lakes States of the US is used to test the model. The results reveal that torrefaction process can lead to higher levels of co-firing, but without the tax credit, the effect is limited to the low capacity of power plants. The sensitivity analysis shows that co-firing ratio has higher sensitivity to variation in capital and operation costs of torrefaction than to the variation in the transportation and feedstock purchase costs.

  19. Biomass Supply Planning for Combined Heat and Power Plants using Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    method using stochastic optimization to support the biomass supply planning for combined heat and power plants. Our two-phase approach combines mid-term decisions about biomass supply contracts with the short-term decisions regarding the optimal market participation of the producer to ensure......During the last years, the consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the new carbon neutral policies. Nowadays, many district heating systems operate their combined heat and power (CHP) plants using different types of biomass instead of fossil fuel, especially to produce......, and heat demand and electricity prices vary drastically during the planning period. Furthermore, the optimal operation of combined heat and power plants has to consider the existing synergies between the power and heating systems while always fulfilling the heat demand of the system. We propose a solution...

  20. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    inundation and NPV. fAPAR values were combined with GPP estimates at the field scale from eddy correlation flux measurements to develop a LUE model of plant production. To compare the effectiveness of broadband vs. narrowband indices in predicting biomass and fAPAR, we simulated eight multispectral World View-2 (WV-2) bands and 164 hyperspectral Hyperion bands with the field spectroradiometer data. We calculated NDVI-type two band vegetation indices (TBVI) using all possible band combinations, with a total of 28 WV-2 indices and 13,366 Hyperion indices. Biomass estimation was affected by water depth; regression of cattail biomass to TBVI680,910 produced a R2 that was 47% higher (R2 = 0.53) when water levels were under 50 cm compared to when water levels were over 50 cm (R2 = 0.28). fAPAR estimation was affected by the density of NPV; regression of fAPAR to TBVI539,1114 when PARtransmitted was measured above thatch was 49% higher (R2 = 0.50) than when PARtransmitted was measured below thatch (R2 = 0.20, TBVI1286,1266). Accounting for background effects in this heterogeneous environment will aid in the development of robust indices that can be applied to other wetland sites for estimates of carbon storage potential across large extents.

  1. Development of a new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for woody biomass gasification in a full scale plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Marco; Frigo, Stefano; Gabbrielli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model with Aspen Plus is created for a full scale biomass gasification plant. • Test results, equipment data and control logics are considered in the simulation model. • The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data. • The gasifying air temperature affects largely the energy performance of the gasification plant. • Increasing the equivalent ratio implies a strong reduction of the gasification efficiency. - Abstract: A new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for a full-scale woody biomass gasification plant with fixed-bed downdraft gasifier has been developed using Aspen Plus®. The model includes the technical characteristics of all the components (gasifier, cyclone, exchangers, piping, etc.) of the plant and works in accordance with its actual main control logics. Simulation results accord with those obtained during an extensive experimental activity. After the model validation, the influence of operating parameters such as the equivalent ratio, the biomass moisture content and the gasifying air temperature on syngas composition have been analyzed in order to assess the operative behavior and the energy performance of the experimental plant. By recovering the sensible heat of the syngas at the outlet of the gasifier, it is possible to obtain higher values of the gasifying air temperature and an improvement of the overall gasification performances.

  2. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  4. The influence of gadolinium and yttrium on biomass production and nutrient balance of maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatz, Jessica; Vetterlein, Doris; Mattusch, Jürgen; Otto, Matthias; Daus, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are expected to become pollutants by enriching in the environment due to their wide applications nowadays. The uptake and distribution of gadolinium and yttrium and its influence on biomass production and nutrient balance was investigated in hydroponic solution experiments with maize plants using increasing application doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L −1 . It could be shown that concentrations of up to 1 mg L −1 of Gd and Y did not reduce or enhance the plant growth or alter the nutrient balance. 10 mg L −1  Gd or Y resulted in REE concentrations of up to 1.2 weight-% in the roots and severe phosphate deficiency symptoms. Transfer rates showed that there was only little transport of Gd and Y from roots to shoots. Significant correlations were found between the concentration of Gd and Y in the nutrient solution and the root tissue concentration of Ca, Mg and P. - Highlights: • Roots accumulate REE in very high concentrations. • Transfer factors from root to shoot tissue are very low, with HREE higher than MREE. • The nutrient balance of the plant is severely influenced by REE addition. • Phosphate deficiency appears at high concentrations of REE addition. - The addition of the rare-earth elements Gd and Y results in less Ca and Mg uptake and phosphate deficiency in maize plants grown in hydroponics

  5. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  6. Precise plant height monitoring and biomass estimation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning in paddy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing crop management is a major topic in the field of precision agriculture as the growing world population puts pressure on the efficiency of field production. Accordingly, methods to measure plant parameters with the needed precision and within-field resolution are required. Studies show that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a suitable method to capture small objects like crop plants. In this contribution, the results of multi-temporal surveys on paddy rice fields with the TLS system Riegl LMS-Z420i are presented. Three campaigns were carried out during the key vegetative stage of rice plants in the growing period 2012 to monitor the plant height. The TLS-derived point clouds are interpolated to visualize plant height above ground as crop surface models (CSMs with a high resolution of 0.01 m. Spatio-temporal differences within the data of one campaign and between consecutive campaigns can be detected. The results were validated against manually measured plant heights with a high correlation (R2 = 0.71. Furthermore, the dependence of actual biomass from plant height was evaluated. To the present, no method for the non-destructive determination of biomass is found yet. Thus, plant parameters, like the height, have to be used for biomass estimations. The good correlation (R2 = 0.66 leads to the assumption that biomass can be estimated from plant height measurements. The results show that TLS can be considered as a very promising tool for precision agriculture.

  7. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including {sup 241}Am). {sup 241}Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of {sup 241}Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass. The content of {sup 241}Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of {sup 241}Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial {sup 241}Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of {sup 241}Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  8. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including 241 Am). 241 Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of 241 Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of 241 Am from the biomass. The content of 241 Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of 241 Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of 241 Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial 241 Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of 241 Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  9. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Nazanin; Sowlati, Taraneh; Ouhimmou, Mustapha; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  10. Establishment of a communal biomass conversion plant in the municipal area of Sydthy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The report should form the basis for an application to the Danish Energy Agency regarding potentials for a planned biomass conversion plant demonstration project, including effective storage of liquid manures. A survey of the needed resources in the form of organic wastes is given in addition to a description of immediate heat demand and heat production prices. The location of the plant and the supply of manures are discussed and the design of the plant is described in detail. The concentration of the biomass after conversion in order to facilitate storage and the organization and financing of the project are elucidated in addition to agricultural, environmental and administrational aspects. (AB)

  11. Plant biomass and species composition along an environmental gradient in montane riparian meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; E. N. Jack Brookshire; John E. Baham

    2004-01-01

    In riparian meadows, narrow zonation of the dominant vegetation frequently occurs along the elevational gradient from the stream edge to the floodplain terrace. We measured plant species composition and above- and belowground biomass in three riparian plant communities - a priori defined as wet, moist, and dry meadow - along short streamside topographic gradients in...

  12. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, H.; Zhou, M.; Jurak, E.; Heck, A.J.R.; Hilden, K.S.; Kabel, M.A.; Makela, M.R.; Altenaar, M.A.F.; Vries, de R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and con-tributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass.

  13. Out of the shadows : multiple nutrient limitations drive relationships among biomass, light and plant diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpole, W. Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Lind, Eric M.; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan; Fay Jennifer Firn, Philip A.; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cadotte, Marc W; Chaneton, Enrique J; Chu, Chengjin; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.

    2017-01-01

    The paradigmatic hypothesis for the effect of fertilisation on plant diversity represents a one-dimensional trade-off for plants competing for below-ground nutrients (generically) and above-ground light: fertilisation reduces competition for nutrients while increasing biomass and thereby shifts

  14. Assessment of plant biomass and nitrogen nutrition with plant height in early-to mid-season corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinhua; Hayes, Robert M; McClure, M Angela; Savoy, Hubert J

    2012-10-01

    The physiological basis for using non-destructive high-resolution measurements of plant height through plant height sensing to guide variable-rate nitrogen (N) applications on corn (Zea mays L.) during early (six-leaf growth stage, V6) to mid (V12) season is largely unknown. This study was conducted to assess the relationships of plant biomass and leaf N with plant height in early- to mid-season corn under six different N rate treatments. Corn plant biomass was significantly and positively related to plant height under an exponential model when both were measured at V6. This relationship explained 62-78% of the variations in corn biomass production. Leaf N concentration was, in general, significantly and positively related to plant height when both were measured at V6, V8, V10 and V12. This relationship became stronger as the growing season progressed from V6 to V12. The relationship of leaf N with plant height in early- to mid-season corn was affected by initial soil N fertility and abnormal weather conditions. The relationship of leaf N concentration with plant height may provide a physiological basis for using plant height sensing to guide variable-rate N applications on corn. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. How efficient work biomass cogeneration plants? A survey of plant operators; Wie effizient arbeiten Biomasseheiz(kraft)werke? Befragung von Anlagenbetreibern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiller, Martin; Jakuttis, Michael [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Binder, Samir [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Bayerischer Forschungsverbund Foreta, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The use of biomass has increased very much in recent years. Due to the intensive use, the price of biomass fuels such as wood chips has increased substantially. This development bothers mainly biomass cogeneration plants. Many operators suffered considerable financial losses or even had to file for bankruptcy. The topic of efficiency is one of the central and critical success factors for the long-term viability of biomass-fired plants. (orig.)

  16. Computational identification of candidate nucleotide cyclases in higher plants

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze; Gehring, Christoph A

    2013-01-01

    In higher plants guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs) cannot be identified using BLAST homology searches based on annotated cyclic nucleotide cyclases (CNCs) of prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, or animals. The reason is that CNCs

  17. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  18. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  19. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  20. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Frances, E; Campos, I J; Martin, J A; Gil, J [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  1. ASEAN grid-connected biomass residues fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.F.; Alias, R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy supply is one of the major concerns in the world. With uncertainty in the main oil suppliers, the oil price is expected to remain high due to continuous demand from the world. Since oil is mostly used for electricity and transportation, its shortage would cause major disruptions in our daily activities. Thus to counter this scenario and faster depletion of fossil fuel resources, various measures have been taken to find alternative source of energy such as renewable energy. One of the renewable energy sources is from biomass residues which is aplenty particularly in ASEAN. Through one of the collaboration programme between ASEAN and EC which is The EC-ASEAN Cogeneration Programme, a number of Full-Scale Demonstration Projects (FSDP) using biomass residues have been commissioned and implemented successfully. Four of the FSDPs in Thailand and Malaysia are connected to the grid. These projects have been operating very well and since the fuel is commonly available in this ASEAN region, duplication should not be a problem. Thus, this paper would highlight the success stories in implementing biomass residues grid connected project while enhancing cooperation between ASEAN and EC. (Author)

  2. Experimental effects of herbivore density on above-ground plant biomass in an alpine grassland ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Austrheim, Gunnar; Speed, James David Mervyn; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Mysterud, Atle

    2014-01-01

    Herbivores may increase or decrease aboveground plant productivity depending on factors such as herbivore density and habitat productivity. The grazing optimization hypothesis predicts a peak in plant production at intermediate herbivore densities, but has rarely been tested experimentally in an alpine field setting. In an experimental design with three densities of sheep (high, low, and no sheep), we harvested aboveground plant biomass in alpine grasslands prior to treatment and after five y...

  3. Warming increases plant biomass and reduces diversity across continents, latitudes, and species migration scenarios in experimental wetland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Andrew H; Jensen, Kai; Schönfeldt, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric warming may influence plant productivity and diversity and induce poleward migration of species, altering communities across latitudes. Complicating the picture is that communities from different continents deviate in evolutionary histories, which may modify responses to warming and migration. We used experimental wetland plant communities grown from seed banks as model systems to determine whether effects of warming on biomass production and species richness are consistent across continents, latitudes, and migration scenarios. We collected soil samples from each of three tidal freshwater marshes in estuaries at three latitudes (north, middle, south) on the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. In one experiment, we exposed soil seed bank communities from each latitude and continent to ambient and elevated (+2.8 °C) temperatures in the greenhouse. In a second experiment, soil samples were mixed either within each estuary (limited migration) or among estuaries from different latitudes in each continent (complete migration). Seed bank communities of these migration scenarios were also exposed to ambient and elevated temperatures and contrasted with a no-migration treatment. In the first experiment, warming overall increased biomass (+16%) and decreased species richness (-14%) across latitudes in Europe and North America. Species richness and evenness of south-latitude communities were less affected by warming than those of middle and north latitudes. In the second experiment, warming also stimulated biomass and lowered species richness. In addition, complete migration led to increased species richness (+60% in North America, + 100% in Europe), but this higher diversity did not translate into increased biomass. Species responded idiosyncratically to warming, but Lythrum salicaria and Bidens sp. increased significantly in response to warming in both continents. These results reveal for the first time consistent impacts of warming on biomass and

  4. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Velázquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  5. How Fencing Affects the Soil Quality and Plant Biomass in the Grassland of the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quanchao; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Li; Huang, Yimei

    2017-09-25

    Overgrazing is a severe problem in several regions in Northwestern China and has caused serious land degradation. Secondary natural succession plays an important role in the accumulation of soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Estimating the effects of grazing exclusion on soil quality and plant diversity will improve our understanding of the succession process after overgrazing and promote judicious management of degraded pastures. This experiment was designed to measure soil properties and plant diversity following an age chronosequence of grasslands (ages ranged from one year, 12 years, 20 years, and 30 years) in Northwestern China. The results showed that continuous fencing resulted in a considerable increase in plant coverage, plant biomass (above- and below-ground biomass), and plant diversity, which can directly or indirectly improve the accumulation of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The plant coverage and the above- and below-ground biomass linearly increased along the succession time, whereas soil organic C and N contents showed a significant decline in the first 12 years and, subsequently, a significant increase. The increased plant biomass caused an increase in soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen. These results suggested that soil restoration and plant cover were an incongruous process. Generally, soil restoration is a slow process and falls behind vegetation recovery after grazing exclusion. Although the accumulation of soil C and N stocks needed a long term, vegetation restoration was a considerable option for the degraded grassland due to the significant increase of plant biomass, diversity, and soil C and N stocks. Therefore, fencing with natural succession should be considered in the design of future degraded pastures.

  6. Biomass Allocation Patterns Are Linked to Genotypic Differences in Whole-Plant Transpiration Efficiency in Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Luciano; Alberdi, Ignacio; Paz, Cosme; Aguirrezábal, Luis; Pereyra Irujo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Increased transpiration efficiency (the ratio of biomass to water transpired, TE) could lead to increased drought tolerance under some water deficit scenarios. Intrinsic (i.e., leaf-level) TE is usually considered as the primary source of variation in whole-plant TE, but empirical data usually contradict this assumption. Sunflower has a significant variability in TE, but a better knowledge of the effect of leaf and plant-level traits could be helpful to obtain more efficient genotypes for water use. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess if genotypic variation in whole-plant TE is better related to leaf- or plant-level traits. Three experiments were conducted, aimed at verifying the existence of variability in whole-plant TE and whole-plant and leaf-level traits, and to assess their correlation. Sunflower public inbred lines and a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to well-watered and water-deficit treatments. Significant genotypic variation was found for TE and related traits. These differences in whole-plant transpiration efficiency, both between genotypes and between plants within each genotype, showed no association to leaf-level traits, but were significantly and negatively correlated to biomass allocation to leaves and to the ratio of leaf area to total biomass. These associations are likely of a physiological origin, and not only a consequence of genetic linkage in the studied population. These results suggest that genotypic variation for biomass allocation could be potentially exploited as a source for increased transpiration efficiency in sunflower breeding programmes. It is also suggested that phenotyping for TE in this species should not be restricted to leaf-level measurements, but also include measurements of plant-level traits, especially those related to biomass allocation between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs.

  7. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  8. Willow coppice systems in short rotation forestry: effects of plant spacing, rotation length and clonal composition on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willebrand, E.; Ledin, S.; Verwijst, T. (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1993-01-01

    Above ground biomass production was determined for ten Salix clones grown in pure and mixed stands at a square spacing of 1 m and seven rotation periods (1 to 6 and 8 years), and of one clone grown at four square spacings (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 1 m), with rotation cycles of 1 to 5 years. Most clones reached a maximum mean annual increment (8 to 14 tons dry matter ha[sup -1] yr[sup -1]) under a rotation period of 4 to 5 years. Densely spaced stands exhibited a higher production than wider spacings during the first harvests under the shortest rotation periods. Neither in later harvests of short cycles (1 to 3 years) nor in any harvests of longer cycles (> 3 years) did spacing affect biomass production. Some clones suffered from leaf rust and grazing by roe deer. Clone mixtures showed a higher biomass production in the later stages due to the compensatory effect of the successful clones which, when growing in mixtures, could fill out the gaps left by individuals that suffered from impacts other than competition. We conclude that extremely short rotations (1 to 2 years) are unsuitable for Swedish conditions, and that 4- to 6-year rotations perform best. In such longer rotations, biomass production of stands with 2 x 10[sup 4] plants per hectare equals the production of denser stands. (Author)

  9. Can biomass responses to warming at plant to ecosystem levels be predicted by leaf-level responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Shao, J.; Zhou, X.; Yan, W.; Lu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming has the profound impacts on terrestrial C processes from leaf to ecosystem scales, potentially feeding back to climate dynamics. Although numerous studies had investigated the effects of warming on C processes from leaf to plant and ecosystem levels, how leaf-level responses to warming scale up to biomass responses at plant, population, and community levels are largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a dataset from 468 papers at 300 experimental sites and synthesized the warming effects on leaf-level parameters, and plant, population and ecosystem biomass. Our results showed that responses of plant biomass to warming mainly resulted from the changed leaf area rather than the altered photosynthetic capacity. The response of ecosystem biomass to warming was weaker than those of leaf area and plant biomass. However, the scaling functions from responses of leaf area to plant biomass to warming were different in diverse forest types, but functions were similar in non-forested biomes. In addition, it is challenging to scale the biomass responses from plant up to ecosystem. These results indicated that leaf area might be the appropriate index for plant biomass response to warming, and the interspecific competition might hamper the scaling of the warming effects on plant and ecosystem levels, suggesting that the acclimation capacity of plant community should be incorporated into land surface models to improve the prediction of climate-C cycle feedback.

  10. A CSP plant combined with biomass CHP using ORC-technology in Bronderslev Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Yuan, Guofeng

    2017-01-01

    A new CSP plant combined with biomass CHP, using ORC technology, will be built and taken into operation in Bronderslev, Denmark during spring 2017. The price for Biomass is expected to increase with more and more use of this very limited energy source and then CSP will be cost effective in the long...... run, also in the Danish climate. Oil is used as heat transfer fluid instead of steam giving several advantages in this application for district heating at high latitudes. Total efficiencies and costs, competitive to PV plants. are expected....

  11. Sugar catabolism during growth on plant biomass in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, C.

    2017-01-01

    A growing industrial sector in which plant degrading enzymes are used is the production of alternative fuels, such as bio-ethanol, and biochemicals. Plant polysaccharides can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal enzymes. The sugars are then fermented to ethanol and other products mainly by

  12. BAAD: a biomass and allometry database for woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel S. Falster; Remko A. Duursma; Masae I. Ishihara; Diego R. Barneche; Richard G. FitzJohn; Angelica Varhammar; Masahiro Aiba; Makoto Ando; Niels Anten; Michael J. Aspinwall; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Christopher Baraloto; Michael Battaglia; John J. Battles; Ben Bond-Lamberty; Michiel van Breugel; Yves Claveau; Masako Dannoura; Sylvain Delagrange; Jean-Christophe Domec; Farrah Fatemi; Wang Feng; Veronica Gargaglione; Yoshiaki Goto; Akio Hagihara; Jefferson S. Hall; Steve Hamilton; Degi Harja; Tsutom Hiura; Robert Holdaway; Lindsay S. Hutley; Tomoaki Ichie; Eric J. Jokela; Anu Kantola; Jeff W. G. Kelly; Tanaka Kenzo; David King; Brian D. Kloeppel; Takashi Kohyama; Akira Komiyama; Jean-Paul Laclau; Christopher H. Lusk; Douglas A. Maguire; Guerric Le Maire; Ammikki Makela; Lars Markesteijn; John Marshall; Katherine McCulloh; Itsuo Miyata; Karel Mokany; Shugeta Mori; Randall W. Myster; Masahiro Nagano; Shawna L. Naidu; Yann Nouvellon; Anthony P. O' Grady; Kevin L. O' Hara; Toshiyuki Ohtsuka; Noriyuki Osada; Olusegun O. Osunkoya; Pablo Luis Peri; Any Mary Petritan; Lourens Poorter; Angelika Portsmuth; Catherine Potvin; Johannes Ransijn; Douglas Reid; Sabina C. Ribeiro; Scott D. Roberts; Rolando Rodriguez; Angela Saldana-Acosta; Ignacio Santa-Regina; Kaichiro Sasa; N. Galia Selaya; Stephen C. Sillett; Frank Sterck; Kentaro Takagi; Takeshi Tange; Hiroyuki Tanouchi; David Tissue; Toru Umehara; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Fernando Valladares; Petteri Vanninen; Jian R. Wang; Elizabeth Wenk; Richard Williams; Fabiano de Aquino Ximenes; Atsushi Yamaba; Toshihiro Yamada; Takuo Yamakura; Ruth D. Yanai; Robert A. York

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how plants are constructed—i.e., how key size dimensions and the amount of mass invested in different tissues varies among individuals—is essential for modeling plant growth, carbon stocks, and energy fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere. Allocation patterns can differ through ontogeny, but also among coexisting species and among species adapted to...

  13. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurm, Viola; van der Putten, Wim H; Pineda, Ana; Hol, W H Gera

    2018-02-12

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested. Plant biomass, transcription of genes involved in plant defences, and insect performance were measured. In addition, the effects of the PGPR strain Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 on plant and insect performance were tested under the influence of the various soil dilution treatments. Plant biomass showed a hump-shaped relationship with soil microbial community dilution, independent of aphid or Pseudomonas treatments. Both aphid infestation and inoculation with Pseudomonas reduced plant biomass, and led to downregulation of PR1 (salicylic acid-responsive gene) and CYP79B3 (involved in synthesis of glucosinolates). Aphid performance and gene transcription were unaffected by soil dilution. Neither the loss of rare microbial species, as caused by soil dilution, nor Pseudomonas affect the resistance of A. thaliana against M. persicae. However, both Pseudomonas survival and plant biomass respond to rare species loss. Thus, loss of rare soil microbial species can have a significant impact on both above- and below-ground organisms. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assimilation and transformation of benzene by higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmishidze, S V; Ugrekhelidze, D Sh; Dzhikiya, A N

    1974-01-01

    Higher plants are capable of assimilating benzene, the molecules of which are subjected to deep chemical transformations; the products of its metabolism move along the plant. Taking part in total metabolism, carbon atoms of benzene molecules incorporate into composition of low-molecular compounds of the plant cell. The bulk of benzene carbon incorporates into composition of organic acids and a comparatively small part - into composition of amino acids. In the metabolism process benzene carbon localizes mainly in the chloroplasts. Phenol, muconic acid and CO/sub 2/ are isolated and identified from the products of benzene enzymatic oxidation. A range of benzene assimilation by higher plants is extremely wide. 9 references, 5 tables.

  15. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... in the amendment to the directive. This report suggests a structured way to identify the type of data needed to perform a sound ecological risk assessment for genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). The identified data types are intended to support the evaluation of the following risks: risk of invasion...

  16. Higher Plants in Space: Microgravity Perception, Response, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui Qiong; Han, Fei; Le, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Microgravity is a major abiotic stress in space. Its effects on plants may depend on the duration of exposure. We focused on two different phases of microgravity responses in space. When higher plants are exposed to short-term (seconds to hours) microgravity, such as on board parabolic flights and sounding rockets, their cells usually exhibit abiotic stress responses. For example, Ca 2+-, lipid-, and pH-signaling are rapidly enhanced, then the production of reactive oxygen species and other radicals increase dramatically along with changes in metabolism and auxin signaling. Under long-term (days to months) microgravity exposure, plants acclimatize to the stress by changing their metabolism and oxidative response and by enhancing other tropic responses. We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of regulatory networks at the molecular level of higher plants is needed to understand the molecular signals in the distinct phases of the microgravity response and adaptation.

  17. Computational identification of candidate nucleotide cyclases in higher plants

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2013-09-03

    In higher plants guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs) cannot be identified using BLAST homology searches based on annotated cyclic nucleotide cyclases (CNCs) of prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, or animals. The reason is that CNCs are often part of complex multifunctional proteins with different domain organizations and biological functions that are not conserved in higher plants. For this reason, we have developed CNC search strategies based on functionally conserved amino acids in the catalytic center of annotated and/or experimentally confirmed CNCs. Here we detail this method which has led to the identification of >25 novel candidate CNCs in Arabidopsis thaliana, several of which have been experimentally confirmed in vitro and in vivo. We foresee that the application of this method can be used to identify many more members of the growing family of CNCs in higher plants. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  18. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A; Chan, Raquel L

    2016-03-20

    HaHB11 is a member of the sunflower homeodomain-leucine zipper I subfamily of transcription factors. The analysis of a sunflower microarray hybridized with RNA from HaHB11-transformed leaf-disks indicated the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes from glycolisis and fermentative pathways. A 1300bp promoter sequence, fused to the GUS reporter gene, was used to transform Arabidopsis plants showing an induction of expression after flooding treatments, concurrently with HaHB11 regulation by submergence in sunflower. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and its own promoter were obtained and these plants exhibited significant increases in rosette and stem biomass. All the lines produced more seeds than controls and particularly, those of high expression level doubled seeds yield. Transgenic plants also showed tolerance to flooding stress, both to submergence and waterlogging. Carbohydrates contents were higher in the transgenics compared to wild type and decreased less after submergence treatments. Finally, transcript levels of selected genes involved in glycolisis and fermentative pathways as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities were assessed both, in sunflower and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, before and after submergence. Altogether, the present work leads us to propose HaHB11 as a biotechnological tool to improve crops yield, biomass and flooding tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E; Boeglin, N; Houillon, G; Osset, Ph; Vial, E; Leguern, Y; Gosse, G; Gabrielle, B; Dohy, M; Bewa, H; Rigal, L; Guilbert, St; Cesar, G; Pandard, P; Oster, D; Normand, N; Piccardi, M; Garoux, V; Arnaud, L; Barbier, J; Mougin, G; Krausz, P; Pluquet, V; Massacrier, L; Dussaud, J

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  20. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND NUTRITION IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF THE BANANA ‘PRATA CATARINA’ UNDER BIOFERTILISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDER DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana farming is an activity of great economic and social importance, and is carried out in most tropical countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biomass accumulation and levels of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg in micropropagated plants of the banana “Prata Catarina” during the acclimatization phase, under different types and doses of biofertilisers. The experimental design included randomised blocks in a 2 × 5 + (2 factorial scheme, with two types of liquid biofertilisers (bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic and aerobic fermentation and five biofertiliser doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 L plant-1 week-1, as well as two additional treatments (control and recommended mineral fertilisation. The following variables were analysed: dry weight of the leaves and roots, and mineral element content (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in different parts of the plant (leaf and root. During 90 days of acclimatization, the nutritional contribution of bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation was greater in comparison with the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation and the control, but lower in comparison with mineral fertilisation. The 1000-mL dose of the biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted greater dry weight accumulation in the leaves and roots of the banana “Prata Catarina”. The biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of N, K, and Ca in the leaves, whereas the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of P in the leaves and roots.

  1. Base-line data on everglades soil-plant systems: elemental composition, biomass, and soil depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.G.; Schemnitz, S.D.; Gamble, J.F.; Sartain, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Plants and soils from plots in the Everglades Wildlife Management Area, Conservation Area 3, were examined. Chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, and Si) of most plant and soil digests was determined. Cladium jamaicense was the predominant plant species contributing to biomass in all plots except the wet prairie, where Rhynchospora sp. and Panicum hemitomon were most common. The biomass of dead C. jamaicense was greater than that of the living plants in unburned saw-grass plots. The burned saw grass, muck burn, and wet prairie were characterized by a large number of plant species per square meter but smaller average biomass production than the unburned saw-grass locations. Levels of Cu, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, and N in C. jamaicense differed significantly across locations. Highly significant differences in elemental composition existed between plant species. Concentrations of several elements (particularly Zn, Ca, Mg, P, and N) were low in live C. jamaicense compared with other plant species. Cesium-137 levels ranged from 670 to 3100 pCi/kg in sandy and in organic soils, respectively. Polygonum had a 137 Cs level of 11,600 pCi/kg. Dead C. jamaicense indicated a rapid leaching loss of 137 Cs from dead tissue

  2. Accurate inference of shoot biomass from high-throughput images of cereal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tester Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the establishment of advanced technology facilities for high throughput plant phenotyping, the problem of estimating plant biomass of individual plants from their two dimensional images is becoming increasingly important. The approach predominantly cited in literature is to estimate the biomass of a plant as a linear function of the projected shoot area of plants in the images. However, the estimation error from this model, which is solely a function of projected shoot area, is large, prohibiting accurate estimation of the biomass of plants, particularly for the salt-stressed plants. In this paper, we propose a method based on plant specific weight for improving the accuracy of the linear model and reducing the estimation bias (the difference between actual shoot dry weight and the value of the shoot dry weight estimated with a predictive model. For the proposed method in this study, we modeled the plant shoot dry weight as a function of plant area and plant age. The data used for developing our model and comparing the results with the linear model were collected from a completely randomized block design experiment. A total of 320 plants from two bread wheat varieties were grown in a supported hydroponics system in a greenhouse. The plants were exposed to two levels of hydroponic salt treatments (NaCl at 0 and 100 mM for 6 weeks. Five harvests were carried out. Each time 64 randomly selected plants were imaged and then harvested to measure the shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The results of statistical analysis showed that with our proposed method, most of the observed variance can be explained, and moreover only a small difference between actual and estimated shoot dry weight was obtained. The low estimation bias indicates that our proposed method can be used to estimate biomass of individual plants regardless of what variety the plant is and what salt treatment has been applied. We validated this model on an independent

  3. Biomass from agriculture in small-scale combined heat and power plants - A comparative life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, A.; Baky, A.; Bernesson, S.; Noren, O.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass produced on farm land is a renewable fuel that can prove suitable for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants in rural areas. However, it can still be questioned if biomass-based energy generation is a good environmental choice with regards to the impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and if there are negative consequences of using of agricultural land for other purposes than food production. In this study, a simplified life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted over four scenarios for supply of the entire demand of power and heat of a rural village. Three of the scenarios are based on utilization of biomass in 100 kW (e) combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the fourth is based on fossil fuel in a large-scale plant. The biomass systems analyzed were based on 1) biogas production with ley as substrate and the biogas combusted in a microturbine, 2) gasification of willow chips and the product gas combusted in an IC-engine and 3) combustion of willow chips for a Stirling engine. The two first scenarios also require a straw boiler. The results show that the biomass-based scenarios reduce greenhouse gas emissions considerably compared to the scenario based on fossil fuel, but have higher acidifying emissions. Scenario 1 has by far the best performance with respect to global warming potential and the advantage of utilizing a byproduct and thus not occupying extra land. Scenario 2 and 3 require less primary energy and less fossil energy input than 1, but set-aside land for willow production must be available. The low electric efficiency of scenario 3 makes it an unsuitable option.

