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Sample records for higher perceived vulnerability

  1. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  2. Gender Identity Salience and Perceived Vulnerability to Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven); S. Puntoni (Stefano); N.T. Tavassoli (Nader)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractContrary to predictions based on cognitive accessibility, heightened gender identity salience resulted in lower perceived vulnerability and reduced donation behavior to identity-specific risks (e.g., breast cancer). No such effect was manifest with identity-neutral risks. Establishing

  3. Perceived vulnerability as a common basis of moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijker, Anton J M

    2010-06-01

    It is theorized that many moral emotions are triggered when a mechanism for (parental) care is activated by perceived vulnerability, and changes in the care object's well-being are subsequently evaluated and causally attributed. Participants reported different moral emotions (tenderness, concern, sympathy, guilt, and moral anger) in relation to different photographs of males and females widely differing in age. Using variation between emotion objects, it was shown that emotional reactions were highly intercorrelated and strongly related to perceived vulnerability and aroused protective tendency; with children and elderly arousing the strongest, and adult males the weakest, emotions. Moreover, these intercorrelations largely disappeared when vulnerability and protective tendency were statistically controlled. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  4. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763 parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination.

  5. Parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress: a cross-illness comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Ryan, Jamie L; Fedele, David A; Rambo, Philip L; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-12-01

    The current study sought to investigate differences in parenting capacity variables across four disease groups. Parents (N = 425), the majority of whom were mothers, of children with either cancer, asthma, Type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis, completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress. After controlling for significant demographic variables, parents of children with cystic fibrosis and asthma reported higher perceived child vulnerability than parents of children with either diabetes or cancer, while parents of children with asthma and diabetes reported higher parenting stress than parents of children with cancer or cystic fibrosis. No differences between disease groups were found for parental overprotection. The current study provides support for an illness-specific approach to understanding parenting capacity variables in the context of childhood chronic illnesses.

  6. The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived vulnerability, and parenting stress to behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Page, Melanie C; McNall-Knapp, René Y; Meyer, William H; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2008-08-01

    To examine the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to parent-reported behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment of children currently on treatment for cancer. Parents of 62 children (34 boys, 28 girls) currently on treatment for cancer were recruited from an outpatient pediatric cancer clinic. Children ranged in age from 2 to 12 years; age at diagnosis ranged from 1.33 to 11.83 years. Higher levels of parenting stress, but not parental overprotection or perceived child vulnerability, were associated with poorer behavioral and social adjustment. Higher levels of perceived child vulnerability and parenting stress, but not parental overprotection, were independently associated with poorer emotional adjustment. Specific parenting variables appear to be related to specific adjustment outcomes in children with cancer. Longitudinal follow-up of these children is necessary to determine the developmental trajectory of parent variables and long-term child outcomes.

  7. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  8. Perceived vulnerability to aids among rural Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost a third (30%) worried about getting AIDS and even more (40%) thought they will get AIDS. There were important age- and gender-related differences regarding vulnerability and fears about AIDS, which have relevant implications for AIDS education addressing developmentally appropriate concerns. Journal of Child ...

  9. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C M J; Egeler, R M; Koopman, H M; Bresters, D; Norberg, A L; Grootenhuis, M A

    2010-06-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and perceptions of child vulnerability (Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS)). General distress scores were comparable with the reference groups, but 40% of the mothers at 5 years after SCT reported increased stress levels as compared with 26% in the community-based reference group. Disease-related stress was comparable with the reference group of parents of children who were just off cancer treatment, 5 years after SCT. At 10 years after SCT, scores were lower than the reference group. Perceived child vulnerability did diminish over time, but remained high in parents of SCT survivors, compared with parents of healthy children: 96% of the parents at 5 years after SCT and 76% of the parents at 10 years after SCT scored above the cutoff point. Perceived vulnerability was found to be a predictor for parental disease-related stress. To conclude, although most parents of SCT survivors are resilient, the majority of parents perceive their child to be much more vulnerable as compared with parents of healthy children. This perception is associated with disease-related stress and may induce overprotective parenting.

  10. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.

  11. Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Higher Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2017-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in many countries are currently experiencing significant changes in how they are organized and managed. Consequently, exploring the kind of manager/leader behaviours that are perceived as effective and least effective/ineffective by peers, subordinates, collaborators, and team members in HEIs becomes important.…

  12. Fundamental motor skills, nutritional status, perceived competence, and school performance of Brazilian children in social vulnerability: Gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Glauber Carvalho; Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Nobre, Francisco Salviano Sales

    2018-06-01

    Being at risk or in social vulnerability situations can affect important aspects of child development. The aim of this study was to investigate fundamental motor skills (locomotor and object control) and school (writing, arithmetic, reading) performances, the perceived competence and the nutritional status of girls and boys living in social vulnerability in the poorest regions of Brazil. Two hundred eleven (211) children (87 girls, 41%), 7-10-year-old (M = 8.3, SD = 0.9), from public schools in Ceará (Brazil), living in social vulnerability, participated in the study. Children were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2, the Body Mass Index (BMI), the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and the School Performance Test. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), adjusted for age, did not show any significant effect for locomotion. There was an effect of gender on the object control. Boys showed higher scores in striking, kicking, throwing, and rolling a ball. Quade's nonparametric analysis showed no difference in BMI between the genders. Most children presented healthy weight. The MANCOVA showed no effect of gender on children's scores on perceived competence on the subscales; moderate scores were found for most children. There were no gender effects on school performance; both boys and girls demonstrated inferior performance. Boys and girls in social vulnerability showed inferior performance in most motor skills, moderate perceived competence and inferior school performance. These results reveal that the appropriate development of these children is at risk and that intervention strategies should be implemented to compensate the difficulties presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  14. Perceived stress and eating behaviors by sex, obesity status, and stress vulnerability: findings from the vitamins and lifestyle (VITAL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Beresford, Shirley A A; McGregor, Bonnie A; White, Emily

    2014-11-01

    Stress has been associated with eating patterns in human studies with differences due to the type and duration of stressor, type of food, and individual susceptibility factors. Laboratory and smaller epidemiological studies have reported stress-associated preferences for foods high in sugar and fat; associations have been found more consistently among women and people who are obese. Larger studies are needed to sufficiently test these relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between self-reported amount of stress and dietary nutrient intakes (percentage energy from fat, carbohydrates, added sugar) and dietary behaviors (number of eating occasions and servings of fruits and vegetables, high-fat snacks, fast-food items, and sweetened drinks) by sex, obesity status, and stress vulnerability. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of perceived stress with eating patterns among 65,235 older adults while adjusting for demographic factors, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, number of comorbidities, and other relevant covariates. Higher perceived stress was associated with greater intake of energy from fat, high-fat snacks, and fast-food items as well as lower intake of energy from carbohydrates (all P for trend ≤0.002). Among those with high perceived stress vulnerability, perceived stress was associated with fewer eating occasions (P for interaction stress arising from everyday experiences among an older, mostly white population. These findings have public health implications and suggest that stress may be important to consider in programs promoting healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  16. Strengthening Emergency Preparedness in Higher Education through Hazard Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew; Burrowes, Jeffrey; McPherson, Tarrant; McCormick, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    Experts have noted a great deal of variability among U.S. higher education institutions' planning and preparedness for emergency situations. However, resources are available to help campus leaders effectively mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a multitude of disaster scenarios. One way for emergency managers and campus leaders to…

  17. Spatially Representing Vulnerability to Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers' Objective and Perceived Attributes of Adaptive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Maaz; Arbuckle, J Gordon

    2017-11-29

    Potential climate-change-related impacts to agriculture in the upper Midwest pose serious economic and ecological risks to the U.S. and the global economy. On a local level, farmers are at the forefront of responding to the impacts of climate change. Hence, it is important to understand how farmers and their farm operations may be more or less vulnerable to changes in the climate. A vulnerability index is a tool commonly used by researchers and practitioners to represent the geographical distribution of vulnerability in response to global change. Most vulnerability assessments measure objective adaptive capacity using secondary data collected by governmental agencies. However, other scholarship on human behavior has noted that sociocultural and cognitive factors, such as risk perceptions and perceived capacity, are consequential for modulating people's actual vulnerability. Thus, traditional assessments can potentially overlook people's subjective perceptions of changes in climate and extreme weather events and the extent to which people feel prepared to take necessary steps to cope with and respond to the negative effects of climate change. This article addresses this knowledge gap by: (1) incorporating perceived adaptive capacity into a vulnerability assessment; (2) using spatial smoothing to aggregate individual-level vulnerabilities to the county level; and (3) evaluating the relationships among different dimensions of adaptive capacity to examine whether perceived capacity should be integrated into vulnerability assessments. The result suggests that vulnerability assessments that rely only on objective measures might miss important sociocognitive dimensions of capacity. Vulnerability indices and maps presented in this article can inform engagement strategies for improving environmental sustainability in the region. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L; Delamater, Paul L; Boules, Caroline R; Upperman, Crystal R; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2015-12-04

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change's health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change-due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards-already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents' climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  19. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L.; Delamater, Paul L.; Boules, Caroline R.; Upperman, Crystal R.; Mitchell, Clifford S.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  20. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Akerlof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126. We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  1. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  2. A multicentric study of disease-related stress, and perceived vulnerability, in parents of children with congenital cardiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. Jantien; Ottenkamp, Jaap; van Roozendaal, Matty; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Koopman, Hendrik M.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children with congenitally malformed hearts can suffer from stress as a result of the medical condition of their child. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to describe levels of parental stress, and perceived vulnerability, in parents of children who underwent major cardiac surgery,

  3. Pathways Fostering Mobility to Higher Education for Vulnerable Immigrants in France, Switzerland and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine; Koomen, Maarten; Imdorf, Christian; Kamanzi, Canisius; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wish to clarify not only if, but also how--through which institutional settings--higher education (HE) is accessed by students from vulnerable immigrant groups in France, Switzerland and Canada. We are interested in the possible educational mobility that immigrant youths can experience arising from country-specific educational…

  4. Institutional Variables and Perceived Environmental Concerns in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Steve O.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of worsening financial constraints evident in all aspects of higher education institutions. Examines differences and similarities in institutional leaders' opinions regarding environmental concerns. All Alberta, Canada, higher education institutions are experiencing similar problems. There is no deliberate shift in government…

  5. Perceived vulnerability moderates the relations between the use of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol use and consequences among high-risk young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tracey A; Fairlie, Anne M; Litt, Dana M; Waldron, Katja A; Lewis, Melissa A

    2018-06-01

    Drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. PBS subscales, Limiting/Stopping (LS), Manner of Drinking (MOD), and Serious Harm Reduction (SHR), have been examined in the literature; LS, MOD, and SHR have mixed support as protective factors. Understanding moderators between PBS and alcohol use and related consequences is an important development in PBS research in order to delineate when and for whom PBS use is effective in reducing harm from alcohol use. Perceptions of vulnerability to negative consequences, included in health-risk models, may be one such moderator. The current study examined whether two types of perceived vulnerability (perceived vulnerability when drinking; perceived vulnerability in uncomfortable/unfamiliar situations) moderated the relations between LS, MOD, SHR strategies and alcohol use and related negative consequences. High-risk young adults (N = 400; 53.75% female) recruited nationally completed measures of PBS, alcohol use and related consequences, and measures of perceived vulnerability. Findings demonstrated that perceived vulnerability when drinking moderated the relations between MOD strategies and alcohol use. The interactions between perceived vulnerability when drinking and PBS did not predict alcohol-related consequences. Perceived vulnerability in unfamiliar/uncomfortable social situations moderated relations between MOD strategies and both alcohol use and related negative consequences; no other significant interactions emerged. Across both perceived vulnerability types and MOD strategies, those with the highest levels of perceived vulnerability and who used MOD strategies the most had the greatest decrements in alcohol use and related negative consequences. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Perceived Value of Higher Education: The Voice of Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda S. L.; To, W. M.; Lung, Jane W. Y.; Lai, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study on the perceived value of higher education by Chinese students in Macao SAR, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Taipei. Using responses from 316 students, we find that the Sheth-Newman-Gross Theory of Consumption Values explains how students perceive the services offered by higher education institutions. Students…

  7. Self-perceived halitosis among students of higher learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SPH), its effects and associated factors among students of higher learning institutions in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and methods: A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed to 354 students. Data was entered into excel sheet and ...

  8. The relationship between parental overprotection and health-related quality of life in pediatric cancer: the mediating role of perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Meyer, William H; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-11-01

    The current study sought to examine the relation of parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability to parent-reported health-related quality of life in parents of children with cancer. Parents (N = 89) of children who had been diagnosed with cancer completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parent-proxy report of health-related quality of life. After controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability were both found to be significantly related to child health-related quality of life. Additional analyses revealed that perceived child vulnerability mediated the relationship between overprotective parenting behaviors and the child's health-related quality of life. The findings highlight the need to assess for these discrete parenting variables in parents of children with cancer and to develop interventions to target parental perceptions of vulnerability.

  9. Perceived HIV/AIDS impact among higher education institutions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be concluded that HIV/AIDS is having a serious impact on the fiscal situation of tertiary institutions in much the same ways as it does on other institutions. It is, therefore, imperative for higher education institutions to respond to HIV/AIDS for their own benefit and that of their broader stakeholders. Early action will reap ...

  10. Intuition, as the ability to perceive a higher principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc Petr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we predicted the role of intuition in the decision-making process. In the mapping of its importance in this process, we drew from the model of Daniel Kahneman which divides our thinking primarily into two systems, logical and associative. We (The authors view intuition as a third system that exists as if outside of both systems, emanating from the “higher principle” which may be a collective consciousness or the divine will. First, we performed a pilot experiment which used an MRI to analyze brain function while performing normal activities. After observing the results of the MRI, we hypothesized that the normal mechanical activity, albeit complicated, cannot be called intuition, but only associative thinking, which can be further developed. Intuition, however, is not directly related to the two systems, because it works outside of or beyond them, but directly affects them. In this article, we have focused mainly on the ethical and moral context of the decision-making process and its subsequent practical consequences. The inclusion of the intuitive process in conjunction with the logical and associative systems is an important tool for an individual’s understanding of crisis decision-making in keeping WITH the mission of the company.

  11. A model for the development of mothers' perceived vulnerability of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Lilo, Emily; Leibovitz, Ann; St John, Nick; Shaw, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Some mothers of preterm infants continue to view them as vulnerable after their health has improved. These exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability lead to poor parent-child interactions and, subsequently, to adverse child outcomes. However, there is no theoretical model to explain why these exaggerated perceptions develop in only some mother-child dyads. Data for this study come from a randomized trial of an intervention to reduce distress in mothers of preterm infants. A total of 105 mothers older than 18 years of infants aged 25-34 weeks, weighing >600 g and with clinically significant anxiety, depression, or trauma symptoms, were recruited and randomized. Women were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at 6 months after birth. The outcome for these analyses was perceptions of infant vulnerability as measured by the Vulnerable Baby Scale (VBS) at 6 months after birth. A theoretical model developed from the extant literature was tested using the MacArthur Mediator-Moderator Approach. A dysfunctional coping style, high depression, anxiety, or trauma symptoms in response to the preterm birth, and low social support were related to 6-month VBS scores. Maternal response to trauma was directly related to VBS, and an important precursor of maternal response to trauma was a dysfunctional coping style. This model suggests that maternal responses to trauma are critical in the formation of exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability as are dysfunctional coping styles and low social support. Women with these characteristics should be targeted for intervention to prevent poor parenting practices that result from exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability.

  12. Shorter Perceived Outpatient MRI Wait Times Associated With Higher Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Glenn, Harold; Mahmood, Rabia; Cai, Qingpo; Kang, Jian; Duszak, Richard

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in perceived versus actual wait times among patients undergoing outpatient MRI examinations and to correlate those times with patient satisfaction. Over 15 weeks, 190 patients presenting for outpatient MR in a radiology department in which "patient experience" is one of the stated strategic priorities were asked to (1) estimate their wait times for various stages in the imaging process and (2) state their satisfaction with their imaging experience. Perceived times were compared with actual electronic time stamps. Perceived and actual times were compared and correlated with standardized satisfaction scores using Kendall τ correlation. The mean actual wait time between patient arrival and examination start was 53.4 ± 33.8 min, whereas patients perceived a mean wait time of 27.8 ± 23.1 min, a statistically significant underestimation of 25.6 min (P perceived wait times at all points during patient encounters were correlated with higher satisfaction scores (P perceived and actual wait times were both correlated with higher satisfaction scores. As satisfaction surveys play a larger role in an environment of metric transparency and value-based payments, better understanding of such factors will be increasingly important. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to uncertainty in youth with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Larry L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Pai, Ahna L Hoff; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Gillaspy, Stephen; Cheek, Jeff; Page, Melanie

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of parent-reported overprotection (OP), perceived child vulnerability (PCV), and parenting stress (PS) to youth-reported illness uncertainty, and to explore potential developmental differences. Eighty-two children and 82 adolescents (n = 164) diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) or asthma, completed a measure of illness uncertainty, while their parents completed measures of OP, PCV, and PS. After controlling for demographic and illness parameters, both PCV and PS significantly predicted youth illness uncertainty in the combined sample. Within the child group, only PS significantly predicted illness uncertainty, whereas only PCV significantly predicted uncertainty for adolescents. Specific parenting variables are associated with youth-reported illness uncertainty; however, their relationship varies according to developmental level. Although OP has been identified as a predictor of child psychological outcomes in other studies, it does not appear to be associated with illness uncertainty in youth with DM1 or asthma.

  14. Multicultural student group work in higher education: a study on challenges as perceived by students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  16. The Impact of Privacy Concerns and Perceived Vulnerability to Risks on Users Privacy Protection Behaviors on SNS: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noora Sami Al-Saqer; Mohamed E. Seliaman

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates Saudi users’ awareness levels about privacy policies in Social Networking Sites (SNSs), their privacy concerns and their privacy protection measures. For this purpose, a research model that consists of five main constructs namely information privacy concern, awareness level of privacy policies of social networking sites, perceived vulnerability to privacy risks, perceived response efficacy, and privacy protecting behavior was developed. An online survey questi...

  17. PERCEIVED SERVICE QUALITY AND STUDENTS' SATISFACTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pedro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to study the relationship between perceived quality (PQ and satisfaction in Higher education, and especially to identify if these variables could differ between groups of students exposed to different teaching methods. A quantitative study was conducted at a Portuguese Faculty of Health Sciences, through a survey applied to a final sample of 359 students. Data analysis was performed through a structural equation model, using, for this purpose, the PLS method. Results confirm that PQ is positively related to students' satisfaction in the Higher Education Institutions (HEI context, and that PQ and satisfaction are significantly different when students are exposed to different teaching approaches. Although there is a substantial body of evidence regarding teaching methods in HEI, to our knowledge there is no reliable prior study that explicitly approached the influence of alternative teaching methods on students' satisfaction and their perception of service quality.

  18. A qualitative study into the perceived barriers of accessing healthcare among a vulnerable population involved with a community centre in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Siân; Daniels, Katy; Fioratou, Evridiki

    2018-04-03

    Minority vulnerable communities, such as the European Roma, often face numerous barriers to accessing healthcare services, resulting in negative health outcomes. Both these barriers and outcomes have been reported extensively in the literature. However, reports on barriers faced by European non-Roma native communities are limited. The "Health Care Access Barriers" (HCAB) model identifies pertinent financial, structural and cognitive barriers that can be measured and potentially modified. The present study thus aims to explore the barriers to accessing healthcare for a vulnerable population of mixed ethnicity from a charity community centre in Romania, as perceived by the centre's family users and staff members, and assess whether these reflect the barriers identified from the HCAB model. Eleven community members whose children attend the centre and seven staff members working at the centre participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews, exploring personal experiences and views on accessing healthcare. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using an initial deductive and secondary inductive approach to identify HCAB themes and other emerging themes and subthemes. Identified themes from both groups aligned with HCAB's themes of financial, structural and cognitive barriers and emergent subthemes important to the specific population were identified. Specifically, financial barriers related mostly to health insurance and bribery issues, structural barriers related mostly to service availability and accessibility, and cognitive barriers related mostly to healthcare professionals' attitudes and discrimination and the vulnerable population's lack of education and health literacy. A unique theme of psychological barriers emerged from both groups with associated subthemes of mistrust, hopelessness, fear and anxiety of this vulnerable population. The current study highlights healthcare access barriers to a vulnerable non-Roma native population involved with a

  19. Definition of a profile of vulnerability to access policy of permanence in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Tedy Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the system of socioeconomic study in universities. The fundamentals that guided the study were: knowledge for Professional Social Work Team, the concept of vulnerability, Permanence Management Policies and Technical Operating Instrumental used in the Socioeconomic Study. In developing the survey, it has a qualitative approach and applied nature, with descriptive multicase study. The data collection was documentary, bibliographical and was used questionnaire sent via e-mail to managers of teams of social workers from five universities. Through the information obtained, it was possible to identify the forms used for the socioeconomic study in universities. Although the adopted forms for construction of the methodologies present concern with the theoretical bases, which are mainly developed from the knowledge of Social Workers, there is not a clear definition of a theory to specific socioeconomic study.