  4. Waste-based biomass to power plants with high portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Taipale, R. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Hupa, M.; Yrjas, P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)); Jokiniemi, J.; Sippula, O. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Recycling of chemicals back to processes as effectively as possible is sustainable development. Landfilling and agricultural use of sewage sludge (SWS) produces methane which is a strong greenhouse gas. Our earlier project 'Corraway' funded by Tekes ClimBus programme and Finnish industry indicated that iron and aluminium sulphates can destroy effectively alkali chlorides at furnace conditions preventing Cl deposition to heat transfer surfaces. Cl in the deposits is the main reason to superheater corrosion with biomass- containing feedstocks. These sulphates have been used as process chemicals in wastewater treatment, and therefore they are present in SWS. SWS-originated combustion products will pass the whole furnace when SWS is mixed to the main fuel. The furnace includes oxidising and reducing zones. Therefore it is not clear if the SWS-originated sulphur remains in an effective form in the point view of alkali chlorides destruction. The project work included thorough fuel analysis, pilot-scale combustion tests with blends of risky biomass and SWS and research of sampling techniques to detect alkali compounds. The combustion experiments proved the power of SWS originated sulphur to destroy alkali chlorides in the furnace and suggest strongly to continue this research. The order of power of the two SWS tested was different than expected indicating need to produce more thorough results. SWS may contain much minerals which lowers its value as a fuel. It can be possible to increase sulphur content and to decrease ash content in the sludge during SWS processing and dry and pelletise the sludge to strengthen further its value as a protective and as a fuel. (orig.)

  5. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  6. An update technology for integrated biomass gasification combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the technical analysis of a 6.4 M W_e integrated biomass gasification combined cycle (IBGCC) plant. It features three numbers of downdraft biomass gasifier systems with suitable gas clean-up trains, three numbers of internal combustion (IC) producer gas engines for producing 5.85 MW electrical power in open cycle and 550 kW power in a bottoming cycle using waste heat. Comparing with IC gas engine single cycle systems, this technology route increases overall system efficiency of the power plant, which in turn improves plant economics. Estimated generation cost of electricity indicates that mega-watt scale IBGCC power plants can contribute to good economies of scale in India. This paper also highlight's the possibility of activated carbon generation from the char, a byproduct of gasification process, and use of engine's jacket water heat to generate chilled water through VAM for gas conditioning. (author)

  7. Invertebrate herbivory on floating-leaf macrophytes at the northeast of Argentina: should the damage be taken into account in estimations of plant biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fedra S; Franceschini, Celeste

    2018-01-01

    We assessed the damage produced by invertebrate herbivores per leaf lamina and per m2 of populations floating-leaf macrophytes of Neotropical wetlands in the growth and decay periods, and assessed if the damage produced by the herbivores should be taken into account in the estimations of plant biomass of these macrophytes or not. The biomass removed per lamina and per m2 was higher during the growth period than in decay period in Nymphoides indica and Hydrocleys nymphoides, while Nymphaea prolifera had low values of herbivory in growth period. During decay period this plant is only present as vegetative propagules. According to the values of biomass removed per m2 of N. indica, underestimation up to 17.69% should be produced in cases that herbivory do not should be taking account to evaluate these plant parameters on this macrophyte. Therefore, for the study of biomass and productivity in the study area, we suggest the use of corrected lamina biomass after estimating the biomass removed by herbivores on N. indica. The values of damage in N. indica emphasize the importance of this macrophyte as a food resource for invertebrate herbivores in the trophic networks of the Neotropical wetlands.

  8. Characterization of three plant biomass-degrading microbial consortia by metagenomics- and metasecretomics-based approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Schuckel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The selection of microbes by enrichment on plant biomass has been proposed as an efficient way to develop new strategies for lignocellulose saccharification. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of soil-derived microbial consortia that were trained to degrade once-used wheat straw (WS1-M),

  9. Forest biomass and tree planting for fossil fuel offsets in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Kellen Nelson; Dan Kashian; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the amount of carbon available for removal in fuel reduction and reforestation treatments in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range based on site productivity, pre-treatment basal area, and planting density. Thinning dense stands will yield the greatest offsets for biomass fuel. However, this will also yield the greatest carbon losses, if the...

  10. Analyzing the biomass filter behavior in an anaerobic wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos-Hernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, waste emissions in air, water and soil must be reduced in order to reach the more and more strict environmental rules. In the case of wastewater, there exists a big interest to improve treatment plants performances. The paper deals with the analysis, via the phase protratis method, of a biomass filter behavior in a completely stirred tank reactor deals with the analysis. (Author)

  11. On polydispersity of plant biomass recalcitrance and its effects on pretreatment optimization for sugar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Steve P. Verrill; Hao Liu; Victoria L. Herian; Xuejun Pan; Donald L. Rockwood

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a property associated with plant biomass recalcitrance to enzyme and microbial deconstructions in sugar production from cellulose and hemicelluloses. The hemicelluloses are more readily hydrolyzed to sugars than is cellulose. As a result, optimization to maximize individual glucose and hemicellulose sugar recovery is not possible. This property is...

  12. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erven, Van Gijs; Visser, de Ries; Merkx, Donny W.H.; Strolenberg, Willem; Gijsel, de Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric

  13. 1064nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression...

  14. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Influence of soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P., E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.u [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Mico, C. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Curdy, R. [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology (LBE), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) Station 6 CH, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Zhao, F.J. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Functions, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) to four plant species was investigated. Soil organic carbon or ammonium-oxalate extractable Fe oxides were found to be the best predictors of the 50% effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of Mo in different soils, explaining > 65% of the variance in ED{sub 50} for four species except for ryegrass (26-38%). Molybdenum concentrations in soil solution and consequently plant uptake were increased when soil pH was artificially raised because sorption of Mo to amorphous oxides is greatly reduced at high pH. The addition of sulphate significantly decreased Mo uptake by oilseed rape. For risk assessment, we suggest that Mo toxicity values for plants should be normalised using soil amorphous iron oxide concentrations. - Amorphous iron oxides or organic carbon were found to be the best predictors of the toxicity threshold values of Mo to higher plants on different soils.

  16. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Influence of soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, S.P.; Mico, C.; Curdy, R.; Zhao, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) to four plant species was investigated. Soil organic carbon or ammonium-oxalate extractable Fe oxides were found to be the best predictors of the 50% effective dose (ED 50 ) of Mo in different soils, explaining > 65% of the variance in ED 50 for four species except for ryegrass (26-38%). Molybdenum concentrations in soil solution and consequently plant uptake were increased when soil pH was artificially raised because sorption of Mo to amorphous oxides is greatly reduced at high pH. The addition of sulphate significantly decreased Mo uptake by oilseed rape. For risk assessment, we suggest that Mo toxicity values for plants should be normalised using soil amorphous iron oxide concentrations. - Amorphous iron oxides or organic carbon were found to be the best predictors of the toxicity threshold values of Mo to higher plants on different soils.

  17. Novel transcriptional activators of Aspergillus involved in plant biomass utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruben, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi play an important role in the carbon cycle on Earth. Many fungi can degrade dead or living plant material that consist mainly of polysaccharides. These polysaccharides need to be degraded to monosaccharides before they can be taken up and used as nutrients by the fungal cell. Different

  18. Comparative Analysis of Woody Plants Biomass on the Affected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    stands that were generated from the field using sample quadrats and measuring ... woody plants on the affected and restricted land management practices. F u ll L en .... divided into 6 strata that served as a guide to locate the quadrat samples.

  19. Chlorine-containing natural compounds in higher plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    More than 130 chlorine-containing compounds have been isolated from higher plants and ferns; about half are polyacetylenes, thiophenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae. A chlorinated chlorophyll may be an important part of photosystem 1. High biological activity is found in 4...

  20. Higher plant vegetation changes during Pliocene sapropel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Menzel, D.; Schouten, S.; Bergen, P.F. van

    2004-01-01

    The 13C values of higher plant wax C27 33 n-alkanes were determined in three, time-equivalent Pliocene (2.943 Ma) sapropels and homogeneous calcareous ooze from three different sites forming an east-west transect in the eastern Mediterranean Basin in order to study the composition of the vegetation

  1. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereiche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J.; Croce, Roberta; Kereïche, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II ( PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it

  2. Uptake and distribution of mercury within higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauford, W; Barber, J; Barringer, A R

    1977-04-15

    The uptake and distribution of inorganic mercury (HgCl/sub 2/) within higher plants (Pisum sativum and Mentha spicata) was examined using solution culture and radiotracer techniques. Plants were found to tolerate an external level of 1 mgHg/kg of solution but both physiological and biochemical processes were affected at 5 mgHg/kg and 10 mgHg/kg. The uptake of Hg into plants grown in hydroponic solution was a function of external concentration. Over the concentration range considered the accumulation of Hg in the roots was linear on a log-log basis although the uptake of the element into the shoots appeared to be two-phased. The distribution of Hg in plants was asymmetrical with much greater amounts of the element in the roots than the shoots. Although the level of Hg increased generally in plant tissues with increasing external levels, the proportion retained in the roots, relative to the shoots, was constant (approximately 95%). Two binding characteristics of the Hg within plant tissue were detected. A major proportion of Hg was tightly bound, being unaffected by treatment with ethanol and hydrochloric acid. The remaining Hg in the tissue was removed by either water or hydrochloric acid treatment. Cell fractionation indicated that the major binding component of Hg in plant tissues was the cell wall.

  3. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  4. Economics of biomass energy utilization in combustion and gasification plants: effects of logistic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Palumbo, Mario; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.; Scacchia, Federica

    2005-01-01

    The substitution of conventional fossil fuels with biomass for energy production results both in a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and in the replacement of non-renewable energy sources. However, at present, generating energy from biomass is rather expensive due to both technological limits related to lower conversion efficiencies, and logistic constraints. In particular, the logistics of biomass fuel supply is likely to be complex owing to the intrinsic feedstock characteristics, such as the limited period of availability and the scattered geographical distribution over the territory. In this paper, the economical feasibility of biomass utilization for direct production of electric energy by means of combustion and gasification-conversion processes, has been investigated and evaluated over a capacity range from 5 to 50 MW, taking into account total capital investments, revenues from energy sale and total operating costs, also including a detailed evaluation of logistic costs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the impact of logistics on the bio-energy plants profitability, the effects of main logistic variables such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs and distribution density, have been examined. Finally, a mapping of logistic constraints on plant profitability in the specified capacity range has been carried out

  5. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita; Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  6. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita [National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, UP (India); Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P. [Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon (India)

    2010-01-15

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  7. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Plant biomass degrading ability of the coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Marie; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Ning, Xie; Brun, Sylvain; Gautier, Valérie; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Silar, Philippe; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of plant biomass is a major challenge towards the production of bio-based compounds and materials. As key lignocellulolytic enzyme producers, filamentous fungi represent a promising reservoir to tackle this challenge. Among them, the coprophilous ascomycete Podospora anserina has been used as a model organism to study various biological mechanisms because its genetics are well understood and controlled. In 2008, the sequencing of its genome revealed a great diversity of enzymes targeting plant carbohydrates and lignin. Since then, a large array of lignocellulose-acting enzymes has been characterized and genetic analyses have enabled the understanding of P. anserina metabolism and development on plant biomass. Overall, these research efforts shed light on P. anserina strategy to unlock recalcitrant lignocellulose deconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 1. Main report. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. The Main Report is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Study; (2.0) Project Objectives; (3.0) Review of Combustion Technology for Biomass Fueled Steam Generator Units; (4.0) Conceptual Design; (5.0) Plant Descriptions; (6.0) Plant Operations Staffing; (7.0) Project Schedule; (8.0) Project Cost Estimate; (9.0) Financial Analysis; Appendix - Financial Analysis

  10. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper......-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed....

  11. Development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia: niche development and the formation of innovative capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to advance further the emerging research agenda on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies in developing countries by adopting a study of the development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. The main research question addresses...... successive periods of fieldwork in Malaysia. The thesis conceptualises the diffusion of biomass technologies in Malaysia as a niche development process and finds that the development of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia has only made limited progress despite a period of twenty years...... of niche formation. The thesis identifies the reluctance to implement an efficient energy policy as the main limiting factor for niche development in this case. Although a number of donor programs have advocated the introduction of a stronger enabling framework for niche development, they have generally...

  12. Environmental and socioeconomic aspects in the strategic analysis of a biomass power plant integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the potential weaknesses and threats of the integration of a biomass power plant proposed in a depressed area of Spain as well as to analyse the inherent strengths and opportunities that such a project could have in economic, technical or environmental terms. For this purpose an analysis of site, biomass resources, problems associated to fuel mix combustion, electricity production and connection were assessed. The socioeconomic (employment, GDP effects or tax revenue impact) and environmental (human health, soil erosion, fertiliser application) outcomes associated with the proposed biomass scheme have been evaluated. Finally, a list of actions to take into account for successful implementation of this proposed project has been defined. (author)

  13. Novel Occurrence of Uncommon Polyamines in Higher Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Glenn D.; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Bagga, Suman; Phillips, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Diamines and polyamines are ubiquitous components of living cells, and apparently are involved in numerous cellular and physiological processes. Certain “uncommon” polyamines have limited distribution in nature and have been associated primarily with organisms adapted to extreme environments, although the precise function of these polyamines in such organisms is unknown. This article summarizes current knowledge regarding the occurrence in higher plants of the uncommon polyamines related to and including norspermidine and norspermine. A putative biosynthetic pathway to account for the occurrences of these uncommon polyamines in higher plants is presented, with a summary of the supporting evidence indicating the existence of the requisite enzymatic activities in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. PMID:16667862

  14. Inositol trisphosphate receptor in higher plants: is it real?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krinke, Ondřej; Novotná, Z.; Valentová, O.; Martinec, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2007), s. 361-376 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Ca2+ signalling * higher plants * inositol trisphosphate receptor Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.917, year: 2007

  15. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Ch...

  16. Use of higher plants as screens for toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, U

    1997-01-01

    This review deals with the use of entire plants, seedlings, cell suspension cultures and pollen tubes for the estimation of potential toxicity in the environment, and for risk assessment of chemicals and formulations of human relevance. It is shown that the roots of onions and various crop seedlings, as well as in vitro growing pollen tubes of some mono- and dicotyledonous plants, are most frequently used to obtain toxicity data by determination of root and tube growth inhibition. Both roots and pollen tubes are chloroplast free, non-photosynthetic systems and, therefore, with regard to their cytotoxic reactions are closer to vertebrate tissues and cells than are chloroplast-containing plant organs. Root tips and anthers of flower buds are shown to be applicable to genotoxicity screening by microscopic analysis of mitotic or meiotic aberrations during cell division or microspore development, respectively. The processes of mitosis and meiosis are similar in plants and animals. Therefore, meristematic and sporogenic tissues of plants generally show patterns of cytotoxic response similar to those of embryogenic and spermatogenic tissues of vertebrates. The suitability of root tips, cell suspensions and pollen tubes for the investigation of mechanisms of toxic action and for the analysis of structure-activity relationships is also demonstrated. Two plant-based assays, the Allium test and the pollen tube growth test, both currently being evaluated alongside with established mammalian in vivo and in vitro protocols, are emphasized with regard to their potential use as alternatives to animal in vivo toxicity tests. For both assays, preliminary results indicate that the tips of growing roots and the rapidly elongating pollen tubes of certain higher plant species are as reliable as mammalian cell lines for detecting basal cytotoxicity. It is suggested that seeds and pollen grains, in particular, provide easily storable and convenient systems for inexpensive, relatively

  17. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini, which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  18. Production of marine plant biomass: Management, cultivation, and genetic modification of macrophytic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, J. P.

    1982-12-01

    Every second of every day, the Sun's fusion reactions convert thousands of tons of hydrogen into helium with the release of almost unimaginable amounts of energy. Through the photosynthetic activity of plants, both aquatic and terrestrial, a small fraction of this energy is trapped and stored as plant biomass. The oceans cover a greater fraction of the globe than do the land masses, making it appropriate to consider their contribution to the total biomass production, and their potential as a source of raw materials for the extraction of chemicals and fuels. A rather broad synthesis, convering the total seaweed resource and some of the constraints placed on harvesting these plants, attempts to farm the oceans to increase the supply of desirable species, attempts to cultivate seaweeds in enclosures where environmental parameters are controlled, and finally, the limited amount of genetic manipulation that was applied to these plants was presented. Only the larger red and brown seaweeds were considered because they represent the bulk of the biomass.

  19. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  20. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO 2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  1. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  2. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  3. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels. PMID:22490508

  4. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  5. Calculating the share of process energy consumed by biomass conversion plants. Bestimmung der Anteile der Prozessenergie bei einer Biogasanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, W

    1984-06-01

    During the winter season the process energy consumption of biomass conversion plants is relatively high. Apart from the quantity and temperature of manures and insulation of the fermentation tank the process energy consumption depends on the efficiency of the heating system. Moreover, heat losses decide on the required quantities of process energy. Compared with the process energy consumption the electric power consumption of the engines supplying the biomass conversion plant is relatively low. Along with calculations tests and measurements in a biomass conversion plant during the winter season of 1981/1982 give access to the interrelation between process energy and electric power consumption.

  6. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    , and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis......Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  7. Particulate emission reduction in small-scale biomass combustion plants by a condensing heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, de C.J.J.M.; Kemenade, van H.P.; Brunner, T.; Obernberger, I.

    2008-01-01

    Use of biomass fuels for energy purposes has gained increasing importance as a method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In comparison to gaseous and liquid fossil fuels, the emissions of particulate matter are higher, leading to concerns about the availability of cost-effective techniques to

  8. Strategy for optimal operation of a biomass-fired cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasertsan, S.; Krukanont, P.; Nigamsritragul, P.; Kirirat, P.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass-fired cogeneration not only is an environmentally friendly energy production, but also possesses high energy conversion efficiency. Generally, the wood product industry requires both heat and electricity. Combined heat and power generation (cogeneration) using wood residue has a three-fold benefit: waste minimization, reduction of an energy-related production cost and additional income from selling the excess electricity to the utility. In reality, the process heat demand fluctuates according to the production activities in the factory. The fluctuation of process heat demand affects the cogeneration efficiency and the electricity output and, consequently, the financial return, since the prices of heat and electricity are different. A study by computer simulation to establish a guideline for optimum operation of a process heat fluctuating cogeneration power plant is presented. The power plant was designed for a sawmill and an adjacent plywood factory using wood wastes from these two processes. The maximum boiler thermal load is 81.9 MW while the electricity output is in the range 19-24 MW and the process heat 10-30 MW. Two modes of operation were studied, namely the full (boiler) load and the partial (boiler) load. In the full load operation, the power plant is operated at a maximum boiler thermal load, while the extracted steam is varied to meet the steam demand of the wood-drying kilns and the plywood production. The partial load operation was designed for the partially fuelled boiler to provide sufficient steam for the process and to generate electricity at a desired capacity ranging from the firmed contract of 19 MW to the turbine maximum capacity of 24 MW. It was found that the steam for process heat has an allowable extracting range, which is limited by the low pressure feed water heater. The optimum operation for both full and partial load occurs at the lower limit of the extracting steam. A guideline for optimum operation at various combinations of

  9. Consideration of higher seismic loads at existing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebig, J.; Pellissetti, M.

    2015-07-01

    Because of advancement of methods in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, plenty of existing plants face higher seismic loads as an obligation from the national authorities. In case of such obligations safety related structures and equipment have to be reevaluated or requalified for the increased seismic loads. The paper provides solutions for different kinds of structures and equipment inside the plant, avoiding cost intensive hardware exchange. Due to higher seismic loads different kinds of structures and equipment inside a plant have to be reevaluated. For civil structures, primary components, mechanical components, distribution lines and electrical and I&C equipment different innovative concepts will be applied to keep structures and equipment qualified for the higher seismic loads. Detailed analysis, including the modeling of non-linear phenomena, or minor structural upgrades are cost competitive, compared to cost intensive hardware exchanges. Several case studies regarding the re-evaluation and requalification of structures and equipment due to higher seismic loads are presented. It is shown how the creation of coupled finite element models and the consistent propagation of acceleration time histories through the soil, building and primary circuit lead to a significant load reduction Electrical and I&C equipment is reinforced by smart upgrades which increase the natural equipment frequencies. Therefore for all devices inside the cabinets the local acceleration will not increase and the seismic qualification will be maintained. The case studies cover both classical deterministic and probabilistic re-evaluations (fragility analysis). Furthermore, the substantial benefits of non-linear limit load evaluation, such as push-over analysis of buildings and limit load analysis of fuel assemblies, are demonstrated. (Author)

  10. Mutation induction by ion beams in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-04-01

    This review mainly describes study results obtained in the Takasaki ion-beam (IB) irradiation facility (TIARA) on the mutation induction in higher plants. Biological effects like lethality and on budding of IBs (carbon, Ne and Ar) are discussed in relation with their linear energy transfer (LET), relative biological effectiveness and the developmental states in shepherd's-purse and tobacco. Induced mutation by IB are characterized by those findings that the mutation rate by C beam is 1.9 x 10{sup -6}, being 17 times higher than the electron beam, in the shepherd's-purse, that C beam induces larger structural changes than electron beam when examined by molecular mechanism of tt and gl gene mutations, and that mutation spectrum of IB is different from that of {gamma}-ray and is wider. Novel mutants are described on shepherd's-purse (pigment mutants, ultraviolet (UV)-resistant and sensitive ones, and flowering ones), disease-resistant rice, barley and tobacco plants, and flowering plants. IB mutation is possibly useful for solving the problems of environment and foods in future. (N.I.)

  11. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    composition and operating conditions, is not available. The main objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to conduct an in depth investigation of the deactivation mechanism of vanadia based SCR catalysts, when subjected to potassium rich aerosols. It has furthermore been a goal to suggest...... for up to 600 hours. The activity of fresh and exposed catalysts was measured in the temperature range 250-400 °C in a laboratory-scale reactor. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours proved to have deactivated significantly, however, catalysts exposed at 150 °C showed higher remaining activity......-scale setup at 350 °C for up to 1100 hours, and their activities were followed by in situ measurements. A 3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2 reference catalyst deactivated with a rate of 0.91 %/day during 960 hours of exposure, and a subsequent SEM-EDS analysis showed complete potassium penetration of the catalyst wall...

  12. Secretomic survey of Trichoderma harzianum grown on plant biomass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Junqueira, Magno; do Vale, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Sousa, Marcelo Valle de; Ricart, Carlos André Ornelas

    2014-04-04

    The present work aims at characterizing T. harzianum secretome when the fungus is grown in synthetic medium supplemented with one of the four substrates: glucose, cellulose, xylan, and sugarcane bagasse (SB). The characterization was done by enzymatic assays and proteomic analysis using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF and gel-free shotgun LC-MS/MS. The results showed that SB induced the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities when compared with the other substrates, while remarkable differences in terms of number and distribution of protein spots in 2-DE gels were also observed among the samples. Additionally, treatment of the secretomes with PNGase F revealed that most spot trails in 2-DE gels corresponded to N-glycosylated proteoforms. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the samples identified 626 different protein groups, including carbohydrate-active enzymes and accessory, noncatalytic, and cell-wall-associated proteins. Although the SB-induced secretome displayed the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, it did not correspond to a higher proteome complexity because CM-cellulose-induced secretome was significantly more diverse. Among the identified proteins, 73% were exclusive to one condition, while only 5% were present in all samples. Therefore, this study disclosed the variation of T. harzianum secretome in response to different substrates and revealed the diversity of the fungus enzymatic toolbox.

  13. Seasonal variations and effects of nutrient applications on N and P and microbial biomass under two temperate heathland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Lund; Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    . The microbial biomass on the other hand was positively related to soil water content in fertilized plots indicating that this was due to an indirect effect of enhanced nutrient availability. Microbial N and P pools were respectively 1000 and 100 times higher than the pool of inorganic N and P, and microbes...... this process. In this study the soil properties under two dominant heathland plants, the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the grass Deschampsia flexuosa, were investigated, with focus on nutrient content in the organic top soil and soil microbes during the main growing season and effects of nutrient amendments...... therefore may play an important role in regulating plant nutrient supply. Judged from responses of inorganic and microbial N and P concentrations to added N and P, N seemed to limit C. vulgaris and soil microbes below while P seemed to limit D. flexuosa and soil microbes below this species. There were lower...

  14. Higher Novel L-Cys Degradation Activity Results in Lower Organic-S and Biomass in Sarcocornia than the Related Saltwort, Salicornia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmanbayeva, Assylay; Bekturova, Aizat; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Soltabayeva, Aigerim; Asatryan, Armine; Ventura, Yvonne; Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Salazar, Octavio; Fedoroff, Nina; Sagi, Moshe

    2017-09-01

    Salicornia and Sarcocornia are almost identical halophytes whose edible succulent shoots hold promise for commercial production in saline water. Enhanced sulfur nutrition may be beneficial to crops naturally grown on high sulfate. However, little is known about sulfate nutrition in halophytes. Here we show that Salicornia europaea (ecotype RN) exhibits a significant increase in biomass and organic-S accumulation in response to supplemental sulfate, whereas Sarcocornia fruticosa (ecotype VM) does not, instead exhibiting increased sulfate accumulation. We investigated the role of two pathways on organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia and Sarcoconia : the sulfate reductive pathway that generates Cys and l-Cys desulfhydrase that degrades Cys to H 2 S, NH 3 , and pyruvate. The major function of O -acetyl-Ser-(thiol) lyase (OAS-TL; EC 2.5.1.47) is the formation of l-Cys, but our study shows that the OAS-TL A and OAS-TL B of both halophytes are enzymes that also degrade l-Cys to H 2 S. This activity was significantly higher in Sarcocornia than in Salicornia , especially upon sulfate supplementation. The activity of the sulfate reductive pathway key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, EC 1.8.99.2), was significantly higher in Salicornia than in Sarcocornia These results suggest that the low organic-S level in Sarcocornia is the result of high l-Cys degradation rate by OAS-TLs, whereas the greater organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia is the result of higher APR activity and low l-Cys degradation rate, resulting in higher net Cys biosynthesis. These results present an initial road map for halophyte growers to attain better growth rates and nutritional value of Salicornia and Sarcocornia . © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    intrinsically higher energy densities might be produced using emerging and continuous flow systems that are capable of converting a broad range of plant and other biomasses to bio-oils through so-called ‘agnostic’ technologies such as hydrothermal liquefaction. Continued attention to regulatory frameworks and ongoing government support will be required for the next phase of development of internationally viable biofuels industries.

  16. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hwei-Ting; Corbin, Kendall R.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tons. Lignin is synthesized in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with intrinsically higher energy

  17. Particulate emissions from biomass combustion in small district heating plants; Partikelemissioner fraan biobraensleeldade mindre fjaerrvaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henrik; Johansson, Linda; Tullin, Claes; Oesterberg, Stefan; Johansson, Mathias [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, negative health effects associated with increased levels of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles less then 10 and 2.5 {mu}m, respectively) in the ambient air have been highlighted. The development towards a sustainable society will lead to an increased use of biomass in Sweden. Conversion from oil to biomass can lead to increased local levels of particulate matter. In smaller district heating plants (up to a few MW), the dust reduction often is restricted to the use of cyclones/multicyclones having limited separation efficiency for submicron particles (particles less than 1 {mu}m). The emissions are often in the range 100 Mg/nm{sup 3} or higher but very few data regarding particle size distributions from district heating plants have been reported in the literature. In addition to the particle size, a number of other properties might be important for the health effects but the knowledge in this area is limited. It is therefore important to characterise the particles in detail regarding physical and chemical qualities. The objective with the present investigation is to measure and characterise the particulate emissions from two biomass based smaller district heating centrals for different fuel qualities (pellets, briquettes, forest residues and wood chips) and operating parameters such as load and excess air. In addition to analyses of dust and particulates, extensive measurements of the flue composition have been performed. Measurements were performed downstream the multicyclones. The dust emissions were found to be in the range 20 to 120 mg/MJ supplied fuel depending on operating condition and fuel quality. At normal operation, the dust emissions were about 35 to 40 mg/MJ supplied fuel. The particle size distributions were measured using an ELPI (Electric Low Pressure Impactor). The number size distributions were found to be dominated by submicron particles with maxima at diameters between 0. 1 and 0.3 gm. Additional measurements indicated that

  18. Bioenergy guide. Projecting, operation and economic efficiency of biomass power plants; Leitfaden Bioenergie. Planung, Betrieb und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Kaltschmitt, M; Schneider, B. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This guide gives an survey over planning, operation and economics of biomass conversion plants. Main topics are: production and supply of biomass fuels, combustion properties, licensing, cost and financing. It shows planning and management of projects and the legal background for Germany and the European Union.