  20. Predictors of perceived importance and acceptance of digital delivery modes in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mertens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and assessment in higher education institutions are increasingly supported by digital tools and services. Students, however, perceive and value the importance of such e-learning offerings in very diverse ways. The goal of this article is to examine which predictors significantly influence students’ perceptions of the value of digital learning formats. Based on Küpper's acceptance model, we generate hypotheses that are subsequently tested using data from a German student survey. The results show that individual-related characteristics, especially motivation and orientation patterns of students, have a high impact on the perceived importance of digital learning formats. Our analyses indicate that besides individual performance and motivation, the practical orientation of a student is also a key predictor for a high rating of the importance of digital learning formats. An analysis of characteristics regarding the field of study shows that students who major in economic sciences, especially those who frequently work with digital learning formats in their classes, find them significantly more important than students who major in social science. Regarding innovation-based characteristics, students who express a need for flexible course offerings rate the use of digital learning formats as particularly important. The discussion provides an evaluation of the results of the student study based on the hypotheses and presents further implications.

  1. Parent and Self-Report Ratings on the Perceived Levels of Social Vulnerability of Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Emma; Fisher, Marisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The current study took a multi-informant approach to compare parent to self-report ratings of social vulnerability of adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants included 102 pairs of adults with WS and their parents. Parents completed the "Social Vulnerability Questionnaire" and adults with WS completed an adapted version of the…

  2. Exploring Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in the Pursuit of Higher Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jason M. S.; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Ariffin, Ahmad Azmi M.

    2017-01-01

    While past studies have merely focused on perceived risks that influence how students select the destination of international education best suited to their needs, research on perceived risk regarding post-purchase behavior remains limited. This study attempts to extend and redefine the perceived risk paradigm by uncovering the underlying elements…

  3. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  4. Building Collegiate E-Loyalty: The Role of Perceived Value in the Quality-Loyalty Linkage in Online Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Brandon; Kilburn, Ashley; Davis, Dexter

    2016-01-01

    E-service quality of online higher education reflects the student's perception of quality of online exchanges across four dimensions: fulfillment, efficiency, system availability and privacy. This study links e-service quality to intentions to remain loyal as mediated by perceived value in an online higher education environment. AMOS is used to…

  5. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  6. EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL ON COLLEGE STUDENTS’ EVALUATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Jungki Lee

    2011-01-01

    Students are known to experience significant amounts of stress and challenges during their academic pursuit at college. This study explores a way to enhance student satisfaction by incorporating a concept called perceived control to the existing service quality model. To be specific, this study proposes and tests that perceived control could be a promising factor which may enhance service quality, satisfaction, and recommendation intention among college students. Data were collected a major c...

  7. Investigating Perceived Barriers to the Use of Open Educational Resources in Higher Education in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S. Mtebe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have seen increasingly rapid development and use of open educational resources (OER in higher education institutions (HEIs in developing countries. These resources are believed to be able to widen access, reduce the costs, and improve the quality of education. However, there exist several challenges that hinder the adoption and use of these resources. The majority of challenges mentioned in the literature do not have empirically grounded evidence and they assume Sub-Saharan countries face similar challenges. Nonetheless, despite commonalities that exist amongst these countries, there also exists considerable diversity, and they face different challenges. Accordingly, this study investigated the perceived barriers to the use of OER in 11 HEIs in Tanzania. The empirical data was generated through semi-structured interviews with a random sample of 92 instructors as well as a review of important documents. Findings revealed that lack of access to computers and the Internet, low Internet bandwidth, absence of policies, and lack of skills to create and/or use OER are the main barriers to the use of OER in HEIs in Tanzania. Contrary to findings elsewhere in Africa, the study revealed that lack of trust in others’ resources, lack of interest in creating and/or using OER, and lack of time to find suitable materials were not considered to be barriers. These findings provide a new understanding of the barriers to the use of OER in HEIs and should therefore assist those who are involved in OER implementation to find mitigating strategies that will maximize their usage.

  8. Dextromethorphan attenuated the higher vulnerability to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia caused by prenatal morphine exposure in rat offspring

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    Chen Chien-Fang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-administration of dextromethorphan (DM with morphine during pregnancy and throughout lactation has been found to reduce morphine physical dependence and tolerance in rat offspring. No evidence was presented, however, for the effect of DM co-administered with morphine during pregnancy on inflammatory hyperalgesia in morphine-exposed offspring. Therefore, we attempt to investigate the possible effect of prenatal morphine exposure on the vulnerability to hyperalgesia and the possible therapeutic effect of DM in the present study. Methods Fifty μl of carrageenan (20 mg/ml was injected subcutaneously into the plantar surface of the right hind paw in p18 rats to induce hyperalgesia. Mean paw withdrawal latency was measured in the plantar test to index the severity of hyperalgesia. Using Western blotting and RT-PCR, the quantitative analyses of NMDA receptor NR1 and NR2B subunits were performed in spinal cords from different groups of animals. Results In the carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia model, rat offspring passively exposed to morphine developed a severe hyperalgesia on postnatal day 18 (p18, which also had a more rapid time course than those in the controls. Co-administration of DM with morphine in the dams prevented this adverse effect of morphine in the offspring rats. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of protein and mRNA of NMDA receptor NR1 and NR2B subunits were significantly higher in the lumbar spinal cords of rats (p14 exposed to prenatal morphine; the co-administration of DM could reverse the effect of morphine on NR1 and attenuate the effect on NR2B. Conclusions Thus, DM may have a great potential in the prevention of higher vulnerability to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia in the offspring of morphine-addicted mothers.

  9. A Review on the Use and Perceived Effects of Mobile Blogs on Learning in Higher Educational Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Helmi; Din, Rosseni; Nordin, Norazah

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology is affecting the way we learn and teach in higher education. An interesting mobile tool for supporting learning and instruction is by using mobile blogs or “moblogs”. This review focuses on existing studies implementing moblogs for learning purposes in higher educational settings...... for moblog usage were identified, namely: (i) moblogs were used for context-sensitive learning; (ii) for collaboration in groups; (iii) as a tool for interaction and communication for learning; (iv) as personal learning diaries; (v) to facilitate learning at students’ own time and pace; (vi) as a tool...... for feedback on instruction; and (vii) for reflections in learning. Meanwhile, three categories were discovered for perceived effects of moblogs, which are: (i) perceived affective effects in terms of satisfaction and attitude; (ii) perceived social effects on students; and (iii) negative perception of moblog...

  10. Measurement of Perceived Service Quality in Higher Education Institutions: A Review of HEdPERF Scale Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danilo Soares; de Morales, Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes; Makiya, Ieda Kanashiro; Cesar, Francisco Ignácio Giocondo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to find evidence of the HEdPERF scale use for measuring the perceived service quality from the perspective of students in higher education institutions (HEIs) worldwide. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to find evidence of the scale use in articles published between January…

  11. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Variables That Influence Perceived Return on Investment (ROI) in Higher Education: Chief Marketing Officers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adrienne L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of the level of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) implementation, level of open systems and change in state appropriations on perceived return on investment (ROI) in U.S. public higher education institutions (HEIs). Designed to provide HEI leaders with data to more accurately determine the best IMC…

  12. Analysis of Perceived Stress, Coping Resources and Life Satisfaction among Students at a Newly Established Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhovozi, P.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to analyse perceived stress, coping resources and life satisfaction among university students at an institution of higher learning. Seventy-three students randomly selected from third year Social Sciences class participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire was administered to the participants. The results showed…

  13. The relationship between perceived competence and earned credits in competence-based higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J. C.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Terlouw, C.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how two types of study outcomes, perceived competence and earned credits, are interrelated, and influenced by self-regulation, motivation (intrinsic value and expectancy of procrastination) and deep approach to learning. The relationships between these variables were analysed in a sample

  14. Mobbing, Organizational Identification, and Perceived Support: Evidence from a Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskuner, Selda; Costur, Recai; Bayhan-Karapinar, Pinar; Metin-Camgoz, Selin; Ceylan, Savas; Demirtas-Zorbaz, Selen; Aktas, Emine Feyza; Ciffiliz, Gonca

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is twofold. First, it investigates the relationship between mobbing and organizational identification (OI) as an organizational attitude. Second, it explores the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationship between mobbing and organizational identification. We proposed that…

  15. Affirmative Action in Romania's Higher Education: Roma Students' Perceived Meanings and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative paper explores Roma students' perceptions on the policy of assigning "special places" for Roma in Romania's universities. Findings suggest that Roma see themselves as occupying a precarious social space, concerned not as much to hide perceived merit violation but to handle (alleged) inadequacies given by their…

  16. The relationship between perceived competence and earned credits in competence-based higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J.C.; Hofman, W.H.A.; Jansen, E.P.W.A.; Terlouw, C.

    2012-01-01

    We explored how two types of study outcomes, perceived competence and earned credits, are interrelated, and influenced by self-regulation, motivation (intrinsic value and expectancy of procrastination) and deep approach to learn- ing. The relationships between these variables were analysed in a

  17. An Application of Jones' and James' Perceived Climate Questionnaire in Australian Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art; Ryder, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The application of a perceived climate measure on a sample of senior level Australian academics is reported. Six factors were identified: organizational conflict and ambiguity; two leadership components (facilitation/supportiveness and directiveness); work group cooperation in policy committees and immediate workgroups; and organizational and…

  18. Higher perceived HRQoL in Moroccan children with asthma and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra-van Schie, Monique Theodora Maria; Coenen, Kelly; Koopman, Hendrik Maria; Versteegh, Florens Gerard Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We explored the differences in the perceived HRQoL between children with asthma from Moroccan and Dutch descent and their parents. In total 33 children (aged 6-18 years) from Moroccan (16) and Dutch descent (17) and their parents participated. All children were currently under treatment in a general hospital in the Netherlands. Generic and asthma specific HRQoL were assessed (DUX-25, DISABKIDS, PAQLQ). Significant differences were found on the DUX-25 subscales physical, emotional and home functioning. Children and parents from Dutch descent reported a lower HRQoL. The findings of this study are contrary with previous research. Results can be explained by the individualistic-collectivistic dimension, socially desirability, language and the feeling of miscomprehension. If this explanation makes sense health care workers have to invest in a good relationship with especially immigrant children and their parents, so they will have enough confidence to talk more openly about their physical as well as their psycho-social complaints.

  19. Knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff in higher learning institutes: The role of trust and perceived risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. This research focuses on the mediation impact of perceived risk on trust and knowledge sharing behaviour. The research also proposes actions that can be taken by higher learning institutions to enhance trust among the staff in order to create a knowledge sharing environment at the workplace. This research applied confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to evaluate the proposed measurement model and proved the research hypotheses. The findings from the research show that perceived risk plays a strong mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing behaviour among the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. The SEM analysis also confirmed that the research model shows a good fit. This research highlights issues concerning knowledge sharing practices among non-academic staff and provides some recommendations to the managers to address these issues. The researchers agreed that more research needs to be done in this area as there are aspects that are yet to be explored. The findings of this research serve to add to the literature on knowledge sharing focussing on non-academic staff of higher learning institutions.

  20. WebQuest Learning as Perceived by Higher-Education Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Stucky, Bradd; McAlack, Matt; Menchaca, Mike; Stoddart, Sue

    2005-01-01

    The WebQuest as an inquiry-oriented approach in web learning has gained considerable attention from educators and has been integrated widely into curricula in K-12 and higher education. It is considered to be an effective way to organize chaotic internet resources and help learners gain new knowledge through a guided learning environment.…

  1. Access and Perceived ICT Usability among Students with Disabilities Attending Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Fichten, Catherine S.; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Keshet, Noam S.; Jorgensen, Mary

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of students with disabilities are attending higher education. These students might face various difficulties coping with academic skills and with learning methods compared to students without disabilities. Integrating information and communication technologies (ICTs) in academic studies may be effective and constructive for…

  2. Presence and Perceived Learning in Different Higher Education Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Jalil, Habibah Ab; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as "third generation" of distance learning has the potential to offer multimethod instruction through the blend, to leverage the strengths of current online and traditional instructions. Therefore, higher education institutions having recognized the fact that blended learning is beneficial, adopted this alternative…

  3. What Role Does Humor in the Higher Education Classroom Play in Student-Perceived Instructor Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halula, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has had college instructors who they thought were excellent and those who were not. In pondering what attributes might have made the difference between these groups, the idea of "humor" came to mind, setting the researcher on course to study the research question "What role does humor in the higher education classroom play…

  4. Higher perceived risk of antimicrobials is related to lower antimicrobial usage among pig farmers in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, V H M; Postma, M; Sjölund, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Siegrist, M; Stärk, K D C

    2016-11-12

    The prudent use of antimicrobials (AMs) should be widened in pig farming to reduce the risk of AM resistance (AMR) in human and veterinary medicine. It is therefore important to understand pig farmers' motivators and the barriers to AM usage (AMU) on their farms. The authors investigated pig farmers' self-estimated levels of AMU, their perceived benefits and risks and the need for AMs in a cross-sectional survey in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. The authors also compared these perceptions between the four countries and related them to pig farmers' actual AMU. The results showed that farmers who used more AMs also estimated their own usage as higher. Farmers perceived many benefits but relatively few risks of AMU in pig farming. Some significant cross-country differences in farmers' perceptions were found, but they were relatively small. After controlling for country differences and farm differences, only perceived risks had a significant association with AMU. The authors therefore conclude that in order to promote prudent AMU, it seems most promising to focus on the structural differences in pig farming and veterinary medicine (e.g. legislation, role of the veterinarian) among countries. In addition, interventions which aim at reducing AMU should increase farmers' awareness of the risks of extensive AMU. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Perceived Threat, Risk Perception, and Efficacy Beliefs Related to SARS and Other (Emerging) Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Elam, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey was conduc......PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey...... was conducted among 3,436 respondents. The questionnaire focused on perceived threat, vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy related to SARS and eight other diseases. RESULTS: Perceived threat of SARS in case of an outbreak in the country was higher than that of other diseases. Perceived...... vulnerability of SARS was at an intermediate level and perceived severity was high compared to other diseases. Perceived threat for SARS varied between countries in Europe and Asia with a higher perceived severity of SARS in Europe and a higher perceived vulnerability in Asia. Response efficacy and self...

  6. Management competencies in higher education: Perceived job importance in relation to level of training required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this article is to determine the relationship between a specific set of HOD managerial competencies identified as being important for the job and the level of training required in terms of these competencies. Motivation for the study: Research has provided evidence that HODs are often ill-prepared for their managerial role, which requires the development of specific management competencies to enable them to fulfil their roles effectively. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental quantitative survey design approach was followed and correlational data analyses were performed. A cross-sectional sample of 41 HODs of 22 departments from various faculties of a higher education institution in Gauteng participated in this study. The Management Competency Inventory (MCI of Visser (2009 was applied as a measure. Main findings: The Pearson product-moment analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between the competencies indicated as being important for the job and the level of training required. Practical/Managerial implications: Training needs of HODs should be formally assessed and the depth of training required in terms of the identified management competencies should be considered in the design of training programmes. Contributions/Value-add: The information obtained in this study may potentially serve as a foundation for the development of an HOD training programme in the South African higher education environment.

  7. The perceived influence of diversity factors on effective strategy implementation in a higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Strydom

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing diversity is one of the major challenges in higher education institutions in South Africa. Additionally, effective strategy implementation is vital for an institution to be successful and sustainable. Questionnaires were distributed to the management of Walter Sisulu University, South Africa, to investigate the relationship between diversity factors and effective strategy implementation. The questionnaires interrogated the effect of the acculturation process, the degree of structural integration, the degree of informal integration, institutional bias and intergroup conflict, and how these factors influence strategy implementation. Structural equation modelling (SEM was employed as the statistical tool to confirm the hypothetical model. Results of this study revealed that there is no statistically significant relationship between diversity and strategy implementation at the institution, and imply that diversity among staff do not impact on the successful achievement of strategic objectives in the institution. The findings of the study are contrary to empirical evidence by other studies. Keywords: Education, Sociology, Political science, Psychology

  8. Higher Magnitude Cash Payments Improve Research Follow-up Rates Without Increasing Drug Use or Perceived Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    In a prior study (Festinger et al., 2005) we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n ≅ 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion. PMID:18395365

  9. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...

  10. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  11. Non-English speakers attend gastroenterology clinic appointments at higher rates than English speakers in a vulnerable patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L.; Kushel, Margot B.; Inadomi, John M.; Yee, Hal F.

    2009-01-01

    Goals We sought to identify factors associated with gastroenterology clinic attendance in an urban safety net healthcare system. Background Missed clinic appointments reduce the efficiency and availability of healthcare, but subspecialty clinic attendance among patients with established healthcare access has not been studied. Study We performed an observational study using secondary data from administrative sources to study patients referred to, and scheduled for an appointment in, the adult gastroenterology clinic serving the safety net healthcare system of San Francisco, California. Our dependent variable was whether subjects attended or missed a scheduled appointment. Analysis included multivariable logistic regression and classification tree analysis. 1,833 patients were referred and scheduled for an appointment between 05/2005 and 08/2006. Prisoners were excluded. All patients had a primary care provider. Results 683 patients (37.3%) missed their appointment; 1,150 (62.7%) attended. Language was highly associated with attendance in the logistic regression; non-English speakers were less likely than English speakers to miss an appointment (adjusted odds ratio 0.42 [0.28,0.63] for Spanish, 0.56 [0.38,0.82] for Asian language, p gastroenterology clinic appointment, not speaking English was most strongly associated with higher attendance rates. Patient related factors associated with not speaking English likely influence subspecialty clinic attendance rates, and these factors may differ from those affecting general healthcare access. PMID:19169147

  12. Municipalities of higher vulnerability to Sylvatic Yellow Fever occurrence in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Until 1999 the endemic cases of Sylvatic Yellow Fever were located in the states of northern, midwestern and pre-Amazon regions. Since then, the disease progressively expanded its territory of occurrence, cases being registered beyond the traditional boundaries of endemism. The São Paulo State is considered to be part of this context, since after decades without registration of autochthonous cases of the disease, it reported, in 2000 and 2008-2009, epizootic occurrence in non-human primates and 30 cases in humans. Facts like these, added to the increase in incidences of serious adverse effects resulting from the Yellow Fever vaccination, have highlighted the importance of defining priority municipalities for vaccination against the disease in the state. Two groups of municipalities, some affected and some non-affected by YF, were compared for environmental variables related to the eco-epidemiology of the disease according to literature. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA was used to pinpoint the factor able to differentiate the two groups of municipalities and define the levels of risk. The southeast region of the São Paulo State was considered to be the area with a higher number of municipalities classified as high risk and should be considered a priority for the application of prevention measures against Yellow Fever.

  13. Perceived Value of Academic Support Services for Post-Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities at Accredited Institutions of the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the perceived value of academic support service types for post-secondary students with learning disabilities in the Christian higher education milieu. Grounded in a model of service utilization (Pescosolido, 1992), the research methodology applied in this study addressed the following research question: What is the perceived…

  14. Discrimination, vulnerability, and justice in the face of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Terre A; Mertz, C K; Slovic, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Recent research finds that perceived risk is closely associated with race and gender. In surveys of the American public a subset of white males stand out for their uniformly low perceptions of environmental health risks, while most nonwhite and nonmale respondents reveal higher perceived risk. Such findings have been attributed to the advantageous position of white males in American social life. This article explores the linked possibility that this demographic pattern is driven not simply by the social advantages or disadvantages embodied in race or gender, but by the subjective experience of vulnerability and by sociopolitical evaluations pertaining to environmental injustice. Indices of environmental injustice and social vulnerability were developed as part of a U.S. National Risk Survey (n= 1,192) in order to examine their effect on perceived risk. It was found that those who regarded themselves as vulnerable and supported belief statements consistent with the environmental justice thesis offered higher risk ratings across a range of hazards. Multivariate analysis indicates that our measures of vulnerability and environmental injustice predict perceived risk but do not account for all of the effects of race and gender. The article closes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for further work on vulnerability and risk, risk communication, and risk management practices generally.