  19. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  20. Improved prediction of higher heating value of biomass using an artificial neural network model based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Harun; Yıldız, Zeynep; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-06-01

    As biomass becomes more integrated into our energy feedstocks, the ability to predict its combustion enthalpies from routine data such as carbon, ash, and moisture content enables rapid decisions about utilization. The present work constructs a novel artificial neural network model with a 3-3-1 tangent sigmoid architecture to predict biomasses' higher heating values from only their proximate analyses, requiring minimal specificity as compared to models based on elemental composition. The model presented has a considerably higher correlation coefficient (0.963) and lower root mean square (0.375), mean absolute (0.328), and mean bias errors (0.010) than other models presented in the literature which, at least when applied to the present data set, tend to under-predict the combustion enthalpy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of materials mixture on the higher heating value: Case of biomass, biochar and municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumanchar, Imane; Chhiti, Younes; M'hamdi Alaoui, Fatima Ezzahrae; El Ouinani, Amal; Sahibed-Dine, Abdelaziz; Bentiss, Fouad; Jama, Charafeddine; Bensitel, Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    The heating value describes the energy content of any fuel. In this study, this parameter was evaluated for different abundant materials in Morocco (two types of biochar, plastic, synthetic rubber, and cardboard as municipal solid waste (MSW), and various types of biomass). Before the evaluation of their higher heating value (HHV) by a calorimeter device, the thermal behavior of these materials was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The focus of this work is to evaluate the calorific value of each material alone in a first time, then to compare the experimental and theoretical HHV of their mixtures in a second time. The heating value of lignocellulosic materials was between 12.16 and 20.53MJ/kg, 27.39 for biochar 1, 32.60MJ/kg for biochar 2, 37.81 and 38.00MJ/kg for plastic and synthetic rubber respectively and 13.81MJ/kg for cardboard. A significant difference was observed between the measured and estimated HHVs of mixtures. Experimentally, results for a large variety of mixture between biomass/biochar and biomass/MSW have shown that the interaction between biomass and other compounds expressed a synergy of 2.37% for biochar 1 and 6.11% for biochar 2, 1.09% for cardboard, 5.09% for plastic and 5.01% for synthetic rubber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Three biomass power plants in New England first five years of challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Generating electricity from biomass fuels, through stand-alone power plants, represents a renewal of a half-century old plus, renewable technology. New England has generated its electricity sequentially, and still in parallel, from hydro, coal, oil, and nuclear sources during this period, and most recently during the 1980's, from a mixture of various alternate technologies including wood waste fuels and domestic waste fuels. Three plants located in New Hampshire and Maine, of identical power-island design, were constructed in eighteen months, and began operation in the period December, 1987 through March, 1988. These plants almost from the start have experienced an outstanding record of operation, dependability, and reliability. This paper will describe how each plant has fit into its respective location and environment, the personnel, technical and administrative support required, the biomass wood waste production and supply infra-structure which has developed around these facilities; and the technical problems and challenges which arose and were resolved in the process of handling a cantankerous, bulk fuel and turning it into a reliable supply of electricity. These plants are designed around a zero discharge concept. The author will discuss the design features built in, and operating practices which have evolved, to effectively use waste water internally, minimize air emissions, and recycle 100% of its solid waste as an effective fertilizer and soil conditioner

  3. Process simulation of co-firing torrefied biomass in a 220 MWe coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiaolei; Pawlak-Kruczek, Halina; Yang, Weihong; Kruczek, Pawel; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performances of torrefaction based co-firing power plant are simulated by using Aspen Plus. • Mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied during biomass torrefaction processes. • Mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in total torrefied gases. • The electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. - Abstract: Torrefaction based co-firing in a pulverized coal boiler has been proposed for large percentage of biomass co-firing. A 220 MWe pulverized coal-power plant is simulated using Aspen Plus for full understanding the impacts of an additional torrefaction unit on the efficiency of the whole power plant, the studied process includes biomass drying, biomass torrefaction, mill systems, biomass/coal devolatilization and combustion, heat exchanges and power generation. Palm kernel shells (PKS) were torrefied at same residence time but 4 different temperatures, to prepare 4 torrefied biomasses with different degrees of torrefaction. During biomass torrefaction processes, the mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied. In addition, process simulations at varying torrefaction degrees and biomass co-firing ratios have been carried out to understand the properties of CO 2 emission and electricity efficiency in the studied torrefaction based co-firing power plant. According to the experimental results, the mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in torrefied gases. The predicted results also showed that the electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. A deep torrefaction may not be recommended, because the power saved from biomass grinding is less than the heat consumed by the extra torrefaction process, depending on the heat sources

  4. Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The paper theoretically investigates the performance of a distributed generation plant made up of gasifier, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine as a bottoming unit. The system can be used for maximization of electricity production from biomass in the case where there is no heat demand for cogeneration plant. To analyze the performance of the gasifier a model based on the thermodynamic equilibrium approach is used. Performance of the gas engine is estimated on the basis of the analysis of its theoretical thermodynamic cycle. Three different setups of the plant are being examined. In the first one the ORC module is driven only by the heat recovered from engine exhaust gas and cooling water. Waste heat from a gasifier is used for gasification air preheating. In the second configuration a thermal oil circuit is applied. The oil transfers heat from engine and raw gas cooler into the ORC. In the third configuration it is proposed to apply a double cascade arrangement of the ORC unit with a two-stage low temperature evaporation of working fluid. This novel approach allows utilization of the total waste heat from the low temperature engine cooling circuit. Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. The results obtained were compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency of the system. The lowest obtained value of the efficiency was 23.6% while the highest one was 28.3%. These are very favorable values in comparison with other existing small and medium scale biomass-fuelled power generation plants. - Highlights: →The study presents performance analysis of a biomass-fuelled local power plant. →Downdraft wood gasifier, gas engine and ORC module are modelled theoretically. →Method for estimation of the producer gas fired engine performance is proposed. →Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. →Different arrangements of the bottoming ORC cycle ere examined.

  5. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  6. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  7. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-11

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China's Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region's specific conditions.

  8. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqi Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control. Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumulated more carbon in plant biomass. The biomass carbon was about 1.9- and 2.2-times greater than the 10-species mixed plantation and Castanopsis hystrix plantations, respectively. Meanwhile, the plantations sequestered 1.5- to 3-times more carbon in biomass than naturally recovered shrubland. The carbon allocation pattern between above- and below-ground compartments also varied with plantation type and stand age. The ratio of tree root carbon to tree aboveground carbon decreased with stand age for Eucalyptus urophylla and the 10-species mixed plantation. In contrast, the ratio increased for Acacia crassicarpa. Our data suggested that planting the fast-growing species in the degraded land of subtropical China was an effective choice in terms of carbon sequestration. The information about carbon allocation patterns was also valuable for decision making in sustainable forest management and climate change mitigation.

  9. ORC power plant for electricity production from forest and agriculture biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A.; Wiśniewski, S.; Mocarski, S.; Bańkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass are presented. • Octamethyltrisiloxane, MDM, methanol and H 2 O working fluids was conducted in CHP. • CHP with internal regeneration and “dry” working fluid has the highest electric power. • Power output, drying heat and drying temperature depend on CHP variant and ORC fluid. - Abstract: The paper presents the calculation results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass. The plant shall produce electricity and heat for a drying chamber. An analysis of the system efficiency for four different working fluids was conducted: octamethyltrisiloxane, methylcyclohexane, methanol and water. The highest electric power was obtained for the system with internal regeneration and methylcyclohexane applied as the “dry” working fluid, the highest temperature to supply the drying chamber was obtained for the system with external regeneration and octamethyltrisiloxane applied as the working fluid. The results of the analysis indicate that, by proper choice of the working fluid and of the regeneration variant (internal or external), it is possible to “adjust” the work of the system to the needs and expectations of the plant investor (user)

  10. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  11. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  12. Effects of metal pollutants on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plant biomass: experimental studies in Environmental Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Birendra

    Understanding the interactions and effects of biotic and abiotic factors on magnetic parameter measurements used to assess levels of pollutants requires experimental analysis of potential individual parameters. Using magnetic and chemical measurements, three separate experimental studies were conducted in order to evaluate the separate and combined effects of soil composition, atmospheric exposure, and contaminant levels on soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements, plant growth and metal uptake by plants. Experiment 1 examined the effects of incorporating an artificial Fe-rich contaminant into a synthetic soil on surficial soil magnetic properties and plant growth inside a greenhouse. Periodic measurements of surficial soil MS showed significant decreases in MS values in the three treatments (two levels of Fe-contamination and controls), with the greatest reduction in soils with the most contamination, and the least in controls. Three potential causes were suggested: Fe uptake by plants, magnetic minerals transformation, and downward migration of Fe-particles. Some arguments for the first two causes were discussed; however, the third possibility was separately evaluated in the second and third experiments. In the follow-up study (Experiment 2) conducted to examine the effects of ambient atmospheric pollution on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plant biomass, the overall surficial soil MS was found to be significantly higher in synthetic soils exposed to a natural atmosphere in comparison to controls placed in a greenhouse. Root biomass samples taken from the exposed soils had much higher trace/heavy metal concentrations. Such increases in soil MS and bioavailability of metals in the exposed soils indicate that atmospheric pollution affected the soil and plants grown in there. Microscopic observations of Fe-rich particles from the post-harvest exposed soil revealed morphologies similar to Fe-containing particulates from power plants and

  13. Development and delivery of a workshop methodology: planning for biomass power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, A.J.; Delbridge, P.; Trevorrow, E.; Pile, C.

    2001-07-01

    This report gives details of the approach used to develop a workshop methodology to help planners and stakeholders address key issues that may arise when submitting a planning application for a biomass power plant in the light of the UK government's energy and climate change targets. The results of interviews with stakeholders (central government, regulatory authorities, developers, planners, non-governmental organisations, local community, resident groups) are summarised, and the NIMBY (not in my back yard) syndrome, the lack of trust in the developer, and lack of awareness of the use of biomass are discussed. Details are given of the design and testing of the workshop methodology and the resulting workshop methodology and workbook guide aimed at understanding the stakeholder issues and concerns through stakeholder discussions.

  14. Water stress mitigates the negative effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biomass in poplar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Catalayud, Vicent; Paoletti, Elena; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution frequently overlaps with drought episodes but the combined effects are not yet understood. We investigated the physiological and biomass responses of an O 3 sensitive hybrid poplar clone ('546') under three O 3 levels (charcoal-filtered ambient air, non-filtered ambient air (NF), and NF plus 40 ppb) and two watering regimes (well-watered (WW) and reduced watering (RW), i.e. 40% irrigation) for one growing season. Water stress increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, protecting leaves from pigment degradation by O 3 . Impairment of photosynthesis by O 3 was also reduced by stomatal closure due to water stress, which preserved light-saturated CO 2 assimilation rate, and the maximum carboxylation efficiency. Water stress increased water use efficiency of the leaves while O 3 decreased it, showing significant interactions. Effects were more evident in older leaves than in younger leaves. Water stress reduced biomass production, but the negative effects of O 3 were less in RW than in WW for total biomass per plant. A stomatal O 3 flux-based dose-response relationship was parameterized considering water stress effects, which explained biomass losses much better than a concentration-based approach. The O 3 critical level of Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a threshold of 7 nmol O 3 .m -2 .s -1 (POD 7 ) for a 4% biomass loss in this poplar clone under different water regimes was 4.1 mmol m -2 . Our results suggest that current O 3 levels in most parts of China threaten poplar growth and that interaction with water availability is a key factor for O 3 risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  16. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10...... and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  17. Geographical distributions of biomass and potential sites of rubber wood fired power plants in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukanont, P.; Prasertsan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass residues from rubber trees in rubber producing countries have immense potential for power production. This paper presents the case of the south peninsular of Thailand, where the rubber industry is intense. Mathematical models were developed to determine the maximum affordable fuel cost and optimum capacity of the power plant for a given location of known area-based fuel availability density. GIS data of rubber growing was used to locate the appropriate sites and sizes of the power plants. Along 700 km of the highway network in the region, it was found that 8 power plants are financially feasible. The total capacity is 186.5 MW e . The fuel procurement area is in the range of less than 35 km. (Author)

  18. Input of biomass in power plants or the power generation. Calculation of the financial gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, H.J.; Van Tilburg, X.; Pfeiffer, A.E.; Cleijne, H.

    2005-09-01

    The project on the title subject concerns two questions: (1) Are projects in which wood-pellets are co-fired in a coalfired power plant representative for bio-oil fueled co-firing projects in a gas-fired plant?; and (2) are new projects representative for existing projects? To answer those questions the financial gaps have been calculated for five different situations: Co-firing bio-oil in a gas-fired power plant; Co-firing bio-oil in a coal-fired power plant; Co-firing wood pellets in a coal-fired power plant; Co-firing agro-residues in a coal-fired power plant; and Co-firing waste-wood (A- and B-grade) in a coal-fired power plant. The ranges and reference cases in this report show that co-firing bio-oil on average has a smaller financial gap than the solid biomass reference case. On average it can also be concluded that by using waste wood or agro-residues, the financial gaps can decrease [nl

  19. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-10-07

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C(2)S(2)M(2) at 12 A resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching.

  20. Features of fatty acid synthesis in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, M [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Nakamura, Y

    1975-07-01

    In the biosynthesis of fatty acid in the presence of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, /sup 3/H is incorporated into the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid. The features in the fatty acid synthesis of higher plants were investigated by applying /sup 3/H/sub 2/O method to the measurement of the ability of spinach leaves synthesizing fatty acid. Sucrose, acetate, pyruvate, PGA, PEP, OAA, citrate, etc. were employed as the substrates of fatty acid synthesis to trace the process of synthesis of each fatty acid. The demand of various cofactors related to the ability of spinach chloroplast fatty acid synthesizing was also examined. Light dependence of the fatty acid synthesis of chloroplast as well as the influences of N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy phenyl hydrazone and NH/sub 4/Cl were discussed. The results were compared with the reports on the fatty acid synthesis of avocado pear, castor bean, etc.

  1. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Thomas; Neven, An; Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  2. Nano-cellulose biopolymer based nano-biofilm biomaterial using plant biomass: An innovative plant biomaterial dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nano-cellulose derived nano-biofilm keeps a magnificent role in medical, biomedical, bioengineering and pharmaceutical industries. Plant biomaterial is naturally organic and biodegradable. This study has been highlighted as one of the strategy introducing biomass based nano-bioplastic (nanobiofilm to solve dependency on petroleum and environment pollution because of non-degradable plastic. The data study was carried out to investigate the nano-biopolymer (nanocellulose based nano-biofilm data from corn leaf biomass coming after bioprocess technology without chemicals. Corn leaf biomass was used to produce biodegradable nano-bioplastic for medical and biomedical and other industrial uses. Data on water absorption, odor, pH, cellulose content, shape and firmness, color coating and tensile strength test have been exhibited under standardization of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials. Moreover, the chemical elements of nanobiofilm like K+, CO3−−, Cl−, Na+ showed standard data using the EN (166. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobiofilm, Nanobioplastic, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  3. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  4. National renewable energy policy and local opposition in the UK: the failed development of a biomass electricity plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upreti, B.R.; Horst, Dan van der

    2004-01-01

    Biomass energy developments in the UK are supported by central government but face considerable opposition from the public. The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of public opposition to biomass energy development in North Wiltshire where Ambient Energy Ltd. proposed the development of a 5 MWe wood gasification plant near the town of Cricklade. The case study was conducted through in-depth interviews, content analysis, person to person questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participatory appraisal methods. Though biomass energy plants in general have fewer environmental impacts than plants which use fossil fuel, there could still be local impacts which give rise to concerns and local opposition to the development. The opposition could be partially explained by the fact that the general public is relatively unfamiliar with biomass energy. Public acceptance or rejection was mainly based on the public trust or mistrust. The case study demonstrates two distinctly rigid characteristics among the key stakeholders of biomass energy development. These are the 'not-in-my-back-yard' attitude from the public and the 'there-is-no-alternative' attitude of the developers. These rigid stances were widely contributing to the failure of the project to gain planning permission. The environmental justification of biomass energy at the national level is not always sufficient to convince the local residents. Winning public support to promote biomass energy requires an alternative approach of planning and action through interactive communication, public participation and collective learning among all the stakeholders

  5. Importance of whole-plant biomass allocation and reproductive timing to habitat differentiation across the North American sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Davis, Kaleigh E; Bullock, Devon V; Donovan, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Trait-based plant ecology attempts to use small numbers of functional traits to predict plant ecological strategies. However, a major gap exists between our understanding of organ-level ecophysiological traits and our understanding of whole-plant fitness and environmental adaptation. In this gap lie whole-plant organizational traits, including those that describe how plant biomass is allocated among organs and the timing of plant reproduction. This study explores the role of whole-plant organizational traits in adaptation to diverse environments in the context of life history, growth form and leaf economic strategy in a well-studied herbaceous system. A phylogenetic comparative approach was used in conjunction with common garden phenotyping to assess the evolution of biomass allocation and reproductive timing across 83 populations of 27 species of the diverse genus Helianthus (the sunflowers). Broad diversity exists among species in both relative biomass allocation and reproductive timing. Early reproduction is strongly associated with resource-acquisitive leaf economic strategy, while biomass allocation is less integrated with either reproductive timing or leaf economics. Both biomass allocation and reproductive timing are strongly related to source site environmental characteristics, including length of the growing season, temperature, precipitation and soil fertility. Herbaceous taxa can adapt to diverse environments in many ways, including modulation of phenology, plant architecture and organ-level ecophysiology. Although leaf economic strategy captures one key aspect of plant physiology, on their own leaf traits are not particularly predictive of ecological strategies in Helianthus outside of the context of growth form, life history and whole-plant organization. These results highlight the importance of including data on whole-plant organization alongside organ-level ecophysiological traits when attempting to bridge the gap between functional traits and plant

  6. Synthesis of Biomass and Utilization of Plant Wastes in a Physical Model of a Biological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovksaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukkhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    Biological life support systems (LSS) with highly closed intrasystem mass ex change mass ex change hold much promise for long-term human life support at planetary stations (Moon, Mars, etc.). The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotroph block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas ex change in such a system consists of respiratory gas ex change of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas ex change dynamics of high plants -SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas ex change and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and age of plants has been established. SLS fertility has been shown to depend on its thickness and phase of maturity. The biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) in Liebig minimum have been found to include nitrogen which is the first to impair plants' growth in disruption of the process conditions. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances -products of ex change of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. In multiple recycle of the mat ter (more than 5 cycles) under the irradiance intensity of 150 W/m2 PAR and the SLS mass (dry weight) of 17.7 -19.9 kg/m2 average total harvest of

  7. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low...... temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings...

  8. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  9. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Gil, J; Martin, J A; Frances, E; Olivares, A; Caballero, M A; Perez, P [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  10. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  11. DNA repair in mutagen-injured higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleminsky, J.; Gichner, T.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summarized proving the occurrence of photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in cells of Nicotiana tabucum, Gingko and carrot, the excision of dimers in cells of Nicotiana tabacum, Gingko and carrot, the excision of dimers in protoplasts of carrot and in embryos of Lathyrus sativus, and the repair of DNA single-strand breaks induced in carrot protoplasts and barley embryonic cells by ionizing radiation. In irradiated barley embryos the unscheduled DNA synthesis and higher accessibility of induced primers to DNA polymerase I of E. coli were observed preferentially in G 1 cells with diffused chromatin. These reactions were inhibited by caffeine and EDTA. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was also observed in synchronized irradiated root cuttings of Vicia faba and in barley embryos treated with 4-nitroquinoline oxide, the latter being inhibited by caffeine and hydroxyurea. Repair synthesis was also established in barley embryos treated with mutagenic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea under conditions that postponed the onset of germination after the treatment. The same conditions enhanced the repair of DNA single-strand breaks induced by this mutagen and several other monofunctional alkylating compounds. From tissues of barley and of Phaseolus multiflorus, endonucleases for apurinic sites were isolated and characterized. Some of them are located in chromatin, others in chloroplasts. The relation between DNA repair and genetic effects of mutagens in higher plants is also discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. PMID:25911738

  13. OsCESA9 conserved-site mutation leads to largely enhanced plant lodging resistance and biomass enzymatic saccharification by reducing cellulose DP and crystallinity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengcheng; Xie, Guosheng; Huang, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Ran; Li, Yu; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yanting; Li, Ao; Li, Xukai; Xia, Tao; Qu, Chengcheng; Hu, Fan; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-09-01

    Genetic modification of plant cell walls has been posed to reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification. Since cellulose synthase (CESA) gene was first identified, several dozen CESA mutants have been reported, but almost all mutants exhibit the defective phenotypes in plant growth and development. In this study, the rice (Oryza sativa) Osfc16 mutant with substitutions (W481C, P482S) at P-CR conserved site in CESA9 shows a slightly affected plant growth and higher biomass yield by 25%-41% compared with wild type (Nipponbare, a japonica variety). Chemical and ultrastructural analyses indicate that Osfc16 has a significantly reduced cellulose crystallinity (CrI) and thinner secondary cell walls compared with wild type. CESA co-IP detection, together with implementations of a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) and two distinct cellulose inhibitors (Calcofluor, CGA), shows that CESA9 mutation could affect integrity of CESA4/7/9 complexes, which may lead to rapid CESA proteasome degradation for low-DP cellulose biosynthesis. These may reduce cellulose CrI, which improves plant lodging resistance, a major and integrated agronomic trait on plant growth and grain production, and enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification by up to 2.3-fold and ethanol productivity by 34%-42%. This study has for the first time reported a direct modification for the low-DP cellulose production that has broad applications in biomass industries. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift, A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors

  15. How the use of nitrogen fertiliser may switch plant suitability for aphids: the case of Miscanthus, a promising biomass crop, and the aphid pest Rhopalosiphum maidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Florent; Chesnais, Quentin; Catterou, Manuella; Rambaud, Caroline; Doury, Géraldine; Ameline, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    The use of nitrogen fertiliser in agrosystems can alter plant nitrogen and consequently improve nutrient availability for herbivores, potentially leading to better performance for herbivores and higher pest pressure in the field. We compared, in laboratory conditions, the effects of nitrogen fertilisation on a promising biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus, and its parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. The plant-mediated effects were compared on the second trophic level, the green corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis. Results showed that the biomass and leaf C:N ratio of M. sinensis plants treated with nitrogen fertiliser were significantly greater than those of non-treated plants. As regards M. × giganteus and M. sacchariflorus, the only reported change was a significantly smaller leaf C:N ratio for treated M. sacchariflorus compared with non-treated plants. Surprisingly, nitrogen fertilisation had opposite effects on plant-herbivore interactions. Following nitrogen treatments, M. sinensis was less suitable in terms of intrinsic rate of increase for R. maidis, the feeding behaviour of which was negatively affected, while M. sacchariflorus and M. × giganteus exhibited greater suitability in terms of aphid weight. Nitrogen fertilisation had contrasting effects on the three species of Miscanthus plants. These effects cascaded up to the second trophic level, R. maidis aphid pests, either through a modification of their weight or demographic parameters. The implications of these results were discussed in the context of agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  17. Gene stacking of multiple traits for high yield of fermentable sugars in plant biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Aude; Chalvin, Camille; Shih, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production.Results: We have studied the basic mechanisms of cell wall biosynthesis and identified...... genes involved in biosynthesis of pectic galactan, including the GALS1 galactan synthase and the UDP-galactose/UDP-rhamnose transporter URGT1. We have engineered plants with a more suitable biomass composition by applying these findings, in conjunction with synthetic biology and gene stacking tools...... to vessels where this polysaccharide is essential. Finally, the high galactan and low xylan traits were stacked with the low lignin trait obtained by expressing the QsuB gene encoding dehydroshikimate dehydratase in lignifying cells.Conclusion: The results show that approaches to increasing C6 sugar content...

  18. Feasibility study of a biomass-fired cogeneration plant Groningen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, P.J.; Van Loo, S.; Webb, R.

    1996-06-01

    The feasibility of the title plant is determined for district heating and electricity supply of more than 1,000 houses in Groningen, Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the feasibility of such installations in a planned area of the city. Prices and supply of several biomass resources are dealt with: prunings of parks, public and private gardens, clean wood wastes, wood wastes from forests, wood from newly planted forests, specific energy crops (willows in high densities and short cycles). Prices are calculated, including transport to the gate of the premises where the cogeneration installations is situated. For the conversion attention is paid to both the feasibility of the use of a conventional cogeneration installation (by means of a steam turbine) and the use of a new conversion technique: combined cycle of a gasification installation and a cogeneration installation. 5 figs., 5 ills., 22 tabs., 1 appendix, 33 refs

  19. A Honey Bee Foraging approach for optimal location of a biomass power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, David; Jurado, Francisco [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain); Carabias, Julio; Ruiz-Reyes, Nicolas [Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Over eight million hectares of olive trees are cultivated worldwide, especially in Mediterranean countries, where more than 97% of the world's olive oil is produced. The three major olive oil producers worldwide are Spain, Italy, and Greece. Olive tree pruning residues are an autochthonous and important renewable source that, in most of cases, farmers burn through an uncontrolled manner. Besides, industrial uses have not yet been developed. The aim of this paper consists of a new calculation tool based on particles swarm (Binary Honey Bee Foraging, BHBF). Effectively, this approach will make possible to determine the optimal location, biomass supply area and power plant size that offer the best profitability for investor. Moreover, it prevents the accurate method (not feasible from computational viewpoint). In this work, Profitability Index (PI) is set as the fitness function for the BHBF approach. Results are compared with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), and Genetic Algorithms (GA). All the experiments have shown that the optimal plant size is 2 MW, PI = 3.3122, the best location corresponds to coordinate: X = 49, Y = 97 and biomass supply area is 161.33 km{sup 2}. The simulation times have been reduced to the ninth of time than the greedy (accurate) solution. Matlab registered is used to run all simulations. (author)

  20. Demonstration of a 1 MWe biomass power plant at USMC Base Camp Lejeune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, J.; Purvis, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A biomass energy conversion project is being sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demonstrate an environmentally and economically sound electrical power option for government installations, industrial sites, rural cooperatives, small municipalities, and developing countries. Under a cooperative agreement with EPA, Research Triangle Institute is initiating operation of the Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) biomass plant. Wood gasification combined with internal combustion engines was chosen because of (1) recent improvements in gas cleaning, (2) simple, economical operation for units less than 10 MW, and (3) the option of a clean, cheap fuel for the many existing facilities generating expensive electricity from petroleum fuels with reciprocating engines. The plant incorporates a downdraft, moving bed gasifier utilizing hogged waste wood from the Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, NC. A moving bed bulk wood dryer and both spark ignition and diesel engines are included. Unique process design features are briefly described relative to the gasifier, wood drying, tar separation, and process control. A test plan for process optimization and demonstration of reliability, economics, and environmental impact is outlined. (author)

  1. Higher plants as biomonitors of radionuclides in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two deciduous tree genera, linden (Tilia tomentosa L. and Tilia cordata Mill.) and chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), are analysed as biomonitors of 210 Pb and 7 Be in air. In a multi year study (2002 - 2009), conducted in three city parks in Belgrade, the content of 210 Pb and 7 Be in samples of leaves of linden and chestnut trees, and aerosols was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The differences seen in the radionuclides' activities across the measurement sites and between the tree genera are not significant, suggesting that the micro climate, level of air pollution and physiological characteristics of the trees have a negligible effect on the radionuclides' activities in leaves. Linear Pearson's correlation coefficients are used to correlate the 210 Pb and 7 Be activities in aerosols and in leaves. The results show that linden could be used as a 210 Pb biomonitor which provides information on the recent history of exposure. No large positive correlation is found for the 7 Be activities in leaves and aerosols, indicating that higher plants are not a suitable biomonitor for this radionuclide. [sr

  2. Large-scale biodiesel production using flue gas from coal-fired power plants with Nannochloropsis microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Sun, Faqiang; Yang, Miao; Lu, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Pan, Kehou

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a biofuel source has raised broad interest. Highly effective and economically feasible biomass generating techniques are essential to realize such potential. Flue gas from coal-fired power plants may serve as an inexpensive carbon source for microalgal culture, and it may also facilitate improvement of the environment once the gas is fixed in biomass. In this study, three strains of the genus Nannochloropsis (4-38, KA2 and 75B1) survived this type of culture and bloomed using flue gas from coal-fired power plants in 8000-L open raceway ponds. Lower temperatures and solar irradiation reduced the biomass yield and lipid productivities of these strains. Strain 4-38 performed better than the other two as it contained higher amounts of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, which are used for biodiesel production. Further optimization of the application of flue gas to microalgal culture should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  4. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were <1% if generalized models were used in place of species-specific models. Furthermore, application of generalized multispecies models did not introduce significant bias in biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species

  5. Environmental burdens over the entire life cycle of a biomass CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmeier, G.; Spitzer, J.; Resch, G.

    1998-01-01

    To increase the use of biomass for energy production it is important to know the possible and significant environmental effects. A life cycle inventory (LCI) was made on a 1.3 MW el biomass CHP plant located in Reuthe/Vorarlberg/Austria with the purpose of analysing the different environmental burdens over the entire life cycle. The plant is fired with coarse and small fuelwood (10,000 t/yr) from industrial waste and forest residues. The boiler for the steam process has a moving grate burner and a muffle burner. The annual production is 4700 MWh of electricity and 29,000 MWh of district heat. The methodology of the analysis is orientated on the ISO Committee Draft of the Series 13,600. The analysis was carried out for the different sections of the biomass plant over their entire life cycle-construction (1 yr), operation (20 yrs) and dismantling (1 yr). The plant in Reuthe, which is the first cogeneration system of this kind in Austria, is a model for other similar projects. The results are shown as environmental burdens of one year and of the entire life cycle. Some results of the life cycle inventory, like the mass and energy balances, selected emissions to air, allocation results and effects on carbon storage pools are given. The results demonstrate that depending on the stage and the period of life, different environmental burdens become significant, i.e. CO 2 emissions of fossil fuels during construction. NO x emission during operation, emissions to soil during dismantling. The different options for allocation the environmental burdens to electricity and heat show a wide range of possible results, depending on the choice of allocation parameters (energy, exergy, credits for heat or electricity, price) i.e. for the particles emissions: 161 mg/kWh el to minus 566 mg/kWh el , 0 mg/kWh th to 118 mg/kWh th . With the results of the analysis it is thus possible for future similar projects to know when and where significant environmental burdens might be further

  6. Phylogeny is a powerful tool for predicting plant biomass responses to nitrogen enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooliver, Rachel C; Marion, Zachary H; Peterson, Christopher R; Potts, Brad M; Senior, John K; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2017-08-01

    Increasing rates of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment to soils often lead to the dominance of nitrophilic plant species and reduce plant diversity in natural ecosystems. Yet, we lack a framework to predict which species will be winners or losers in soil N enrichment scenarios, a framework that current literature suggests should integrate plant phylogeny, functional tradeoffs, and nutrient co-limitation. Using a controlled fertilization experiment, we quantified biomass responses to N enrichment for 23 forest tree species within the genus Eucalyptus that are native to Tasmania, Australia. Based on previous work with these species' responses to global change factors and theory on the evolution of plant resource-use strategies, we hypothesized that (1) growth responses to N enrichment are phylogenetically structured, (2) species with more resource-acquisitive functional traits have greater growth responses to N enrichment, and (3) phosphorus (P) limits growth responses to N enrichment differentially across species, wherein P enrichment increases growth responses to N enrichment more in some species than others. We built a hierarchical Bayesian model estimating effects of functional traits (specific leaf area, specific stem density, and specific root length) and P fertilization on species' biomass responses to N, which we then compared between lineages to determine whether phylogeny explains variation in responses to N. In concordance with literature on N limitation, a majority of species responded strongly and positively to N enrichment. Mean responses ranged three-fold, from 6.21 (E. pulchella) to 16.87 (E. delegatensis) percent increases in biomass per g N·m -2 ·yr -1 added. We identified a strong difference in responses to N between two phylogenetic lineages in the Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus, suggesting that shared ancestry explains variation in N limitation. However, our model indicated that after controlling for phylogenetic non

  7. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savola, Tuula; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MW e combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO 2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO 2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  8. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  9. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  10. Herbivory alters plant carbon assimilation, patterns of biomass allocation and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiutta, María Laura; Scholz, Fabián Gustavo; Goldstein, Guillermo; Bucci, Sandra Janet

    2018-01-01

    Herbivory can trigger physiological processes resulting in leaf and whole plant functional changes. The effects of chronic infestation by an insect on leaf traits related to carbon and nitrogen economy in three Prunus avium cultivars were assessed. Leaves from non-infested trees (control) and damaged leaves from infested trees were selected. The insect larvae produce skeletonization of the leaves leaving relatively intact the vein network of the eaten leaves and the abaxial epidermal tissue. At the leaf level, nitrogen content per mass (Nmass) and per area (Narea), net photosynthesis per mass (Amass) and per area (Aarea), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), leaf mass per area (LMA) and total leaf phenols content were measured in the three cultivars. All cultivars responded to herbivory in a similar fashion. The Nmass, Amass, and PNUE decreased, while LMA and total content of phenols increased in partially damaged leaves. Increases in herbivore pressure resulted in lower leaf size and total leaf area per plant across cultivars. Despite this, stem cumulative growth tended to increase in infected plants suggesting a change in the patterns of biomass allocation and in resources sequestration elicited by herbivory. A larger N investment in defenses instead of photosynthetic structures may explain the lower PNUE and Amass observed in damaged leaves. Some physiological changes due to herbivory partially compensate for the cost of leaf removal buffering the carbon economy at the whole plant level.

  11. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  12. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  13. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huixiao; Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm 3 y −1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  14. The molecular basis of disease resistance in higher plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xxxxxx

    Therefore, manipulating a single transcription factor could have the same effect as manipulating a set of specific genes within the plant. As highlighted above, transgenic plants allow the targeted ... including molecular techniques and genetics will provide insights into pathogen-defense mechanism and subsequent disease ...

  15. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  16. Relative crystallinity of plant biomass: studies on assembly, adaptation and acclimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby Harris

    Full Text Available Plant biomechanical design is central to cell shape, morphogenesis, reproductive performance and protection against environmental and mechanical stress. The cell wall forms the central load bearing support structure for plant design, yet a mechanistic understanding of its synthesis is incomplete. A key tool for studying the structure of cellulose polymorphs has been x-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Relative crystallinity index (RCI is based on the x-ray diffraction characteristics of two signature peaks and we used this technique to probe plant assembly, adaptation and acclimation. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of cellulose synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a homozygous YFP::CESA6. Assembly: RCI values for stems and roots were indistinguishable but leaves had 23.4 and 21.6% lower RCI than stems and roots respectively. Adaptation: over 3-fold variability in RCI was apparent in leaves from 35 plant species spanning Ordovician to Cretaceous periods. Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry. Acclimation: biomass crystallinity was found to decrease under conditions of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light. Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

  17. Higher efficiency, lower bonuses. Financial incentives for power from biomass according to EEG 2012; Mehr Effizienz, weniger Boni. Die Foerderung von Strom aus Biomasse nach dem EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Dominik [Ecologic Institute, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The German parliament passed a total of eight new laws for the intended energy turnaround. Apart from changes in atomic law, the focus was on a complete amendment of the Renewables Act (EEG). The contribution outlines the new regulations for power generation from biomass from 2012. It indicates the changes from former regulations and describes the structural changes required for sustainable power supply from biomass, among others.

  18. Cesium-137 accumulation in higher plants before and after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawidis, T.; Drossos, E.; Papastefanou, C.; Heinrick, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in plant species of three biotypes of northern Greece, differing in location as well as in vegetation, are reported following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The cesium uptake by plants was due to the foliar deposition rather than the root uptake. The highest level of cesium in plants was found in Ranunculus sardous, a pubescent plant. The 137 Cs concentration was about 22kBq kg -1 d.w. A high level of cesium was also found in Salix alba ( 137 Cs: 19.6 kBq kg -1 d.w.), a deciduous tree showing that hairy leaves or leaves having rough and large surfaces can absorb greater amounts of radioactivity (surface effect). A comparison is also made between the results of measurements of the present study and the results of measurements of some herbarium plants collected one year before the accident as well as the results of measurements of some new plants grown and collected one year after the accident resulting in a natural removal rate of 137 Cs in plants varying from 14 to 130 days

  19. Reconciling functions and evolution of isoprene emission in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Francesco; Fineschi, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Compilation and analysis of existing inventories reveal that isoprene is emitted by c. 20% of the perennial vegetation of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Isoprene emitters are found across different plant families without any clear phylogenetic thread. However, by critically appraising information in inventories, several ecological patterns of isoprene emission can be highlighted, including absence of emission from C4 and annual plants, and widespread emission from perennial and deciduous plants of temperate environments. Based on this analysis, and on available information on biochemistry, ecology and functional roles of isoprene, it is suggested that isoprene may not have evolved to help plants face heavy or prolonged stresses, but rather assists C3 plants to run efficient photosynthesis and to overcome transient and mild stresses, especially during periods of active plant growth in warm seasons. When the stress status persists, or when evergreen leaves cope with multiple and repeated stresses, isoprene biosynthesis is replaced by the synthesis of less volatile secondary compounds, in part produced by the same biochemical pathway, thus indicating causal determinism in the evolution of isoprene-emitting plants in response to the environment. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with.

  1. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke.

  2. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S. [Telecommunication Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with. (author)

  3. Higher plant acclimation to solar ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robberecht, R.

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the relationship between plant sensitivity and epidermal uv attenuation, (2) the effect of phenotypic changes in the leaf epidermis, resulting from uv-B exposure, on plant sensitivity to uv radiation, and (3) the platicity of these changes in the epidermis leading to plant acclimation to uv-B radiation. A mechanism of uv-B attenuation, possibly involving the biosynthesis of uv-absorbing flavonoid compounds in the epidermis and mesophyll under the stress of uv-B radiation, and a subsequent increase in the uv-B attenuation capacity of the epidermis, is suggested. The degree of plant sensitivity and acclimation to natural and intensified solar uv-B radiation may involve a dynamic balance between the capacity for uv-B attenuation and uv-radiation-repair mechanisms in the leaf

  4. Hybrid concentrated solar power (CSP)–biomass plants in a semiarid region: A strategy for CSP deployment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Rafael; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Szklo, Alexandre; Milani, Rodrigo; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The production of electricity using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is not yet possible in Brazil due to the technology’s high capital costs and the lack of a local industry. However, this study introduces a low-cost approach to CSP in Brazil by describing and simulating the operation of hybrid CSP plants that use sustainably managed biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast. Biomass hybridisation of a CSP plant with a solar multiple (SM) of 1.2 and a biomass fill fraction (BFF) of 30% can generate electricity at 110 USD/MWh. The high direct normal irradiation (DNI) and the availability of local low-cost biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast suggest the possibility of developing a CSP industry capable of supplying low-cost components under a national program framework, with the co-benefits of local job and income generation. For example, the deployment of 10 CSP plants of 30 MWe each would generate 760 direct and indirect jobs during the 24 months of plant construction and approximately 2100 annual jobs associated with the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the generating units. These 10 new units would generate additional local income on the order of USD 57 million. - Highlights: • CSP plant with supplementary biomass hybridisation is a strategic option for Brazil. • DNI and biomass availability in Brazil's semiarid can foster local CSP industry. • LCOE of CSP would cost 11 cent USD/kWh becoming competitive at solar auctions. • Co-benefits of local job and income generation due to CSP in Brazil are high.

  5. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  6. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1997-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)

  7. Engineering Plant Biomass Lignin Content and Composition for Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Marie Welker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e., cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation from other polymers of various biomass feedstocks. Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the biosynthetic pathway of lignin has been elucidated in great detail, the random nature of the polymerization (free radical coupling process poses challenges for its depolymerization into valuable bioproducts. The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. This review highlights research development in lignin biosynthesis, lignin genetic engineering and different biological and chemical means of depolymerization used to convert lignin into biofuels and bioproducts.

  8. Life cycle cost of biomass power plant: Monte Carlo simulation of investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of life cycle cost is considered as an important instrument for designing and evaluating success of every project. The aim of this work is to determine the precise impact of the investment costs and future operating and maintenance costs of CHP biomass plant. By using the Monte Carlo simulation are determined variations in the settings and the possible impact on the investment risk. The results show that the investment is justified, thanks to the positive outcome of the net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR and the payback period. The greatest impact on the variability of annual profits have operating costs, which have the highest coefficient of variation of 6.44% and the largest share. Variability of net present value of 4% is acceptable, and the investment is considered as stable.

  9. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)

  10. Root excretions in tobacco plants and possible implications on the Iron nutrition of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, A

    1969-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that riboflavin produced in roots and perhaps other compounds produced either in roots or in microorganisms can facilitate either or both the absorption and translocation of iron in higher plants. Riboflavin production and increased iron transport are characteristic of iron-deficient plants, both are decreased by nitrogen deficiency, both evidently can be regulated by a microorganism. When large amounts of iron was transported in the xylem exudate of tobacco, riboflavin was also. An excess of the chelating agent, EDTA, without iron seems to increase the iron uptake from an iron chelate, EDDHA. All these effects are probably related and knowledge of them may help solve iron deficiency problems in horticultural crops.

  11. Regulation of phosphate starvation responses in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao Juan; Finnegan, Patrick M

    2010-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting mineral nutrient for plant growth. Many soils worldwide are deficient in soluble inorganic phosphate (P(i)), the form of P most readily absorbed and utilized by plants. A network of elaborate developmental and biochemical adaptations has evolved in plants to enhance P(i) acquisition and avoid starvation. Controlling the deployment of adaptations used by plants to avoid P(i) starvation requires a sophisticated sensing and regulatory system that can integrate external and internal information regarding P(i) availability. In this review, the current knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms that control P(i) starvation responses and the local and long-distance signals that may trigger P(i) starvation responses are discussed. Uncharacterized mutants that have P(i)-related phenotypes and their potential to give us additional insights into regulatory pathways and P(i) starvation-induced signalling are also highlighted and assessed. An impressive list of factors that regulate P(i) starvation responses is now available, as is a good deal of knowledge regarding the local and long-distance signals that allow a plant to sense and respond to P(i) availability. However, we are only beginning to understand how these factors and signals are integrated with one another in a regulatory web able to control the range of responses demonstrated by plants grown in low P(i) environments. Much more knowledge is needed in this agronomically important area before real gains can be made in improving P(i) acquisition in crop plants.

  12. Effect of single and mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on plant biomass yield and PAH dissipation during phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Batty, Lesley Claire

    2018-04-27

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites have a mixture of PAH of varying concentration which may affect PAH dissipation differently to contamination with a single PAH. In this study, pot experiments investigated the impact of PAH contamination on Medicago sativa, Lolium perenne, and Festuca arundinacea biomass and PAH dissipation from soils spiked with phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flu), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in single and mixed treatments. Stimulatory or inhibitory effects of PAH contamination on plant biomass yields were not different for the single and mixed PAH treatments. Results showed significant effect of PAH treatments on plant growth with an increased root biomass yield for F. arundinacea in the Phe (175%) and Flu (86%) treatments and a root biomass decrease in the mixed treatment (4%). The mean residual PAHs in the planted treatments and unplanted control for the single treatments were not significantly different. B[a]P dissipation was enhanced for single and mixed treatments (71-72%) with F. arundinacea compared to the unplanted control (24-50%). On the other hand, B[a]P dissipation was inhibited with L. perenne (6%) in the single treatment and M. sativa (11%) and L. perenne (29%) in the mixed treatment. Abiotic processes had greater contribution to PAH dissipation compared to rhizodegradation in both treatments. In most cases, a stimulatory effect of PAH contamination on plant biomass yield without an enhancement of PAH dissipation was observed. Plant species among other factors affect the relative contribution of PAH dissipation mechanisms during phytoremediation. These factors determine the effectiveness and suitability of phytoremediation as a remedial strategy for PAH-contaminated sites. Further studies on impact of PAH contamination, plant selection, and rhizosphere activities on soil microbial community structure and remediation outcome are required.

  13. Stabilization and incorporation into biomass of specific plant carbons during biodegradation in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, D.E.; Kassim, G.; Jarrell, W.M.; Martin, J.P.; Haider, K.; Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig

    1983-01-01

    The effect of soil type and incubation period on the biodegradation, incorporation into biomass, and stabilization in humus of 14 C-labeled cornstalk and/or wheat straw lignin, polysaccharide, and protein fractions were followed for one year. After 6 months, 56-68%, 6-21%, 71-81%, 63-75%, and 56-68% from wheat straw and from the lignin, polysaccharide, and protein fraction of wheat straw had been lost as CO 2 , respectively. Loss of CO 2 increased only slightly with further incubation. Greater amounts of CO 2 , especially during the early incubation stages, were evolved from neutral and alkaline soils (pH 7.0, 7.4, 7.8) than from acid soils (pH 5.0, 5.5). After one year, a major portion of the residual C from lignin was recovered in the humic acid fraction, relatively small amounts, 5 to 17% were lost upon acid hydrolysis, and generally <1% was found present in the biomass. Lesser amounts of the polysaccharide and protein carbons were incorporated into the humic acid, 17-20% and 16-27% respectively. Relatively greater amounts of the residual carbons of the polysaccharide and protein were incorporated into the biomass, 4.9-7.8% and 4.6-13.4%, respectively and higher percentages were lost upon acid hydrolysis, 56 to 81%. The results for the whole wheat straw were very similar to those of the protein fraction. Overall, more residual C was stabilized into humic acid in the acid soils than in the neutral soils. (orig.)

  14. Soil-derived microbial consortia enriched with different plant biomass reveal distinct players acting in lignocellulose degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Cortes Tolalpa, Larisa; van Elsas, Jan

    Here, we investigated how different plant biomass, and-for one substrate-pH, drive the composition of degrader microbial consortia. We bred such consortia from forest soil, incubated along nine aerobic sequential - batch enrichments with wheat straw (WS1, pH 7.2; WS2, pH 9.0), switchgrass (SG, pH

  15. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient att...

  16. Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, L.; Hirsch, P. R.; Witty, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different ...

  17. Renewable energies: the choice of invitation to tender candidates for the electric power plants supplied by biomass or biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to the french objectives of renewable energies development, the Ministry of Industry proposed an invitation to tender for the realization at the first of january 2007 of electric power plants (more than 12 MW) from biomass and biogas. This document presents the selected projects. (A.L.B.)

  18. Cultivation of Podospora anserina on soybean hulls results in an efficient enzyme cocktail for plant biomass hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Bouzid, Ourdia; Ruiz-Robleto, J.; Post, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341667374; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Altelaar, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; de Vries, Ronald P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186324960

    2017-01-01

    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic

  19. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results

  20. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  1. The contrasting effects of nutrient enrichment on growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissue in coastal wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Matthew A.; Jesse, Amber; Tabet, Basam; Reef, Ruth; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters can have consequences for the growth, function and soil processes of coastal wetlands. Our aims were to assess how nutrient enrichment affects growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissues of a common and widespread mangrove, Avicennia marina, and how

  2. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, W.; Hofmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The question pursued within the Bavarian climate research programme (BayFORKLIM) in the present context was as follows: Does the fact that UV-B radiation increases with growing site elevation mean that the low sensitivity of predominantly alpine plants compared with that of lowland plants is attributable to their different genetic constitution, possibly as a result of selective pressure and/or de alpine species have a greater capacity to develop protective mechanisms? Pairs and triplets of species belonging to the same genus but occuring at different site elevations were grown from seeds in a greenhouse that is, without UV-B. In order to determine their capacity to adapt to UV-B radiation, some of the plants were additionally exposed to UV-B for 5-6 weeks prior to sensitivity testing. Sensitivity was tested by exposing the plants to additional UV-B of different intensities in test chambers. Visible damage, ranging from light bronzing or yellowing to withering, served as an assessment criterion. Levels of UV-B absorbing substances (phenylpropane species, usually flavonoids) were also measured in these plants. The results obtained permit the following conclusions: The greater UV-B resistance of alpine species compared with that of lowland species of the same genus is not attributable to their genetic constitution but rather to their superior adaptability. Superior resistance is in part due to a greater accumulation of UV-B absorbing substances. Distinct differences in sensitivity between different genera could lead to population shifts within ecosystems as a result of increased UV-B radiation. (orig./KW) [de

  3. Microbial Community Activity And Plant Biomass Are Insensitive To Passive Warming In A Semiarid Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, N. J.; Fehmi, J. S.; Rasmussen, C.; Gallery, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microorganisms drive biogeochemical and nutrient cycling through the production of extracellular enzymes that facilitate organic matter decomposition and the flux of large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Although dryland ecosystems occupy over 40% of land cover and are projected to expand due to climate change, much of our current understanding of these processes comes from mesic temperate ecosystems. Understanding the responses of these globally predominant dryland ecosystems is therefore important yet complicated by co-occurring environmental changes. For example, the widespread and pervasive transition from grass to woody dominated landscapes is changing the hydrology, fire regimes, and carbon storage potential of semiarid ecosystems. In this study, we used a novel passive method of warming to conduct a warming experiment with added plant debris as either woodchip or biochar, to simulate different long-term carbon additions that accompany woody plant encroachment in semiarid ecosystems. The response of heterotrophic respiration, plant biomass, and microbial activity was monitored bi-annually. We hypothesized that the temperature manipulations would have direct and indirect effects on microbial activity. Warmer soils directly reduce the activity of soil extracellular enzymes through denaturation and dehydration of soil pores and indirectly through reducing microbe-available substrates and plant inputs. Overall, reduction in extracellular enzyme activity may reduce decomposition of coarse woody debris and potentially enhance soil carbon storage in semiarid ecosystems. For all seven hydrolytic enzymes examined as well as heterotrophic respiration, there was no consistent or significant response to experimental warming, regardless of seasonal climatic and soil moisture variation. The enzyme results observed here are consistent with the few other experimental results for warming in semiarid ecosystems and indicate that the controls over soil

  4. PHYSIOLOGY OF ION TRANSPORT ACROSS THE TONOPLAST OF HIGHER PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Pantoja, Omar

    1996-06-01

    The vacuole of plant cells plays an important role in the homeostasis of the cell. It is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH, sequestration of toxic ions and xenobiotics, regulation of cell turgor, storage of amino acids, sugars and CO2 in the form of malate, and possibly as a source for elevating cytoplasmic calcium. All these activities are driven by two primary active transport mechanisms present in the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). These two mechanisms employ high-energy metabolites to pump protons into the vacuole, establishing a proton electrochemical potential that mediates the transport of a diverse range of solutes. Within the past few years, great advances at the molecular and functional levels have been made on the characterization and identification of these mechanisms. The aim of this review is to summarize these studies in the context of the physiology of the plant cell.

  5. An expanding universe of circadian networks in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda-Paz, Jose L; Kay, Steve A

    2010-05-01

    Extensive circadian clock networks regulate almost every biological process in plants. Clock-controlled physiological responses are coupled with daily oscillations in environmental conditions resulting in enhanced fitness and growth vigor. Identification of core clock components and their associated molecular interactions has established the basic network architecture of plant clocks, which consists of multiple interlocked feedback loops. A hierarchical structure of transcriptional feedback overlaid with regulated protein turnover sets the pace of the clock and ultimately drives all clock-controlled processes. Although originally described as linear entities, increasing evidence suggests that many signaling pathways can act as both inputs and outputs within the overall network. Future studies will determine the molecular mechanisms involved in these complex regulatory loops. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphology and biomass variations in root system of young tomato plants (Solanum sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Gil, Marta A.; Fernández, Ana Fita; Ruiz Sánchez, María del C.; Bolarín Jiménez, María del C.

    2016-01-01

    The scarce exploitation of genotypic variability present in plant roots is an attractive breeding choice with regard to abiotic stresses and supports the objective of this work, which is to identify genotypic variation in root system traits of tomato genotypes (Solanum sp.). Thus, five tomato genotypes were studied: the commercial hybrid cultivar Jaguar (S. lycopersicum), Pera, Volgogradiskij and PE-47 entry (S. pennellii), which were collected in Peru, and the interspecific hybrid PeraxPE-47. Plants were grown in hydroponics for 26 days since germination; their roots were extracted and images were digitalized on scanner to evaluate total length, average diameter, the projected area and root length, following the categories per diameter of the whole root system through software Win Rhizo Pro 2003. The dry mass of roots and aerial parts was also recorded. Results indicated that genotypes differed in morphology, length according to diameter, root system spatial configuration and biomass, mainly with respect to the wild salinity resistant species PE-47. The interspecific hybrid PxPE-47 could be used as a rootstock to increase salt tolerance of susceptible cultivars. (author)

  7. Taxonomic and Functional Responses of Soil Microbial Communities to Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue; Zhou, Xishu; Hale, Lauren; Yuan, Mengting; Feng, Jiajie; Ning, Daliang; Shi, Zhou; Qin, Yujia; Liu, Feifei; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Xueduan; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-01-01

    Clipping, removal of aboveground plant biomass, is an important issue in grassland ecology. However, few studies have focused on the effect of clipping on belowground microbial communities. Using integrated metagenomic technologies, we examined the taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to annual clipping (2010–2014) in a grassland ecosystem of the Great Plains of North America. Our results indicated that clipping significantly (P microbial respiration rates. Annual temporal variation within the microbial communities was much greater than the significant changes introduced by clipping, but cumulative effects of clipping were still observed in the long-term scale. The abundances of some bacterial and fungal lineages including Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were significantly (P microbial communities were significantly correlated with soil respiration and plant productivity. Intriguingly, clipping effects on microbial function may be highly regulated by precipitation at the interannual scale. Altogether, our results illustrated the potential of soil microbial communities for increased soil organic matter decomposition under clipping land-use practices. PMID:29904372

  8. Report on technical measurements concerning measurement of the suction of tanks at Fangel biomass conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The inconveniences caused by the odours emerging from the biomass conversion plant in Fangel, Denmark, and the actions taken in an attempt to reduce them, are described. The plant has on several occasions been threatened with being closed down because of the smell. Airtight coverings have been fixed on all the open tanks, and the suction element has been tested to see if it is airtight. Ozone has been added in order to help get rid of the smell. Measurements have shown that it is possible to attain a small vacuum in the storage tank under normal operation, if there is a surfeit of pumping there will be too high pressure. In relation to pumping-in the pressure can be too high in the first and medium tank. Flow, pressure, hydrogen sulphide and methane concentration changes significantly in relation to the various pumping frequences. The level of hydrogen sulphide removal in the biofilter was 70-85%. The flow of hydrogen sulphide becomes less after the addition of ozone. Measurements implied that the tanks were airtight. Larger vacuums can be achieved by changing the shape of the pipe system and increasing the flow. (AB)

  9. No Evidence for Differential Biomass and Mineral Content in Adult Plants Grown from Dimorphic Suaeda Aralocaspica Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, H. L.; Tian, C. Y.; Huang, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The production of two or more seed types by a single plant is known as seed heteromorphism. There have been many comparisons of seed traits or growth between plants grown from heteromorphic seeds. However, information is scarce regarding the mineral contents of adult plants from heteromorphic seeds. We herein present biomass and mineral profiles of adult plants grown from dimorphic seeds (non-dormant brown seeds and black seeds with non-deep physiological dormancy) of the annual desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica at different nutrient and salinity levels. Although nutrient and salinity treatments affected dry weight and mineral content, there were no significant differences among S. aralocaspica seed-dimorphic plants under the same experimental conditions. This study is one of the few to compare the physiological responses between seed-heteromorphic plants, and reveals that mineral status corresponds with growth performance in these plants. (author)

  10. The ecological effects of different loading rates of metalaxyl on microbial biomass in unplanted and planted soils under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansourzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungicides are most widely used pesticides in Iran and the world. Application of fungicides may affect the populations and activity of soil microorganisms, particularly fungi, with a consequence for soil fertility and crop growth. In the current study, the effects of different levels of metalaxyl on soil microbial biomass carbon (C and nitrogen (N, microbial biomass C/N ratio and metabolic quotient under field conditions were assessed. Two levels of metalaxyl (30 and 60 kg.ha-1 were applied in planted soils with corn and unplanted calcareous soils, using a split-plots experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The C and N contents in soil microbial biomass as well as metabolic quotient were measured at 30 and 90 days after the onset of the experiment. Results showed that in cultivated soils metalaxyl application at 30 kg.ha-1 increased (15-80% significantly (p≤0.01 the amounts of microbial biomass C and N at both intervals (except microbial biomass C at 90 days compared to the control soil (0 kg.ha-1, while in uncultivated soils both microbial biomass C and N reduced by almost 1-34%. Microbial biomass C/N ratios in unplanted soils decreased (15 and 53% with increasing loading rates of metalaxyl, without a clear effect in cultivated soils. On the other hand, metabolic quotient values reduced (48% at 30 and 60 kg.ha-1 metalaxyl in corn-cultivated soils when compared to untreated soils while in uncultivated soils metalaxyl rate at 30 kg.a-1 had the greatest values at 30 days, and increased with increasing the levels of metalaxyl at 90 days. In summary, application of metalaxyl can either reduce or increase soil biological indices, and the direction and changes are depended upon the application rate of metalaxyl, time elapsed since metalaxyl application and the presence or absence of plant.

  11. Exclusion of brown lemmings reduces vascular plant cover and biomass in Arctic coastal tundra: resampling of a 50 + year herbivore exclosure experiment near Barrow, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D R; Lara, M J; Tweedie, C E; Shaver, G R; Batzli, G O; Shaw, J D

    2011-01-01

    To determine the role lemmings play in structuring plant communities and their contribution to the 'greening of the Arctic', we measured plant cover and biomass in 50 + year old lemming exclosures and control plots in the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The response of plant functional types to herbivore exclusion varied among land cover types. In general, the abundance of lichens and bryophytes increased with the exclusion of lemmings, whereas graminoids decreased, although the magnitude of these responses varied among land cover types. These results suggest that sustained lemming activity promotes a higher biomass of vascular plant functional types than would be expected without their presence and highlights the importance of considering herbivory when interpreting patterns of greening in the Arctic. In light of the rapid environmental change ongoing in the Arctic and the potential regional to global implications of this change, further exploration regarding the long-term influence of arvicoline rodents on ecosystem function (e.g. carbon and energy balance) should be considered a research priority.

  12. Biosorption of Cd+2 by green plant biomass, Araucaria heterophylla: characterization, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, B.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Murthy, Ch V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The present study attempted to analyze the biosorption behavior of novel biosorbent, Araucaria heterophylla (green plant) biomass, to remove Cd+2 from solutions against various parameters, i.e., initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, sorbent dosage and biomass particle size. The maximum biosorption was found to be 90.02% at pH 5.5 and biosorption capacity ( q e) of Cd+2 is 9.2506 mg g-1. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms were studied and it was observed that Freundlich model is the best fit than the Langmuir model with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of Cd+2 well followed the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 0.999. Thermodynamic studies observed that the process is exothermic (Δ H ° negative). Free energy change (Δ G °) with negative sign reflected the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process. The chemical functional -OH groups, CH2 stretching vibrations, C=O carbonyl group of alcohol, C=O carbonyl group of amide, P=O stretching vibrations and -CH groups were involved in the biosorption process. The XRD pattern of the A. heterophylla was found to be mostly amorphous in nature. The SEM studies showed Cd+2 biosorption on selective grains of the biosorbent. It was concluded that A. heterophylla leaf powder can be used as an effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solution.