  15. Older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms predict the amount and severity of work-related difficulties in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brambilla, Laura; Brenna, Greta; Confalonieri, Paolo Agostino; Cortese, Francesca; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato Emilio; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; De Torres, Laura

    2018-04-16

    This cross-sectional study aims to identify the predictors of work-related difficulties in a sample of employed persons with multiple sclerosis as addressed with the Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of work difficulties: predictors included demographic variables (age, formal education), disease duration and severity, perceived disability and psychological variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety). The targets were the questionnaire's overall score and its six subscales. A total of 177 participants (108 females, aged 21-63) were recruited. Age, perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of the questionnaire total score, and the final model explained 43.7% of its variation. The models built on the questionnaire's subscales show that perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of most of its subscales. Our results show that, among patients with multiple sclerosis, those who were older, with higher perceived disability and higher depression symptoms have more and more severe work-related difficulties. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties can be fruitfully exploited to plan tailored actions to limit the likelihood of near-future job loss in persons of working age with multiple sclerosis. Implications for rehabilitation Difficulties with work are common among people with multiple sclerosis and are usually addressed in terms of unemployment or job loss. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties is a disease-specific questionnaire developed to address the amount and severity of work-related difficulties. We found that work-related difficulties were associated to older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms. Mental health issues and perceived disability should be consistently included in future research targeting work-related difficulties.

  16. Augmented Reality Reading Support in Higher Education: Exploring Effects on Perceived Motivation and Confidence in Comprehension for Struggling Readers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisinga, Laura Anne

    2017-01-01

    Technology has shown promise to aid struggling readers in higher education, particularly through new and emerging technologies. Augmented reality (AR) has been used successfully in the classroom to motivate and engage struggling learners, yet little research exists on how augmented print might help struggling readers. This study explores this gap,…

  17. Empowerment of Non-Academic Personnel in Higher Education: Exploring Associations with Perceived Organizational Support for Innovation and Organizational Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wing Keung Jason

    2010-01-01

    Employee empowerment has long been associated with organizational outcomes such as innovation, greater effectiveness, and better performance. Non-academic professional employees in higher education are responsible for the important day-to-day operations of a university; therefore, organizational strategies such as employee empowerment that…

  18. Perceived organisational support and commitment among employees at a higher education institution in South Africa / Chantalle Scott

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Chantalle

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in a democratic South Africa faces huge challenges – primarily the need to achieve greater equity, efficiency and effectiveness in institutions and across the system. Universities had to open their doors to students of all races, transform curricula to become more locally relevant, and produce scholars able to address South Africa’s problems. When organisations face these changes, they still need to support their employees. They need to ensure that the employee...

  19. Evaluating Higher Education Institutions through Agency and Resources-Capabilities Theories. A Model for Measuring the Perceived Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas-hernández

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain through the agency theory and theory of resources and capacities as is the process of assessment in higher education institutions. The actors that are involved in the decision-making and the use that is giving the resources derived from repeatedly to practices that opportunistic diminishing the value that is given to the evaluation, in addition to the decrease in team work. A model is presented to measure the perception of service quality by students of the Technological Institute of Celaya, as part of the system of quality control, based on the theoretical support of several authors who have developed this topic (SERVQUAL and SERPERF an instrument adapted to the student area of the institution called SERQUALITC is generated. The paper presents the areas or departments to assess and the convenient size, the number of items used by size and Likert scale, the validation study instrument is mentioned. Finally, it is presented the model that poses a global vision of quality measurement process including corrective action services that enable continuous improvement.

  20. Evaluating Higher Education Institutions through Agency and Resources-Capabilities Theories. A Model for Measuring the Perceived Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain through the agency theory and theory of resources and capacities as is the process of assessment in higher education institutions. The actors that are involved in the decision-making and the use that is giving the resources derived from repeatedly to practices that opportunistic diminishing the value that is given to the evaluation, in addition to the decrease in team work. A model is presented to measure the perception of service quality by students of the Technological Institute of Celaya, as part of the system of quality control, based on the theoretical support of several authors who have developed this topic (SERVQUAL and SERPERF an instrument adapted to the student area of the institution called SERQUALITC is generated. The paper presents the areas or departments to assess and the convenient size, the number of items used by size and Likert scale, the validation study instrument is mentioned. Finally, it is presented the model that poses a global vision of quality measurement process including corrective action services that enable continuous improvement.

  1. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  2. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  3. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  4. The Perceived Value of University-Based, Continuing Education Leadership Development Programs for Administrators in Higher Education: An Intangibles Model of Value Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Geraldine Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceived value of leadership development programs (LDPs) provided by continuing education for administrators in colleges and universities. Included in this study were questions about the perceived value of non-credit, credit, and blended (credit and non-credit) programs at the individual, institutional, and higher…

  5. Higher levels of physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of suffering sarcopenic obesity and better perceived health among the elderly: the EXERNET multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Chamizo, R; Gómez-Cabello, A; Meléndez, A; Vila-Maldonado, S; Espino, L; Gusi, N; Villa, G; Casajús, J A; González-Gross, M; Ara, I

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the associations between physical fitness levels, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) and to analyze the usefulness of several physical fitness tests as a screening tool for detecting elderly people with an increased risk of suffering SO. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample. Non-institutionalized Spanish elderly participating in the EXERNET multi-centre study. 2747 elderly subjects aged 65 and older. Body weight, height and body mass index were evaluated in each subject. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Four SO groups were created based on percentage of body fat and relative muscle mass; 1) normal group, 2) sarcopenic group, 3) obesity group and 4) SO group. Physical fitness was evaluated using 8 tests (balance, lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, agility, walking speed and aerobic capacity). Three tertiles were created for each test based on the calculated scores. HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol visual analogue scale. Participants with SO showed lower physical fitness levels compared with normal subjects. Better balance, agility, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest men (odds ratio health was associated with better physical fitness performance. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with a reduced risk of suffering SO and better perceived health among elderly. SO elderly people have lower physical functional levels than healthy counterparts.

  6. Higher Levels of Caregiver Strain Perceived by Indian Mothers of Children and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy Who have Limited Self-Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, V; Patel, Anjali M; Hariohm, K; Palisano, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    Describe and compare the caregiver strain experienced among Indian mothers of children and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) living in low resource settings. 62 consecutive children and young adults with spastic CP (mean age 6.0 ± 4.5, range 2-21) and their parents were recruited from an outpatient physiotherapy department for this cross-sectional study. Ability to walk was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System and mother's caregiver strain was measured using caregiver strain index (CSI). Mothers of children and young adults who have limited self-mobility perceived higher caregiver strain (mean CSI score 12.0 ± 1.3, p < 0.05) than mothers of children who can walk (mean CSI score 4.5 ± 3.0, p < 0.05). All 46 mothers of children and youth in GMFCS levels IV and V reported high levels of caregiver stress compared with only three of 16 mothers of children and youth who walk (levels I and II). Physiotherapists and occupational therapists serving children and youth with CP are encouraged to partner with families to identify goals for ease of caregiving, activity, and participation at home and in the community.

  7. The concept of 'vulnerability' in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Racine, Eric

    2017-02-07

    The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines. We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability. Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis. Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.

  8. Vulnerable Hunter

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Asha Begum; Y.VishnuPriya; V.ManoranjanBabu; ,O.Srinivasu

    2016-01-01

    This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps c...

  9. The Role of Humor and Its Influence on the Self-Perceived and Others-Perceived Conflict Management Styles of Line Officers in Institutions of Higher Learning Serving Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Susan Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Although research literature has shown management circles the benefits of incorporating humor into the workplace and effective ways to resolve conflicts, none exists on the role of humor and its interplay with conflict management. This study addresses the question, "What relationships exist between the "Self-Perceived" and…

  10. Vulnerability and self-perceived health status among light and heavy smokers: the relationship to short-term fear appeal tobacco control messages Vulnerabilidade e percepção de saúde auto-referida entre fumantes leves e pesados: a relação com mensagens anti-fumo voltadas para o apelo ao medo imediato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salem Szklo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to stimulate smokers to acquire some level of risk perception associated with their current behavior in order to motivate smoking cessation. The present article attempts to understand how the content of short-term fear appeal government tobacco messages may interact with different levels of daily cigarette consumption in order to affect smokers' vulnerabilities, expressed by self-perceived health status. A Poisson model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio of fair or poor self-perceived health status (FPHS according to daily cigarette consumption. We also calculated the proportions of smokers who stated that selected health warning pictures on cigarette packets encourage people to quit smoking, stratified by self-perceived health status and daily cigarette consumption. The proportion of smokers with FPHS was 25% higher among those who smoked > 20 cigarettes/day (p = 0.01. Among smokers with FPHS, heavy smokers showed the highest proportions of responses in favor of selected warning pictures most closely related to losses in ordinary daily living, such as shortness of breath and being bothered by cigarette addiction. Short-term loss-framed tobacco control messages seem to have raised awareness of vulnerability among heavier smokers.É importante incentivar os fumantes a adquirir algum nível de percepção do risco associado ao seu comportamento atual, para motivá-los a parar de fumar. O artigo procura elucidar em que medida o conteúdo do apelo ao medo imediato contido em mensagens anti-fumo nas campanhas governamentais pode interagir com o consumo diário de cigarros, no sentido de afetar as vulnerabilidades dos fumantes, expressas pela percepção de saúde auto-referida. Um modelo de Poisson foi utilizado para estimar a razão de prevalências de percepção de saúde auto-referida regular ou ruim, segundo consumo diário de cigarros. Calculou-se também a proporção de fumantes que afirmou que mensagens anti

  11. Modelling self-assessed vulnerability to HIV and its associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, individuals' self-assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection is important to maintain safer sexual behaviour and reduce risky behaviours. However, determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection are not well documented and differ. We assessed the level of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV ...

  12. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  13. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-13

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  14. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  15. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  16. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  17. Higher Vulnerability of Menadione-Exposed Cortical Astrocytes of Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficient Mice to Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Cell Death: Implications for the Neurodegeneration in Glutaric Aciduria Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Seminotti, Bianca; Zanatta, Ângela; de Mello Gonçalves, Aline; Bellaver, Bruna; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Quincozes-Santos, André; Goodman, Stephen Irwin; Woontner, Michael; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Wajner, Moacir

    2017-08-01

    Patients affected by glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) show progressive cortical leukoencephalopathy whose pathogenesis is poorly known. In the present work, we exposed cortical astrocytes of wild-type (Gcdh +/+ ) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout (Gcdh -/- ) mice to the oxidative stress inducer menadione and measured mitochondrial bioenergetics, redox homeostasis, and cell viability. Mitochondrial function (MTT and JC1-mitochondrial membrane potential assays), redox homeostasis (DCFH oxidation, nitrate and nitrite production, GSH concentrations and activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx), and cell death (propidium iodide incorporation) were evaluated in primary cortical astrocyte cultures of Gcdh +/+ and Gcdh -/- mice unstimulated and stimulated by menadione. We also measured the pro-inflammatory response (TNFα levels, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) in unstimulated astrocytes obtained from these mice. Gcdh -/- mice astrocytes were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress (decreased GSH concentrations and altered activities of the antioxidant enzymes), mitochondrial dysfunction (decrease of MTT reduction and JC1 values), and cell death as compared with Gcdh +/+ astrocytes. A higher inflammatory response (TNFα, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) was also observed in Gcdh -/- mice astrocytes. These data indicate a higher susceptibility of Gcdh -/- cortical astrocytes to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, probably leading to cell death. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute to the cortical leukodystrophy observed in GA-I patients.

  18. Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…

  19. Perceived age discrimination in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination.

  20. Modelling self-assessed vulnerability to HIV and its associated factors in a HIV-burdened country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbamigbe, A F; Lawal, A M; Idemudia, E S

    2017-12-01

    Globally, individuals' self-assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection is important to maintain safer sexual behaviour and reduce risky behaviours. However, determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection are not well documented and differ. We assessed the level of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV infection in Nigeria and also identified its risk factors. We explored a recent nationally representative data with self-reported vulnerability ('high', 'low' and 'no risk at all') to HIV infection as the outcome of interest. Data were weighted and association between the outcomes and the risk factors determined. We used simple ordered logit regression to model relationship between the outcome variable and risk factors, and controlled for the significant variables in multiple ordered logistic regression at 5% significance level. About 74% had good knowledge of HIV transmission and 6% had experienced STI recently. The likelihood of assessing oneself as having 'no risk at all' was 50% and for 'high chances' was 1.6%. Self-perceived high risk of HIV was higher among those who recently experienced STI (5.6%) than those who did not (1.7%), and also higher among those who recently engaged in transactional sex and had multiple sexual partners. The odds of good knowledge of HIV transmission on high self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was 19% higher than poor knowledge (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.12-1.27). Also, respondents who recently had multiple sexual partners were 72% (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.60-1.86) more likely to report self as having high risk. Younger respondents aged 14-19 years had higher odds of 41% (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29-1.55) to perceive self as having high vulnerability to HIV than older respondents. High vulnerability to HIV infection was reported among younger respondents, those with history of STIS and those who engage in multiple sexual relations. Despite high level of risky sexual behaviour and good knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention

  1. An Investigation on the Role of Personality Style Vulnerability, Spouse Violence, and Coping Responses in Prediction of Post Partum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیده قاسمی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of the vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses in prediction of post-partum depression. A sample of 140 pregnant women were recruited. Data collection included two phases. In third trimester of pregnancy, demographic information, vulnerable personality style, spouse violence and coping responses were collected. The second phase was carried out after 2 weeks to 6 months after parturition that the post-partum depression questionnaire was completed. The results demonstrated that 49% of post-partum depression variances can be shown by vulnerability of personality style, spouse violence and coping responses. It seems that one of the most important factors for depression after parturition is vulnerability of personality style. Women with this personality style perceive higher levels of stress and use maladaptive coping responses. So they are more disposed to post-partum depression.

  2. Perceived Factors Influencing High School Student Participation in an Integrated Statewide Dual Credit Program: An Examination of Program Success and Student Higher Education Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchstone, Allison J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Dual credit programs have become increasingly popular with 71% U.S. public high schools offering dual credit courses in 2002-2003. As this popularity has grown, so have concerns regarding academic rigor, course quality, parity with college courses, and effects on higher education. Determining actual dual credit course equivalent in higher…

  3. Assessment of social support and its association to depression, self-perceived health and chronic diseases in elderly individuals residing in an area of poverty and social vulnerability in rio de janeiro city, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria T S Lino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Social support (SS influences the elderly ability to cope with the losses of ageing process. This study was aimed at assessing SS among elderly users of a primary healthcare unit in a poor and violent area of Rio de Janeiro City, and at verifying its association with depression, self-perceived health (SPH, marital status and chronic illnesses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed based on a convenience sample of 180 individuals aged 60 years or older. SS was measured with part of the Brazilian version of Medical Outcomes Study's SS scale, and SPH and depression were assessed, respectively, through one question and the Brazilian version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. SS medians were calculated for the categories of SPH, depression, marital status and chronic illnesses variables, and differences were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Additionally, Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were employed to identify unadjusted and adjusted associations between SS and those variables. RESULTS: The participant's mean age was 73 years old, and level of education was 3 years of school education on average. They were predominantly females (73.3%, and non-married (55.0%. Among them, 74.4% perceived their SS as satisfactory, 55.0% perceived their health as good, 27.8% were diagnosed with major depression and 83.3% had hypertension. Especially for those depressed and with bad SPH, the medians of SS measure were much lower than for others, reaching an unsatisfactory level. Moreover, controlling for other factors, non-depressed individuals were more likely (OR = 2.32 to have satisfactory SS. CONCLUSION: in the violent and poor area explored in this research low SS is highly prevalent in the elderly. Depressed individuals are more likely to have low SS and this condition should be investigated in depressed elderly. The reduced scale is useful for low education

  4. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that ... This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. ..... In terms of quantifying vulnerable areas within the country, the analysis is done based on 9 ...

  5. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov; Nikolai Petrovich Lavrentiev

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  6. Fuzzing and Vulnerabilities Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Evgenyevich Kirillov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzing for vulnerabilities can be very effective if we know the input data format. This work contains description of network message format recovery algorithm and the usage of restored data model in fuzzing and vulnerabilities search.

  7. What Does Vulnerability Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F

    2011-01-01

    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  8. Europe's vulnerability to energy crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The growing dependency of Europe as a whole on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future. The objective of the Study is to identify the threats leading to potential energy crises and suggest solutions for facing, in an appropriate way, the related key challenges. In addition, the Study intends to develop a number of indicators effective enough to assess the level of different types of vulnerability, as well the overall vulnerability of a country or region, including threats to physical disruption, higher energy prices etc. The use of vulnerability indicators is highly recommended for all WEC-European countries, as well as to policy makers and market players.

  9. Brief Motivational Intervention for College Drinking: The Synergistic Impact of Social Anxiety and Perceived Drinking Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others’ drinking are less malleable due to intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evalu...

  10. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  12. Automated Software Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Emre C.; Kil, Chongkyung; Ning, Peng

    Despite decades of research, software continues to have vulnerabilities. Successful exploitations of these vulnerabilities by attackers cost millions of dollars to businesses and individuals. Unfortunately, most effective defensive measures, such as patching and intrusion prevention systems, require an intimate knowledge of the vulnerabilities. Many systems for detecting attacks have been proposed. However, the analysis of the exploited vulnerabilities is left to security experts and programmers. Both the human effortinvolved and the slow analysis process are unfavorable for timely defensive measure to be deployed. The problem is exacerbated by zero-day attacks.

  13. Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Perceived risk is a function of information, knowledge, values, and perception. This exercise is designed to illustrate that in many situations there is no correct answer, only best-alternative choices. The exercise has five parts in which students work in groups of five. (LZ)

  14. Perception of vulnerability among mothers of healthy infants in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, D G; Ertem, I O; Karaaslan, T; Forsyth, B W

    2009-11-01

    Although four decades have passed since the concept of 'vulnerable children' has been introduced into paediatric literature, research on vulnerability is limited to high-income, Western countries. To adapt and adopt practices that have been advised for paediatricians to prevent 'the vulnerable child syndrome', information is needed also on the prevalence and correlates of perceived vulnerability in children in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. To determine the rate and correlates of the perception of vulnerability among healthy young children in a healthy population of children in Ankara, Turkey. In this cross-sectional observational study, participants comprised of a 'prescriptive sample' of healthy, thriving children with no known health risk for vulnerability. Maternal perception of child vulnerability was assessed using the Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS). Potential risks factors for vulnerability including history of threatened abortion during pregnancy, child gender, birth order, maternal and paternal age and education were collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 519 children - 264 boys (50.9%) and 255 girls (49.1%) - comprised the sample. The internal consistency of the CVS was 0.71. Item-total scale correlations were 0.30 or above for all of the eight items. The median CVS score of the sample was 2.0 and 30 mothers (5.8%) were found to perceive their children as vulnerable. None of the socio-demographic variables that were investigated were found to be associated with high vulnerability scores. This study is the first to examine maternal perceived vulnerability of healthy children in a middle-income country. The findings imply that a high proportion of healthy children are perceived as vulnerable by their mothers and that previously studied socio-demographic factors do not explain perceived vulnerability. The results of this study may provide a comparison point for studies on childhood vulnerability in LAMI countries.

  15. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  17. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  18. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection. Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.Results: The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control.Conclusion: The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients. Keywords: parenting, attachment, personality, vulnerability, depression, PBI, NEO PI-R

  19. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  20. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  1. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  2. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability, overprotection, and parental psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M

    1998-01-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that these constructs are independent. Distinct parental psychological characteristics were hypothesized for each construct. The parents of 871 children, ages 22-72 months, completed a four-part protocol (clinical background data, Child Vulnerability Scale, Parent Protection Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory). A distinct parent symptom profile was found for perceived child vulnerability (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and anxiety). Overprotection was associated with phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation. These findings provide further support for the differentiation of these constructs.

  3. Seychelles, a vulnerable or resilient SIDS? A local perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Philpot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses perceptions of residents of the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean in relation to a long-running debate over small island developing states (SIDS as to whether they are vulnerable or resilient. The results of data obtained from 25 key informant interviews and 70 household surveys conducted in 2013 showed that respondents perceived their country to be both vulnerable and resilient. Moreover, the data revealed that the relationship between vulnerability and resilience was complex, and that five interpretations of that relationship were evident: conflict, compromise, complementarity, symbiosis and transformation. Also, the conceptual distance between the two terms – vulnerability and resilience – was shown to be closer than may be commonly assumed. Finally, the paper questions whether the debate over vulnerability versus resilience is rightly confined to SIDS or could be equally applied to other states.

  4. Brief motivational intervention for college drinking: the synergistic impact of social anxiety and perceived drinking norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others' drinking are less malleable because of intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (n = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4 weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was nonsignificant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Spatial differences in drought vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perčec Tadić, M.; Cindić, K.; Gajić-Čapka, M.; Zaninović, K.

    2012-04-01

    Drought causes the highest economic losses among all hydro-meteorological events in Croatia. It is the most frequent hazard, which produces the highest damages in the agricultural sector. The climate assessment in Croatia according to the aridity index (defined as the ratio of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) shows that the susceptibility to desertification is present in the warm part of the year and it is mostly pronounced in the Adriatic region and the eastern Croatia lowland. The evidence of more frequent extreme drought events in the last decade is apparent. These facts were motivation to study the drought risk assessment in Croatia. One step in this issue is the construction of the vulnerability map. This map is a complex combination of the geomorphologic and climatological inputs (maps) that are presumed to be natural factors which modify the amount of moisture in the soil. In this study, the first version of the vulnerability map is followed by the updated one that additionally includes the soil types and the land use classes. The first input considered is the geomorphologic slope angle calculated from the digital elevation model (DEM). The SRTM DEM of 100 m resolution is used. The steeper slopes are more likely to lose water and to become dryer. The second climatological parameter, the solar irradiation map, gives for the territory of Croatia the maximum irradiation on the coast. The next meteorological parameter that influences the drought vulnerability is precipitation which is in this assessment included through the precipitation variability expressed by the coefficient of variation. Larger precipitation variability is related with the higher drought vulnerability. The preliminary results for Croatia, according to the recommended procedure in the framework of Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE project), show the most sensitive areas to drought in the southern Adriatic coast and eastern continental lowland.

  6. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N H

    2017-09-01

    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  7. Perceived overprotection: support gone bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R; Reinhardt, Joann P; Horowitz, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of perceived overprotection, a potentially problematic aspect of receiving support, on the ability to adjust to a chronic impairment, specifically, age-related vision loss. Perceived overprotection is an especially critical issue in this population of chronically ill older adults because of the safety issues associated with vision impairment and because perceptions on the part of the older adult that the support providers are overprotective may lead to excess disability. Participants were 584 older men and women with age-related vision impairment who applied for services at a vision rehabilitation agency. Path analysis was used to examine the effects of perceived overprotection on two positive indicators of adjustment: vision-specific adaptation and environmental mastery. Moreover, antecedents of perceived overprotection were examined. Higher levels of perceived overprotection were associated with less optimal adjustment to age-related vision loss, with lower scores on measures of vision-specific adaptation and environmental mastery. Higher levels of functional disability and instrumental support received were associated with higher levels of perceived overprotection. Findings indicate that support providers of older adults with visual impairment as well as vision rehabilitation service providers need to be aware of the detrimental impact of perceived overprotection.

  8. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  9. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    , and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...... their fracture risk significantly higher than their peers. No correlation between self-perceived risk and absolute risk was found. The ordered logistic regression model showed a significant association between high self-perceived fracture risk and previous fragility fracture, parental hip fracture, falls, self...

  10. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  11. Detecting C Program Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Ermakov; Natalia, Kushik

    2011-01-01

    C/C++ language is widely used for developing tools in various applications, in particular, software tools for critical systems are often written in C language. Therefore, the security of such software should be thoroughly tested, i.e., the absence of vulnerabilities has to be confirmed. When detecting C program vulnerabilities static source code analysis can be used. In this paper, we present a short survey of existing software tools for such analysis and show that for some kinds of C code vu...

  12. Gender ideologies, socioeconomic opportunities, and HIV/STI-related vulnerability among female, African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Chung, Shang-en; Glass, Barbara; Ellen, Jonathan

    2008-09-01

    The importance of gender within HIV/STI prevention has become widely recognized. However, gender ideologies associated with vulnerability to HIV/STI are often examined and addressed without sufficient attention to the larger socioeconomic context within which they arise and evolve. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 155 female, African-American adolescents recruited from two health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to assess the relationships between HIV/STI vulnerability resulting from male partner concurrency, adherence to traditional female gender norms, using a measure of hyperfemininity, and perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures. The likelihood of reported partner concurrency increased significantly among participants reporting higher levels of hyperfemininity (OR = 2.08; 95%CI = 1.01-4.30). Hyperfeminine thinking and behavior was significantly lower in the context of higher perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures (OR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.79-0.95). Interventions seeking to promote gender equity and reduce HIV/STI may be more effective when the socioeconomic context of gender ideologies is assessed and addressed. Programs and policies to increase educational and professional opportunity structures, particularly among marginalized communities, should be actively integrated into HIV/STI prevention planning.

  13. General vulnerability to stuttering: The experience of stuttering and conditions bringing about invulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, P M; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-08-01

    General vulnerability to stuttering is the broad awareness of stuttering and the ever-present, experiential sense of a person who stutters (PWS). It is defined by stuttering in all its forms and the awareness of its presence, both in moments of stuttering and moments of perceivably fluent speech. Under the heading of general vulnerability to stuttering is specific vulnerability to stuttering, which includes the actual events of stuttering (i.e., overt symptoms, covert symptoms, subperceptual stuttering, and anticipation of stuttering). The differentiation between the two is that specific vulnerability requires a specific moment of stuttering where general vulnerability does not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  15. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  16. Anaphylaxis vulnerable groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Age groups vulnerable to serious attacks of anaphylaxis include infants, teenagers, pregnant women, and the elderly. Concomitant diseases, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma, cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis or clonal mast cell disorders and the concurrent use of some medications such as beta adrenergic ...

  17. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecequet, Martina; DeWaard, Jack; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Abel, Guy J.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate–migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure) and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country) migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability. PMID:29707262

  18. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecequet, Martina; DeWaard, Jack; Hellmann, Jessica J; Abel, Guy J

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate-migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure) and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country) migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability.

  19. Recognizing Risk and Vulnerability in Research Ethics: Imagining the "What Ifs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth; Friedland, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks. An ethics approach that is up-close, as opposed to distant, is needed to foster closer relationships among participants, researchers, and RECs and to understand participant vulnerability and strength better.

  20. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  1. Vulnerability-specific stress generation: An examination of negative cognitive and interpersonal styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Mastin, Becky M.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Jenkins, Abby L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience higher rates of life stress to which they contribute), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent stress (i.e., events influenced by characteristics and attendant behaviors of the individual) relevant to this effect. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of dependent stress that is produced by depression-prone individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the nature of their particular vulnerabilities. This extension was tested within the context of two cognitive models (i.e., hopelessness theory [Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989] and Cole’s [1990, 1991] competency-based model) and two interpersonal models (i.e., Swann’s [1987] self-verification theory and Coyne’s [1976] interpersonal theory) of depression. Overall, support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Specifically, in analyses across vulnerability domains, evidence of stress-generation specificity was found for all domain-specific cognitive vulnerabilities except self-perceived social competence. The within-domain analyses for cognitive vulnerabilities produced more mixed results, but were largely supportive. Additionally, excessive reassurance-seeking was specifically predictive of dependent stress in the social domain, and moderated, but did not mediate, the relation between negative inferential styles overall and in the interpersonal domain and their corresponding generated stress. Finally, no evidence was found for a stress generation effect with negative feedback-seeking. PMID:24679143

  2. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  3. The space of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Archi-tecture has lost the reference to its prop “Archi” to develop mostly its “Tecture”: a deceitful form of nihilism, which has given full credit to a hurricane of instruments for which we know no purpose. Any distinction between city and architecture is purely contingent. Contingency is relevant but only in so far as it makes one lose any sense of scale. Many of our cities do not work because our style of life eradicates the sense of hospitality. The city becomes the place where we un-learn how to live together. Hospitality is vulnerability – the construction of vulnerability is the true beauty, the only deterrent against stupidity. Learn to live with the others, to approximate the alterity and its unpredictability. The basic tools of conviviality are the common goods of inter-disciplinarity. Learn to cultivate and educate yourself to phenomenal incompleteness.

  4. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  5. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  6. SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF FLOURISHING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether flourishing mediated the social competence and psychological vulnerability. Participants were 259 university students (147 women, 112 men; M age = 21.3 yr., SD = 1.7) who completed the Turkish versions of the Perceived Social Competence Scale, the Flourishing Scale, and the Psychological Vulnerability Scale. Mediation models were tested using the bootstrapping method to examine indirect effects. Consistent with the hypotheses, the results indicated a positive relationship between social competence and flourishing, and a negative relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. Results of the bootstrapping method revealed that flourishing significantly mediated the relationship between social competence and psychological vulnerability. The significance and limitations of the results were discussed.

  7. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers’ perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Results Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Conclusion Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors. PMID:23902718

  8. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Kathrin; Firestone, Simon M; Taylor, Melanie R; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Ward, Michael P; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-07-31

    A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers' perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors.

  9. Hazard Experience, Geophysical Vulnerability, and Flood Risk Perceptions in a Postdisaster City, the Case of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Kevin Fox; Campanella, Richard; Lauve-Moon, Katie; Powers, Bradford

    2018-02-01

    This article investigates the determinants of flood risk perceptions in New Orleans, Louisiana (United States), a deltaic coastal city highly vulnerable to seasonal nuisance flooding and hurricane-induced deluges and storm surges. Few studies have investigated the influence of hazard experience, geophysical vulnerability (hazard proximity), and risk perceptions in cities undergoing postdisaster recovery and rebuilding. We use ordinal logistic regression techniques to analyze experiential, geophysical, and sociodemographic variables derived from a survey of 384 residents in seven neighborhoods. We find that residents living in neighborhoods that flooded during Hurricane Katrina exhibit higher levels of perceived risk than those residents living in neighborhoods that did not flood. In addition, findings suggest that flood risk perception is positively associated with female gender, lower income, and direct flood experiences. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research on environmental risk, flood risk communication strategies, and flood hazards planning. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. FATHER-CHILD PLAY DURING THE PRESCHOOL YEARS AND CHILD INTERNALIZING BEHAVIORS: BETWEEN ROBUSTNESS AND VULNERABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Lieselotte; Teufl, Lukas; Ruiz, Nina; Piskernik, Bernhard; Supper, Barbara; Remiorz, Silke; Gesing, Alexander; Nowacki, Katja

    2017-11-01

    Play observations with a total of 400 toddlers and preschoolers were videotaped and rated for Intensity and Quality of play with their parents. Parents were asked about perceived stress and personality characteristics (Big 5). Child's motor, cognitive skills, temperament, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Study 1 investigated the robustness of play across child age and gender, and examined differences between fathers and mothers. Study 2 explored the vulnerability of play with fathers of children born preterm (PT-fathers) and fathers who had experienced adverse childhoods (AC-fathers). Study 3 investigated child internalizing behaviors. Intensity of play was maintained almost independently of child age and gender. It was similar for AC- and PT-fathers, and similar to maternal Intensity. In contrast, paternal Quality of play was higher with boys and independent of fathers' personality and perceived parenting stress whereas maternal Quality of play was higher with girls and linked to mothers' perceived parenting competence, acceptability of the child, and neuroticism. AC-fathers scored significantly low on Quality, as did PT-fathers, but the Quality of their play became better with growing child age, birth weight, and cognitive (but not motor and temperament) scores. Finally, child internalizing behaviors were negatively related to paternal Quality of play. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James

    2016-01-01

    This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  14. [Adolescent vulnerabilities and radicalisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenjalley, Adrien; Radjack, Rahmeth; Ludot, Maude; Touhami, Fatima; Moro, Marie Rose

    2017-10-01

    Radicalisation resonates with the psychological vulnerabilities of adolescents. The ups and downs encountered as they attempt to construct their identity and their need to dominate favour the destructive nature of young people lacking a sense of filiation and belonging. An adolescent's engagement corresponds to a search for limits, with an adherence to religious values and to a group to establish self-esteem. Subjectification, authorising the adolescent to separate themselves from their parents and their values through a period of crisis must be supported. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Classification of vulnerability information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The current upgrading of security measures at sensitive Department of Energy (DOE) facilities reflects the continuing concern over possible terrorist and other criminal acts against these facilities. Security reviews are periodically conducted at DOE facilities, deficiencies are identified, and corrective actions are recommended. While security upgrades are initiated as soon as possible, the process of securing funding and the construction or other activities necessary to complete upgrades can cause delays in correcting security vulnerabilities. Details of security weaknesses at important DOE facilities are classified in order to deny valuable information to terrorists and other malefactors

  16. [Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

    2009-03-01

    Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability.

  17. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  18. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

    2008-03-15

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  19. Vulnerable pregnant women in antenatal practice : Caregiver's perception of workload, associated burden and agreement with objective caseload, and the influence of a structured organisation of antenatal risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Nynke; Venekamp, Angélica A; Torij, Hanneke W; Lambregtse-Van den Berg, Mijke P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    INTRODUCTION: pregnancy care for vulnerable women is often perceived as a burden by caregivers as vulnerable clients require complex case management, additional time, and more often show adverse perinatal outcomes. Vulnerable clients bring about additional work strain for the caregiver, especially

  20. Conscientiousness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaodong; Dong, Xinqi

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined whether individuals' personality traits, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Data analysis was based on the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Three thousand one hundred and fifty-nine Chinese adults aged 60 years and older participated in the PINE study. They completed scales that assessed their personality (ie, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory), perceived stress (the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale), and depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire). Perceived stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. No moderation effects were found for Neuroticism. Conscientiousness significantly moderated the perceived stress-depressive symptom relationship. The positive relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms was weaker for people who were higher in Conscientiousness than those who were lower in Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness mitigated the stress-depressive symptom relationship among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to identify the psychological and sociocultural profiles of individuals who show stress resilience and those who are vulnerable. Social services and psychological interventions are needed to promote health and well-being among U.S. Chinese older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.

  2. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  3. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...

  4. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    .... The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains...

  5. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors.

  6. Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression in Canadian and Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare diathesis-stress and transactional models of cognitive vulnerability to depression in samples of Canadian (n = 118) and Chinese (n = 405) adolescents. We utilized a six-month multi-wave, longitudinal design in order to examine whether (a) perceived control moderated the association between the occurrence of dependent interpersonal stressors and subsequent increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., a diathesis-stress perspective) and (b) dependent inte...

  7. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  8. Summary of vulnerability related technologies based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Chen, Zhihao; Jia, Qiong

    2018-04-01

    As the scale of information system increases by an order of magnitude, the complexity of system software is getting higher. The vulnerability interaction from design, development and deployment to implementation stages greatly increases the risk of the entire information system being attacked successfully. Considering the limitations and lags of the existing mainstream security vulnerability detection techniques, this paper summarizes the development and current status of related technologies based on the machine learning methods applied to deal with massive and irregular data, and handling security vulnerabilities.

  9. Gambling cognition and subjective well-being as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: a cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Oei, Tian Po

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and 154 Chinese gamblers in China. They completed psychological scales on perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, gambling refusal efficacy, negative affect, life satisfaction, and problem gambling. Compared to Chinese gamblers, White gamblers reported higher levels of perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, and problem gambling as well as more pervasive negative affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results showed that the proposed multiple mediation framework fit the data better than two alternative plausible models. Life satisfaction and gambling refusal efficacy were two consistent mediators across White and Chinese gamblers. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.M.; Dittmore, M.H.; Orvis, W.J.; Wahler, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the Safeguard Vulnerability Analysis Program (SVAP) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SVAP was designed as an automated method of analyzing the safeguard systems at nuclear facilities for vulnerabilities relating to the theft or diversion of nuclear materials. SVAP addresses one class of safeguard threat: theft or diversion of nuclear materials by nonviolent insiders, acting individually or in collusion. SVAP is a user-oriented tool which uses an interactive input medium for preprocessing the large amounts of safeguards data. Its output includes concise summary data as well as detailed vulnerability information

  11. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  12. Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism, Materialism, Money Attitudes, and Consumption Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Irena; Górnik-Durose, Małgorzata E

    2017-02-17

    Narcissism is increasingly being investigated in the context of consumer attitudes and behavior. Previous research showed that narcissism is reflected in materialistic tendencies and money-related attitudes. However, almost all of these studies concerned the grandiose type of narcissism. We examined relationships of both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with materialism, money attitudes, and consumption preferences in a nonstudent sample. The results showed that the two types of narcissism are equally associated with materialism and a tendency to conspicuous (public) consumption. Differences between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with regard to money attitudes were observed. Materialism mediated most of the relationships between narcissism, money attitudes, and consumption preferences, but the patterns of mediation were different for grandiose and vulnerable subtypes. Mutual suppression occurred when grandiose narcissism and materialism predicted anxiety associated with money and when vulnerable narcissism and materialism predicted money perceived as a source of evil. The results suggested that not only grandiose, but also vulnerable narcissists may be prone to excessive consumption and that this can be explained by their materialistic tendencies.

  13. Principles of Security Vulnerability Analysis of stationary industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Security and safety have been key priorities at facilities that manufacture, store, use, or handle hazardous chemicals, after the terrorist attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001. Security improvements may be needed, especially at sites that pose a more attractive target to terrorists due to their economic importance, perceived level of consequences, and other factors. The first step in the process of managing security risks is to identify and analyze the threats and the vulnerabilities facing a facility by conducting a Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA). The SVA is a systematic process that evaluates the likelihood that a threat against a facility will be successful. It considers the potential severity of consequences to the facility itself, to the surrounding community and on the energy supply chain. The objective of conducting a SVA is to identify security hazards, threats, and vulnerabilities facing a facility, and to evaluate the countermeasures to provide for the protection of the public, workers, national interests, the environment, and the company. With this information security risks can be assessed and strategies can be formed to reduce vulnerabilities as required. SVA is a tool to assist management in making decisions on the need for countermeasures to address the threats and vulnerabilities. The paper provides an overview of fundamental steps of SVA for stationary industrial installations. (author)

  14. Development of a heat vulnerability index for New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S G; Shrestha, S; Kinney, P L; Ross, Z; Sheridan, S C; Pantea, C I; Hsu, W H; Muscatiello, N; Hwang, S A

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme heat events are increasing in New York State (NYS) and have been linked with increased heat-related morbidity and mortality. But these effects are not uniform across the state and can vary across large regions due to regional sociodemographic and environmental factors which impact an individual's response or adaptive capacity to heat and in turn contribute to vulnerability among certain populations. We developed a heat vulnerability index (HVI) to identify heat-vulnerable populations and regions in NYS. Census tract level environmental and sociodemographic heat-vulnerability variables were used to develop the HVI to identify heat-vulnerable populations and areas. Variables were identified from a comprehensive literature review and climate-health research in NYS. We obtained data from 2010 US Census Bureau and 2011 National Land Cover Database. We used principal component analysis to reduce correlated variables to fewer uncorrelated components, and then calculated the cumulative HVI for each census tract by summing up the scores across the components. The HVI was then mapped across NYS (excluding New York City) to display spatial vulnerability. The prevalence rates of heat stress were compared across HVI score categories. Thirteen variables were reduced to four meaningful components representing 1) social/language vulnerability; 2) socioeconomic vulnerability; 3) environmental/urban vulnerability; and 4) elderly/ social isolation. Vulnerability to heat varied spatially in NYS with the HVI showing that metropolitan areas were most vulnerable, with language barriers and socioeconomic disadvantage contributing to the most vulnerability. Reliability of the HVI was supported by preliminary results where higher rates of heat stress were collocated in the regions with the highest HVI. The NYS HVI showed spatial variability in heat vulnerability across the state. Mapping the HVI allows quick identification of regions in NYS that could

  15. The Index of Vulnerability: An anthropological method linking social-ecological systems to mental and physical health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Paula Skye

    2016-08-01

    Researchers need measures of vulnerability that are grounded in explicit theoretical and conceptual frameworks, that are sensitive to local contexts, and that are easy to collect. This paper presents the Index of Vulnerability (IoV), a quantitative yet anthropologically-informed method connecting social-ecological systems to mental and physical health outcomes. The IoV combines measures of five life domains; food insecurity, water insecurity, access to healthcare, social support, and social status. Scores on this index increase for each life domain where the individual falls into a "high risk" category. Thus, individuals with the highest IoV scores are those who are at risk across multiple life domains. This approach makes the IoV malleable to local contexts, as scholars can choose which measure of each life domain is most appropriate for their study population. An anthropological study conducted among 225 Awajún adults living in the Peruvian Amazon from March to November of 2013 showed that men with higher IoV scores had significantly lower summary fat skinfolds, lower triglyceride levels, and a greater probability of reporting moderate to severe somatic symptoms and poor perceived health. Awajún women with higher IoV scores had significantly elevated perceived stress levels and a greater probability of reporting poor perceived health and moderate to severe somatic and depressive symptoms. Importantly, comparing the IoV to its constituent parts shows that it predicts a wider range of mental and physical health outcomes than any of the life domains alone. The IoV is presented here in relation to the broader political-economic and cultural context of the Awajún, forwarding a critical biocultural approach within anthropology, and demonstrating the IoV's utility for other scholars and practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regular use of dental services among adults and older adults in a vulnerable region in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luciene Petcov; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira; Jeronymo, José Carlos Milanez; Bastos, Gisele Alsina Nader

    2012-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of regular use of dental care services by adults and older adults residing in vulnerable community and to identify associated factors. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 3,391 adults and older adults residing in areas of social vulnerability in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from July to December of 2009. A systematic sampling method was used the selection probability proportional to the population of each of the the 121 census sectors. The outcome for regular use of dental care services was defined as regular use of dental services, regardless of the presence of dental problems. A standardized questionnaire was administered, which included demographic, socioeconomic, type of dental care services, self-perception of dental health and self-perceived needs variables. A chi-square test for heterogeneity was used for bivariate analyses, and a Poisson regression with a robust variance and Wald tests were performed for the adjusted analysis. The prevalence of regular use of dental services was 25.7%. The prevalence was higher among people with >12 years schooling (PR 2.48 [95%CI:1.96;3.15]), higher income (PR 1.95[95%CI: 1.03;1.53]), use of private health services (PR 1.43 [95%CI: 1.20;1.71]),excellent self-perceived oral health (PR 4.44 [95%CI: 3.07;6.42]) and a self-perceived need for consultation related to routine checkup (RP 2.13 [95%CI: 1.54;2.96]). Inequalities were found in the regular use of dental services. Integrated approaches that raise awareness of oral health, improve self-care and expand access to dental services, may contribute to increase the use of dental services on a regular basis.