  13. Balance sheet of the first year of O&M at the Ence biomass plant in Mérida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Having received the Final Commissioning Protocol from the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development, Environment and Energy of the Extremadura Regional Government, Ence’s biomass generation plant in Mérida started to deliver energy to the electrical system in April 2014. With the construction and commissioning of the Sener turnkey project for the biomass plant having been completed, Ence - the engineering and technology group – set up the company Biomasa Mérida O&M S.L. to provide operation and maintenance works for the facility’s first two years of operation. Following signature of the provisional acceptance of the plant by Ence, Biomasa Mérida O&M S.L. accepted its mission and started work on 15 September 2014. (Author)

  14. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  15. Comparative studies on the photosynthesis of higher plants, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hideo; Iwai, Sumio; Yamada, Yoshio.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper, studies were carried out to confirm whether carbon atoms except C-4 of C 4 -compounds were involved in the photosynthetic sugar formation in C 4 plants. In feeding of uniformly-labeled malate to maize leaves, sugar formation under aerobic conditions was 3 times as large as that under anaerobic conditions. There was no detectable difference in the amount of activity in the sugar formed from β-carboxyl-labeled malate between aerobic and anaerobic conditions; however. Under anaerobic conditions, sugar was formed from alanine-1- 14 C in maize but not in rice leaves. Sugar formation of this case might have occurred by the direct conversion of pyruvate to sugar via PEP and PGA. From these results, we assume that the following three pathways function cooperatively in the photosynthetic sugar formation in C 4 -plants. 1) One carbon atom at number 4 in C 4 -dicarboxylic acid is transferred to RuDP, resulting in the formation of PGA and this is metabolized into sugar. 2) After transferring C-4 of C 4 -dicarboxylic acid, the remaining C 3 -compound is introduced into the TCA cycle and completely degradated there, and thus-produced CO 2 is refixed by PEP carboxylase in the mesophyll and metabolized into sugar the same pathway as in atmospheric CO 2 fixation. 3) The remaining C 3 -compound is directly converted to PEP and then to sugar via PGA. (auth.)

  16. Mechanistic studies of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeehan, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that elicits a wide variety of responses in plant tissue. Among these responses are the hastening of abscission, ripening and senescence. In 1979 it was discovered that 1-amino-1-cyclopropane carboxylic acid is the immediate biosynthetic precursor to ethylene. Given the obvious economic significance of ethylene production the authors concentrated their studies on the conversion of ACC to ethylene. They delved into mechanistic aspects of ACC oxidation and they studied potential inhibitors of ethylene forming enzyme (EFE). They synthesized various analogs of ACC and found that EFE shows good stereodiscrimination among alkyl substituted ACC analogs with the 1R, 2S stereoisomer being processed nine times faster than the 1S, 2R isomer in the MeACC series. They also synthesized 2-cyclopropyl ACC which is a good competitive inhibitor of EFE. This compound also causes time dependent loss of EFE activity leading us to believe it is an irreversible inhibitor of ethylene formation. The synthesis of these analogs has also allowed them to develop a spectroscopic technique to assign the relative stereochemistry of alkyl groups. 13 C NMR allows them to assign the alkyl stereochemistry based upon gamma-shielding effects on the carbonyl resonance. Lastly, they measured kinetic isotope effects on the oxidation of ACC in vivo and in vitro and found that ACC is oxidized by a rate-determining 1-electron removal from nitrogen in close accord with mechanisms for the oxidation of other alkyl amines

  17. CBL-CIPK network for calcium signaling in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Sheng

    Plants sense their environment by signaling mechanisms involving calcium. Calcium signals are encoded by a complex set of parameters and decoded by a large number of proteins including the more recently discovered CBL-CIPK network. The calcium-binding CBL proteins specifi-cally interact with a family of protein kinases CIPKs and regulate the activity and subcellular localization of these kinases, leading to the modification of kinase substrates. This represents a paradigm shift as compared to a calcium signaling mechanism from yeast and animals. One example of CBL-CIPK signaling pathways is the low-potassium response of Arabidopsis roots. When grown in low-K medium, plants develop stronger K-uptake capacity adapting to the low-K condition. Recent studies show that the increased K-uptake is caused by activation of a specific K-channel by the CBL-CIPK network. A working model for this regulatory pathway will be discussed in the context of calcium coding and decoding processes.

  18. Conserved upstream open reading frames in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Carolyn J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upstream open reading frames (uORFs can down-regulate the translation of the main open reading frame (mORF through two broad mechanisms: ribosomal stalling and reducing reinitiation efficiency. In distantly related plants, such as rice and Arabidopsis, it has been found that conserved uORFs are rare in these transcriptomes with approximately 100 loci. It is unclear how prevalent conserved uORFs are in closely related plants. Results We used a homology-based approach to identify conserved uORFs in five cereals (monocots that could potentially regulate translation. Our approach used a modified reciprocal best hit method to identify putative orthologous sequences that were then analysed by a comparative R-nomics program called uORFSCAN to find conserved uORFs. Conclusion This research identified new genes that may be controlled at the level of translation by conserved uORFs. We report that conserved uORFs are rare (

  19. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  20. The Forest Energy Chain in Tuscany: Economic Feasibility and Environmental Effects of Two Types of Biomass District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fagarazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine two biomass district heating plants operating in Tuscany, with a specific focus on the ex-post evaluation of their economic and financial feasibility and of their environmental benefits. The former biomass district heating plant supplies only public users (Comunità Montana della Lunigiana, CML: administrative body that coordinates the municipalities located in mountain areas, the latter supplies both public and private users (Municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana. Ex-post investment analysis was performed to check both the consistency of results with the forecasts made in the stage of the project design and on the factors, which may have reduced or jeopardized the estimated economic performance of the investment (ex-ante assessment. The results of the study point out appreciable results only in the case of biomass district heating plants involving private users and fuelled by biomasses sourced from third parties. In this case, the factors that most influence ex-post results include the conditions of the woody biomass local market (market prices, the policies of energy selling prices to private users and the temporal dynamics of private users’ connection. To ensure the consistency of ex-post economic outcome with the expected results it is thus important to: (i have good knowledge of the woody local market; (ii define energy selling prices that should be cheap for private users but consistent with energy production costs and (iii constrain private users beforehand to prevent errors in the plant design and in the preliminary estimate of return on investment. Moreover, the results obtained during the monitoring activities could help in providing information on the effectiveness of the supporting measures adopted and also to orient future choices of policy makers and particularly designers, to identify the most efficient configuration of district heating organization for improving energy and

  1. Transgenic tobacco plants having a higher level of methionine are more sensitive to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacham, Yael; Matityahu, Ifat; Amir, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid the low level of which limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ-SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes. FA plants exhibit slightly reduced growth, and metabolic profiling analysis shows that they have higher contents of stress-related metabolites. Despite this, FA plants were more sensitive to short- and long-term oxidative stresses. In addition, compared with WT plants and transgenic plants expressing an empty vector, the primary metabolic profile of FA was altered less during oxidative stress. Based on morphological and metabolic phenotypes, we strongly proposed that FA plants having higher levels of methionine suffer from stress under non-stress conditions. This might be one of the reasons for their lesser ability to cope with oxidative stress when it appeared. The observation that their metabolic profiling is much less responsive to stress compared with control plants indicates that the delta changes in metabolite contents between non-stress and stress conditions is important for enabling the plants to cope with stress conditions. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  3. Evaluation of design and operation of fuel handling systems for 25 MW biomass fueled CFB power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, D.

    1991-01-01

    Two circulating fluidized bed, biomass fueled, 25MW power plants were placed into operation by Thermo Electron Energy Systems in California during late 1989. This paper discusses the initial fuel and system considerations, system design, actual operating fuel characterisitics, system operation during the first year and modifications. Biomass fuels handled by the system include urban/manufacturing wood wastes and agricultural wastes in the form of orchard prunings, vineyard prunings, pits, shells, rice hulls and straws. Equipment utilized in the fuel handling system are described and costs are evaluated. Lessons learned from the design and operational experience are offered for consideration on future biomass fueled installations where definition of fuel quality and type is subject to change

  4. Review about corrosion of superheaters tubes in biomass plants; Revision sobre la corrosion de tubos sobrecalentadores en plantas de biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2006-07-01

    The design of new biomass-fired power plants with increased steam temperature raises concerns of high-temperature corrosion. The high potassium and chlorine contents in many biomass, specially in wheat straw, are potentially harmful elements with regard to corrosion. Chlorine may cause accelerated corrosion resulting in increased oxidation, metal wastage, internal attack, void formations and loose non-adherent scales. The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are expected to occur due to Cl-rich deposits formed on superheater tubes. In the first part of this revision the corrosion mechanism proposed are described in function of the conditions and compounds involved. The second part is focused on the behaviour of the materials tested so far in the boiler and in the laboratory. First the traditional commercial alloys are studied and secondly the new alloys and the coasting. (Author). 102 refs.

  5. Superheater corrosion in biomass-fired power plants: Investigation of Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Carlsen, B; Biede, O

    2002-01-01

    -fired Masnedø combined heat and power (CHP) plant to investigate corrosion at temperatures higher than that of the actual plant. The highest steam temperature investigated was 570°C. Various alloys of 12-22% chromium content were welded into this test loop. Their corrosion rates were similar and increased...... condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A test superheater was built into the straw...... with temperature. The mechanism of attack was grain boundary attack as a precursor to selective chromium depletion of the alloy. In addition welds coupling various tubes sections were also investigated. It was seen that there was preferential attack around those welds that had a high nickel content. The welds...

  6. System analysis of CO_2 sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-01

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO_2 sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO_2 sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO_2 capture, CO_2 transport and CO_2 storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO_2 sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO_2 from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO_2 neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO_2 emissions to be established until 2020, as well as the use of CO_2 as

  7. Alternative catalysts and technologies for NOx removal from biomass- and wastefired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard

    removed with the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using a vanadia-tungsta-titania (VWT) catalyst and ammonia (NH3) as reductant. For application in coal- and gas-red power plants this technology is mature. However, when ring biomass the ue gas contains potassium in large amounts which deactivates....... The deNOx activity over Ag/Al2O3 used in ethanol-SCR is practically as much reduced as in the NH3-SCR case over the traditional VWT catalyst. Furthermore, poisoning with potassium leads to unselective oxidation of the hydrocarbons instead of NO reduction and SO2 concentrations as low as 20 ppm can....... At 150 C, in the presence of 10 % H2O, the catalyst under patenting matches the activity of the commercial VWT one at 220 C. However, ue gases at the tail-end position can contain up to 20 % H2O, increasing the temperature of activity parity to 180 C. Furthermore, the catalyst is also sensitive to SO2...

  8. Biomass analysis at palm oil factory as an electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusniati; Parinduri, Luthfi; Krianto Sulaiman, Oris

    2018-04-01

    Biomassa found in palm oil mill industryis a by-product such as palm shell, fiber, empty fruit bunches and pome. The material can be used as an alternative fuel for fossil fuel. On PTPN IVpalm oil millDolokSinumbah with a capacity of 30 tons tbs/hour of palm fruit fiber and palm shells has been utilized as boiler fuel to produce steam to supplyboilers power plant. With this utilization, the use of generators that using fossil fuel can be reduced, this would provide added value for the company. From the analysis, the fiber and shell materials were sufficient to supply 18 tons/hoursteam for the boiler. Shell material even excess as much as 441,5 tons per month. By utilizing the 2 types of biomass that is available alone, the electricity needs of the factory of 734 Kwh can be met. While other materials such as empty bunches and pome can be utilized to increase the added value and profitability for the palm oil mill.

  9. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on sugar production from plant biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.W.; Ciegler, A.

    1982-01-01

    During the past several years, evidence has indicated the effectiveness of gamma radiation in altering lignocellulosic polymers to enhance their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic attack. Reassessment of high-energy radiation as a tool in reducing the use of fossil fuel suggested that the procedure might have practical value in modification of lignocellulosics prior to hydrolysis to sugars for use in fermentation. Select combinations of chemical pretreatment and gamma radiation can also lead to production of feedstocks useful to the chemical synthesis industry. Preliminary research indicated that the properties of lignocellulosics are changed and a variety of compounds are produced by gamma irradiation. In general, gamma irradiation of lignocellulosics such as wood, paper, and crop residues causes depolymerization of biopolymers and decomposition of carbohydrates at dosages between 10 and 100 Mrad, and the resulting materials shows a loss of crystallinity and increase in digestibility by subsequent hydrolysis by acid and enzymes. These changes may be advantageously used for production of energy from biomass. Large quantities of gamma-emitting 137 Cs are found in fission-product wastes stored since the initiation of 239 Pu production during World War II. The task of disposing of the radioactive wastes produced by nuclear power plants is often cited as one of the principal drawbacks to the use of nuclear fission for electric power generation. 1 figure, 3 tables

  10. Ecological Insights into the Dynamics of Plant Biomass-Degrading Microbial Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; DeAngelis, Kristen M; Singer, Steven W; Salles, Joana Falcão; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2017-10-01

    Plant biomass (PB) is an important resource for biofuel production. However, the frequent lack of efficiency of PB saccharification is still an industrial bottleneck. The use of enzyme cocktails produced from PB-degrading microbial consortia (PB-dmc) is a promising approach to optimize this process. Nevertheless, the proper use and manipulation of PB-dmc depends on a sound understanding of the ecological processes and mechanisms that exist in these communities. This Opinion article provides an overview of arguments as to how spatiotemporal nutritional fluxes influence the successional dynamics and ecological interactions (synergism versus competition) between populations in PB-dmc. The themes of niche occupancy, 'sugar cheaters', minimal effective consortium, and the Black Queen Hypothesis are raised as key subjects that foster our appraisal of such systems. Here we provide a conceptual framework that describes the critical topics underpinning the ecological basis of PB-dmc, giving a solid foundation upon which further prospective experimentation can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

    2009-11-15

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

  12. Intelligent Control Framework for the Feeding System in the Biomass Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent control framework for biomass drying process with flue gases based on FLC (fuzzy logic controller and CAN (Controller Area Network bus. In the operation of a biomass drying process, in order to get the biomass with the set-point low moisture content dried by waste high temperature flue gases, it is necessary to intelligent control for the biomass flow rate. Use of an experiment with varied materials at different initial moisture contents enables acquisition of the biomass flow rates as initial setting values. Set the error between actual straw moisture content and set-point, and rate of change of error as two inputs. the biomass flow rate can be acquired by the fuzzy logic computing as the output. Since the length of dryer is more than twenty meters, the integration by the CAN bus can ensure real-time reliable data acquisition and processing. The control framework for biomass drying process can be applied to a variety of biomass, such as, cotton stalk, corn stalk, rice straw, wheat straw, sugar cane. It has strong potential for practical applications because of its advantages on intelligent providing the set-point low moisture content of biomass feedstock for power generation equipment.

  13. Retrofit options to enable biomass firing at Irish peat plants: Background report 4.2 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Blaney, G.

    1995-05-01

    An overview is given of the most promising options for retrofitting existing Irish peat plants to accept biomass fuel. It is expected that with low investment costs the existing peat stations can be adapted to enable them to fire biomass. It will also be possible to co-fire peat and biomass, this option will become a way of using biomass in power generation with relatively low risk, both on the field of initial investments and supply security. The objectives of this report are: assessing the different technical options for retrofitting the plants to enable biomass firing; provide investment costs, efficiencies, emissions and expected lifetimes for the different retrofit options. The results from this study are used in the final integration phase of the EU-Joule project 'Energy from biomass'. Chapter 2 deals with methodological considerations which have been made in estimation of the investment costs. In chapter 3 the present situation is described. Both peat harvesting and power plant operation of both sod and milled peat plants are explained. Also some past experiences with wood chips firing in Irish peat stations are discussed. Chapter 4 gives a general view on retrofitting peat plants to enable biomass firing. Some starting points like biomass fuel feeding and emission standards that have to be met are highlighted. The rationale behind four main choices are given. Finally, a technical description is presented of the two boiler adaptations that will be considered among the different retrofit options, namely conversion of milled peat units into bubbling fluidized bed and into a whole tree energy unit. Six retrofit options are described in more detail in chapter 5. Information is given on the present status of the plants, the technical considerations of the retrofit, expected performance and an estimation of a range in which the investment costs can be expected. 4 figs., 10 tabs., 5 appendices

  14. Exploring evaluation to influence the quality of pulverized coal fly ash. Co-firing of biomass in a pulverized coal plant or mixing of biomass ashes with pulverized coal fly ash; Verkennende evaluatie kwaliteitsbeinvloeding poederkoolvliegas. Bijstoken van biomassa in een poederkoolcentrale of bijmenging van biomassa-assen met poederkoolvliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Cnubben, P.A.J.P [ECN Schoon Fossiel, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-08-01

    In this literature survey the consequences of co-firing of biomass and mixing of biomass ash with coal fly ash on the coal fly ash quality is evaluated. Biomass ash considered in this context is produced by gasification, pyrolysis or combustion in a fluidized bed. The irregular shape of biomass ash obtained from gasification, pyrolysis or combustion has a negative influence on the water demand in concrete applications of the coal fly ash resulting from mixing biomass ash and coal fly ash. In case of co-firing, high concentrations of elements capable of lowering the ash melting point (e.g., Ca and Mg) may lead to more ash agglomeration. This leads to a less favourable particle size distribution of the coal fly ash, which has a negative impact on the water demand in cement bound applications. Gasification, pyrolysis and combustion may lead to significant unburnt carbon levels (>10%). The unburnt carbon generally absorbs water and thus has a negative influence on the water demand in cement-bound applications. The contribution of biomass ash to the composition of coal fly ash will not be significantly different, whether the biomass is co-fired or whether the biomass ash is mixed off-line with coal fly ash. The limit values for Cl, SO4 and soluble salts can form a limitation for the use of coal fly ash containing biomass for cement-bound applications. As side effects of biomass co-firing, the level of constituents such as Na, K, Ca and Mg may lead to slagging and fouling of the boiler. In addition, a higher emission of flue gas contaminants As, Hg, F, Cl and Br may be anticipated in case more contaminated biomass streams are applied. This may also lead to a higher contamination level of gypsum produced from flue gas cleaning residues. Relatively clean biomass streams (clean wood, cacao shells, etc.) will hardly lead to critical levels of elements from a leaching point of view. More contaminated streams, such as sewage sludge, used and preserved wood, petcoke and RDF

  15. Relationship between Remote Sensing Data, Plant Biomass and Soil Nitrogen Dynamics in Intensively Managed Grasslands under Controlled Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Christoph; Watson, Conor; Berendonk, Clara; Becker, Rolf; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Wichern, Florian

    2017-06-23

    The sustainable use of grasslands in intensive farming systems aims to optimize nitrogen (N) inputs to increase crop yields and decrease harmful losses to the environment at the same time. To achieve this, simple optical sensors may provide a non-destructive, time- and cost-effective tool for estimating plant biomass in the field, considering spatial and temporal variability. However, the plant growth and related N uptake is affected by the available N in the soil, and therefore, N mineralization and N losses. These soil N dynamics and N losses are affected by the N input and environmental conditions, and cannot easily be determined non-destructively. Therefore, the question arises: whether a relationship can be depicted between N fertilizer levels, plant biomass and N dynamics as indicated by nitrous oxide (N₂O) losses and inorganic N levels. We conducted a standardized greenhouse experiment to explore the potential of spectral measurements for analyzing yield response, N mineralization and N₂O emissions in a permanent grassland. Ryegrass was subjected to four mineral fertilizer input levels over 100 days (four harvests) under controlled environmental conditions. The soil temperature and moisture content were automatically monitored, and the emission rates of N₂O and carbon dioxide (CO₂) were detected frequently. Spectral measurements of the swards were performed directly before harvesting. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and simple ratio (SR) were moderately correlated with an increasing biomass as affected by fertilization level. Furthermore, we found a non-linear response of increasing N₂O emissions to elevated fertilizer levels. Moreover, inorganic N and extractable organic N levels at the end of the experiment tended to increase with the increasing N fertilizer addition. However, microbial biomass C and CO₂ efflux showed no significant differences among fertilizer treatments, reflecting no substantial changes in the soil

  16. Alkali deposits found in biomass power plants: A preliminary investigation of their extent and nature. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1995-04-15

    Alkali in the ash of annual crop biomass fuels creates serious fouling and slagging in conventional boilers. Even with the use of sorbents and other additives, power plants can only fire limited amounts of these fuels in combination with wood. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), US Department of Energy, and the biomass power industry carried out eight full-scale firing tests and several laboratory experiments to study the nature and occurrence of deposits with the goal of increasing the quantities of these biofuels that can be used. This report describes the results of the laboratory and power plant tests that included: tracking and analyzing fuels and deposits by various methods; recording operating conditions; and extensive laboratory testing. The paper describes the occurrence of deposits, fuel and deposit analyses, boiler design and operation, fouling and slagging indicators, and recommendations. 37 refs., 41 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  18. Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo P.; Järvinen, Mika P.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: • Part load simulation of a cogeneration plant integrated with biomas fast pyrolysis. • Analysis of energetic and environmental performance. • Assessment of different uses of the pyrolysis products

  19. Phylogeny in Defining Model Plants for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: A Comparative Study of Brachypodium distachyon, Wheat, Maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus Leaf and Stem Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108–117 mg ethanol·g−1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

  20. Reducing the costs of landscape restoration by using invasive alien plant biomass for bioenergy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William HL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available reviews the extent of IAPs as well as efforts to eradicate them, and identifies value-adding opportunities to use the cleared IAP biomass for reducing the costs of landscape restoration. Since bioenergy is suited to a large portion of the biomass...

  1. Investigation of biomass production, crude protein and starch content in laboratory wastewater treatment systems planted with Lemna minor and Lemna gibba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrou, Evangelia I; Kora, Elianta; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2018-03-09

    The use of duckweed-based wastewater treatment systems for producing biomass with high crude protein and starch content was investigated in the current study. For this reason, three lab-scale systems were used; System 1 was planted with Lemna minor, System 2 with Lemna gibba and System 3 with the combination of the two duckweeds. The studied duckweeds were cultivated using secondary treated wastewater as substrate (Phase A), in the presence of excess NH 4 -N (Phase B) and using water with no nutrients (Phase C). All systems achieved average NH 4 -N removal higher that 90%. The specific duckweeds growth rates and the specific duckweeds growth rates normalized to the area ranged between 0.14 d -1 and 8.9 g m -2  d -1 (System 1) to 0.19 d -1 and 14.9 g m -2  d -1 (System 3). The addition of NH 4 -N resulted in a significant increase of biomass protein content, reaching 44.4% in System 3, 41.9% in System 2 and 39.4% in System 1. The transfer of biomass in water containing no nutrients resulted in the gradual increment of the starch content up to the end of the experiment. The highest starch content was achieved for the combination of the two duckweeds (46.1%), followed by L. gibba (44.9%) and L. minor (43.9%).

  2. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  3. Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin

    2018-03-01

    As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO 2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO 2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO 2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO 2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO 2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO 2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  5. Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieleman, Wouter I. J.; Vicca, Sara; Dijkstra, Feike A.

    2012-01-01

    , possibly due to the warming‐induced acceleration of decomposition, implying that progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) may not occur as commonly as anticipated from single factor [ CO2 ] treatment studies. Responses of total plant biomass, especially of aboveground biomass, revealed antagonistic...

  6. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  7. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje A. Wolff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  8. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  9. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  10. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas.The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy...... loss in torrefaction, the total efficiencies are reduced to 64% (RC) and 58% (OT). The two plants produce DME at an estimated cost of $11.9/GJLHV (RC) and $12.9/GJLHV (OT). If a credit is given for storing the CO2 captured, the future costs may become as low as $5.4/GJLHV (RC) and $3.1/GJLHV (OT)....... process that takes place at 200–300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2...

  11. Diverging temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development explain the overall effect of temperature on biomass accumulation in wheat leaves and grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nicholas C; Parent, Boris

    2017-01-09

    There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rate of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering rates of respiration and photosynthesis. A model describing the net effects of these processes on biomass would be useful, but would need to reconcile reported differences in the effects of night and day temperature on plant productivity. In this study, the working hypothesis was that the temperature responses of CO 2 assimilation and plant development rates were divergent, and that their net effects could explain observed differences in biomass accumulation. In wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, we followed the temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration and leaf elongation, and confirmed that their responses diverged. We measured the amount of carbon assimilated per "unit of plant development" in each scenario and compared it to the biomass that accumulated in growing leaves and grains. Our results suggested that, up to a temperature optimum, the rate of any developmental process increased with temperature more rapidly than that of CO 2 assimilation and that this discrepancy, summarised by the CO 2 assimilation rate per unit of plant development, could explain the observed reductions in biomass accumulation in plant organs under high temperatures. The model described the effects of night and day temperature equally well, and offers a simple framework for describing the effects of temperature on plant growth. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Monitoring of the energy performance of a district heating CHP plant based on biomass boiler and ORC generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, Dario; Renzi, Massimiliano; Gasparella, Andrea; Baratieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    More than seventy district heating (DH) plants based on biomass are operating in South Tyrol (Italy) and most of them supply heat to residential districts. Almost 20% of them are cogenerative systems, thus enabling primary energy savings with respect to the separate production of heat and power. However, the actual performance of these systems in real operation can considerably differ from the nominal one. The main objectives of this work are the assessment of the energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled with an Organic Rankine Cycle (i.e. ORC) generator under real operating conditions and the identification of its potential improvements. The fluxes of energy and mass of the plant have been measured onsite. This experimental evaluation has been supplemented with a thermodynamic model of the ORC generator, calibrated with the experimental data, which is capable to predict the system performance under different management strategies of the system. The results have highlighted that a decrease of the DH network temperature of 10 °C can improve the electric efficiency of the ORC generator of one percentage point. Moreover, a DH temperature reduction could decrease the main losses of the boiler, namely the exhaust latent thermal loss and the exhaust sensible thermal loss, which account for 9% and 16% of the boiler input power, respectively. The analysis of the plant has pointed out that the ORC pump, the flue gases extractor, the thermal oil pump and the condensation section fan are the main responsible of the electric self-consumption. Finally, the negative effect of the subsidisation on the performance of the plant has been discussed. - Highlights: • Energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled to an ORC turbine in real operation. • Potential improvements of a CHP plant connected to a DH network. • Performance prediction by means of a calibrated ORC thermodynamic model. • Influence of the DH temperature on the electric efficiency. • Impact of the

  13. Predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) for emission control in biomass fired plants; Predikterande emissionsmaetsystem (PEMS) foer emissionskontroll i biobraensleeldade foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, H; Sarkoezi, L; Trenkle, S

    1996-08-01

    An alternative method for estimation of NO{sub x}-emissions from biomass fired plants has been investigated. The method, `Predictive emission monitoring` (PEMS), implicates the creation of a mathematical formula. The formula expresses the relations between NO{sub x}-emissions and various operating and external parameters, such as flue gas temperature, excess combustion air and heat load. In this study the applicability of PEMS has been tested for two plants both of type travelling stokers. The most important results of the study are: PEMS is suitable for emission monitoring for some types of biomass fired plants (for example travelling stokers) even if the plant is fired with fuel with varying water content. In most cases it should be sufficient if the relation is based on oxygen level in the flue gas and plant load, with the possible addition of flue gas temperature and/or furnace temperature rate. These parameters are usually measured in any case, which means that no additional investment in instrumentation is necessary. In this study many measured parameters (for example the throttle levels) did not affect the NO{sub x}-emissions. A PEMS relation is only applicable for a specific plant and for a fixed validity range. Thus the function should be performed in such a way that it covers the limits of the operating parameters of the plant. Usage of different fuels or drift optimization can only be done within the validity range. Good combustion conditions could be necessary to receive a usable PEMS-function. Before creating the PEMS-function the combustion and the emission levels must be optimized. In plants with very fluctuating combustion, for example fixed stokers, it is possible that PEMS leads to not satisfying results. The total cost for a PEM-function can be calculated to be about 50-70% compared to a CEM during a period of a decade. 8 refs, 13 figs, 15 tabs, 8 appendices

  14. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  15. Formowanie powierzchni asymilacyjnej i biomasy przez rośliny buraków cukrowych [Formation of the assimilation area and biomass by sugar beet plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Olech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out of the assimilation area, NAR value, the crop growth rate (C and of the yield of roots and leaves of sugar beet plants in a production field during two successive vegetation years. An interdependence was found between the formation of the assimilation area in the canopy and the final yield of biomass. The assimilation area depended mainly on the date of sowing. In 1975, the sowing was earlier by 15 days, amid this resulted in a much more favourable LAI and in a higher yield of biomass. During both vegetation years, a violent decrease of the crop growth rate was observed at the end of August and at the beginning of September. This may be due to an unfavourable change in the ratio of the area of younger, photosynthetically active leaves to older, less active leaves and also to the increased participation of the loss of the assimilates resulting from stronger respiration of the fast growing roots while the photosynthesis of the whole plants decreases.

  16. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha− 1 application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency...... of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha− 1 straw...... ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash...

  17. Microbial Biomass Changes during Decomposition of Plant Residues in a Lixisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachaka, SK.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A lixisol was amended with four different alley cropping species: Senna siamea, Leucaena leucocephala, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla. Soil samples were incubated for 140 days at 25 °C and the soil microbial biomass was determined by the ninhydrin extraction method along the incubation period. The soil microbial biomass values ranged between 80 and 600 mg.kg-1 and followed, in all cases, the decreasing order: Leucaena> Senna> Flemingia> Dactyladenia.

  18. Investigate the plant biomass response to climate warming in permafrost ecosystem using matrix-based data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Du, Z.; Schuur, E.; Luo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost is one of the most vulnerable regions on the earth with over 40% world soil C represented in this region. Future climate warming potentially has a great impact on this region. On one hand, rising temperature accelerates permafrost soil thaw and release more C from land. On the other hand, warming may also increase the plant growing season length and therefore negatively feedback to climate change by increasing annual land C uptake. However, whether permafrost vegetation biomass change in response to warming can sequester more C has not been well understood. Manipulated air warming experiments reported that air warming has very limited impacts on grass land productivity and biomass growth in permafrost region [Mauritz et al., 2017]. It is hard to reveal the mechanisms behind the limited air warming response directly from experiment data. We employ a vegetation C cycle matrix model based on Community land model 4.5 (CLM4.5) and data assimilation technique to investigate how much do phenology and physiology processes contribute to the response respectively. Our results indicate phenology contributes the most in response to warming. The shift of vegetation parameter distributions after 2012 indicate vegetation acclimation may explain the modest response in plant biomass to air warming. The results suggest future model development need to take vegetation acclimation more seriously. The novel matrix-based model allows data assimilation to be conducted more efficiently. It provides more functional understanding of the models as well as the mechanism behind experiment data.