  17. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, marketing, and substance use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Mayo, Ashley; Ganz, Ollie; Perreras, Lexie; D'Silva, Joanne; Cohn, Amy

    2018-02-09

    Perceived experiences of discrimination have been linked to negative health behaviors including tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use across various racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco and alcohol marketing exposure have also been linked with substance use. This study examined the independent and interacting effects of perceived experiences of discrimination and exposure to alcohol and tobacco marketing, and receptivity to marijuana marketing on substance use in an online survey of a multiethnic sample of young adults in 6 metropolitan areas (n = 505). African Americans (mean (M) = 1.96, 9% 5CI [1.84, 2.09]) and Hispanics (M = 1.98, 95% CI [1.87, 2.09]) reported higher levels of perceived discrimination than Whites (M = 1.52, 95% CI [1.40, 1.64]), p marketing; Hispanics reported higher levels of exposure to alcohol marketing and receptivity to marijuana promotion. Discrimination and marketing exposure were independently associated with higher odds of all 3 outcomes, controlling for covariates (AOR from 2.1 to 3.4 for discrimination; AOR from 1.4 to 13.8 for marketing). Models showed a significant interaction of discrimination and tobacco marketing on past 30-day cigarette use (F = 5.5; p = .02). Individuals with high levels of tobacco marketing exposure were likely to report high past 30-day cigarette use regardless of level of discrimination, while those with low exposure were only at increased risk of reporting cigarette use at higher levels of discrimination. Both perceived discrimination and marketing exposure play a role in substance use. Interventions should consider discrimination as a significant risk factor underlying vulnerability to substance use among young adults.

  18. Association between perceived discrimination and healthcare-seeking behavior in people with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso-Porras, Miguel G; Alvarado, German F

    2018-01-01

    Experiences of discrimination lead people from vulnerable groups to avoid medical healthcare. It is yet to be known if such experiences affect people with disabilities (PWD) in the same manner. To determine the association between perceived discrimination and healthcare-seeking behavior in people with disabilities and to explore differences of this association across disability types. We performed a cross-sectional study with data from a national survey of people with disabilities. Perceived discrimination and care-seeking behavior were measured as self-reports from the survey. Dependence for daily life activities, possession of health insurance, and other disability-related variables were included and considered as confounders. We used Poisson regression models and techniques for multistage sampling in the analyses. A stratified analysis was used to explore effects of discrimination across types of disability. Most of PWD were 65 years or older (67.1%). Prevalence of healthcare seeking was 78.8% in those who perceived discrimination, and 86.1% in those who did not. After adjusting for potential confounders, the probability of not seeking care was higher in people who reported perceived discrimination (adjusted PR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.04-1.28). In a stratified analysis, significant effects of discrimination were found in people with communication disability (adjusted PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.07-1.67) and with physical disability (adjusted PR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34). People with disabilities who perceive discrimination are less likely to seek healthcare. This association was higher for people with communication and physical disabilities. These results provide evidence to institutions who attempt to tackle discrimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vulnerability Identification Errors in Security Risk Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Taubenberger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    At present, companies rely on information technology systems to achieve their business objectives, making them vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. Information security risk assessments help organisations to identify their risks and vulnerabilities. An accurate identification of risks and vulnerabilities is a challenge, because the input data is uncertain. So-called ’vulnerability identification errors‘ can occur if false positive vulnerabilities are identified, or if vulnerabilities remain u...

  20. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  1. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  2. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  3. CALTRANS CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The following report was developed for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) to summarize a vulnerability assessment conducted for assets in Caltrans District 4. The assessment was developed to specifically identify the potential eff...

  4. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant

    2006-01-01

    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information...

  5. A Comprehensive Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Vulnerability of China’s Provincial Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongqiang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability theory is a fundamental scientific knowledge system in sustainable development, and vulnerability assessment is important in vulnerability studies. Economic vulnerability affects economic growth sustainability. Comprehensive assessment of economic vulnerability in the process of economic growth under the theoretical framework of vulnerability will provide a new perspective for vulnerability studies. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram assessment model, this study selected 22 economic sensitivity indexes and 25 economic adaptability indexes from the economic, social, and nature–resource–environmental subsystems to comprehensively assess and spatially analyse the vulnerability of China’s provincial economies since the year 2000, while applying the entropy method, multilevel extension assessment, spatial measurement method, and geographic information system technology. The results showed the following: (1 There are great differences in the vulnerability of China’s provincial economies. Western China’s vulnerability is higher and the fluctuation range of economic vulnerability is larger. The vulnerability increased significantly based on spatial differential features; (2 Regional differences in economic vulnerability, mainly caused by differences within a region, increased gradually. Eastern and Western China showed the spatial pattern characteristics of prominent and reinforcing regional imbalance, while Central and Northeast China showed declining regional imbalance. The spatial structure evolution of economic vulnerability is characterized by a volatility curve, and regional separation and divergence are strengthened; (3 Growth of China’s provincial economies and economic vulnerability are related negatively. In Eastern, Central, and Northeast China, vulnerability of the provincial economies has a negative spillover effect on neighbouring provinces’ economic growth, while in Western China it has a slight positive

  6. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiqur Rahman ,; Md. SarwarAlam Rasel; Asaduzzaman Noman; Shakh Md. Alimuzjaman Alim

    2016-01-01

    Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to de...

  7. Software Design Level Security Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rehman; K. Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Several thousand software design vulnerabilities have been reported through established databases. But they need to be structured and classified to be optimally usable in the pursuit of minimal and effective mitigation mechanism. In order we developed a criterion set for a communicative description of the same to serve the purpose as a taxonomic description of security vulnerabilities, arising in the design phase of Software development lifecycle. This description is a part of an effort to id...

  8. Factors Associated with Perceived Paternal Involvement in Childrearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Susan; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed African American and white fathers living with their young children and the children's mothers regarding variables associated with perceived paternal involvement in child care. Results indicated that ethnicity, gender role orientation, and perceived skill at child care related to higher levels of perceived paternal engagement in and…

  9. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment using Drastic Index and GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... The "Low" and "Very Low" vulnerability are located at the northern, central and southern parts of KMA ..... the contaminant is soluble in water and flows with it and is ... the aquifer, the higher the permeability and hence higher ...

  10. Consistent Condom Use by Female Sex Workers in Kolkata, India: Testing Theories of Economic Insecurity, Behavior Change, Life Course Vulnerability and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Chowdhury, Debasish; Ghose, Toorjo; Swendeman, Dallas

    2016-10-01

    Consistent condom use (CCU) is the primary HIV/STI prevention option available to sex workers globally but may be undermined by economic insecurity, life-course vulnerabilities, behavioral factors, disempowerment, or lack of effective interventions. This study examines predictors of CCU in a random household survey of brothel-based female sex workers (n = 200) in two neighborhoods served by Durbar (the Sonagachi Project) in Kolkata, India. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that CCU was significantly associated with perceived HIV risk, community mobilization participation, working more days in sex work, and higher proportion of occasional clients to regular clients. Exploratory analyses stratifying by economic insecurity indicators (i.e., debt, savings, income, housing security) indicate that perceived HIV risk and community mobilization were only associated with CCU for economically secure FSW. Interventions with FSW must prioritize economic security and access to social protections as economic insecurity may undermine the efficacy of more direct condom use intervention strategies.

  11. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples.

  12. The Relationship between Grandiose and Vulnerable (Hypersensitive Narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Jauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Narcissistic grandiosity is characterized by overt expressions of feelings of superiority and entitlement, while narcissistic vulnerability reflects hypersensitivity and introversive self-absorbedness. Clinical evidence suggests that grandiosity is accompanied by vulnerable aspects, pointing to a common foundation. Subclinical personality research, however, views grandiose and vulnerable narcissism as independent traits. Grandiose narcissism displays substantial correlation with extraversion, while vulnerable narcissism correlates highly with introversion. We investigated if (1 controlling for intro-/extraversion might reveal a “common core” of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and if (2 the correlation between both aspects might be higher at higher levels of narcissism. Latent variable structural equation modeling and segmented regression analysis confirmed these hypotheses in a large non-clinical sample (N = 1,006. Interindividual differences in intro-/extraversion mask the common core of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The association between both aspects increases at high levels (upper 10% of grandiose narcissism, which suggests a possible transition to clinically relevant (pathological narcissism.

  13. The Relationship between Grandiose and Vulnerable (Hypersensitive) Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauk, Emanuel; Weigle, Elena; Lehmann, Konrad; Benedek, Mathias; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2017-01-01

    Narcissistic grandiosity is characterized by overt expressions of feelings of superiority and entitlement, while narcissistic vulnerability reflects hypersensitivity and introversive self-absorbedness. Clinical evidence suggests that grandiosity is accompanied by vulnerable aspects, pointing to a common foundation. Subclinical personality research, however, views grandiose and vulnerable narcissism as independent traits. Grandiose narcissism displays substantial correlation with extraversion, while vulnerable narcissism correlates highly with introversion. We investigated if (1) controlling for intro-/extraversion might reveal a “common core” of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and if (2) the correlation between both aspects might be higher at higher levels of narcissism. Latent variable structural equation modeling and segmented regression analysis confirmed these hypotheses in a large non-clinical sample (N = 1,006). Interindividual differences in intro-/extraversion mask the common core of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The association between both aspects increases at high levels (upper 10%) of grandiose narcissism, which suggests a possible transition to clinically relevant (pathological) narcissism. PMID:28955288

  14. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    -up by applying the K-means clustering algorithm based on a higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food (processed), sweet foods and drinks (sweet), and fruits and vegetables (healthy). Vulnerable groups were defined at baseline as follows: children whose parents lacked a social network, children from...... single-parent families, children of migrant origin and children with unemployed parents. Multinomial mixed models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and children’s dietary patterns at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents lacked a social network (OR 1·31; 99 % CI......Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities...

  15. Self-Perceived Eating Habits and Food Skills of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce J; Mudryj, Adriana N

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and described Canadians' self-perceived eating habits and food skills through the use of population-based data. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2013 Rapid Response on Food Skills was used to examine the eating quality and patterns of Canadians. Data were collected from all provinces in January and February 2013. Respondent variables (sex, age, Aboriginal/immigrant status) were examined to assess differentiations between socio-demographic groupings (family structure, marital status, education, and income). Logistic regression was used to determine whether demographic variables increased the likelihood of certain responses. Forty-six percent of Canadians believe they have excellent/very good eating habits, with 51% categorizing their habits as good or fair. Similarly, the majority report having good food skills. Sex and age were significantly associated with food skills, with women rating their cooking skill proficiency higher than men (72% vs 55%), and older Canadians reporting higher food skill knowledge than their younger counterparts. Results indicate that while portions of the Canadian population have adequate food skills, others are lacking, which may negatively impact their diet. Findings from this study have implications for education and health promotion programs focusing on foods skills, particularly among vulnerable target groups. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender-differences in risk factors for suicidal behaviour identified by perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability: cross-sectional analysis from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, Tara; Batterham, Philip J; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Christensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPT) is supported by recent epidemiological data. Unique risk factors for the IPT constructs have been identified in community epidemiological studies. Gender differences in these risk factors may contribute substantially to our understanding of suicidal risk, and require further investigation. The present study explores gender differences in the predictors and correlates of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide. Participants (547 males, 739 females) aged 32-38 from the PATH through Life study, an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1,177) were assessed on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide using the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire and Acquired Capability for Suicide Survey, and on a range of demographic, social support, psychological, mental health and physical health measures. Gender differences in the predictors of the IPT constructs were assessed using linear regression analyses. Higher perceived burdensomeness increased suicide ideation in both genders, while higher thwarted belongingness increased suicide ideation only in females. In females, thwarted belongingness was uniquely related to perceived burdensomeness, while greater physical health was significantly associated with greater thwarted belongingness in males but not in females. There were trends suggesting greater effects of being single and greater perceived burdensomeness for men, and stronger effects of less positive friendship support for women associated with greater thwarted belongingness. Men and women differ in the pattern of psychological characteristics that predict suicide ideation, and in the factors predicting vulnerability. Suicide prevention strategies need to take account of gender differences.

  17. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  18. An examination of the perceptions of social network characteristics associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Joanna; Clifton, Allan; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    Two dimensions of narcissism exist, grandiose and vulnerable, which are thought to be associated with distinctly different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Social network analysis is a way of quantifying and analyzing interpersonal interactions that may prove useful for characterizing the networks associated with these narcissism dimensions. In the current study, participants (N = 148) completed scales assessing both narcissism dimensions and a measure of the five-factor model of personality. Egocentric network information about participants' 30 closest friends and family members (i.e., "alters") was also obtained. Both narcissism dimensions were characterized by negative perceptions of the individuals who comprise one's social networks, and many of these relations were mediated by individuals' higher levels of antagonism. Grandiose narcissism also interacted with alter centrality (i.e., importance to the network) such that individuals low on grandiose narcissism were less likely to perceive central alters in a negative light and were more attuned to central alters than were individuals high on grandiose narcissism. Overall, both narcissism dimensions were associated with perceiving one's overall social environment negatively because of the high levels of antagonism that characterize both narcissism dimensions. Individuals high on grandiose narcissism, however, appear to be more insensitive to the relative importance of individuals in their social networks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  19. The SAVI vulnerability assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winblad, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The assessment model ''Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion'' (SAVI) presented in this report is a PC-based path analysis model. It can provide estimates of protection system effectiveness (or vulnerability) against a spectrum of outsider threats including collusion with an insider adversary. It calculates one measure of system effectiveness, the probability of interruption P(I), for all potential adversary paths. SAVI can perform both theft and sabotage vulnerability analyses. For theft, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted either before they can accomplish removal of the target material from its normal location or removal from the site boundary. For sabotage, the analysis is based on the assumption that adversaries should be interrupted before completion of their sabotage task

  20. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  1. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  2. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  3. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income, age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males.

  4. Municipal vulnerability to climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, like the rest of Africa, is considered highly vulnerable to climate change and variability as well as to global change. Climate change is and will continue to be an issue of concern in the development of the country. South Africa faces...

  5. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  6. Decision Vulnerability Analysis (DVA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    31 14 Graphical Representation of the Summary Judgments of the Effectiveness, Vulnerability, and Understanding of the Subsystems’ as Judged by...posed several challenges. Numerous organizational typologies have been suggested over the years ( Robbins , 1994), and these typologies are often based...structure and functioning from a typology perspective ( Robbins , 1994), excerpts from a task analysis that described how the analysts currently performed

  7. 1C software vulnerabilities description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the vulnerability of the application solution based on the “1C: Enterprise 8” platform, which can be used by only built-in tools of the platform. Possible threats and attack algorithm are described.

  8. Underground Economics for Vulnerability Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, L.

    The estimation of vulnerability risk is at the core of any IT security management strategy. Among technical and infrastructural metrics of risk, attacker economics represent an emerging new aspect that several risk assessment methodologies propose to consider (e.g., based on game theory). Yet the

  9. Trust, Endangerment and Divine Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mikkel Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Faith is trusting God in the midst of endangerment. Yet, human experience of excessive suffering has challenged any spontaneous trust in God. In this article, I reconsider the idea of faith as trust in God, adding an emphasis on the divine vulnerability in the incarnation, and I develop a more...

  10. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  11. Sex-role attributes, perceived competence and the development of depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R; Cairns, E

    1988-09-01

    Studies are described which investigated the relationship of sex-role traits to age trends and sex differences in depression in adolescents. Psychological masculinity was negatively related to the level of depression in males and females, and evidence which indicates that this relationship is mediated by a link between masculinity and perceived competence is presented. The level of masculinity was stable across the age ranges studied, but was related to an increasingly higher rate of depression in females than males. It is therefore argued that a sex difference in masculinity arises prior to adolescence, but interacts with other factors which influence vulnerability to depression during the teenage years, thus bringing about the sex difference in depression.

  12. Vulnerability of damage-accumulating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Niels C.

    1996-01-01

    Disastrous failures have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. Quantified vulnerability can help designers and regulators to decide how much vulnerability is tolerable. Vulnerability of a system to a specified disturbance is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of the disturbed system to the probability of failure of the undisturbed system. This vulnerability can be specialized to particular system types. It is adapted here to systems that are expected to deteriorate while in service due to processes such as fatigue, creep, corrosion, aging, neglect or insufficient maintenance. Application is illustrated by vulnerability to fatigue under constant and variable stress

  13. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  14. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  15. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  16. [Socioeconomic vulnerability and obesity in Chilean schoolchildren attending first grade: comparison between 2009 and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan Carlos; Lira, Mariana; Kain, Juliana

    2017-12-01

    Although obesity is related to socioeconomic level, studies are inconclusive. To determine obesity risk according to socioeconomic vulnerability among Chilean children (1st grade) in 2009 and 2013 and assess its change during that period, by sex and geographical area. Cross-sectional study (N = 175,462 in 2009) and (N = 189,055 in 2013) which included: weight, height, rural / urban, gender and vulnerability obtained from JUNAEB's survey. BMI Z, % obesity and 3 categories of vulnerability (very vulnerable, moderate, non-vulnerable) were determined. For the descriptive analyses, we used t tests and for predictor variables (2 categories of vulnerability) and outcome (obesity) by sex and area, we used %2. Logistic regression models determined OR to develop obesity by. % obesity was 19.6% and 24.1% in 2009 and 2013, higher in boys. In urban and rural areas respectively, OR to develop obesity were: 0.85 (0.82-0.88) and 0.70 (0.64-0.75) in the most vulnerable students and 0.94 (0.91-0.97) and 0.81 (0.74-0.88) in those with moderate vulnerability in 2009 and 0.96 (0.93-0.98) and 0.89 (0.82-0.96) in the most vulnerable students and 0.99 (0.96-1.02) and 0.94 (0.86-1.02) in students with moderate vulnerability in 2013. The highest increase in obesity was observed among the most vulnerable group from rural areas (16, 6 to 24.3%). vulnerability. The non-vulnerable group had the highest % obesity. Although the most vulnerable students in rural areas had the lowest obesity risk in both years, the highest increase in obesity during the period, occurred in that group.

  17. Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    May 1, 2006)”, http://www.mod.go.jp/e/d_policy/dp13.html (accessed 1 April 2009). 6 ibid 7 Hongo , Jun. “Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces,” The...Jacobs, G. Keith. "Guam Becoming US Pacific Linchpin." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 29 (2003): 38-39. Jun, Hongo . "Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces

  18. Men's health: non-communicable chronic diseases and social vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinotto, Daniele Natália Pacharone Bertolini; Simonetti, Janete Pessuto; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2016-08-15

    to evaluate the relationship between absences in scheduled appointments and the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and to investigate the relationship between spatial distribution of these diseases and social vulnerability, using geoprocessing. a quantitative study of sequential mixed approach by analyzing 158 medical records of male users to relate the absences and 1250 medical records for geoprocessing. the higher the number of absences in the scheduled medical appointments, the less were the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and the ones listed in the International Classification of Diseases in single men. There were 21 significant geostatistically cases of glucose intolerance in the urban area. Of these, 62% lived in a region with a social vulnerability rating of Very Low, Medium 19%, 14% Low and 5% High. it was observed that the older the men, the greater is the number of chronic diseases and the less they miss scheduled appointments. Regarding the use of geoprocessing, we obtained a significant number of cases of glucose intolerance in urban areas, the majority classified as Very Low social vulnerability. It was possible to relate the spatial distribution of these diseases with the social vulnerability classification; however, it was not possible to perceive a relationship of them with the higher rates of social vulnerability. avaliar a relação entre as faltas em consultas agendadas e o número de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e averiguar a relação entre distribuição espacial dessas doenças e vulnerabilidade social, utilizando-se o geoprocessamento. estudo quantitativo, de abordagem mista sequencial, sendo analisados 158 prontuários de usuários do sexo masculino para se relacionar as faltas e 1250 prontuários para o geoprocessamento. quanto maior o número de faltas nas consultas médicas agendadas, menores foram a quantidade de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e as listadas na Classificação Internacional de

  19. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guid......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research...... and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily? The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect we demonstrate...

  20. VULNERABILITY OF PART TIME EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dimitriu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The employee who concluded a part-time contract is the employee whose normal working hours, calculated weekly or as monthly average, is lower than the number of normal working hours of a comparable full-time employee. Part-time workers generally have the same legal status as full time workers. In fact, the vulnerability of this category of workers is not necessarily legal but rather economic: income - in proportion to the work performed, may be insufficient to cover the needs of living. However, such vulnerability may also have a certain cultural component: in some societies, professional identity is determined by the length of working hours. Also, part time work may hide many types of indirect discrimination.As a result, the part-time contract requires more than a protective legislation: it requires a strategy. This paper proposes a number of milestones of such a strategy, as well as some concrete de lege ferenda proposals.

  1. Perceived social stress and symptom severity among help-seeking adolescents with versus without clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    Coastal vulnerability is the degree to which a coastal system is susceptible to, ... methods, indicator-based approaches, GIS-based decision support systems and ..... E 2005, 'Coastal Vulnerability and Risk Parameters', European Water, vol.

  3. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  4. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  5. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  6. Virtuous aging and existential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne

    2017-12-01

    In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban Vulnerability Assessment Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical expansion of urban areas and cities is of great importance nowadays. Irreparable damages will thus be caused by lack of proper planning against natural disasters. Crisis management will therefore guide through prevention, preparedness, disaster relief, and recovery by planning an appropriate program. Methodology. Principal processes of crisis management against earthquake in Iran were evaluated and discussed. Multicriteria earthquake crisis management was then proposed by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Vulnerability of 19 urban areas in Qazvin city was studied and analyzed as a case study. Three main criteria were considered as “physical dimensions and physical vulnerability texture,” “the amount of urban texture responsibility to aid after crisis,” and “possibility of city reversibility after the crisis.” These criteria were divided into 20 subcriteria which were prioritized by a questionnaire survey. Findings. “High population density,” “urban texture of old and repairable buildings,” “lack of relief and medical services,” “a few organic texture areas,” “sidewalks with less than 6 meters width in the region,” and “lack of open spaces in the area” were concluded to be the most important reasons causing high vulnerability of urban texture in Qazvin city.

  8. Enhancing protection for vulnerable waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Lane, Charles R.; Serran, Jacqueline N.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Christensen, Jay R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; Dekeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David B.; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Rains, Kai C.; Smith, Lora

    2017-11-01

    Governments worldwide do not adequately protect their limited freshwater systems and therefore place freshwater functions and attendant ecosystem services at risk. The best available scientific evidence compels enhanced protections for freshwater systems, especially for impermanent streams and wetlands outside of floodplains that are particularly vulnerable to alteration or destruction. New approaches to freshwater sustainability -- implemented through scientifically informed adaptive management -- are required to protect freshwater systems through periods of changing societal needs. One such approach introduced in the US in 2015 is the Clean Water Rule, which clarified the jurisdictional scope for federally protected waters. However, within hours of its implementation litigants convinced the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to stay the rule, and the subsequently elected administration has now placed it under review for potential revision or rescission. Regardless of its outcome at the federal level, policy and management discussions initiated by the propagation of this rare rulemaking event have potential far-reaching implications at all levels of government across the US and worldwide. At this timely juncture, we provide a scientific rationale and three policy options for all levels of government to meaningfully enhance protection of these vulnerable waters. A fourth option, a 'do-nothing' approach, is wholly inconsistent with the well-established scientific evidence of the importance of these vulnerable waters.

  9. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  10. PORT SECURITY-Threats and Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kusi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Takoradi port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vul-nerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Takoradi port operations are being conducted in other to ide...

  11. Climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation options for forest vegetation management in the northwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Halofsky; David Peterson

    2016-01-01

    Recent vulnerability assessments, conducted in diverse regions in the northwestern United States, indicate that many commonalities exist with respect to projected vulnerabilities to climate change. Dry forests are projected to have significant changes in distribution and abundance of species, partially in response to higher temperature and lower soil moisture, but...

  12. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  13. Animal models to study plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapira, K.; Heeneman, S.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The need to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in humans has lead to the development of various animal models of plaque vulnerability. In this review, current concepts of the vulnerable plaque as it leads to an acute coronary event are described, such as plaque rupture,

  14. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  15. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Kishor Patel

    Full Text Available Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India.Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400 in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics.Most FSWs (87% reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5 and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3 as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt.This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  16. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Jain, Anrudh Kumar; Saggurti, Niranjan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-01-01

    Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs) are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS)-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400) in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Most FSWs (87%) reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5) and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3) as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt). This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  17. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  18. Personal and Perceived Depression Stigma among Arab Adolescents: Associations with Depression Severity and Personal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Silva, Susan G; Smoski, Moria J; Noonan, Devon; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    In Arab communities, the selection, utilization, and attitudes towards mental health services are substantially affected by existing mental illness stigma. However, little is known about how the stigma of depression manifests among Arab adolescents, which makes it difficult to design, implement, and disseminate effective anti-stigma interventions for this vulnerable population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine levels of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. The specific aims were to (1) describe the severity of personal and perceived depression stigma among Arab adolescents and its relationship to severity of depression, and (2) determine characteristics associated with severity of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. This study was conducted in Jordan, a Middle Eastern Arab country. A nationally representative, school-based survey was utilized. A total of 2349 Jordanian adolescents aged 12-17 completed and returned the survey packets, which included measures on individual characteristics, depression severity, and depression stigma. The majority of the adolescents (88%) reported scores indicating moderate to high depression stigma. Adolescents reported higher rates of perceived stigma than personal stigma. Depression stigma was not significantly associated with severity of depression, but with adolescent's sex, age, region of residence, parents' education, and history of mental health problem. This is the first Arab study to isolate the influence of adolescent depression and personal characteristics on personal and perceived depression stigmas, and highlight the presence of these distinctions early in adolescence. Such distinction can inform the design and implementation of policies and interventions to reduce both personal and perceived stigma. The study provides important recommendations on when, how, and why to utilize school settings for anti-depression stigma interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; García, Ana M; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Felt, Emily; Benavides, Fernando G

    2011-08-17

    Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related). The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12), change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI). Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %). 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60), and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80). 40% (95% CI 24-53) PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  20. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-González Diana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008 amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related. The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12, change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI. Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %. Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60, and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80. 40% (95% CI 24-53 PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  1. Relative Importance of Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Perceived Risk on Willingness to Pay More

    OpenAIRE

    Demirgüneş, Banu Külter

    2015-01-01

    The consumer perceived value construct is a very important component in the consumer value literature and it has been identified as one of the most important measures for gaining a competitive advantage. All its consequences can be combined in a construct, defined as consumer behavior. The present article sustains the idea that consumer’s perceived value can been associated with satisfaction, which leads a behavioral intention such as willingness to pay a higher price. In the case of potentia...

  2. Europe's vulnerability to energy crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The growing dependency of Europe as a whole on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future. The objective of the Study is to identify the threats leading to potential energy crises and suggest solutions for facing, in an appropriate way, the related key challenges. In addition, the Study intends to develop a number of indicators effective enough to assess the level of different types of vulnerability, as well the overall vulnerability of a country or region, including threats to physical disruption, higher energy prices etc. The use of vulnerability indicators is highly recommended for all WEC-European countries, as well as to policy makers and market players.

  3. Identification and ranking of environmental threats with ecosystem vulnerability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Schipper, Aafke M; Mulder, Christian; Posthuma, Leo

    2017-08-24

    Responses of ecosystems to human-induced stress vary in space and time, because both stressors and ecosystem vulnerabilities vary in space and time. Presently, ecosystem impact assessments mainly take into account variation in stressors, without considering variation in ecosystem vulnerability. We developed a method to address ecosystem vulnerability variation by quantifying ecosystem vulnerability distributions (EVDs) based on monitoring data of local species compositions and environmental conditions. The method incorporates spatial variation of both abiotic and biotic variables to quantify variation in responses among species and ecosystems. We show that EVDs can be derived based on a selection of locations, existing monitoring data and a selected impact boundary, and can be used in stressor identification and ranking for a region. A case study on Ohio's freshwater ecosystems, with freshwater fish as target species group, showed that physical habitat impairment and nutrient loads ranked highest as current stressors, with species losses higher than 5% for at least 6% of the locations. EVDs complement existing approaches of stressor assessment and management, which typically account only for variability in stressors, by accounting for variation in the vulnerability of the responding ecosystems.

  4. Mentoring And Women's Perceived Professional Growth | Chovwen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of mentoring on professional growth of women and result indicated that although protégé/mentoring relationship was not formally constituted in most organizations it was found to be a significant predictor of growth and participants with mentors perceived they experienced higher growth ...

  5. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  6. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  7. Perceived Stress and Its Relationship With Chronic Medical Conditions and Multimorbidity Among 229,293 Community-Dwelling Adults in 44 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Koyanagi, A; Ward, Philip B; Veronese, Nicola; Carvalho, André F; Solmi, Marco; Mugisha, James; Rosenbaum, Simon; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we assessed the association of chronic medical conditions and multimorbidity with perceived stress among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries. Data from the World Health Survey (2002-2004), including 229,293 adults, were analyzed. A perceived stress score (range, 0 (lowest stress)-100 (highest stress)) was computed on the basis of 2 questions from the Perceived Stress Scale. Eleven chronic conditions were assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations. All chronic conditions were associated with significantly higher mean perceived stress scores, with the exception of edentulism. The associations were particularly strong for depression (β = 14.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 13.68, 15.74), visual impairment (β = 10.66, 95% CI: 8.09, 13.23), and schizophrenia (β = 9.98, 95% CI: 7.71, 12.24). Compared with no chronic conditions, the β coefficients for perceived stress with the presence of 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 chronic conditions were 5.58 (95% CI: 4.94, 6.23), 9.58 (95% CI: 8.67, 10.49), 14.15 (95% CI: 12.63, 15.67), and 20.17 (95% CI: 18.29, 22.05), respectively. The associations with perceived stress were significantly stronger among the poorest individuals for arthritis, asthma, diabetes, edentulism, and ≥4 chronic conditions. Our data suggest that a range of chronic conditions and multimorbidity are associated with greatly increased perceived stress among people in low- and middle-income countries, and that the poorest persons may be a particularly vulnerable group. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kubeček, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate

  9. The double tragedy of agriculture vulnerability to climate variability in Africa: How vulnerable is smallholder agriculture to rainfall variability in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel K. Derbile

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed vulnerability of smallholder agriculture to climate variability, particularly the alternating incidences of drought and heavy precipitation events in Ghana. Although there is an unmet need for understanding the linkages between climate change and livelihoods, the urgent need for climate change adaptation planning (CCAP in response to climate change makes vulnerability assessment even more compelling in development research. The data for analysis were collected from two complementary studies. These included a regional survey in the Upper West Region and an in-depth study in three selected communities in the Sissala East District. The results showed that smallholder agriculture is significantly vulnerable to climate variability in the region and that three layers of vulnerability can be identified in a ladder of vulnerability. Firstly, farmers are confronted with the double tragedy of droughts and heavy precipitation events, which adversely affect both crops and livestock. Secondly, farmers have to decide on crops for adaptation, but each option – whether indigenous crops, new early-maturing crops or genetically modified crops – predisposes farmers to a different set of risks. Finally, the overall impact is a higher-level vulnerability, namely the risk of total livelihood failure and food insecurity. The article recommended CCAP and an endogenous development (ED approach to addressing agriculture vulnerability to climate variability within the framework of decentralisation and local governance in Ghana. Keywords: Climate variability; agriculture; vulnerability; endogenous development; Ghana

  10. Third sector primary care for vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A; Woodward, A

    2001-12-01

    This paper aims to describe and explain the development of third sector primary care organisations in New Zealand. The third sector is the non-government, non-profit sector. International literature suggests that this sector fulfils an important role in democratic societies with market-based economies, providing services otherwise neglected by the government and private for-profit sectors. Third sector organisations provided a range of social services throughout New Zealand's colonial history. However, it was not until the 1980s that third sector organisations providing comprehensive primary medical and related services started having a significant presence in New Zealand. In 1994 a range of union health centres, tribally based Mäori health providers, and community-based primary care providers established a formal network -- Health Care Aotearoa. While not representing all third sector primary care providers in New Zealand, Health Care Aotearoa was the best-developed example of a grouping of third sector primary care organisations. Member organisations served populations that were largely non-European and lived in deprived areas, and tended to adopt population approaches to funding and provision of services. The development of Health Care Aotearoa has been consistent with international experience of third sector involvement -- there were perceived "failures" in government policies for funding primary care and private sector responses to these policies, resulting in lack of universal funding and provision of primary care and continuing patient co-payments. The principal policy implication concerns the role of the third sector in providing primary care services for vulnerable populations as a partial alternative to universal funding and provision of primary care. Such an alternative may be convenient for proponents of reduced state involvement in funding and provision of health care, but may not be desirable from the point of view of equity and social cohesion

  11. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  12. Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS. Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, I

    1998-01-01

    This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.

  13. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  14. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Lantos, Hannah; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Acharya, Rajib; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-04-12

    The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents, particularly among those living in poor urban

  15. County-level heat vulnerability of urban and rural residents in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Woodward, Alistair; Cirendunzhu; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-12

    Tibet is especially vulnerable to climate change due to the relatively rapid rise of temperature over past decades. The effects on mortality and morbidity of extreme heat in Tibet have been examined in previous studies; no heat adaptation initiatives have yet been implemented. We estimated heat vulnerability of urban and rural populations in 73 Tibetan counties and identified potential areas for public health intervention and further research. According to data availability and vulnerability factors identified previously in Tibet and elsewhere, we selected 10 variables related to advanced age, low income, illiteracy, physical and mental disability, small living spaces and living alone. We separately created and mapped county-level cumulative heat vulnerability indices for urban and rural residents by summing up factor scores produced by a principal components analysis (PCA). For both study populations, PCA yielded four factors with similar structure. The components for rural and urban residents explained 76.5 % and 77.7 % respectively of the variability in the original vulnerability variables. We found spatial variability of heat vulnerability across counties, with generally higher vulnerability in high-altitude counties. Although we observed similar median values and ranges of the cumulative heat vulnerability index values among urban and rural residents overall, the pattern varied strongly from one county to another. We have developed a measure of population vulnerability to high temperatures in Tibet. These are preliminary findings, but they may assist targeted adaptation plans in response to future rapid warming in Tibet.

  16. The Roles of Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Perceived Social Support on the Alcohol Consumption among American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The intention of this study was to better understand how certain aspects in a college student's life (i.e., perceived stress, styles of coping, and social support) or how combinations of these variables may contribute to higher levels of alcohol consumption. The present study examined the relationship between perceived stress, functional coping…

  17. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  18. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  19. Drug abuse: vulnerability and transition to addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, M

    2009-05-01

    Intrinsic vulnerability is central to the transition of recreational drug use to misuse. Several factors contribute to vulnerability, inherent or acquired, and they account for the huge individual differences observed concerning the propensity to enter in the addiction process. Some of the multifactional causes for a vulnerable phenotype will be examined: genetic factors, age and gender influences, various comorbidities and epidemiological observations. Stress-induced vulnerability will be particularly reviewed because it provides a good model for a pathophysiological research and for relating environmental events to biological consequences of drug vulnerability, namely through the striato-cortical dopamine system. Experimental studies are generally blind concerning these historical factors that contribute vulnerability and a critical evaluation of current animal models is needed. The transition of the last stage of the process, addiction, is conceptualized as a progression from homeostasis to allostasis and then, to pathology.

  20. Vulnerability and resilience: a critical nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2016-02-01

    Not all forms of human fragility or vulnerability are unavoidable. Sometimes we knowingly and intentionally impose conditions of vulnerability on others; and sometimes we knowingly and intentionally enter into and assume conditions of vulnerability for ourselves (for example, when we decide to trust or forgive, enter into intimate relationships with others, become a parent, become a subject of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, and the like). In this article, I propose a presently overlooked basis on which one might evaluate whether the imposition or assumption of vulnerability is acceptable, and on which one might ground a significant class of vulnerability-related obligations. Distinct from existing accounts of the importance of promoting autonomy in conditions of vulnerability, this article offers a preliminary exploration of the nature, role, and importance of resilience promotion, its relationship to autonomy promotion, and its prospects for improving human wellbeing in autonomy inhibiting conditions.

  1. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  2. Methods to Secure Databases Against Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    for several languages such as C, C++, PHP, Java and Python [16]. MySQL will work well with very large databases. The documentation references...using Eclipse and connected to each database management system using Python and Java drivers provided by MySQL , MongoDB, and Datastax (for Cassandra...tiers in Python and Java . Problem MySQL MongoDB Cassandra 1. Injection a. Tautologies Vulnerable Vulnerable Not Vulnerable b. Illegal query

  3. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  4. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  5. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jočys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ICMPv6 is the newest version of internet control message protocol, whose main purpose is to send error message indicating packet processing failure. It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop. This paper will discuss Windows (XP, 7, 8.1 and Linux Ubuntu 14 operating systems resistance to RA flooding attack research and countermeasures to minimize this vulnerability.

  6. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, P.; Hosnedl, P.; Buresova, H.; Corbet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  7. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  8. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... The increasing dependence of government and industry on information technology has created critical vulnerabilities that can be exploited by degrading or destroying the use of information systems...

  9. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  10. Socio-economic vulnerability to natural hazards - proposal for an indicator-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, U.; McLean, A.; Vangelsten, B. V.; Kalsnes, B.; Ciurean, R. L.; Argyroudis, S.; Winter, M.; Corominas, J.; Mavrouli, O. C.; Fotopoulou, S.; Pitilakis, K.; Baills, A.; Malet, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    ranked from 1 (lowest vulnerability) to 5 (highest vulnerability) and weighted, based on its overall degree of influence. The indicator weights range from 1 (least influential) to 3 (most influential) and have been selected on the basis of expert judgment. The final vulnerability score is taken as the weighted average of the individual indicators. The method was applied for locations in Norway, Greece, France, Andorra and Romania. The purpose of the case studies was to compare vulnerability levels and to test and possibly improve the methodology. In the case studies, similar vulnerability scores were obtained for the locations in Norway, Andorra and France. A higher vulnerability score was obtained for the location in Greece, while the highest vulnerability score was obtained for the location in Romania. The higher score for the locations in Greece and Romania are mainly due to economic conditions and conditions regarding preparedness and recovery.

  11. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  12. A vulnerability-centric requirements engineering framework : Analyzing security attacks, countermeasures, and requirements based on vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elahi, G.; Yu, E.; Zannone, N.

    2010-01-01

    Many security breaches occur because of exploitation of vulnerabilities within the system. Vulnerabilities are weaknesses in the requirements, design, and implementation, which attackers exploit to compromise the system. This paper proposes a methodological framework for security requirements

  13. [Empowerment, stress vulnerability and burnout among Portuguese nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgambídez-Ramos, Alejandro; Borrego-Alés, Yolanda; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The work environment in Portuguese hospitals, characterized by economic cutbacks, can lead to higher levels of burnout experienced by nursing staff. Furthermore, vulnerability to stress can negatively affect the perception of burnout in the workplace. However, structural empowerment is an organizational process that can prevent and decrease burnout among nurses. Consequently, the aim of the study was to examine to what extent structural empowerment and vulnerability to stress can play a predictive role in core burnout in a sample of Portuguese nurses. A convenience sample of 297 nursing staff members from Portuguese hospitals was used in this study. Core burnout was negatively and significantly related to all the dimensions of structural empowerment, and it was positively and significantly related to vulnerability to stress. Regression models showed that core burnout was significantly predicted by access to funds, access to opportunities and vulnerability to stress. Organizational administrations must make every effort in designing interventions focused on structural empowerment, as well as interventions focused on individual interventions that enhance skills for coping with stress.

  14. Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith

    2013-04-01

    Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

  15. Is perceived dysphonia related to perceived healthiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Debo, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Literature has shown that voice-disordered persons are at higher risk for negative attitudes on several personality and physical appearance traits than vocally normal persons. This study investigated general perceptions of health in subjects with various degrees of dysphonia. Recordings from 100 normophonic and dysphonic subjects were auditorily rated on dysphonia severity by five experienced clinicians and on degree of healthiness/unhealthiness by seven unexperienced listeners. Results revealed strong correlation between auditory ratings of dysphonia severity and unhealthiness severity. Dysphonic subjects are rated significantly unhealthier than normophonic subjects, and the receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that even slight dysphonia induces negative attributions of unhealthiness. This study provides additional evidence for the negative attitudes with which dysphonic speakers are confronted, especially in terms of health.