  19. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  20. Radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow soils and its relation to 137Cs soil-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmer, Michael; Hromatka, Angelika; Lettner, Herbert; Strebl, Friederike

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow sites and its relation to the soil-to-plant transfer. Soil and plant samples were taken in August 1999 from an altitude transect (800-1600 m.a.s.l.) at Gastein valley, Austria. Soil samples were subdivided into 3-cm layers for analyses of total, K 2 SO 4 -extractable and microbially stored 137 Cs. Microbial biomass was measured by the fumigation extraction method, and fungal biomass was quantified using ergosterol as biomarker molecule. In general, the quantity of 137 Cs stored in the living soil microbial biomass was relatively small. At the high-altitude meadows, showing high amounts of fungal biomass, microbially stored 137 Cs amounted to 0.64 ± 0.14 kBq m -2 which corresponds to about 1.2-2.7% of the total 137 Cs soil inventory. At lower altitudes, microbial 137 Cs content was distinctly smaller and in most cases not measurable at all using the fumigation extraction method. However, a positive correlation between the observed soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factor, microbially stored 137 Cs and fungal biomass was found, which indicates a possible role of fungal biomass in the storage and turnover of 137 Cs in soils and in the 137 Cs uptake by plants

  1. Future changes in South American biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra is dependent on applied atmospheric forcings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Liam; Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven

    2017-04-01

    It remains poorly understood why the position of the forest-savanna biome boundary, in a domain defined by precipitation and temperature, differs in South America, Africa and Australia. Process based Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are a valuable tool to investigate the determinants of vegetation distributions, however, many DGVMs fail to predict the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating forest-savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone appear to be insufficient to predict these boundaries in South America. We hypothesize that interactions between precipitation, constraints on tree rooting depth and fire, affect the probability of savanna occurrence and the position of the savanna-forest boundary. We tested our hypotheses at tropical forest and savanna sites in Brazil and Venezuela using a novel DGVM, aDGVM2, which allows plant trait spectra, constrained by trade-offs between traits, to evolve in response to abiotic and biotic conditions. Plant hydraulics is represented by the cohesion-tension theory, this allowed us to explore how soil and plant hydraulics control biome distributions and plant traits. The resulting community trait distributions are emergent properties of model dynamics. We showed that across much of South America the biome state is not determined by climate alone. Interactions between tree rooting depth, fire and precipitation affected the probability of observing a given biome state and the emergent traits of plant communities. Simulations where plant rooting depth varied in space provided the best match to satellite derived biomass estimates and generated biome distributions that reproduced contemporary biome maps well. Future projections showed that biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra will change, however, the magnitude of these changes are highly dependent on the applied atmospheric forcings.

  2. Enhanced azo dye removal in a continuously operated up-flow anaerobic filter packed with henna plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingang, E-mail: hjg@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Mengke; Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Xiuyan; Chen, Tingting [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wen, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tang, Junhong; Xie, Zhengmiao [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Henna stem mixed with ceramic media in UAF enhanced the removal of AO7. • Bio-reduction was the main AO7 removal pathway in henna-added UAF. • Adsorption and endogenous reduction were the main removal pathways in the control. • Henna played a multiple role in providing electron donors and redox mediator. - Abstract: Effects of henna plant biomass (stem) packed in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) on an azo dye (AO7) removal were investigated. AO7 removal, sulfanilic acid (SA) formation, and pseudo first-order kinetic constants for these reactions (k{sub AO7} and k{sub SA}) were higher in the henna-added UAF (R2) than in the control UAF without henna (R1). The maximum k{sub AO7} in R1 and R2 were 0.0345 and 0.2024 cm{sup −1}, respectively, on day 18; the corresponding molar ratios of SA formation to AO7 removal were 0.582 and 0.990. Adsorption and endogenous bio-reduction were the main AO7 removal pathways in R1, while in R2 bio-reduction was the dominant. Organics in henna could be released and fermented to volatile fatty acids, acting as effective electron donors for AO7 reduction, which was accelerated by soluble and/or fixed lawsone. Afterwards, the removal process weakened over time, indicating the demand of electron donation and lawsone-releasing during the long-term operation of UAF.

  3. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    different chemical composition, but equal radioactivity, exhibited different levels of HR, dependent upon the absorbed dose of radiation. Remarkably, we observed a much higher frequency of HR in plants exposed to chronic irradiation when compared to acutely irradiated plants. Although acute application of 0.1-0.5 Gy did not lead to an increase of frequency of HR, the chronic exposure of the plants to several orders of magnitude lower dose of 200 {mu}Gy led to a 5-6-fold induction of the frequency of HR as compared to the control.

  4. In vitro culture of higher plants as a tool in the propagation of horticultural crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro culture of higher plants is the culture, under sterile conditions, of plants, seeds, embryos, organs, explants, tissues, cells and protoplasts on nutrient media. This type of culture has shown spectacular development since 1975, resulting in the production and regeneration of viable

  5. Bioinformatics analysis of the predicted polyprenol reductase genes in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluates the bioinformatics methods to analyze twenty-four predicted polyprenol reductase genes from higher plants on GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, similarity, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic. The physicochemical properties of plant polyprenol showed diversity among the observed genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of plant polyprenol genes followed the ratio order of α helix > random coil > extended chain structure. The values of chloroplast but not signal peptide were too low, indicated that few chloroplast transit peptide in plant polyprenol reductase genes. The possibility of the potential transit peptide showed variation among the plant polyprenol reductase, suggested the importance of understanding the variety of peptide components of plant polyprenol genes. To clarify this finding, a phylogenetic tree was drawn. The phylogenetic tree shows several branches in the tree, suggested that plant polyprenol reductase genes grouped into divergent clusters in the tree.

  6. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  7. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  8. Risk spreading, habitat selection and division of biomass in a submerged clonal plant: Responses to heterogeneous copper pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Haowen; Wang, Qingfeng; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity of contaminant-stress can be an important environmental factor for clonal plants. We focused on Cu transport among the clones, the foraging or fugitive behavior and biomass allocation of submerged plant, Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, exposed to heterogeneous sediments. This study was carried out in aquatic mesocosms between March and September 2010. Cu accumulated in contaminated ramets was exported horizontally via stolons to other ramets in uncontaminated patches, and then transported both acropetally to leaves and basipetally to belowground structures. There was no indication that V. natans adopted morphological plasticity in response to heterogeneous contaminated habitat. In contrast to predictions, more biomass was allocated to belowground tissues in contaminated patches. We concluded that risk of Cu stress spread among submerged clones, and V. natans did not actively select habitat in contaminated patchy environment. Furthermore, V. natans adopted compensatory investments instead of division of labor to acquire nutrient and survive. -- Highlights: ► Response of submerged clonal plant in heterogeneous Cu soil was studied. ► Cu can spread among V. natans clones in contaminated patches. ► Ramets of V. natans grow randomly instead of habitat selection actively. ► Individual growth in patchy pollution was relative independent rather than DoL. -- Cu can spread among V. natans clones and the clones grow randomly and relative independent in heterogeneous Cu-contaminated sediment

  9. The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link in LSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Gitelson, I. I.

    The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link have been considered, as the sterile plant growth in closed ecological human life support systems is impossible. One of the ways of controlling the link microbial community - building sterile intrasystem barriers between the system links - is problematic and dangerous. An accidental breach of microorganisms through the barrier can lead to disastrous consequences - either unrestrained reproduction of microbes including pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species or, on the contrary, elimination of species most valuable for the given microbial community. Another way of control is maintaining suitable conditions for human and plant habitat, creating some constructive system properties directed at microbial exchange weakening. The use of catalytic furnace for oxidizing organic impurities in system atmosphere, UV processing of air and plants in the phytotron before and in the beginning of the experiments promoted decrease of microorganism amount in the link. To restrict the distribution of microorganisms of the higher plant link in other system links the module for yield processing being under constant suction was isolated. To prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the system we applied the UV processing of all objects transferred to the system and continuous atmosphere overpressure inside the system. It is important to detect the ultimate amount of microorganism indicator groups in the higher plant link biocenosis. It would indicate the microbial pollution of the link and be the signal for regulation of its microbial population or processing technologies in the studied objects. There were two 4-month experiments with the "human - higher plants" closed ecosystem carried out. There was no progressive deterioration for plants, decrease of wheat yield to zero and rapid growth of microorganisms in the higher plant link after making all listed arrangements. Microbiological analyses of the studied

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs

  12. Energy balance of algal biomass production in a 1-ha “Green Wall Panel” plant: How to produce algal biomass in a closed reactor achieving a high Net Energy Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tredici, M.R.; Bassi, N.; Prussi, M.; Biondi, N.; Rodolfi, L.; Chini Zittelli, G.; Sampietro, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tetraselmis suecica production in a 1-ha GWP plant in Tuscany (Italy) has a NER < 1. • Major energy costs are embodied energy of GWP and mixing. • In a suitable location (North Africa) the NER increases by 40%. • Integration of photovoltaic in the GWP allows to achieve a NER of 1.7. • T. suecica cultivated in a GWP plant can yield up to 30 t of protein ha −1 year −1 . - Abstract: The annual productivity of Tetraselmis suecica in a 1-ha Green Wall Panel-II (GWP-II) plant in Tuscany (Italy) is 36 t (dry weight) ha −1 year −1 , which corresponds to an energy output of 799 GJ ha −1 year −1 . The energy inputs necessary to attain that productivity amount to 1362 GJ ha −1 year −1 , mainly given by the embodied energy of the reactor (about 30%), mixing (about 40%), fertilizers (11%) and harvesting (10%). The Net Energy Ratio (NER) of T. suecica production is thus 0.6. In a more suitable location (North Africa) productivity nearly doubles, reaching 66 t ha −1 year −1 , but the NER increases only by 40% and the gain (difference between output and inputs) remains negative. In a GWP-II integrated with photovoltaics (PV), the NER becomes 1.7 and the gain surpasses 600 GJ ha −1 year −1 . Marine microalgae cultivation in a GWP plant, in a suitable location, can attain high biomass productivities and protein yields 30 times higher than those achievable with traditional crops (soya). When the GWP reactor is integrated with PV, the process attains a positive energy balance, which substantially enhances its sustainability

  13. Model evaluation of plant metal content and biomass yield for the phytoextraction of heavy metals by switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu; Juang, Kai-Wei

    2012-06-01

    To better understand the ability of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial grass often relegated to marginal agricultural areas with minimal inputs, to remove cadmium, chromium, and zinc by phytoextraction from contaminated sites, the relationship between plant metal content and biomass yield is expressed in different models to predict the amount of metals switchgrass can extract. These models are reliable in assessing the use of switchgrass for phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. In the present study, linear and exponential decay models are more suitable for presenting the relationship between plant cadmium and dry weight. The maximum extractions of cadmium using switchgrass, as predicted by the linear and exponential decay models, approached 40 and 34 μg pot(-1), respectively. The log normal model was superior in predicting the relationship between plant chromium and dry weight. The predicted maximum extraction of chromium by switchgrass was about 56 μg pot(-1). In addition, the exponential decay and log normal models were better than the linear model in predicting the relationship between plant zinc and dry weight. The maximum extractions of zinc by switchgrass, as predicted by the exponential decay and log normal models, were about 358 and 254 μg pot(-1), respectively. To meet the maximum removal of Cd, Cr, and Zn, one can adopt the optimal timing of harvest as plant Cd, Cr, and Zn approach 450 and 526 mg kg(-1), 266 mg kg(-1), and 3022 and 5000 mg kg(-1), respectively. Due to the well-known agronomic characteristics of cultivation and the high biomass production of switchgrass, it is practicable to use switchgrass for the phytoextraction of heavy metals in situ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Belowground plant biomass of mountain grassland affected by regular and manipulated rainfall in 2006 and 2007

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 19-22 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : root increments * total belowground biomass * manipulated rainfall Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Direct conversion of plant biomass to ethanol by engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-06-17

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  16. The influence of plant-associated filter feeders on phytoplankton biomass: a mesocosm study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Pals, A.; De Meester, L.; Muylaert, K.

    2010-01-01

    Low phytoplankton biomass usually occurs in the presence of submerged macrophytes, possibly because submerged macrophytes enhance top-down control of phytoplankton by offering a refuge for efficient grazers like Daphnia against fish predation. However, other field studies also suggest that submerged

  17. Simulating the partitioning of biomass and nitrogen between roots and shoot in crop and grass plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of the assimilate partitioning between roots and shoot has been one of the components that need improvement in crop growth models. In this study we derived two equations for root-shoot partitioning of biomass and nitrogen (N) that hold for crops grown under steady-state conditions.

  18. Plant biomass increase linked to biological activity in soils amended with sewage sludge compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Burgos, A.; Lopez-Lopez, G.; Vera, J.; Rovira, J. M.; Reolid, C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-01-01

    Sewage sludge compost application to almond tree plantations presents a potential management alternative to combat soil mismanagement in Mediterranean areas where almonds are grown. this practice could also be used to restore vegetable biomass to soils which are not fertile enough to support other crops, as well as to fight climatic change. (Author)

  19. Plant biomass increase linked to biological activity in soils amended with sewage sludge compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Burgos, A.; Lopez-Lopez, G.; Vera, J.; Rovira, J. M.; Reolid, C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-07-01

    Sewage sludge compost application to almond tree plantations presents a potential management alternative to combat soil mismanagement in Mediterranean areas where almonds are grown. this practice could also be used to restore vegetable biomass to soils which are not fertile enough to support other crops, as well as to fight climatic change. (Author)

  20. Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for Different Planting Dates and Seeding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated nitrogen (N) fertilizer costs have renewed interest in alternative N sources, such as legumes. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume capable of producing considerable biomass in a short period of time. A randomized complete block design with a split-plot restriction and fou...

  1. Carbon-Flow-Based Modeling of Ecophysiological Processes and Biomass Dynamics of Submersed Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    availability of tuber growth data was insufficient. A translocation rate of 19 percent of net photosynthesis , typical for the related seagrasses (Wetzel and...20 Figure 4. Relational diagram illustrating photosynthesis , respiration, and biomass...rate of CO2 assimilation ( photosynthesis ) of the SAV community depends on the radi- ant energy absorbed by the canopy, which is a function of

  2. Evaluation of carbon storage in soil and plant biomass of primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon sequestration in a forest ecosystem is an important determinant of the local and regional carbon stock. This study monitored forest types and carbon storage in both biomass and soil within primary mixed deciduous forests (PMDF) and secondary mixed deciduous forests (SMDF). One study plot measuring 50 x 50 m ...

  3. A management guide for planting and production of switchgrass as a biomass crop in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Christian, D.G.; Bassam, N.E.; Sauerbeck, G.; Alexopoulou, E.; Sharma, N.; Piscioneri, I.

    2004-01-01

    Switchgrass is a perennial C4 grass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55º N latitude to deep into Mexico. It is used for soil conservation, forage production, as an ornamental grass and more recently as a biomass crop for ethanol, fibre, electricity and heat production. As

  4. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    ) process and the Stirling engine process. The ORC process represents an economically interesting technology for small-scale biomass-fired combined heat and power plants in a power range between 400 and 1,500 kWel. A newly developed ORC technology with a nominal electric capacity of 1,000 kW was implemented...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  5. Biomass stabilization in the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Sevilla (Spain); Gutierrez, J.C. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Dept. de Ciencias Ambientales, Sevilla (Spain); Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla, Grupo Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Sludge stabilization processes include both volatile solid destruction and biomass stabilization. Traditionally, both processes have been considered together, in such a way that, when volatile solid destruction is achieved, the biomass is considered stabilized. In this study, volatile solids reduction and biomass stabilization in the anaerobic digestion of primary, secondary and mixed sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants were researched in batch cultures by measurements of suspended solids and suspended lipid-phosphate. The estimated kinetic constants were higher in all sludge types tested for the biomass stabilization process, indicating that volatile solids destruction and biomass stabilization are not parallel processes, since the latter one is reached before the former. (Author)

  6. Cocombustion of biomass in coal-fired power plants; Meestoken van biomassa in kolengestookte E-centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrink, W.G.M. [Stork Thermeq, Hengelo (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the desk study is to determine to what degree several types of biomass can be cofired with existing coal fired utility boilers in the Netherlands. All results with regard to boiler performances are obtained by making use of a computer model of a typical coal fired boiler which make part of a 600 MWe coal fired power plant. Because the existing coal fired units in the Netherlands do deviate more or less from the used model all outcomes and conclusions of this study are indicative. Slagging and corrosion which become more important when firing biogas in a coal fired boiler are considered superficially. More close investigations are necessary when carry out concrete projects. Furthermore all results are based on 100% boiler load and may not be used or extrapolated to part load conditions. The extent of firing biomass gas may depend on available space in the boiler house and correlated restrictions for necessary constructive adaptations. These aspects were leave out of consideration. For information the necessary size of piping for biomass gas from gasifier to the boiler has been determined for several amounts of biomass. [Dutch] Het doel van de studie is te onderzoeken hoeveel biomassa, in percentage van het thermisch vermogen, volgens verschillende concepten kan worden meegestookt in een kolengestookte elektriciteitscentrale. Dit wordt in deze studie behandeld aan de hand van een aantal aspecten: Rookgashoeveelheden door de ketel. Hierbij kornen de volgende zaken aan de orde: snelheden, drukval, belasting van DeNox, DeSox en E-filters, capaciteit van de ventilatoren; Rookgastemperaturen. Dit betreft temperaturen uitlaat vuurhaard, uitlaat ketel en uitlaat LUVO (luchtverhitter); Verslakking en corrosie van oververhitters; Water/stoomzijdige flows. Dit betreft aspecten als flows, temperaturen, flow door de turbine (slikvermogen) en uitlaatconditie stoomturbine (vochtgehalte). Voor de verwerking van biomassa worden alleen vergassing (in hoofdzaak) en, minder

  7. The in-line measurement of plant cell biomass using radio frequency impedance spectroscopy as a component of process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Tanja; Blessing, Daniel; Hellwig, Stephan; Sack, Markus

    2013-10-01

    Radio frequency impedance spectroscopy (RFIS) is a robust method for the determination of cell biomass during fermentation. RFIS allows non-invasive in-line monitoring of the passive electrical properties of cells in suspension and can distinguish between living and dead cells based on their distinct behavior in an applied radio frequency field. We used continuous in situ RFIS to monitor batch-cultivated plant suspension cell cultures in stirred-tank bioreactors and compared the in-line data to conventional off-line measurements. RFIS-based analysis was more rapid and more accurate than conventional biomass determination, and was sensitive to changes in cell viability. The higher resolution of the in-line measurement revealed subtle changes in cell growth which were not accessible using conventional methods. Thus, RFIS is well suited for correlating such changes with intracellular states and product accumulation, providing unique opportunities for employing systems biotechnology and process analytical technology approaches to increase product yield and quality. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Optimizing the supply chain of biomass and biogas for a single plant considering mass and energy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Münster, Marie; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    plants. In this paper, a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for finding the optimal production and investment plan for a biogas supply chain is presented to ensure better economy for the full chain hopefully stimulating future investments in biogas. The model makes use of step-wise linear functions...... to represent capital and operational expenditures at the biogas plant; considers the chain from the farmer to the end market; and includes changes of mass and energy content along the chain by modeling the losses and gains for all processes in the chain. Biomass inputs are scheduled on a weekly basis whereas...... energy outputs are scheduled on an hourly basis to better capture the changes of energy prices and potentially take advantage of these changes. The model is tested on a case study with co-digestion of straw, sugar beet and manure, considering natural gas, heat, and electricity as end products. The model...

  9. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    alternative by upgrading existing district heating plant. It provides a generic modeling framework to design flexible energy system in near future. These frameworks address the three main issues arising in the planning and designing of energy system: a) socio impact at both planning and proses design level; b...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...

  10. Plant–soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Te Beest, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil communities and their interactions with plants may play a major role in determining the success of invasive species. However, rigorous investigations of this idea using cross-continental comparisons, including native and invasive plant...

  11. Interaction Between Phosphorus and Zinc on the Biomass Yield and Yield Attributes of the Medicinal Plant Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kuntal; Dang, Raman; Shivananda, T. N.; Sur, Pintu

    2005-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore to study the interaction effect between phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) on the yield and yield attributes of the medicinal plant stevia. The results show that the yield and yield attributes have been found to be significantly affected by different treatments. The total yield in terms of biomass production has been increased significantly with the application of Zn and P in different combinations and methods, being highest (23.34 g fresh biomass) in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil (10 kg ZnSO4/ha) and foliar spray (0.2% ZnSO4). The results also envisaged that the different yield attributes viz. height, total number of branches, and number of leaves per plant have been found to be varied with treatments, being highest in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray without the application of P. The results further indicated that the yield and yield attributes of stevia have been found to be decreased in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray along with P suggesting an antagonistic effect between Zn and P. PMID:15915292

  12. Interaction Between Phosphorus and Zinc on the Biomass Yield and Yield Attributes of the Medicinal Plant Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Das

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR, Bangalore to study the interaction effect between phosphorus (P and zinc (Zn on the yield and yield attributes of the medicinal plant stevia. The results show that the yield and yield attributes have been found to be significantly affected by different treatments. The total yield in terms of biomass production has been increased significantly with the application of Zn and P in different combinations and methods, being highest (23.34 g fresh biomass in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil (10 kg ZnSO4/ha and foliar spray (0.2% ZnSO4. The results also envisaged that the different yield attributes viz. height, total number of branches, and number of leaves per plant have been found to be varied with treatments, being highest in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray without the application of P. The results further indicated that the yield and yield attributes of stevia have been found to be decreased in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray along with P suggesting an antagonistic effect between Zn and P.

  13. Higher Novel L-Cys Degradation Activity Results in Lower Organic-S and Biomass in Sarcocornia than the Related Saltwort, Salicornia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmanbayeva, Assylay; Bekturova, Aizat; Soltabayeva, Aigerim; Asatryan, Armine; Ventura, Yvonne; Salazar, Octavio; Fedoroff, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Salicornia and Sarcocornia are almost identical halophytes whose edible succulent shoots hold promise for commercial production in saline water. Enhanced sulfur nutrition may be beneficial to crops naturally grown on high sulfate. However, little is known about sulfate nutrition in halophytes. Here we show that Salicornia europaea (ecotype RN) exhibits a significant increase in biomass and organic-S accumulation in response to supplemental sulfate, whereas Sarcocornia fruticosa (ecotype VM) does not, instead exhibiting increased sulfate accumulation. We investigated the role of two pathways on organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia and Sarcoconia: the sulfate reductive pathway that generates Cys and l-Cys desulfhydrase that degrades Cys to H2S, NH3, and pyruvate. The major function of O-acetyl-Ser-(thiol) lyase (OAS-TL; EC 2.5.1.47) is the formation of l-Cys, but our study shows that the OAS-TL A and OAS-TL B of both halophytes are enzymes that also degrade l-Cys to H2S. This activity was significantly higher in Sarcocornia than in Salicornia, especially upon sulfate supplementation. The activity of the sulfate reductive pathway key enzyme, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, EC 1.8.99.2), was significantly higher in Salicornia than in Sarcocornia. These results suggest that the low organic-S level in Sarcocornia is the result of high l-Cys degradation rate by OAS-TLs, whereas the greater organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia is the result of higher APR activity and low l-Cys degradation rate, resulting in higher net Cys biosynthesis. These results present an initial road map for halophyte growers to attain better growth rates and nutritional value of Salicornia and Sarcocornia. PMID:28743765

  14. Survival results of a biomass planting in the Missouri River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. ' Dusty' Walter; John P. Dwyer

    2003-01-01

    A factor essential to successful tree planting in unprotected floodplain environments is survival. Two-year survival results from tree planting in an unprotected floodplain adjacent to the Missouri River are presented. Species planted included silver maple, locally collected cottonwood, and a superior cottonwood selection from Westvaco Corporation. Two spacings, 4 x 4...

  15. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  16. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  17. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  18. Self-adapting metal-ceramic coating for biomass and waste incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Fehr, Karl Thomas; Ye, Ya-Ping [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Loeh, Ingrid; Mocker, Mario; Wolf, Gerhard [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings might become a reasonable alternative to cost-intensive cladding of heat exchangers in biomass and waste incineration. Shortcomings of these coatings might be overcome by a double-layer system, consisting of Alloy 625 covered with yttria-stabilized zirconia. Under appropriate conditions, re-crystallized zirconium oxide and chromium oxide form a dense, self-adapting and self-healing barrier against further infiltration of gaseous species. (orig.)

  19. Waste-based biomass to power plants with high portions; Jaeteperaeistae biomassaa voimaloihin suurilla osuuksilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Process Chemistry, Turku (Finland); Jokiniemi, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The results of this project will strengthen significantly utilisation of demanding waste-originated biomass in combined heat and power production. The idea is to produce a combustible fuel by mixing different bio-waste in a way which maximises the synergic effects. 'Dilution' of the blend with a traditional and less risky biomass (for example bark) will also be included to this problem solution concept. Simultaneously, the disposal problems of different waste types can be solved in a reasonable way. The protective elements in the sludge-type biomass under investigation play a key role in the reactions protecting the critical parts of the furnace against the corrosive attach of alkali chlorides. In addition, sampling of critical compounds in view of operational risks at furnace conditions will be developed and the understanding what happens during the sampling will be deepened. VTT co-ordinates this research and conducts sets of experiments with an electrically stabilised FB reactor. Aabo Academi University will conduct thorough fuel and deposits analysis and develops modelling of deposit formation and control of harmful deposition. University of Kuopio will develop sampling of alkali chlorides and improves understanding on the behaviour of these compounds during furnace sampling and impactor sharing. In addition the project includes international co-operation between VTT and Tsinghua University, China, where a visiting researcher will model VTT's BFB reactor and addition of protective chemical to that reactor. (orig.)

  20. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K; Keraenen, H [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  1. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  2. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurm, Viola; Putten, Van Der Wim H.; Pineda, Ana; Hol, G.W.H.

    2018-01-01

    • Background and Aims: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence

  3. Biomass for biogas plants in Denmark - in the short and long term; Biomasse til biogasanlaeg i Danmark - pae kort og langt sigt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmose, T.; Hjort-Gregersen, K.; Stefanek, K.

    2013-04-15

    In the short term, it is one of the major challenges for the developments of the biogas sector that resources of organic waste of the type (organic industrial wastes) that have heretofore been used, generally are estimated to be nearly exhausted. This has led to a number of new biogas projects based on the use of corn (energy crops) as additional biomass to livestock manure. However, Danish policy now has implemented a restriction on the use of corn and other energy crops for biogas production. It is with the restriction clarified that there is a need to use other additional biomass for biogas production. There is a need in the short term to clarify how alternative biomasses such as straw, nature preservation biomass, household waste, etc. in a technically and economically reliable and satisfactory way can be used for biogas production, so that the dependence of energy crops can be reduced. Additionally, it will be essential if the yield of using manure can be increased to reduce economic dependence on energy crops. In the longer term it is essential to strengthen the assessment of the resource potential of biomass available for the production of biogas, and thus what the contribution of biogas in the long term is estimated to be in the future energy supply based on renewable energy. The present report presents the current and future biomass resources potential and biogas production potential. The biomass resources are primarily agricultural and municipal wastes. (LN)

  4. Biomass co-firing in coal power plants in the Netherlands. Effects on performance and air pollutant emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This note is intended for use in the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)-EGTEI (Expert Group on Techno-Economic Issues) work related to cost of emission reduction technologies for large combustion plants (LCP). This work is coordinated by KIT (Karlsruhe) and CITEPA (Paris). As the Netherlands is considered to be a valuable country for data regarding biomass co-firing in large coal fired power plants, EGTEI expressed its interest on data ECN has available. For this purpose, based on available data from annual environmental reports of power plants, ECN has looked into the relationship between the percentage of co -firing and the plant performance. It should be noted that the evaluation has been based on annual data, not on real-time simultaneous measurements of the different parameters mentioned in this note. Cumulative annual data give no insights in e.g. the effects of the load factor, of start-ups or shut-downs, seasonal circumstances, fuel qualities, etc. Therefore, the findings in this report should be treated with due care and not be generalised.

  5. Analysis of todays best available technology for biomass fired heating plants in the interval 0.5 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mats-Lennart; Gustavsson, Lennart; Maartensson, D.; Leckner, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present project has been to study today's best available technology for biomass fired heating plants in the interval 0.5 to 10 MW from an emission point of view. Emission measurements have been conducted at 21 plants of different types and sizes, i.e. one stationary fluidized bed, fourteen boilers with moving grates, four boilers with fixed grates, one pellet burner and one boiler with a gasification oven. The plants were fired with different fuels: native fuels like wood chips, bark/sawdust, grass and refined fuels like briquettes and pellets. The plants were chosen to represent the best available and/or the most common technology. The flue gases were analyzed for CO, NO x , Total Hydrocarbons (THC), methane, ethylene, acetylene, ammonia, nitrous oxide, CO 2 and O 2 . The measurements were usually made at the heat loads and operating conditions given at the time of testing. However, in a few cases measurements were made at different loads and air settings

  6. Research and higher education background of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.

    2002-01-01

    The connection of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, with research and development as well as with higher education is discussed. The main research areas include reactor physics, thermohydraulics, radiochemistry and radiochemical analysis, electronics and nuclear instruments, computers, materials science. The evolution of relations with higher education in Hungary and the PNPP is presented, before and after the installation of the various units. (R.P.)