  16. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  17. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 deg. C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 deg. C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 deg. C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  18. Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to Evaluate the Vulnerabilities with ICT Assets Disposal Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the possible vulnerabilities of ICT assets disposal policies and the associated impact that can affect the SMEs. A poorly implemented policy or unenforced policy is “potentially the weakest link” in the cyber-security chain. Do SMEs have an idea of vulnerabilities or threats...... due to assets disposal? In the event of breaches, the SMEs pay for the cost of notifying the concerned stakeholders, compensate affected parties, invest in improved mitigation technologies and also may be subjected to unwarranted public scrutiny. ICT assets at the end-of-useful life span usually have...... data left on the hard disk drives or storage media, which is a source of data confidentiality vulnerability. SMEs were surveyed in developing economies on their assets disposal policies. The perceived correlations were analyzed using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to ascertain if any cyber...

  19. A GIS Approach to Identifying Socially and Medically Vulnerable Older Adult Populations in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth; Stoler, Justin; Emrich, Christopher T; Tewary, Sweta; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-11-10

    We define, map, and analyze geodemographic patterns of socially and medically vulnerable older adults within the tri-county region of South Florida. We apply principal components analysis (PCA) to a set of previously identified indicators of social and medical vulnerability at the census tract level. We create and map age-stratified vulnerability scores using a geographic information system (GIS), and use spatial analysis techniques to identify patterns and interactions between social and medical vulnerability. Key factors contributing to social vulnerability in areas with higher numbers of older adults include age, large household size, and Hispanic ethnicity. Medical vulnerability in these same areas is driven by disease burden, access to emergency cardiac services, availability of nursing home and hospice beds, access to home health care, and available mental health services. Age-dependent areas of social vulnerability emerge in Broward County, whereas age-dependent areas of medical vulnerability emerge in Palm Beach County. Older-adult social and medical vulnerability interact differently throughout the study area. Spatial analysis of older adult social and medical vulnerability using PCA and GIS can help identify age-dependent pockets of vulnerability that are not easily identifiable in a populationwide analysis; improve our understanding of the dynamic spatial organization of health care, health care needs, access to care, and outcomes; and ultimately serve as a tool for health care planning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  1. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer

  2. Vulnerability, Borderline Personality Disorders. Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerability in relation to personality disorder is provided.

  3. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  4. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  5. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Warner, J.F.; Weijs, B.

    2011-01-01

    Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social) resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four) and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster

  6. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  7. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  8. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Much of this biodiversity is highly vulnerable to climate change. ... an astonishing range of life forms found nowhere else on the planet. ... As well as improving information on climate change vulnerabilities, ... They also note negative effects on traditional knowledge, which is seen as losing its sacred power.

  9. Method of Pentest Synthesis and Vulnerability Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hahanova Irina Vitalyevna

    2012-01-01

    The structural method for penetration test generation and vulnerability simulation for infrastructure of telecommunication hardwaresoftware information cybernetic systems (CS), focused to protect against unauthorized access the services defined in the system specification by means of penetrating through legal interfaces of component interaction, which have vulnerabilities, is proposed. A protection service infrastructure is created with cybersystem and maintains it during the life cycle, serv...

  10. Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schaar (Johannes); F. Mastik (Frits); E.S. Regar (Eveline); C.A. den Uil (Corstiaan); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRupture of vulnerable plaques is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. Identification of vulnerable plaques is therefore essential to enable the development of treatment modalities to stabilize such plaques. Several diagnostic methods are currently tested

  11. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice Dan Perceived Value Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Saputro, Daniel Krisno

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh dari Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice dan Perceived Value terhadap Customer Satisfaction di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice dan perceived value. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada 100 orang konsumen di Informa Pakuwon City. Alat analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa regresi linear berganda.Hasil d...

  12. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice, Perceived Value, Dan Price Fairness Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap

    OpenAIRE

    Rifqi, Viola Amdya; Endratno, Hermin

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness terhadap customer satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap. Dimana variabel independen dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness, sedangkan variabel dependen dalam penelitian ini adalah customer satisfaction.Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan uji v...

  13. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  14. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  15. [Vulnerability of eco-economy in northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Jiang, Guang-hui

    2008-04-01

    Based on the theoretical meaning of vulnerability, a vulnerability assessment of eco-econom in fifteen counties in the northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains was conducted. The ecosystem services change to land use was regarded as the impact, and based on the fourteen indices from resource holding, society development, and economy development statistic data, the adaptive ability was evaluated by using the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. On the basis of assessment results of impact and adaptive capacity, the fifteen counties were divided into five classes under the assessment principles, and the district with higher-class number was of more vulnerability. The first class included Usu City and Changji City, the second class included Hutubi County, Miquan County, Fukang City, Jimsar County, Qitai County and Mori Kazak Autonomous County, the third class included Karamay City and Urumqi City, the fourth class included Kuitun City and Shawan County, and the fifth class included Jinghe County, Shihezi City and Manas County. The vulnerability reflected the level of eco-environment change and socioeconomic development, and the vulnerability assessment could be a good way to ensure the sustainable development. Aiming to decrease the vulnerability, various districts belonging to different class of vulnerability should establish relevant tactics according to the vulnerability factors to accelerate the region's sustainable development.

  16. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  17. Vulnerability of hydropower generation to climate change in China: Results based on Grey forecasting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Liang, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the long-term relationships between hydropower generation and climate factors (precipitation), hydropower generation capacity (installed capacity of hydropower station) to quantify the vulnerability of renewable energy production in China for the case of hydropower generation. Furthermore, this study applies Grey forecasting model to forecast precipitation in different provinces, and then sets up different scenarios for precipitation based on the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios and results from PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate projections for Impacts Studies) model. The most important result found in this research is the increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions and the main hydropower generation provinces of China to climate change. Other main empirical results reveal that the impacts of climate change on the supply of hydropower generation in China will be noteworthy for the society. Different scenarios have different effects on hydropower generation, of which A2 scenario (pessimistic, high emission) has the largest. Meanwhile, the impacts of climate change on hydropower generation of every province are distinctly different, of which the Southwest part has the higher vulnerability than the average level while the central part lower. - Highlights: • The hydropower vulnerability will be enlarged with the rapid increase of hydropower capacity. • Modeling the vulnerability of hydropower in different scenarios and different provinces. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions to climate change. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the main hydropower generation provinces. • Rainfall pattern caused by climate change would be the reason for the increasing vulnerability

  18. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2018-04-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  19. Fossil-fuel dependence and vulnerability of electricity generation: Case of selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the diversity of fuel mix for electricity generation in selected European countries and investigates how the fuel bill has changed as a share of GDP between 1995 and 2005. The drivers of fuel-dependence-related vulnerability are determined using Laspeyres index decomposition. A 'what-if' analysis is carried out to analyse the changes in the vulnerability index due to changes in the drivers and a scenario analysis is finally used to investigate the future vulnerability in the medium term. The paper finds that the British and the Dutch electricity systems are less diversified compared to three other countries analysed. The gas dependence of the Dutch and Italian systems made them vulnerable but the vulnerability increased in all countries in recent years. Gas price and the level of dependence on gas for power generation mainly influenced the gas vulnerability. The United Kingdom saw a substantial decline in its coal vulnerability due to a fall in coal price and coal dependence in electricity generation. The scenario analysis indicates that UK is likely to face greater gas vulnerability in the future due to increased gas dependence in electricity generation and higher import dependence.

  20. Familial intracranial aneurysms: is anatomic vulnerability heritable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jason; Brown, Robert D; Moomaw, Charles J; Hornung, Richard; Sauerbeck, Laura; Woo, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Flaherty, Matthew L; Meissner, Irene; Anderson, Craig; Rouleau, Guy; Connolly, E Sander; Deka, Ranjan; Koller, Daniel L; Abruzzo, Todd; Huston, John; Broderick, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that family members with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) often harbor IAs in similar anatomic locations. IA location is important because of its association with rupture. We tested the hypothesis that anatomic susceptibility to IA location exists using a family-based IA study. We identified all affected probands and first-degree relatives (FDRs) with a definite or probable phenotype in each family. We stratified each IA of the probands by major arterial territory and calculated each family's proband-FDR territory concordance and overall contribution to the concordance analysis. We then matched each family unit to an unrelated family unit selected randomly with replacement and performed 1001 simulations. The median concordance proportions, odds ratios (ORs), and P values from the 1001 logistic regression analyses were used to represent the final results of the analysis. There were 323 family units available for analysis, including 323 probands and 448 FDRs, with a total of 1176 IAs. IA territorial concordance was higher in the internal carotid artery (55.4% versus 45.6%; OR, 1.54 [1.04-2.27]; P=0.032), middle cerebral artery (45.8% versus 30.5%; OR, 1.99 [1.22-3.22]; P=0.006), and vertebrobasilar system (26.6% versus 11.3%; OR, 2.90 [1.05-8.24], P=0.04) distributions in the true family compared with the comparison family. Concordance was also higher when any location was considered (53.0% versus 40.7%; OR, 1.82 [1.34-2.46]; PIA development, we found that IA territorial concordance was higher when probands were compared with their own affected FDRs than with comparison FDRs, which suggests that anatomic vulnerability to IA formation exists. Future studies of IA genetics should consider stratifying cases by IA location.

  1. Development and assessment of indices to determine stream fish vulnerability to climate change and habitat alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Nicholas A.; Paukert, Craig P.; Tsang, Yin-Phan; Infante, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the future impacts of climate and land use change are critical for long-term biodiversity conservation. We developed and compared two indices to assess the vulnerability of stream fish in Missouri, USA based on species environmental tolerances, rarity, range size, dispersal ability and on the average connectivity of the streams occupied by each species. These two indices differed in how environmental tolerance was classified (i.e., vulnerability to habitat alteration, changes in stream temperature, and changes to flow regimes). Environmental tolerance was classified based on measured species responses to habitat alteration, and extremes in stream temperatures and flow conditions for one index, while environmental tolerance for the second index was based on species’ traits. The indices were compared to determine if vulnerability scores differed by index or state listing status. We also evaluated the spatial distribution of species classified as vulnerable to habitat alteration, changes in stream temperature, and change in flow regimes. Vulnerability scores were calculated for all 133 species with the trait association index, while only 101 species were evaluated using the species response index, because 32 species lacked data to analyze for a response. Scores from the trait association index were greater than the species response index. This is likely due to the species response index's inability to evaluate many rare species, which generally had high vulnerability scores for the trait association index. The indices were consistent in classifying vulnerability to habitat alteration, but varied in their classification of vulnerability due to increases in stream temperature and alterations to flow regimes, likely because extremes in current climate may not fully capture future conditions and their influence on stream fish communities. Both indices showed higher mean vulnerability scores for listed species than unlisted species, which provided a coarse

  2. Performance management and academic workload in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Higher Education system is in a state of rapid flux. Various factors are rendering education vulnerable to destructive influences. It has become imperative for academic managers to ensure that academic staff function productively. Management information systems which will generate correct information as ...

  3. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. The Visual Vulnerability Spectrum: Characterizing Architectural Vulnerability for Graphics Hardware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheaffer, Jeremy W; Luebke, David P; Skadron, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    ... fluctuations, crosstalk, and other random noise. Smaller transistor features require a lower critical charge to hold and change bits, which leads to faster microprocessors, but which also leads to higher transient fault rates...

  5. Sugars from woody tissue photosynthesis reduce xylem vulnerability to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baerdemaeker, Niels J F; Salomón, Roberto Luis; De Roo, Linus; Steppe, Kathy

    2017-11-01

    Reassimilation of internal CO 2 via woody tissue photosynthesis has a substantial effect on tree carbon income and wood production. However, little is known about its role in xylem vulnerability to cavitation and its implications in drought-driven tree mortality. Young trees of Populus nigra were subjected to light exclusion at the branch and stem levels. After 40 d, measurements of xylem water potential, diameter variation and acoustic emission (AE) were performed in detached branches to obtain acoustic vulnerability curves to cavitation following bench-top dehydration. Acoustic vulnerability curves and derived AE 50 values (i.e. water potential at which 50% of cavitation-related acoustic emissions occur) differed significantly between light-excluded and control branches (AE 50,light-excluded  = -1.00 ± 0.13 MPa; AE 50,control  = -1.45 ± 0.09 MPa; P = 0.007) denoting higher vulnerability to cavitation in light-excluded trees. Woody tissue photosynthesis represents an alternative and immediate source of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) that confers lower xylem vulnerability to cavitation via sugar-mediated mechanisms. Embolism repair and xylem structural changes could not explain this observation as the amount of cumulative AE and basic wood density did not differ between treatments. We suggest that woody tissue assimilates might play a role in the synthesis of xylem surfactants for nanobubble stabilization under tension. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Geospatial approach for assessment of biophysical vulnerability to agricultural drought and its intra-seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Vinay Kumar; Dhakar, Rajkumar

    2016-03-01

    The study presents a methodology to assess and map agricultural drought vulnerability during main kharif crop season at local scale and compare its intra-seasonal variations. A conceptual model of vulnerability based on variables of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was adopted, and spatial datasets of key biophysical factors contributing to vulnerability were generated using remote sensing and GIS for Rajasthan State of India. Hazard exposure was based on frequency and intensity of gridded standardized precipitation index (SPI). Agricultural sensitivity was based on soil water holding capacity as well as on frequency and intensity of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-derived trend adjusted vegetation condition index (VCITadj). Percent irrigated area was used as a measure of adaptive capacity. Agricultural drought vulnerability was derived separately for early, mid, late, and whole kharif seasons by composting rating of factors using linear weighting scheme and pairwise comparison of multi-criteria evaluation. The regions showing very low to extreme rating of hazard exposure, drought sensitivity, and agricultural vulnerability were identified at all four time scales. The results indicate that high to extreme vulnerability occurs in more than 50% of net sown area in the state and such areas mostly occur in western, central, and southern parts. The higher vulnerability is on account of non-irrigated croplands, moderate to low water holding capacity of sandy soils, resulting in higher sensitivity, and located in regions with high probability of rainfall deficiency. The mid and late season vulnerability has been found to be much higher than that during early and whole season. Significant correlation of vulnerability rating with food grain productivity, drought recurrence period, crop area damaged in year 2009 and socioeconomic indicator of human development index (HDI) proves the general soundness of methodology. Replication of this methodology

  7. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental...... is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. We find a higher perceived time ratio for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective...... paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. We also find a higher perceived time ratio for solved than unsolved tasks, while subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between...

  8. Vulnerability on the streets: female sex workers and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyett, P M; Warr, D J

    1997-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers.

  9. Evaluation of Social Vulnerability to Natural Disasters on a County Scale in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanfeng HE; Liping DU; Xiuhua GAO

    2016-01-01

    Social vulnerability evaluation is of important significance to analyzing risks of natural disasters to human society and economy. By using expert investigation and AHP method,12 indicators from four aspects( population,economy,infrastructure and disaster prevention and mitigation capacity) are selected to assess social vulnerability to natural disasters on a county scale in Henan Province. The results show that the population vulnerability and economic vulnerability to natural disasters in the eastern region is generally higher than in the western region,while the areas with high infrastructure vulnerability are mainly located in the northwest; the disaster prevention and mitigation capacity in northwest is higher than in east and south,and this capacity of various districts is obviously higher than that of counties; in terms of the spatial pattern,social vulnerability to natural disasters is roughly higher in a belt from northeast to southwest,and lower on both sides of the belt. The results can provide scientific basis for disaster risk management and disaster prevention and mitigation planning in Henan Province.

  10. Think Again: Higher Elasticity of Substitution Increases Economic Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dumas; S. Hallegatte

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that, counter-intuitively, a higher elasticity of substitution in model production function can lead to reduced economic resilience and larger vulnerability to shocks in production factor prices. This result is due to the fact that assuming a higher elasticity of substitution requires a recalibration of the production function parameters to keep the model initial state unchanged. This result has consequences for economic analysis, e.g., on the economic vulnerability to climat...

  11. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  12. Effects of Perceived Trust and Perceived Price on Customers’ Intention to Buy in Online Store in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Setiawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Price and trust are important factors that influence customer purchasing decision in online shopping. However, the synergy of these two factors in customer intention to buy still needs to get higher attention. This paper examines the relative influence of perceived trust and perceived price on customers intention to buy, both for customers who have bought item from the store (repeat customers and who have not (potential customers, and examines whether a difference exists on the strength of influence of price and trust to purchase intention in those groups. Data are analyzed with the multiple group analysis structural equation modeling, comparing the repeat customers and potential customers. The results of this paper reveal that there is no significant difference of effect between perceived trust and perceived price on intention to buy between potential and repeat customers and that perceived trust exerts a stronger effect than perceived price on purchase intentions for both potential and repeat customers of an online vendor. This paper also reveals that while perceived trust exerts a positive influence, perceived price exerts a negative influence on both perceived value and intention to buy.

  13. Antecedents of Looming Cognitive Style: Associations With Reported Perceived Parenting and Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Atalay, Ayşe; Ayvaşık, Halise Belgin

    2018-01-01

    Looming Cognitive Style, which was proposed as cognitive vulnerability model specific for anxiety disorders, suggests that anxiety-prone individuals have a tendency to perceive threats and dangers as getting closer, becoming larger, and more agonizing every passing minute. Yet, very few studies focused on the family-related variables that are associated with development of Looming Cognitive Style. This study aims to investigate the relationship of Looming Cognitive Style with measures perceived parenting and attachment. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 389 university students aged between 18 and 35 as participants. The participants were assessed through Looming Cognitive Style, perceived parenting, attachment anxiety, and avoidance. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated Looming Cognitive Style to be significantly predicted by maternal overprotection and anxiety dimension of attachment. The results are important in understanding how parenting-related variables are related to development of cognitive vulnerabilities specific to anxiety disorders.

  14. Perceived workplace health support is associated with employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Hannon, Peggy A; Laing, Sharon S; Kohn, Marlana J; Clark, Kathleen; Pritchard, Scott; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between perceived workplace health support and employee productivity. A quantitative cross-sectional study. Washington State agencies. A total of 3528 employees from six state agencies were included in this analysis. Perceived workplace health support was assessed by two questions that queried respondents on how often they felt supported by the workplace for healthy living and physical activity. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire was used to measure health-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the past 7 days. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the mean differences in productivity by levels of perceived health support. Most participants were between 45 and 64 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic white. Presenteeism varied significantly by the level of perceived workplace health support, with those who felt least supported having higher presenteeism than those who felt most supported. The difference in presenteeism by perceived workplace support remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics (mean difference: 7.1% for support for healthy living, 95% confidence interval: 3.7%, 10.4%; 4.3% for support for physical activity, 95% confidence interval: 1.7%, 6.8%). Absenteeism was not associated with perceived workplace health support. Higher perceived workplace health support is independently associated with higher work productivity. Employers may see productivity benefit from wellness programs through improved perceptions of workplace health support.

  15. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Lorenz, P.

    2012-01-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  16. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, A. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria); Lorenz, P. [ed.; Becker, O. [eds.; Weber, U. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  17. Vulnerability of intertropical littoral areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; De Wit, Rutger; Duvail, Stéphanie; Seyler, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The coastal zone is of very high importance for human development and human wellbeing. Half of the global urban population lives in the coastal zone, where it has access to both continental and marine ecosystem services and to maritime transport. These urban populations coexist with rural and traditional coastal populations, some of which still possess good traditional ecological knowledge of the coastal ecosystems. Marine biodiversity and favourable environmental conditions sustain fisheries and aquaculture, represent a source of inspiration for humankind and provide numerous opportunities for recreation and tourism. In addition, coastal areas provide nursery functions for juvenile fish and invertebrates, which is important for the fish and crayfish stocks exploited offshore. Located at the interface between marine energy and continental processes, the coastal landscapes are dynamic environments. Nevertheless, the destruction of habitats and the increasing exploitation of the coastal zone represent serious threats to the ecosystems. Moreover, human land use and modifications in the watersheds have strong impacts on the coastal zone primarily by contributing to their pollution and nutrient over-enrichment. Damming and creation of reservoirs upstream also heavily modify the hydrology of the watersheds and often dramatically reduce the delivery of sediments to the coastal zone. In addition to these regional and local anthropogenic impacts, the coastal zone is vulnerable to global change among which sea level rise and climate change are particularly important drivers. Many coastal zones extend along giant faults and subduction zones, which makes them particularly exposed to earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Other forms of natural hazards are caused by hurricanes and cyclones that develop at sea and whose trajectories often hit the coastlines.