  7. Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using the MixAlco™ process at a pilot-plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian; Dunkleman, John; Chaudhuri, Swades K.; Bond, Austin; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Texas A and M University has built a MixAlco™ pilot plant that converts biomass to hydrocarbons (i.e., jet fuel, gasoline) using the following steps: fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign. The focus was to produce sufficient jet fuel to be tested by the U.S. military. Because the scale was relatively small, energy-saving features were not included in the pilot plant. Further, the equipment was operated in a manner to maximize productivity even if yields were low. During the production campaign, a total of 6.015 Mg of shredded paper and 120 kg of chicken manure (dry basis) were fermented to produce 126.5 m 3 of fermentation broth with an average concentration of 12.5 kg m −3 . A total of 1582 kg of carboxylate salts were converted to 587 L of raw ketones, which were distilled and hydrogenated to 470 L of mixed alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. These alcohols, plus 300 L of alcohols made by an industrial partner (Terrabon, Inc.) were shipped to an independent contractor (General Electric) and transformed to jet fuel (∼100 L) and gasoline (∼100 L) byproduct. - Highlights: • We produce hydrocarbons from paper and chicken manure in a pilot-scale production using the MixAlco™ process. • About 100 L of jet fuel were produced for military testing. • High production rates and good product quality were preferred rather than high yields or energy efficiency. • The MixAlco™ process converted successfully lignocellulosic biomass to hydrocarbons and viable for commercial-scale production

  8. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  9. Resolving the Role of Plant NAD-Glutamate Dehydrogenase: III. Overexpressing Individually or Simultaneously the Two Enzyme Subunits Under Salt Stress Induces Changes in the Leaf Metabolic Profile and Increases Plant Biomass Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Clément, Gilles; Marchi, Laura; Restivo, Francesco M; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) of higher plants has a central position at the interface between carbon and nitrogen metabolism due to its ability to carry out the deamination of glutamate. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physiological function of NAD-GDH under salt stress conditions, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that overexpress two genes from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia individually (GDHA and GDHB) or simultaneously (GDHA/B) were grown in the presence of 50 mM NaCl. In the different GDH overexpressors, the NaCl treatment induced an additional increase in GDH enzyme activity, indicating that a post-transcriptional mechanism regulates the final enzyme activity under salt stress conditions. A greater shoot and root biomass production was observed in the three types of GDH overexpressors following growth in 50 mM NaCl, when compared with the untransformed plants subjected to the same salinity stress. Changes in metabolites representative of the plant carbon and nitrogen status were also observed. They were mainly characterized by an increased amount of starch present in the leaves of the GDH overexpressors as compared with the wild type when plants were grown in 50 mM NaCl. Metabolomic analysis revealed that overexpressing the two genes GDHA and GDHB, individually or simultaneously, induced a differential accumulation of several carbon- and nitrogen-containing molecules involved in a variety of metabolic, developmental and stress-responsive processes. An accumulation of digalactosylglycerol, erythronate and porphyrin was found in the GDHA, GDHB and GDHA/B overexpressors, suggesting that these molecules could contribute to the improved performance of the transgenic plants under salinity stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Carbon-Flow-Based Modeling of Ecophysiological Processes and Biomass Dynamics of Submersed Aquatic Plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly P. H; Boyd, William A

    2007-01-01

    ...], Potamogeton pectinatus [POTAM], Hydrilla verticillata [HYDRIL], and Myriophyllum spicatum [MILFO]. These plant species are similar in growth strategy but differ significantly in morphology and physiology...

  11. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes

  12. Numerical simulation of a hybrid CSP/Biomass 5 MWel power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-06-01

    The fundamental benefit of using renewable energy systems is undeniable since they rely on a source that will not run out. Nevertheless, they strongly depend on meteorological conditions (solar, wind, etc.), leading to uncertainty of instantaneous energy supply and consequently to grid connection issues. An interesting concept is renewable hybridisation. This consists in the strategic combination of different renewable sources in the power generation portfolio by taking advantage of each technology. Hybridisation of concentrating solar power with biomass denotes a powerful way of assuring system stability and reliability. The main advantage is dispatchability through the whole extent of the operating range. Regarding concentrating solar power heat transfer fluid, direct steam generation is one of the most interesting concepts. Nevertheless, it presents itself technical challenges that are mostly related to the two-phase fluid flow in horizontal pipes, as well as the design of an energy storage system. Also, the use of reheat within the turbine is usually indirectly addressed, hindering system efficiency. These challenges can be addressed through hybridisation with biomass. In this paper, a hybrid renewable electricity generation system is presented. The system relies on a combination of solar and biomass sources to drive a 5 MWel steam turbine. System performance is analysed through numerical simulation using Ebsilon professional software. The use of direct reheat in the turbine is addressed. Results show that hybridisation results in an enhancement of system dispatchability and generation stability. Furthermore, hybridisation enhanced the annual solar field and power block efficiencies, and thus the system annual efficiency (from 7.6% to 20%). The use of direct reheat eliminates steam wetness in the last turbine stage and also improves system efficiency.

  13. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present.

  14. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  15. Plant–soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Beest, M.; Stevens, N.; Olff, H.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Soil communities and their interactions with plants may play a major role in determining the success of invasive species. However, rigorous investigations of this idea using cross-continental comparisons, including native and invasive plant populations, are still scarce. 2. We investigated if

  16. Post-genomic analyses of fungal lignocellulosic biomass degradation reveal the unexpected potential of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are potent biomass degraders due to their ability to thrive in ligno(hemicellulose-rich environments. During the last decade, fungal genome sequencing initiatives have yielded abundant information on the genes that are putatively involved in lignocellulose degradation. At present, additional experimental studies are essential to provide insights into the fungal secreted enzymatic pools involved in lignocellulose degradation. Results In this study, we performed a wide analysis of 20 filamentous fungi for which genomic data are available to investigate their biomass-hydrolysis potential. A comparison of fungal genomes and secretomes using enzyme activity profiling revealed discrepancies in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes sets dedicated to plant cell wall. Investigation of the contribution made by each secretome to the saccharification of wheat straw demonstrated that most of them individually supplemented the industrial Trichoderma reesei CL847 enzymatic cocktail. Unexpectedly, the most striking effect was obtained with the phytopathogen Ustilago maydis that improved the release of total sugars by 57% and of glucose by 22%. Proteomic analyses of the best-performing secretomes indicated a specific enzymatic mechanism of U. maydis that is likely to involve oxido-reductases and hemicellulases. Conclusion This study provides insight into the lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms by filamentous fungi and allows for the identification of a number of enzymes that are potentially useful to further improve the industrial lignocellulose bioconversion process.

  17. Nano-cellulose based nano-coating biomaterial dataset using corn leaf biomass: An innovative biodegradable plant biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanocellulose derived biodegradable plant biomaterial as nano-coating can be used in the medical, biomedical cosmetics, and bioengineering products. Bio-plastic and some synthetic derived materials are edible and naturally biodegradable. The study was conducted to investigate edible nano-biopolymer based nano-coating of capsules and drugs or other definite biomedical materials from corn leaf biomass. Corn leaf biomass was used as an innovative sample to produce edible nano-coating bioplastic for drug and capsule coating and other industrial uses. The data show the negligible water 0.01% absorbed by bio-plastic nanocoating. Odor represented by burning test was under the completely standard based on ASTM. Moreover, data on color coating, tensile strength, pH, cellulose content have been shown under standard value of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials standard. In addition to that data on the chemical element test like K+, CO3−−, Cl-, Na+ exhibited positive data compared to the synthetic plastic in the laboratory using the EN (166 standardization. Therefore, it can be concluded that both organic (cellulose and starch based edible nano-coating bioplastic may be used for drug and capsule coating as biomedical and medical components in the pharmaceutical industries. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobioplastic, Nanocoating, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  18. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal mining is more energy and CO_2 efficient than biomass production. • Co-combustion of 60% biomass with coal doubles mass transport compared to 100% coal. • Low co-combustion levels reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. • Total supply chain efficiency is the highest for the coal reference at 41.2%. - Abstract: Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain scenario, for a Dutch situation. The 60% biomass co-combustion supply chain scenarios show possibilities to reduce emissions up to 48%. The low co-combustion levels are effective to reduce GHG emissions, but the margins are small. Currently co-combustion of pellets is the norm. Co-combustion of combined torrefaction and pelleting (TOP) shows the best results, but is also the most speculative. The indicators from the renewable energy directive cannot be aligned. When biomass is regarded as scarce, co-combustion of small shares or no co-combustion is the best option from an energy perspective. When biomass is regarded as abundant, co-combustion of large shares is the best option from a GHG reduction perspective.

  19. Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Simone; Ciobanu, Marcel; Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; Vogel, Anja; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-07-01

    The magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events are predicted to increase in the future due to ongoing climate change. In particular, floods and droughts resulting from climate change are thought to alter the ecosystem functions and stability. However, knowledge of the effects of these weather events on soil fauna is scarce, although they are key towards functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Plant species richness has been shown to affect the stability of ecosystem functions and food webs. Here, we used the occurrence of a natural flood in a biodiversity grassland experiment that was followed by a simulated summer drought experiment, to investigate the interactive effects of plant species richness, a natural flood, and a subsequent summer drought on nematode communities. Three and five months after the natural flooding, effects of flooding severity were still detectable in the belowground system. We found that flooding severity decreased soil nematode food-web structure (loss of K-strategists) and the abundance of plant feeding nematodes. However, high plant species richness maintained higher diversity and abundance of higher trophic levels compared to monocultures throughout the flood. The subsequent summer drought seemed to be of lower importance but reversed negative flooding effects in some cases. This probably occurred because the studied grassland system is well adapted to drought, or because drought conditions alleviated the negative impact of long-term soil waterlogging. Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.

  20. Diversity of drought-resistant plants and the benefits of their biomass for improving fertility of a degraded soil of Brantas River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arisoesilaningsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In support of healthy agriculture development to improve farmer’s prosperity status, soil remediation and land conservation efforts maybe relied on the use of biomass of local vegetation. Results of field exploration conducted at Brantas Watershed of East Java indicated that there were at least 154 species of undergrowth scrubs, 47 species of agriculture-plantation crops, and 59 species of road shelter trees. The native undergrowth vegetations had undergone enormous seasonal variations. Biomass of predominance vegetations, e.g. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Phaseolus lunatus, Flemingia, Mimosa somian, Acacia villosa, Cassia mimosoides, Mucuna could potentially be used as organic matter sources to improve availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in soils. The amount of nitrogen and phosphorus contributed of the plant biomass significantly correlated with quality of the biomass.

  1. Research on mutation generation in higher plants with heavy ions at NIRS-HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Watanabe, S.; Watanabe, M.; Toguri, T.; Furusawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Plants are closely related to medical treatment in medicine, foods, herbs and medical care by gardening. Ion beams have much higher linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness than those of gamma rays and X-rays. Ion beams are supposed to be useful as new mutagen to obtain novel mutants with superior characteristics in higher plants. In this study, the influence of heavy ions irradiation on bud growth was examined in carnation and the mutation generation was inspected in babies' breath. The growth of carnation buds began to decrease at 10 Gy and the median growth dose was estimated at 35 Gy for 290 Mev/u carbon ion beams. Mutants with petaloid leaves were observed in babies' breath by the irradiation of 290 Mev/u carbon ion beams at 20Gy. We will examine the mutation rates and spectrum for 290 MeV/u carbon, 400 MeV/u neon and 500 MeV/u argon ion beams to find optimum use of the beams in plant breeding. The efficient system to generate useful mutants using heavy ions at NIRS-HIMAC will be developed in higher plants. (author)

  2. Zinc, nickel, and cobalt ions removal from aqueous solution and plating plant wastewater by modified Aspergillus flavus biomass: A dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Foroutan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomass of Aspergillus flavus was modified by calcium chloride to achieve a bioadsorbent for treating nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions from aqueous solutions. The information of pH, bioadsorbent dose, contact time, and temperature effect on the removal efficiency are presented. The data of Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models are also depicted. The data showed that the maximum bioadsorption capacity of nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions is 32.26, 31.06 and 27.86 mg/g, respectively. The suitability of the bioadsorbent in heavy metals removal at field condition was tested with a real wastewater sample collected from a plating plant in the final part of this dataset. Based on the findings, the bioadsorbent was shown to be an affordable alternative for the removal of metals in the wastewater.

  3. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  4. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  5. Higher plants and UV-B radiation: balancing damage, repair and acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; Gaba, V.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Although UV-B is a minor component of sunlight, it has a disproportionately damaging effect on higher plants. Ultraviolet-sensitive targets include DNA, proteins and membranes, and these must be protected for normal growth and development. DNA repair and secondary metabolite accumulation during exposure to UV-B have been characterized in considerable detail, but little is known about the recovery of photosynthesis, induction of free-radical scavenging and morphogenic changes. A future challenge is to elucidate how UV-B-exposed plants balance damage, repair, acclimation and adaptation responses in a photobiologically dynamic environment. (author)

  6. Cadmium against higher plant photosynthesis - a variety of effects and where do they possibly come from?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The complexity of in vivo toxic effects of Cd on higher plants makes almost impossible an accurate distinction between direct and indirect mechanisms of its action on the photosynthetic apparatus. We, therefore, postulate that multiple Cd effects on plant physiological and metabolic processes may finally be focused on photosynthesis. This would also explain the phenomenon that only a small fraction of Cd entering chloroplasts may cause such disastrous changes in their structure and function. In return, the inhibition of photosynthesis affects numerous metabolic pathways dependent on the primary carbon metabolism. (orig.)

  7. Occupational exposure to gases, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biomass-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of fuels produces air pollutants in the form of gases, organic compounds, and particulate matter. However, although the environmental aspect of these agents has been examined, workers' exposure to them is still a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Our hygienic measurements revealed that carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, ammonia and sulfur dioxide were the most common gases that the workers were exposed to during their tasks. Their average concentrations were 0.45 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 0.11 ppm and 0.42 ppm, respectively. Phenanthrene and naphthalene were the most prominent PAHs. At the same sampling points, the most commonly found VOCs were aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and turpentines. The calculated total PAH concentrations were less than 7% of benzo[a]pyrene's eight-hour occupational exposure limit, and the total VOC concentrations were below the Finnish reference value for the normal industrial level in all measured work tasks. The most evident health effect caused by multiple exposures to gases was upper respiratory track irritation, followed by the disruption of oxygen transport, and finally central nervous system disorders. We recommend powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors as the minimum requirement for those working inside biomass-fired power plant boilers, and compressed air breathing apparatus as the best form of protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influences of elevated CO[sub 2] on CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production for the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica were studied at the current and two elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations (plus 150 and plus 350 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]) in open-top chambers over a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 49% and 84% higher, respectively, than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Nine weeks after the first-daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35% and 49% higher, respectively, in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Despite significantly lower chlorophyll contents (19% and 62%, respectively) in the first-daughter cladodes, biomass production over 23 weeks in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 22% and 50% higher, respectively, than for plants at the current CO[sub 2].

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gossypium hirsutum and evolutionary analysis of higher plant mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Cao, Dandan; Li, Shuangshuang; Su, Aiguo; Geng, Jianing; Grover, Corrinne E; Hu, Songnian; Hua, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt) genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species.

  10. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  11. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...... vascular plant groups. Also, limitation of soil nutrient availability caused by labile C addition decreased the relative proportion of green shoots in evergreen shrubs, although these were expected to cope better with the nutrient limitation than the opportunistic graminoids, which, by contrast, were...... unaffected. Reduced fungal biomass due to benomyl addition was accompanied by increased evergreen shrub and clubmoss biomass. Taken together, the effects of treatments were most pronounced 16 years after initiation of the experiment, but despite changes in biomass the overall plant community composition...

  12. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurm, Viola; van der Putten, W.H.; Pineda, A.M.; Hol, W.H.G.

    2018-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant–insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence

  13. Cogeneration: One way to use biomass efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Johansson, B.

    1993-01-01

    Cogeneration in district heating systems is the most energy-efficient way to convert biomass into heat and electricity with current or nearly commercial technologies. Methanol produced from biomass and used in vehicles instead of petrol or diesel could reduce carbon dioxide emissions nearly as much per unit of biomass as if the biomass were used to replace natural gas for cogeneration, but at some higher cost per unit of carbon dioxide reduction. The most energy-efficient way to use biomass for cogeneration appears to be combined cycle technology, and the world's first demonstration plant is now being built. Potentially, this technology can be used for electricity production in Swedish district heating systems to provide nearly 20% of current Swedish electricity production, while simultaneously reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the district heating systems by some 55%. The heat costs from cogeneration with biomass are higher than the heat costs from fossil fuel plants at current fuel prices. Biomass can only compete with fossil fuel if other advantages, for example a lower environmental impact are considered. (au) (35 refs.)

  14. Operating Experiences with a Small-scale CHP Pilot Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, F.; Carlsen, Henrik; Schoech, M.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of the RD&D project presented a small-scale CHP plant with a hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimised in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GesmbH, an Austrian biomass furnace and boiler...... exchanger of the Stirling engine, of the air preheater and of the entire combustion system. Furthermore, the optimisation of the pneumatic cleaning system to reduce ash deposition in the hot heat exchanger is of great relevance....... manufacturer, and BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, an Austrian development and engineering company. Based on the technology developed, a pilot plant was designed and erected in Austria. The nominal electric power output of the plant is 35 kWel and the nominal thermal output amounts to approx. 220 kWth. The plant...

  15. Every plant for himself; the effect of a phenolic monoterpene on germination and biomass of Thymus pulegioides and T. serpyllum.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Catrine Grønberg; Ehlers, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    Thyme plants are known for their production of aromatic oils, whose main component is terpenes. The plants leach terpenes to their surroundings and thereby affect the seed germination and biomass of associated plants, but also potentially themselves. A variation in the dominant terpenes produced...... by thyme plants is found both within and among species. In Denmark two thyme species (Thymus pulegioides and T. serpyllum) are naturally occurring. The essential oil of T. pulegioides in Denmark is mainly dominated by one monoterpene; 'carvacrol'. In contrast, the essential oil of T. serpyllum constitutes...... and growth of both T. pulegioides and T. serpyllum. We compared the performance of seeds and seedlings of both thyme species on soil treated with carvacrol versus control soil. We found no effect of treatment on germination, but we detected a highly significant effect of treatment on seedling biomass...

  16. Importance of molybdenum in the nitrogen metabolism of microorganisms and higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, E G

    1948-01-01

    The effect of molybdenum on the growth of microorganisms and higher plants and on some well-defined biochemical reactions was investigated. Results indicate that Aspergillus niger requires small amounts of molybdenum when growing in a culture solution supplied with nitrate nitrogen. With ammonium sulfate as a source of nitrogen, the response of the fungus to molybdenum was much smaller. It was shown that this different response of Aspergillus to molybdenum was not brought about by a difference in purity of both nitrogen compounds used, nor by a difference in absorption of the molybdenum impurity, but by a considerably higher requirement of molybdenum in a medium with nitrate nitrogen. The growth-rate curve and the increasing sporulation of Aspergillus niger with increasing amounts of molybdenum were used in estimating very small amounts of this element in various materials. In culture solution experiments with tomato, barley and oat plants the effect of traces of molybdenum on the growth of these plants was investigated. In good agreement with the results of the experiments with Aspergillus and denitrifying bacteria it could be shown that in the green plant as in these microorganisms molybdenum is acting as a catalyst in nitrate reduction. In experiments with Azotobacter chroococcum and leguminous plants the effect of molybdenum on the fixation of gaseous N/sub 2/ was studied. In culture solutions with pea plants the effect of molybdenum on the nitrogen fixation of the nodules was investigated. In the absence of molybdenum as well as in a complete nutrient medium many nodules were formed. 30 references, 6 figures, 16 tables.

  17. Preliminary Modelling of Mass Flux at the Surface of Plant Leaves within the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Madeleine; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    The ESA project Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ecosystem of micro-organisms and higher plants, constructed with the objective of being operated as a tool to understand artificial ecosystems to be used for a long-term or permanent manned planetary base (e.g. Moon or Mars). The purpose of such a system is to provide for generation of food, water recycling, atmospheric regeneration and waste management within defined standards of quality and reliability. As MELiSSA consists of individual compartments which are connected to each other, the robustness of the system is fully dependent on the control of each compartment, as well as the flow management between them. Quality of consumables and reliability of the ecosystem rely on the knowledge, understanding and control of each of the components. This includes the full understanding of all processes related to the higher plants. To progress in that direction, this paper focuses on the mechanical processes driving the gas and liquid exchanges between the plant leaf and its environment. The process responsible for the mass transfer on the surface of plant leaves is diffusion. The diffusion flux is dependent on the behaviour of the stoma of the leaf and also on the leaf boundary layer (BL). In this paper, the physiology of the leaf is briefly examined in order to relate parameters such as light quality, light quantity, CO2 concentration, temperature, leaf water potential, humidity, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) gradients and pollutants to the opening or closing of stomata. The diffusion process is described theoretically and the description is compared to empirical approaches. The variables of the BL are examined and the effect airflow in the compartment has on the BL is investigated. Also presented is the impact changes in different environmental parameters may have on the fluid exchanges. Finally, some tests, to evaluate the accuracy of the concluded model, are suggested.

  18. Mapping the Distribution and Biomass of Emergent Aquatic Plants in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California Using Landsat Imagery Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effective and timely use of Landsat imagery to map and monitor emergent aquatic plant biomass and to filter satellite image products for the most probable locations of water hyacinth coverage in the Delta based on field observations collected immediately after satellite image acquisition.

  19. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Korbee, R.; Eenkhoorn, S.; De Lange, T.; Groenendaal, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO 2 -emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  20. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and higher expression levels of Nrf2 and NQO1 proteins in the airways of women chronically exposed to biomass fuel smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Tyagi, Neetu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2018-01-24

    The study was carried out to examine whether chronic exposure to smoke during daily household cooking with biomass fuel (BMF) elicits changes in airway cytology and expressions of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 [Nrf2]), Keap1 (Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology [ECH]-associated protein 1), and NQO1 (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1) proteins in the airways. For this, 282 BMF-using women (median age 34 year) and 236 age-matched women who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. Particulate matter with diameters of LPG. Compared with LPG users, BMF users had 32% more leukocytes in circulation and their sputa were 1.4-times more cellular with significant increase in absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and alveolar macrophages, suggesting airway inflammation. ROS generation was 1.5-times higher in blood neutrophils and 34% higher in sputum cells of BMF users while erythrocyte SOD was 31% lower and plasma catalase was relatively unchanged, suggesting oxidative stress. In BMF users, Keap1 expression was reduced, the percentage of AEC with nuclear expression of Nrf2 was two- to three-times more, and NQO1 level in sputum cell lysate was two-times higher than that of LPG users. In conclusion, cooking with BMF was associated with Nrf2 activation and elevated NQO1 protein level in the airways. The changes may be adaptive cellular response to counteract biomass smoke-elicited oxidative stress and inflammation-related tissue injury in the airways.

  1. Evolutionary history and stress regulation of the lectin superfamily in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Srinivasan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lectins are a class of carbohydrate-binding proteins. They play roles in various biological processes. However, little is known about their evolutionary history and their functions in plant stress regulation. The availability of full genome sequences from various plant species makes it possible to perform a whole-genome exploration for further understanding their biological functions. Results Higher plant genomes encode large numbers of lectin proteins. Based on their domain structures and phylogenetic analyses, a new classification system has been proposed. In this system, 12 different families have been classified and four of them consist of recently identified plant lectin members. Further analyses show that some of lectin families exhibit species-specific expansion and rapid birth-and-death evolution. Tandem and segmental duplications have been regarded as the major mechanisms to drive lectin expansion although retrogenes also significantly contributed to the birth of new lectin genes in soybean and rice. Evidence shows that lectin genes have been involved in biotic/abiotic stress regulations and tandem/segmental duplications may be regarded as drivers for plants to adapt various environmental stresses through duplication followed by expression divergence. Each member of this gene superfamily may play specialized roles in a specific stress condition and function as a regulator of various environmental factors such as cold, drought and high salinity as well as biotic stresses. Conclusions Our studies provide a new outline of the plant lectin gene superfamily and advance the understanding of plant lectin genes in lineage-specific expansion and their functions in biotic/abiotic stress-related developmental processes.

  2. Biomass production and control of nutrient leaching of willows using different planting methods with special emphasis on an appraisal of the electrical impedance for roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Cao

    2011-07-01

    Willow reproduction can be achieved through vertically or horizontally planted cuttings. Conventionally, plantations are established by inserting cuttings vertically into the soil. There is, however, a lack of information about the biomass production and nutrient leaching of plantations established through horizontally planted cuttings. A greenhouse experiment and a field trial were carried out to investigate whether horizontally planted Salix schwerinii cuttings have a positive effect on stem yield, root distribution and nutrient leaching in comparison with vertically planted cuttings with different planting densities. The shoots' height of horizontally planted cuttings was significantly smaller than that of vertically planted cuttings during the first two weeks after planting in the pot experiment. Thereafter, no significant effect of planting orientation on the stem biomass was observed in the two conducted experiments. In both experiments the total stem biomass increased with the planting density. It was also found that the fine root biomass and the specific root length were not affected by the planting orientation or density, while the fine root surface area and the absorbing root surface area (ARSA) were affected only by the planting density. The planting orientation did not affect the nutrient concentrations in the soil leachate, apart from SO{sub 4}-S and PO{sub 4}-P in the pot experiment. The ARSA in the pot experiment was assessed by using the earth impedance method. The applicability of this method was evaluated in a hydroponic study of willow cuttings where root and stem were measured independently. Electrical resistance had a good correlation with the contact area of the roots with the solution. However, the resistance depended strongly on the contact area of the stem with the solution, which caused a bias in the evaluation of root surface area. A similar experimental set-up with electrical impedance spectroscopy was employed to study the

  3. Impact of common cytostatic drugs on pollen fertility in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišík, Miroslav; Kundi, Michael; Pichler, Clemens; Filipic, Metka; Rainer, Bernhard; Mišíková, Katarina; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2016-08-01

    Cytostatic drugs are among the most toxic chemicals which are produced. Many of them cause damage of the genetic material which may affect the fertility of higher organisms. To study the impact of the widely used anticancer drugs [cisplatin (CisPt), etoposide (Et), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] on the reproduction of higher plants, pollen abortion experiments were conducted with species which belong to major plant families, namely with Tradescantia paludosa (Commelinaceae), Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae), and Alisma plantago-aquatica (Alismataceae). All compounds increased the frequencies of abortive grains. The lowest effective doses were in general in a narrow range (i.e., 1 and 10 mg/kg of dry soil). The effects of the individual drugs were similar in T. paludosa, A. plantago-aquatica, and Ch. majus, while A. thaliana was consistently less sensitive. The highest abortion rate was obtained in most experiments with CisPt, followed by 5-FU and Et. Comparisons of the doses which caused effects in the present experiments in the different species with the predicted environment concentrations and with the levels of the cytostatics which were detected in hospital wastewaters show that the realistic environmental concentrations of the drugs are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs affect the fertility of higher plants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Life history strategies and biomass allocation : the population dynamics of perennial plants in a regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of how plants respond to adverse influences of intensified land use. In particular, attention was paid to the ways in which life history strategies change in order to buffer environmental variation, and which important parts of the life cycle are

  5. Aromatic metabolism of filamentous fungi in relation to the presence of aromatic compounds in plant biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Marinović, Mila; Nousiainen, Paula; Liwanag, April J M; Benoit, Isabelle; Sipilä, Jussi; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of plant lignocellulose plays an essential role not only in carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems but also is an important part of the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The presence of the recalcitrant aromatic polymer lignin is one of the major

  6. Development of a procedure for the sequential extraction of substances binding trace elements in plant biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 381, - (2005), s. 863-872 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : organic compounds binding trace elements * spinach plant * sequential extraction Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2005

  7. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, M.; Davison, J.; Gerhold, P.; Metsis, M.; Moora, M.; Öpik, M.; Vasar, M.; Zobel, M.; Wilson, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 1 (2014), s. 233-244 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : belowground plant richness * diversity * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  8. Effects of nutrients and fish on periphyton and plant biomass across a European latitudinal gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bécares, E.; Gomá, J.; Fernández-Aláez, M.; Fernández-Aláez, C.; Romo, S.; Rosa Miracle, M.; Ståhl-Delbanco, A.; Hansson, L-A.; Gyllström, M.; van de Bund, W.; Van Donk, E.; Kairesalo, T.; Hietala, J.; Stephen, D.; Balayla, D.; Moss, B.

    2008-01-01

    Replicated, factorial mesocosm experiments were conducted across Europe to study the effects of nutrient enrichment and fish density on macrophytes and on periphyton chlorophyll a (chl-a) with regard to latitude. Periphyton chl-a densities and plant decline were significantly related to nutrient

  9. Biomass production and heavy metal absorption by four plants grown at the Moravia dump, Medellin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solange Sanchez, Maria; Torrenegra, Ruben Dario; Martinez, Hernan; Salazar, Claudia Eugenia; Barahona, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    Dumps are sites where the presence of high heavy metal (HM) concentration is a common occurrence, creating the need for implementing restoration processes immediately after their closure. In the 7.6 ha and 45 m high Morro de Moravia dump, arose from the disposal of Medellin solid wastes from 1974 to 1984, previous studies have demonstrated high contents of contaminants, including HM, prompting the need to identify effective mechanisms to implement its restoration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptation, growth and phytoremediation capacity of Bidens pilosa, Lepidium virginicum, Brachiaria decumbens and Arachis pintoi. Content of HM (mg/kg) in Moravia residue matrix went from 17 to 8193 for Pb, 44 to 564 for Cr, 0.2 to 339 for Cd and 77 to 1679 for Ni. Measurements of plant cover, plant height and dry matter production at all plant species studied suggested adequate growth and adaptation to the Moravia dump conditions. Plant absorption of HM showed the pattern Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Estimated bioconcentration factors were generally low, and maximum values were 0.36 in A. pintoi (Cr), 2.96 in B. pilosa (Cd) and 0.26 in B. decumbens (Ni). However, our estimations of the phytoremediation potential of the assayed species, suggested they possess low remediation efficiency. Further investigation should be carried out in order to identify more efficient HM accumulators, and to test the use of technologies such as modification of pH, rhizoremediation or the use of genetically enhanced accumulators to increase HM availability to plants

  10. BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND HEAVY METAL ABSORPTION BY FOUR PLANTS GROWN AT THE MORAVIA DUMP, MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Solange Sanchez Pinzon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dumps are sites where the presence of high heavy metal (HM concentration is a common occurrence, creating the need for implementing restoration processes immediately after their closure. In the 7.6 ha and 45 m high Morro de Moravia dump, arose from the disposal of Medellín solid wastes from 1974 to 1984, previous studies have demonstrated high contents of contaminants, including HM, prompting the need to identify effective mechanisms to implement its restoration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptation, growth and phytoremediation capacity of Bidens pilosa, Lepidium virginicum, Brachiaria decumbens and Arachis pintoi. Content of HM (mg/kg in Moravia residue matrix went from 17 to 8193 for Pb, 44 to 564 for Cr, 0.2 to 339 for Cd and 77 to 1679 for Ni. Measurements of plant cover, plant height and dry matter production at all plant species studied suggested adequate growth and adaptation to the Moravia dump conditions. Plant absorption of HM showed the pattern Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Estimated bioconcentration factors were generally low, and maximum values were 0.36 in A. pintoi (Cr, 2.96 in B. pilosa (Cd and 0.26 in B. decumbens (Ni. However, our estimations of the phytoremediation potential of the assayed species, suggested they possess low remediation efficiency. Further investigation should be carried out in order to identify more efficient HM accumulators, and to test the use of technologies such as modification of pH, rhizoremediation or the use of genetically enhanced accumulators to increase HM availability to plants

  11. Biomass CCS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavezzali, S.

    2009-11-15

    The use of biomass in power generation is one of the important ways in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the cofiring of biomass with coal could be regarded as a common feature to any new build power plant if a sustainable supply of biomass fuel is readily accessible. IEA GHG has undertaken a techno-economic evaluation of the use of biomass in biomass fired and co-fired power generation, using post-combustion capture technology. This report is the result of the study undertaken by Foster Wheeler Italiana.

  12. How common is ecological speciation in plant-feeding insects? A 'Higher' Nematinae perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Tommi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological speciation is a process in which a transiently resource-polymorphic species divides into two specialized sister lineages as a result of divergent selection pressures caused by the use of multiple niches or environments. Ecology-based speciation has been studied intensively in plant-feeding insects, in which both sympatric and allopatric shifts onto novel host plants could speed up diversification. However, while numerous examples of species pairs likely to have originated by resource shifts have been found, the overall importance of ecological speciation in relation to other, non-ecological speciation modes remains unknown. Here, we apply phylogenetic information on sawflies belonging to the 'Higher' Nematinae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae to infer the frequency of niche shifts in relation to speciation events. Results Phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of DNA sequence data show that the diversification of higher nematines has involved frequent shifts in larval feeding habits and in the use of plant taxa. However, the inferred number of resource shifts is considerably lower than the number of past speciation events, indicating that the majority of divergences have occurred by non-ecological allopatric speciation; based on a time-corrected analysis of sister species, we estimate that a maximum of c. 20% of lineage splits have been triggered by a change in resource use. In addition, we find that postspeciational changes in geographic distributions have led to broad sympatry in many species having identical host-plant ranges. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the importance of niche shifts for the diversification of herbivorous insects is at present implicitly and explicitly overestimated. In the case of the Higher Nematinae, employing a time correction for sister-species comparisons lowered the proportion of apparent ecology-based speciation events from c. 50-60% to around 20%, but such corrections are

  13. Plant traits, productivity, biomass and soil properties from forest sites in the Pacific Northwest, 1999–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait measurements are needed for evaluating ecological responses to environmental conditions and for ecosystem process model development, parameterization, and testing. We present a standardized dataset integrating measurements from projects conducted by the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research and Regional Analysis- Pacific Northwest (TERRA-PNW) research group between 1999 and 2014 across Oregon and Northern California, where measurements were collected for scaling and modeling regional terrestrial carbon processes with models such as Biome-BGC and the Community Land Model. The dataset contains measurements of specific leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf carbon and nitrogen for 35 tree and shrub species derived from more than 1,200 branch samples collected from over 200 forest plots, including several AmeriFlux sites. The dataset also contains plot-level measurements of forest composition, structure (e.g., tree biomass), and productivity, as well as measurements of soil structure (e.g., bulk density) and chemistry (e.g., carbon). Publically-archiving regional datasets of standardized, co-located, and geo-referenced plant trait measurements will advance the ability of earth system models to capture species-level climate sensitivity at regional to global scales. PMID:26784559

  14. Plant traits, productivity, biomass and soil properties from forest sites in the Pacific Northwest, 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait measurements are needed for evaluating ecological responses to environmental conditions and for ecosystem process model development, parameterization, and testing. We present a standardized dataset integrating measurements from projects conducted by the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research and Regional Analysis- Pacific Northwest (TERRA-PNW) research group between 1999 and 2014 across Oregon and Northern California, where measurements were collected for scaling and modeling regional terrestrial carbon processes with models such as Biome-BGC and the Community Land Model. The dataset contains measurements of specific leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf carbon and nitrogen for 35 tree and shrub species derived from more than 1,200 branch samples collected from over 200 forest plots, including several AmeriFlux sites. The dataset also contains plot-level measurements of forest composition, structure (e.g., tree biomass), and productivity, as well as measurements of soil structure (e.g., bulk density) and chemistry (e.g., carbon). Publically-archiving regional datasets of standardized, co-located, and geo-referenced plant trait measurements will advance the ability of earth system models to capture species-level climate sensitivity at regional to global scales.

  15. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  16. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  17. Can liming change root anatomy, biomass allocation and trace element distribution among plant parts of Salix × smithiana in trace element-polluted soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2017-08-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are considered to be effective for the phytoremediation of trace elements from contaminated soils, but their efficiency is limited in heavily polluted soils because of poor growth. Liming can be a desirable measure to decrease the plant availability of elements, resulting in improved plant development. Notably, large root area and maximum soil penetration are basic parameters that improve the efficiency of phytoremediation. The impact of soil chemical properties on willow root anatomy and the distribution of trace elements below-ground have rarely been studied. The effect of liming on root parameters, biomass allocation and trace element distribution in non-harvestable (coarse roots, fine roots, stumps) and harvestable plant parts (twigs and leaves) of Salix × smithiana was assessed at the end of a 4-year pot experiment with two trace element-polluted soils that differed in terms of soil pH. Stump biomass predominated in weakly acidic soil. In neutral soil, the majority of biomass was located in fine roots and stumps; the difference from other plant parts was minor. Trace elements were the most concentrated in fine roots. Translocation to above-ground biomass increased as follows: Pb roots roots). Lime application decreased the concentrations of mobile Cd and Zn and related levels in plants, improved biomass production and root parameters and increased the removal of all trace elements in weakly acidic soil. None or minimum differences in the monitored parameters were recorded for dolomite treatments in both soils. The dose and source of liming had crucial effects on root anatomy. Growing willows in limed trace element-polluted soils is a suitable measure for combination of two remediation strategies, i.e. phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and assisted phytostabilization of As and Pb.

  18. Peptídeos cíclicos de biomassa vegetal: características, diversidade, biossíntese e atividades biológicas Cyclic peptide from plant biomass: chemical features and diversity, biosynthesis and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gatte Picchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural peptides are outstanding as the most promising macromolecules in the search for new drugs, especially those of cyclic nature. The higher plants revealed a very peculiar composition of their cyclic peptides, which distinguish themselves by a "head-to-tail" cyclization. It is possible to define two groups of cyclic peptides from plant biomass. Those called in this review as Eucyclopeptides formed by 2-12 amino acid, and Cyclotides considered as circular polypeptides, composed of 29-37 amino acid that retain three disulfides bridges in an arrangement known as cyclic cystine knot. Searching for plant peptides should form into a subject for scientific research in the forefront of great importance for bioprospecting natural products macromolecular.

  19. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatm...... contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.......Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme...... treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps...

  20. The variable effects of soil nitrogen availability and insect herbivory on aboveground and belowground plant biomass in an old-field ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blue, Jarrod D.; Souza, Lara; Classen, Aimée T.

    2011-01-01

    in an old-field ecosystem. In 2004, we established 36 experimental plots in which we manipulated soil nitrogen (N) availability and insect abundance in a completely randomized plot design. In 2009, after 6 years of treatments, we measured aboveground biomass and assessed root production at peak growth...... not be limiting primary production in this ecosystem. Insects reduced the aboveground biomass of subdominant plant species and decreased coarse root production. We found no statistical interactions between N availability and insect herbivory for any response variable. Overall, the results of 6 years of nutrient...

  1. Phytate (Inositol Hexakisphosphate in Soil and Phosphate Acquisition from Inositol Phosphates by Higher Plants. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Gerke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate (P fixation to the soil solid phase is considered to be important for P availability and is often attributed to the strong binding of orthophosphate anion species. However, the fixation and subsequent immobilization of inositolhexa and pentaphosphate isomers (phytate in soil is often much stronger than that of the orthosphate anion species. The result is that phytate is a main organic P form in soil and the dominating form of identifiable organic P. The reasons for the accumulation are not fully clear. Two hypothesis can be found in the literature in the last 20 years, the low activity of phytase (phosphatases in soil, which makes phytate P unavailable to the plant roots, and, on the other hand, the strong binding of phytate to the soil solid phase with its consequent stabilization and accumulation in soil. The hypothesis that low phytase activity is responsible for phytate accumulation led to the development of genetically modified plant genotypes with a higher expression of phytase activity at the root surface and research on the effect of a higher phytate activity on P acquisition. Obviously, this hypothesis has a basic assumption, that the phytate mobility in soil is not the limiting step for P acquisition of higher plants from soil phytate. This assumption is, however, not justified considering the results on the sorption, immobilization and fixation of phytate to the soil solid phase reported in the last two decades. Phytate is strongly bound, and the P sorption maximum and probably the sorption strength of phytate P to the soil solid phase is much higher, compared to that of orthophosphate P. Mobilization of phytate seems to be a promising step to make it available to the plant roots. The excretion of organic acid anions, citrate and to a lesser extend oxalate, seems to be an important way to make phytate P available to the plants. Phytase activity at the root surface seems not be the limiting step in P acquisition from phytate

  2. Formation of higher plant component microbial community in closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    2001-07-01

    Closed ecological systems (CES) place at the disposal of a researcher unique possibilities to study the role of microbial communities in individual components and of the entire system. The microbial community of the higher plant component has been found to form depending on specific conditions of the closed ecosystem: length of time the solution is reused, introduction of intrasystem waste water into the nutrient medium, effect of other component of the system, and system closure in terms of gas exchange. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of wheat. The composition of the components' microflora changed, species diversity decreased, individual species of bacteria and fungi whose numbers were not so great before the closure prevailed. Special attention should be paid to phytopathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species of microorganisms potentially hazardous to man or plants and the least controlled in CES. This situation can endanger creation of CES and make conjectural existence of preplanned components, man, specifically, and consequently, of CES as it is.

  3. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  4. Practical experience with biodegradable biomass waste bags in several different German composting plants; Praxiserfahrungen zum Abbau kompostierbarer Bioabfallsaecke auf verschiedenen Kompostierungsanlagen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziermann, Andreas; Schmidt, Bettina [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The study intended to find out how fast biodegradable biomass waste bags are degraded in practical conditions in composting and fermentation plants. The plants differ with regard to the processes employed; further, rotting times may be much shorter in practice than the twelve weeks requested by DIN EN 13432 and DIN EN 14995. For the study, plant types were selected that are practically relevant for biomass waste utilisation in Germany. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, herauszufinden, wie schnell kompostierbare Bioabfallsaecke unter Praxisbedingungen in verschiedenen Kompost- und Vergaerungsanlagentypen abgebaut werden. Zum einen bestehen teilweise grosse verfahrenstechnische Unterschiede zwischen den Anlagentypen, zum anderen sind die Rottezeiten in der Praxis zum Teil wesentlich kuerzer, als die in der DIN EN 13432 und DIN EN 14995 geforderten zwoelf Wochen. Fuer die Studie wurden Anlagentypen ausgewaehlt, die fuer die Verwertung von Bioabfaellen in Deutschland praxisrelevant sind. (orig.)

  5. NOx emissions and thermal efficiencies of small scale biomass-fuelled combustion plant with reference to process industries in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, A.S.; Purvis, M.R.I.

    1996-01-01

    Solid biomass materials are an important industrial fuel in many developing countries and also show good potential for usage in Europe within a future mix of renewable energy resources. The sustainable use of wood fuels for combustion relies on operation of plant with acceptable thermal efficiency. There is a clear link between plant efficiency and environmental impacts due to air pollution and deforestation. To supplement a somewhat sparse literature on thermal efficiencies and nitrogen oxide emissions from biomass-fuelled plants in developing countries, this paper presents results for tests carried out on 14 combustion units obtained during field trials in Sri Lanka. The plants tested comprised steam boilers and process air heaters. Biomass fuels included: rubber-wood, fuelwood from natural forests; coconut shells; rice husks; and sugar can bagasse. Average NO x (NO and NO 2 ) emissions for the plants were found to be 47 gNO 2 GJ -1 with 18% conversion of fuel nitrogen. The former value is the range of NO x emission values quoted for combustion of coal in grate-fired systems; some oil-fired systems and systems operating on natural gas, but is less than the emission levels for the combustion of pulverized fuel and heavy fuel oil. This value is significantly within current European standards for NO x emission from large combustion plants. Average thermal efficiency of the plants was found to be 50%. Observations made on operational practices demonstrated that there is considerable scope for the improvement of this thermal efficiency value by plant supervisor training, drying of fuelwood and the use of simple instruments for monitoring plant performance. (Author)

  6. Suppression of the invasive plant mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) by local crop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) by means of higher growth rate and competition for soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-01-28

    There are a variety of ways of increasing crop diversity to increase agricultural sustainability and in turn having a positive influence on nearby natural ecosystems. Competitive crops may provide potent management tools against invasive plants. To elucidate the competitive mechanisms between a sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas) and an invasive plant, mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha), field experiments were carried out in Longchuan County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China, utilizing a de Wit replacement series. The trial incorporated seven ratios of sweet potato and mile-a-minute plants in 25 m(2) plots. In monoculture, the total biomass, biomass of adventitious root, leafstalk length, and leaf area of sweet potato were all higher than those of mile-a-minute, and in mixed culture the plant height, branch, leaf, stem node, adventitious root, flowering and biomass of mile-a-minute were suppressed significantly (P competition was less than interspecific competition. The competitive balance index of sweet potato demonstrated a higher competitive ability than mile-a-minute. Except pH, other soil nutrient contents of initial soil (CK) were significantly higher than those of seven treatments. The concentrations of soil organic matter, total N, total K, available N, available P, available K, exchange Ca, exchange Mg, available Mn, and available B were significantly greater (P competition of sweet potato in the mixture. Evidently sweet potato has a competitive advantage in terms of plant growth characteristics and greater absorption of soil nutrients. Thus, planting sweet potato is a promising technique for reducing infestations of mile-a-minute, providing weed management benefits and economic returns from harvest of sweet potatoes. This study also shows the potential value of replacement control methods which may apply to other crop-weed systems or invaded natural ecosystems.

  7. Design optimization of flexible biomass-processing polygeneration plants using characteristic operation periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2014-01-01

    scheme applied on a conceptual polygeneration plant that considers the integrated production of power, heat, ethanol, and biomethane. The design is optimized with respect to net present value and total CO2 emission impact. The results suggest that the best solution with respect to net present value...... is the production of heat and power using a gas turbine and a natural gas boiler, while the best solution with respect to CO2 emission savings includes full-scale ethanol and biomethane production, as well as a straw boiler for utility heat production. Solving the same design optimization problem using yearly...

  8. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  9. Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants, a contribution to energy turnaround and climate protection?; Die Mitverbrennung holzartiger Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Energiewende und zum Klimaschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Claudia; Herr, Michael; Edel, Matthias; Seidl, Hannes

    2011-08-15

    Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants is feasible at short notice and can is a low-cost option for climate protection. While other EU states have already provided funding mechanism, Germany has not followed this lead so far. Domestic wood resources are limited and unevenly distributed among the German regions, so that wood materials will have to be imported. During the past few years, the basic requirements for imports of wood were provided with the initiation of a global pellets market. Sustainability criteria for wood consumption were defined, and international certification systems were developed. The sustainability criteria should be extended to cover also wood-like materials and other biomass for power generation. The German EEG (Renewables Act) is a first step in this direction. Further, investments must be made in logistics capacities. The available logistics of coal power plants can be used with some minor modifications. In all, successful and sustainable international biomass markets may soon be available.

  10. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  11. Aspects of using biomass as energy source for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tîrtea Raluca-Nicoleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass represents an important source of renewable energy in Romania with about 64% of the whole available green energy. Being a priority for the energy sector worldwide, in our country the development stage is poor compared to solar and wind energy. Biomass power plants offer great horizontal economy development, local and regional economic growth with benefic effects on life standard. The paper presents an analysis on biomass to power conversion solutions compared to fossil fuels using two main processes: combustion and gasification. Beside the heating value, which can be considerably higher for fossil fuels compared to biomass, a big difference between fossil fuels and biomass can be observed in the sulphur content. While the biomass sulphur content is between 0 and approximately 1%, the sulphur content of coal can reach 4%. Using coal in power plants requires important investments in installations of flue gas desulfurization. If limestone is used to reduce SO2 emissions, then additional carbon dioxide moles will be released during the production of CaO from CaCO3. Therefore, fossil fuels not only release a high amount of carbon dioxide through burning, but also through the caption of sulphur dioxide, while biomass is considered CO2 neutral. Biomass is in most of the cases represented by residues, so it is a free fuel compared to fossil fuels. The same power plant can be used even if biomass or fossil fuels is used as a feedstock with small differences. The biomass plant could need a drying system due to high moisture content of the biomass, while the coal plant will need a desulfurization installation of flue gas and additional money will be spent with fuel purchasing.

  12. Biomass conversion and expansion factors in Douglas-fir stands of different planting density: variation according to individual growth and prediction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marziliano, P.A.; Menguzzato, G.; Scuderi, A.; Scalise, C.; Coletta, V.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: We built biomass expansion factors (BCEFs) from Douglas-fir felled trees planted with different planting densities to evaluate the differences according tree size and planting density. Area of study: The Douglas-fir plantation under study is located on the northern coastal chain of Calabria (Tyrrhenian side) south Italy. Materials and methods: We derived tree level BCEFs, relative to crown (BCEFc), to stem (BCEFst = basic density, BD) and total above-ground (BCEFt) from destructive measurements carried out in a Douglas-fir plantation where four study plots were selected according to different planting densities (from 833 to 2500 trees per hectare). The measured BCEFs were regressed against diameter at breast height and total height, planting density, site productivity (SP) and their interactions to test the variation of BCEFs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey comparison test were used to test differences in BCEFt, BCEFc and in BD between plots with different planting density. Main results: BCEFs decreased with increasing total height and DBH, but large dispersion measures were obtained for any of the compartments in the analysis. An increasing trend with planting density was found for all the analyzed BCEFs, but together with planting density, BCEFs also resulted dependent upon site productivity. BCEFt average values ranged between 1.40 Mg m-3 in planting density with 833 trees/ha (PD833) to 2.09 Mg m-3 in planting density with 2500 trees/ha (PD2500), which are in the range of IPCC prescribed values for Douglas-fir trees. Research highlights: Our results showed that the application of BCEF to estimate forest biomass in stands with different planting densities should explicitly account for the effect of planting density and site productivity.

  13. Biomass conversion and expansion factors in Douglas-fir stands of different planting density: variation according to individual growth and prediction equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marziliano, P.A.; Menguzzato, G.; Scuderi, A.; Scalise, C.; Coletta, V.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: We built biomass expansion factors (BCEFs) from Douglas-fir felled trees planted with different planting densities to evaluate the differences according tree size and planting density. Area of study: The Douglas-fir plantation under study is located on the northern coastal chain of Calabria (Tyrrhenian side) south Italy. Materials and methods: We derived tree level BCEFs, relative to crown (BCEFc), to stem (BCEFst = basic density, BD) and total above-ground (BCEFt) from destructive measurements carried out in a Douglas-fir plantation where four study plots were selected according to different planting densities (from 833 to 2500 trees per hectare). The measured BCEFs were regressed against diameter at breast height and total height, planting density, site productivity (SP) and their interactions to test the variation of BCEFs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey comparison test were used to test differences in BCEFt, BCEFc and in BD between plots with different planting density. Main results: BCEFs decreased with increasing total height and DBH, but large dispersion measures were obtained for any of the compartments in the analysis. An increasing trend with planting density was found for all the analyzed BCEFs, but together with planting density, BCEFs also resulted dependent upon site productivity. BCEFt average values ranged between 1.40 Mg m-3 in planting density with 833 trees/ha (PD833) to 2.09 Mg m-3 in planting density with 2500 trees/ha (PD2500), which are in the range of IPCC prescribed values for Douglas-fir trees. Research highlights: Our results showed that the application of BCEF to estimate forest biomass in stands with different planting densities should explicitly account for the effect of planting density and site productivity.

  14. Interference of Cd2+ in functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Baszyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual opinions concerning the role of Cd2+ in inhibition of photosynthesis have been reviewed. The light phase of photosynthesis, particularly the site of Cd2+ action in the photosynthetic transport chain has been given the greatest attention. Cd2+-induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity as the result of thylakoid membrane degradation has been discussed. The present studies on Cd2+-inhibited dark reactions occurring in stroma has been analysed. Attention has been drawn to the fact that the results of studies in vitro are not always compatible with the changes found in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants growing in a Cd2 containing medium.

  15. Corrosion in the Flue Gas Cleaning System of a Biomass-Fired Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Olesen, R. E.; Gensmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    After only a few years operation, corrosiondamage was observed in the flue gas cleaning system of abiomass power plant. The corrosion was on the lower partof the gas/gas heat exchanger fabricated from A242weathering steel, where UNS S31600 bolts were used toattach sealing strips to the rotor. Thick...... iron oxides (up to5 mm) had formed on the weathering steel, and theseoxides also contained chlorine and sulfur. In this area of theheat exchanger, weathering steel has not had the optimalwet/dry cycles required to achieve a protective oxide. Dueto the thick growing oxide on the rotor, the UNS S31600......bolts were under stress and this together with the presenceof accumulated chlorine between the sealing strips andbolts resulted in stress corrosion cracking and rupture. Inaddition, Zn-K-Cl deposits were agglomerated in the ductafter the DeNOx unit. Zn was also a constituent of corrosionproducts...

  16. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.

  17. GIS Methodology for Location of Biomass Power Plants Via Multi -Criteria Evaluation and Network Analysis. Location-Allocation Models for Forest Biomass Use; Metodologia SIG para la Localizacion de Centrales de Biomasa mediante Evaluacion Multicriterio y Analisis de Redes. Modelos de Localizacion-Asignacion para el Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C de la; Dominguez, J; Perez, M E

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to find optimal areas for the installation of Biomass Plants for electric generation and grid connected. In order to achieve this goal, a methodology based on Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and implemented by means a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed. Factors and restrictions for biomass resource and power plants location of biomass have been obtained through the dataset. The methodology output includes maps of greater aptitude areas for resource use (forest biomass available), as well as suitable locations for the placement of Forest Biomass facilities. Both cartographic products have been related by means Network Analysis. It generates Location-Allocation Models which allows locating Forest Biomass Facilities according with an optimization of the supply chain from the resource areas. (Author)

  18. Supplementing with non-glycoside hydrolase proteins enhances enzymatic deconstruction of plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jing; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolases (GH) of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii are thermophilic enzymes, and therefore they can hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides at high temperatures. Analyses of two C. bescii glycoside hydrolases, CbCelA-TM1 and CbXyn10A with cellulase and endoxylanase activity, respectively, demonstrated that each enzyme is highly thermostable under static incubation at 70°C. Both enzymes, however, rapidly lost their enzymatic activities when incubated at 70°C with end-over-end shaking. Since crowding conditions, even at low protein concentrations, seem to influence enzymatic properties, three non-glycoside hydrolase proteins were tested for their capacity to stabilize the thermophilic proteins at high temperatures. The three proteins investigated were a small heat shock protein CbHsp18 from C. bescii, a histone MkHistone1 from Methanopyrus kandleri, and bovine RNase A, from a commercial source. Fascinatingly, each of these proteins increased the thermostability of the glycoside hydrolases at 70°C during end-over-end shaking incubation, and this property translated into increases in hydrolysis of several substrates including the bioenergy feedstock Miscanthus. Furthermore, MkHistone1 and RNase A also altered the initial products released from the cello-oligosaccharide cellopentaose during hydrolysis with the cellodextrinase CbCdx1A, which further demonstrated the capacity of the three non-GH proteins to influence hydrolysis of substrates by the thermophilic glycoside hydrolases. The non-GH proteins used in the present report were small proteins derived from each of the three lineages of life, and therefore expand the space from which different polypeptides can be tested for their influence on plant cell wall hydrolysis, a critical step in the emerging biofuel industry.

  19. Next Generation Protein Interactomes for Plant Systems Biology and Biomass Feedstock Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Joseph Robert [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Trigg, Shelly [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Biological Sciences Dept.; Garza, Renee [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Song, Haili [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; MacWilliams, Andrew [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Nery, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Reina, Joaquin [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Bartlett, Anna [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Castanon, Rosa [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Goubil, Adeline [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Feeney, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; O' Malley, Ronan [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Huang, Shao-shan Carol [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Zhang, Zhuzhu [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Galli, Mary [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.

    2016-11-30

    Biofuel crop cultivation is a necessary step in heading towards a sustainable future, making their genomic studies a priority. While technology platforms that currently exist for studying non-model crop species, like switch-grass or sorghum, have yielded large quantities of genomic and expression data, still a large gap exists between molecular mechanism and phenotype. The aspect of molecular activity at the level of protein-protein interactions has recently begun to bridge this gap, providing a more global perspective. Interactome analysis has defined more specific functional roles of proteins based on their interaction partners, neighborhoods, and other network features, making it possible to distinguish unique modules of immune response to different plant pathogens(Jiang, Dong, and Zhang 2016). As we work towards cultivating heartier biofuel crops, interactome data will lead to uncovering crop-specific defense and development networks. However, the collection of protein interaction data has been limited to expensive, time-consuming, hard-to-scale assays that mostly require cloned ORF collections. For these reasons, we have successfully developed a highly scalable, economical, and sensitive yeast two-hybrid assay, ProCREate, that can be universally applied to generate proteome-wide primary interactome data. ProCREate enables en masse pooling and massively paralleled sequencing for the identification of interacting proteins by exploiting Cre-lox recombination. ProCREate can be used to screen ORF/cDNA libraries from feedstock plant tissues. The interactome data generated will yield deeper insight into many molecular processes and pathways that can be used to guide improvement of feedstock productivity and sustainability.

  20. Supplementing with non-glycoside hydrolase proteins enhances enzymatic deconstruction of plant biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Su

    Full Text Available The glycoside hydrolases (GH of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii are thermophilic enzymes, and therefore they can hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides at high temperatures. Analyses of two C. bescii glycoside hydrolases, CbCelA-TM1 and CbXyn10A with cellulase and endoxylanase activity, respectively, demonstrated that each enzyme is highly thermostable under static incubation at 70°C. Both enzymes, however, rapidly lost their enzymatic activities when incubated at 70°C with end-over-end shaking. Since crowding conditions, even at low protein concentrations, seem to influence enzymatic properties, three non-glycoside hydrolase proteins were tested for their capacity to stabilize the thermophilic proteins at high temperatures. The three proteins investigated were a small heat shock protein CbHsp18 from C. bescii, a histone MkHistone1 from Methanopyrus kandleri, and bovine RNase A, from a commercial source. Fascinatingly, each of these proteins increased the thermostability of the glycoside hydrolases at 70°C during end-over-end shaking incubation, and this property translated into increases in hydrolysis of several substrates including the bioenergy feedstock Miscanthus. Furthermore, MkHistone1 and RNase A also altered the initial products released from the cello-oligosaccharide cellopentaose during hydrolysis with the cellodextrinase CbCdx1A, which further demonstrated the capacity of the three non-GH proteins to influence hydrolysis of substrates by the thermophilic glycoside hydrolases. The non-GH proteins used in the present report were small proteins derived from each of the three lineages of life, and therefore expand the space from which different polypeptides can be tested for their influence on plant cell wall hydrolysis, a critical step in the emerging biofuel industry.

  1. Biomass Scenario Model | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Scenario Model Biomass Scenario Model The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique range of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into biofuels. Over the past 25 years, the corn ethanol plant matter (lignocellulosic biomass) to fermentable sugars for the production of fuel ethanol

  2. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering] [and others

    2012-02-15

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and Cd (50 mg kg{sup -1}) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. (orig.)

  3. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saia

    Full Text Available Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  4. Bilirubin oxidase-like proteins from Podospora anserina: promising thermostable enzymes for application in transformation of plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Silar, Philippe; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi is a critical step for production of biofuels, and laccases are common ligninolytic enzymes envisioned for ligninolysis. Bilirubin oxidases (BODs)-like are related to laccases, but their roles during lignocellulose degradation have not yet been fully investigated. The two BODs of the ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina were characterized by targeted gene deletions. Enzymatic assay revealed that the bod1(Δ) and bod2(Δ) mutants lost partly a thermostable laccase activity. A triple mutant inactivated for bod1, bod2 and mco, a previously investigated multicopper oxidase gene distantly related to laccases, had no thermostable laccase activity. The pattern of fruiting body production in the bod1(Δ) bod2(Δ) double mutant was changed. The bod1(Δ) and bod2(Δ) mutants were reduced in their ability to grow on ligneous and cellulosic materials. Furthermore, bod1(Δ) and bod2(Δ) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and triple mutants were more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among BODs and mco. Overall, the data show that bod1, bod2 and mco code for non-canonical thermostable laccases that participate in the degradation of lignocellulose. Thanks to their thermal stability, these enzymes may be more promising candidate for biotechnological application than canonical laccases. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rapid estimation of the biochemical methane potential of plant biomasses using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Triolo, Jin M; Peltre, Clément; Pedersen, Lene; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) is a very important characteristic of a given feedstock for optimisation of its use in biogas production. However, the long digestion time needed to determine BMP is the main limitation for the use of this assay during the operation of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas. Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to predict the BMP of 87 plant biomasses. The developed calibration model was able to explain 81% of the variance in the measured BMP of a selected test set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 40NLCH4kg(-1) of volatile solids (VS) and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) of 2.38. The interpretation of the regression coefficients used in the calibration revealed a positive correlation of BMP with easily degradable compounds (amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose and aliphatic compounds) and a negative correlation with inhibitors of cellulose hydrolysis (lignin, hemicellulose). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Amato, Gaetano; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N) fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season) on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions) or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  7. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  8. Mild Fe-deficiency improves biomass production and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chong-Wei; Liu, Yue; Mao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Qian; Du, Shao-Ting

    2013-06-15

    It is of great practical importance to improve yield and quality of vegetables in soilless cul