  18. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2016-12-01

    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  19. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A measure of vulnerability and damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Niels C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present probabilistic definitions of 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance'. A new measure of damage is also proposed. Disastrous failures, such as of the Titanic or the Chernobyl reactor, have revealed that some systems can be highly vulnerable. A seemingly insignificant damage can reduce such a system's resistance severely. Attempts to write design code requirements for damage tolerance or structural integrity have not been successful so far. One reason is that these ideas have not been defined with the necessary precision. The suggested definitions aim to be general, applicable to all engineered systems, and readily specializable to particular system types. Vulnerability is defined as the ratio of the failure probability of the damaged system to the failure probability of the undamaged system. It is argued that 'vulnerability' and 'damage tolerance' are complementary concepts. Damage tolerance is defined as the reciprocal of vulnerability. Vulnerability and damage tolerance both concern hypothetical future damage. A damage factor, applicable for the analysis of an existing structure in an assessed state of damage, is defined analogous to vulnerability. Application is illustrated by examples

  1. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  2. Pengaruh Perceived Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Stella Meiliana; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perceived quality dan perceived valueterhadap purchase intention. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dataprimer.Data dikumpulkan langsung melalui penyebaran kuisioner kepada 160responden.Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakanpurposive sampling.Uji instrumen data menggunakan validitas dan reliabilitas.Uji hipotesismenggunakan Structure Equation Model (SEM).Hasil pengujian hipotesa menunjukkanterda...

  3. Perceived Threat and Perceived Neglect: Couples' Underlying Concerns during Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. "Perceived threat" involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. "Perceived neglect" involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or…

  4. Parental stress and perceived vulnerability at 5 and 10 years after pediatric SCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. J.; Egeler, R. M.; Koopman, H. M.; Bresters, D.; Norberg, A. L.; Grootenhuis, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of assessing parental stress after SCT, 73 parents of children and adolescents who underwent SCT 5 or 10 years ago responded to questionnaires on general distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)), disease-related stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents-short form (PIP-SF)) and

  5. Perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes and life events as predictors of obsessive compulsive symptomatology: test of a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Karanci, A Nuray

    2014-11-01

    It is important to investigate the role of cognitive, developmental and environmental factors in the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology (OCS). The main objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability factors of OCS in a non-clinical sample. On the basis of Salkovskis' cognitive model of OCD, the study aimed to investigate the role of perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes, and life events in predicting OCS. Furthermore, the mediator role of responsibility attitudes in the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviours and OCS was examined. Finally, the specificity of these variables to OCS was evaluated by examining the relationship of the same variables with depression and trait anxiety. A total of 300 university students (M = 19.55±1.79) were administered the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision, Responsibility Attitudes Scale, s-EMBU (My memories of upbringing), Life Events Inventory for University Students, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form. Regression analysis revealed that perceived mother overprotection, responsibility attitudes and life events significantly predicted OCS. Furthermore, responsibility attitudes mediated the relationship between perceived mother overprotection and OCS. The predictive role of perceived mother overprotection and the mediator role responsibility attitudes were OCS specific. The findings of the present study supported that perceived mother over-protection as a developmental vulnerability factor significantly contributed to the explanation of a cognitive vulnerability factor (namely responsibility attitudes), and perceived maternal overprotection had its predictive role for OCS through responsibility attitudes.

  6. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  7. Defining energy vulnerability in mobility. Measuring energy vulnerability in mobility. Acting against energy vulnerability in mobility. Discussing energy vulnerability in mobility. Task no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffe, Yves; Massot, Marie-Helene; Noble, Cyprien

    2015-01-01

    Extensive expansion of urban areas generates transportation needs and energy expenses for mobility. Households already impacted by fuel poverty also suffer from energy vulnerability in their mobility. This report was prepared in the framework of the study of fuel poverty in France in the light of several indicators from existing inquiries, databases and modeling tools. The report is organised in 4 parts dealing with: the definition of energy vulnerability in mobility, its measurement, the possible remedial actions, and the discussions about energy vulnerability in mobility through working group meetings, respectively

  8. Vulnerability of networks of interacting Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarev, L; Zlatanov, N; Trajanov, D

    2010-05-13

    The concept of vulnerability is introduced for a model of random, dynamical interactions on networks. In this model, known as the influence model, the nodes are arranged in an arbitrary network, while the evolution of the status at a node is according to an internal Markov chain, but with transition probabilities that depend not only on the current status of that node but also on the statuses of the neighbouring nodes. Vulnerability is treated analytically and numerically for several networks with different topological structures, as well as for two real networks--the network of infrastructures and the EU power grid--identifying the most vulnerable nodes of these networks.

  9. DOE contractor vulnerability analysis: DPA or MAIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, D.E.; Nichols, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two vulnerability analysis techniques, Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) and Matrix Analysis of the Insider Threat (MAIT), were applied by EG and G Idaho, Inc. Safeguards and Security to the same item accountable SNM storage area at INEL. Technical and cost data for each methodology were collected and compared. A recommendation that MAIT be utilized for future vulnerability analyses of item accountable SNM storage and use areas operated by EG and G Idaho for DOE-ID resulted. Unclassified results of the two techniques and MAIT/DPA technical and cost comparisons will be presented which show that MAIT can be used for vulnerability analyses to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements

  10. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  11. A support system for assessing local vulnerability to weather and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Alex; Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The changing number and nature of weather- and climate-related natural hazards is causing more communities to need to assess their vulnerabilities. Vulnerability assessments, however, often require considerable expertise and resources that are not available or too expensive for many communities. To meet the need for an easy-to-use, cost-effective vulnerability assessment tool for communities, a prototype online vulnerability assessment support system was built and tested. This prototype tool guides users through a stakeholder-based vulnerability assessment that breaks the process into four easy-to-implement steps. Data sources are integrated in the online environment so that perceived risks—defined and prioritized qualitatively by users—can be compared and discussed against the impacts that past events have had on the community. The support system is limited in scope, and the locations of the case studies do not provide a sufficiently broad range of sample cases. The addition of more publically available hazard databases combined with future improvements in the support system architecture and software will expand opportunities for testing and fully implementing the support system.

  12. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  13. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment.
    This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability

  14. Are older people a vulnerable group? Philosophical and bioethical perspectives on ageing and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzaro, Claudia; Boldt, Joachim; Schweda, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The elderly are often considered a vulnerable group in public and academic bioethical debates and regulations. In this paper, we examine and challenge this assumption and its ethical implications. We begin by systematically delineating the different concepts of vulnerability commonly used in bioethics, before then examining whether these concepts can be applied to old age. We argue that old age should not, in and of itself, be used as a marker of vulnerability, since ageing is a process that can develop in a variety of different ways and is not always associated with particular experiences of vulnerability. We, therefore, turn to more fundamental phenomenological considerations in order to reconstruct from a first person perspective the intricate interconnections between the experiences of ageing and vulnerability. According to this account, ageing and old age are phenomena in which the basic anthropological vulnerability of human beings can manifest itself in an increased likelihood of harm and exploitation. Thus, we plead for a combined model of vulnerability that helps to avoid problems related to the current concepts of vulnerability. We conclude first that old age as such is not a sufficient criterion for being categorized as vulnerable in applied ethics, and second that reflections on ageing can help to develop a better understanding of the central role of vulnerability in human existence and in applied ethics. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Environmental Health Related Socio-Spatial Inequalities: Identifying “Hotspots” of Environmental Burdens and Social Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rehana; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Differential exposure to multiple environmental burdens and benefits and their distribution across a population with varying vulnerability can contribute heavily to health inequalities. Particularly relevant are areas with high cumulative burdens and high social vulnerability termed as “hotspots”. This paper develops an index-based approach to assess these multiple burdens and benefits in combination with vulnerability factors at detailed intra-urban level. The method is applied to the city of Dortmund, Germany. Using non-spatial and spatial methods we assessed inequalities and identified “hotspot” areas in the city. We found modest inequalities burdening higher vulnerable groups in Dortmund (CI = −0.020 at p vulnerability, is essential to inform environmental justice debates and to mobilize local stakeholders. Locating “hotspot” areas at this detailed spatial level can serve as a basis to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups to ensure a health conducive equal environment. PMID:27409625

  16. Perceived social support and its impact on depression and health-related quality of life: a comparison between cancer patients and general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyosang; Shin, Dong Wook; Jeong, Ansuk; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Kim, Jun Suk; Lee, Ji Eun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Eun-Cheol; Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that cancer patients' perception of social support is associated with their depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life. However, there have been little studies that compared the variates of cancer patients with the general population. We sought to compare differences in the level of perceived social support and the impact of perceived social support on depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life between cancer survivors and the general population. Data were collected from 1818 cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Center and regional cancer centers in South Korea. The control group of the general population was composed of 2000 individuals without cancer from community. Cancer patients reported significantly higher level of perceived social support than the general population, while they reported lower health-related quality of life and were more susceptible to depression. The positive associations of higher perceived social support with lower depressive symptoms, as well as with higher health-related quality of life, were stronger among cancer patients than among the general population. The interaction effect suggests that the impact of social support would be stronger among cancer patients than the general public. Thus, it would be beneficial to pay attention to providing social support to cancer patients, particularly to those who are more vulnerable. Furthermore, investigation of the most effective and efficient methods to deliver social support interventions would be worthwhile. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Perceived sexism as a health determinant in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Glòria; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine

    2010-04-01

    The goals of the present study are to explore the association between perceived sexism and self-perceived health, health-related behaviors, and unmet medical care needs among women in Spain; to analyze whether higher levels of discrimination are associated with higher prevalence of poor health indicators and to examine whether these relationships are modified by country of origin and social class. The study is based on a cross-sectional design using data from the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. We included women aged 20-64 years (n = 10,927). Six dependent variables were examined: four of health (self-perceived health, mental health, hypertension, and having had an injury during the previous year), one health behavior (smoking), and another related to the use of the health services (unmet need for medical care). Perceived sexism was the main independent variable. Social class and country of origin were considered as effect modifiers. We obtained the prevalence of perceived sexism. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to study the association between sexism and poor health outcomes. The prevalence of perceived sexism was 3.4%. Perceived sexism showed positive and consistent associations with four poor health outcomes (poor self-perceived health, poor mental health, injuries in the last 12 months, and smoking). The strength of these associations increased with increased scores for perceived sexism, and the patterns were found to be modified by country of origin and social class. This study shows a consistent association between perceived sexism and poor health outcomes in a country of southern Europe with a strong patriarchal tradition.

  18. The heritability of perceived stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federenko, I.S.; Schlotz, W.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bartels, M.; Hellhammer, D.H.; Wüst, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Exploration of the degree to which perceived chronic stress is heritable is important as these self-reports have been linked to stress-related health outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate whether perceived stress is a heritable condition and to assess whether heritability

  19. Smoking among Patients in Substance Use Disorders Treatment: Associations with Tobacco Advertising, Anti-tobacco Messages and Perceived Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K.; Le, Thao; Andrews, K. Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. Objective We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. Method Patients (N=1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded, adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness and perceived health risks. Results Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR= 13). Participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p=0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (padvertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. Conclusion The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements, and lower perception of health-related, smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population. PMID:27314450

  20. Smoking among patients in substance use disorders treatment: associations with tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco messages, and perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K; Le, Thao; Andrews, K Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. The patients (N = 1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and perceived health risks. Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR = 13). The participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p = 0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (p advertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements and lower perception of health-related smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population.

  1. Old age and vulnerability between first, second and third person perspectives. Ethnographic explorations of aging in contemporary Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøn, Lone

    2016-12-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic fieldwork aimed at exploring ethnographically how vulnerability in old age is perceived and experienced in contemporary Denmark. The fieldwork showed remarkable differences between two phases of the fieldwork: the first addressing vulnerability from the "outside" through group interviews with professionals, leaders and older people who were not (yet) vulnerable; and the second from the "inside" through more in depth fieldwork with older people who in diverse ways could be seen as vulnerable. After a short introduction to anthropological and social gerontological literature on characteristics of "Western" aging: medicalization, successful, healthy and active aging, I present findings from both phases of this ethnographic fieldwork arguing that the ethnographic approach reveals the composite and complex nature of vulnerability in old age and the constant interactions between first, second and third person perspectives. Through these methodological and analytical moves a complex and empirically tenable understanding of vulnerability in old age has emerged which 1. moves beyond rigid dichotomies that have characterized the study of old age, 2. integrates individual experience, social interaction and the structural and discursive context into the analysis, and 3. reveals the complex interplay between vulnerability and agency in diverse situations and settings of old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumer financial vulnerability: identifying transmission linkages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activates the postulated consumer financial vulnerability index (CFVI) .... words, the relationship between income, consumption, debt and saving as well as .... separation/divorce and bad financial management, as well as exogenous factors.

  3. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  4. Social protection initiatives for Zimbabwe's vulnerable groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan African region. ... especially for vulnerable groups. At independence in 1980, Zimbabwe pledged to promote a viable social protection system that would be predicated on the principles of social justice and equality of opportunity.

  5. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    applied models for groundwater vulnerability assessment mapping. The appraoches .... The overall 'pollution potential' or DRASTIC index is established by applying the formula: DRASTIC Index: ... affected by the structure of the soil surface.

  6. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  7. A Survey of Satellite Communications System Vulnerabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinberger, Jessica A

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. military's increasing reliance on commercial and military communications satellites to enable widely-dispersed, mobile forces to communicate makes these space assets increasingly vulnerable to attack by adversaries...

  8. Climate Change, Household Vulnerability and Smart Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marina

    The cost benefits analysis was the main technique used to evaluate alternative adaptation strategies. .... Figure 7 Different vulnerability levels of households from Lambani and Alice . ...... practices and the maintenance of surface residues.

  9. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) Mapping Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The interactive maps are visual representations of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Data were extracted from the US Census and the American Community Survey.

  10. AGRICULTURAL VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    victoria

    to adapt to climate change automatically implies vulnerability [14]. Thus, a .... this pattern is that rainfall may not be witnessed when desired for agricultural production .... climate change since it will enhance their ability to adopt innovations and ...

  11. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  12. Distributed Generation to Counter Grid Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nerad, Anton H

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I examine how the United States can best defend against the interruption of critical electrical energy by hostile acts, identify and examine some of the vulnerabilities to our nation's...

  13. A Critical Analysis of Vulnerability Taxonomies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bishop, Matt; Bailey, David

    1996-01-01

    Computer vulnerabilities seem to be omnipresent. In every system fielded programming errors configuration errors and operation errors have allowed unauthorized users to enter systems or authorized users to take unauthorized actions...

  14. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelburn, Bryan H

    2002-01-01

    .... Among those elements susceptible to these vulnerabilities are the operations of commercial air carriers that are essential to the military's ability to wage war and project power wherever needed in the world...

  15. 5. Sexual Behaviours and Vulnerabilities to HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    disability are among the poorest, least educated, and ... services can trap people in a cycle of poverty ... vulnerability, the need for attendant care, life in ... instrument by relying on approaches . ...... Training in learning disability for peers that.

  16. Relative seismic shaking vulnerability microzonation using an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the relative seismic shaking vulnerability for built structures of different height categories within adjacent ..... monitor for possible changes in the microzonation results over time ..... The vehicle's ... A Garmin GPS 12XL was used to determine the.

  17. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  18. Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron Macneil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K

    2011-04-01

    With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These assessments are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to coral reef fishes. Although relatively few coral reef fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many reefs where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain reef ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  20. Social determinants of self-perceived discrimination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, D; Vives-Cases, C; Borrell, C; Agudelo-Suárez, A A; Álvarez-Dardet, C

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the association between self-perceived discrimination and social determinants (social class, gender, country of origin) in Spain, and further to describe contextual factors which contribute to self-perceived discrimination. Cross-sectional design using data from the Spanish National Health Survey (2006). The dependent variable was self-perceived discrimination, and independent and stratifying variables were sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. sex, social class, country of origin, educational level). Logistic regression was used. The prevalence of self-perceived discrimination was 4.2% for men and 6.3% for women. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination was higher in people who originated from low-income countries: men, odds ratio (OR) 5.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-6.87]; women, OR 4.06 (95% CI 3.42-4.83). Women were more likely to report self-perceived discrimination by their partner at home than men [OR 8.35 (95% CI 4.70-14.84)]. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination when seeking work was higher among people who originated from low-income countries than their Spanish counterparts: men, OR 13.65 (95% CI 9.62-19.35); women, OR 10.64 (95% CI 8.31-13.62). In comparison with Spaniards, male white-collar workers who originated from low-income countries [OR 11.93 (95% CI 8.26-17.23)] and female blue-collar workers who originated from low-income countries (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.08-2.39)] reported higher levels of self-perceived discrimination. Self-perceived discrimination is distributed unevenly in Spain and interacts with social inequalities. This particularly affects women and immigrants. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  2. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners' ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns.

  3. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka eKoren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 seconds excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which twenty musicians and twenty non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and 9 non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non‐musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note

  4. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  5. The CERT Guide to Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-11

    Incident vs. Vulnerability Response 6 1.3 Why Coordinate Vulnerability Disclosures? 6 1.4 Previewing the Remainder of this Document 7 2 Principles of...Accidental Leaks 53 6.5 Independent Discovery 54 6.6 Active Exploitation 55 6.7 Relationships that Go Sideways 55 6.8 Hype, Marketing , and...guide provides an introduction to the key concepts, principles , and roles necessary to establish a successful CVD process. It also provides insights

  6. The Vulnerable Subject of Negligence Law

    OpenAIRE

    Stychin, C.

    2012-01-01

    The approach taken by English courts to the duty of care question in negligence has been subject to harsh criticism in recent years. This article examines this fundamental issue in tort law, drawing upon Canadian and Australian jurisprudence by way of comparison. From this analysis, the concept of vulnerability is developed as a productive means of understanding the duty of care. Vulnerability is of increasing interest in legal and political theory and it is of particular relevance to the law...

  7. Animal Ownership Among Vulnerable Populations in Regional South Australia: Implications for Natural Disaster Preparedness and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Trigg, Joshua; Smith, Bradley

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of animal ownership among populations likely to be at greater risk from disaster events within a bushfire context. To investigate the proportion of vulnerable community members keeping animals and the types of animals kept, as well as perceived risk of harm to pets, and their inclusion in bushfire survival planning. Statewide anonymous online survey in 2014 of adult South Australian animal owners threatened by bushfire in January 2014. Respondents were asked about animal ownership, their bushfire risk perception, and household survival planning. Descriptive statistics are presented for 5 groups considered likely to contribute to increased risk of harm for households: linguistically diverse, older adults, families with young children, physically frail, and self-identifying disabled, as well as individuals with mental health considerations. An opt-in purposively targeted sample of anonymous South Australians living in high fire-risk locations. Adult South Australian animal owners threatened or directly impacted by bushfire events, including individuals matching 1 of the 5 vulnerable groups. Self-reported details of animal ownership, perceived fire risk, survival planning, and vulnerability characteristics. Animal ownership was found to be more prevalent in these 5 populations than in the wider South Australian population. Perceived risk to pets was low to moderately low in these individuals. Variation was observed in the role of animals generally and pets specifically as motivators for preparing bushfire survival plans. Emergency services and associated agencies need to consider how the unique needs of vulnerable populations that keep animals, and their potential differences in risk perception, relate to their bushfire survival planning and preparedness requirements.

  8. Determinants of Perceived Learning and Satisfaction in Online Business Courses: An Extension to Evaluate Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jacqueline K.; Aviles, Maria; Hanna, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of perceived learning and satisfaction in online courses and the moderating effect of course type. For perceived learning outcomes, those students who perceive a higher level of interaction and those students who are satisfied will report higher levels of learning outcomes. There were significant differences…

  9. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006-2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population.

  10. Gendered depression: Vulnerability or exposure to work and family stressors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Bilodeau, Jaunathan; Demers, Andrée; Beauregard, Nancy; Durand, Pierre; Haines, Victor Y

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that employed women are more prone to depression than men, but the pathways linking gender to depression remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine how work and family conditions operated as potentially gendered antecedents of depression. It evaluated more specifically how differences in depressive symptoms in women and men could be explained by their differential vulnerability and exposure to work and family conditions, as well as by the mediating role of work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC). Data were collected in 2009-2012 from a sample of 1935 employees (48.9% women) nested in 63 workplaces in the province of Quebec (Canada). Data were analyzed with multilevel path analysis models to test for the differential exposure hypothesis, and stratified by gender to test for the differential vulnerability hypothesis. Results supported both hypothesizes, but only WFC played a mediating role between work-family stressors and depression. Regarding the vulnerability hypothesis, WFC was more strongly associated with women depressive symptoms, and the magnitude of the association between family income and WFC was stronger for women. Overall, the differential exposure hypothesis seemed to reach a greater empirical support. After accounting for work and family stressors as well as WFC, differences in depressive symptoms in women and men were no longer significantly, as WFC, working hours, irregular work schedule and skill utilization acted as mediators. WFC associated with higher depressive symptoms and skill utilization with lower depressive symptoms. WFC related to higher working hours and irregular work schedule. Compared to men, women reported higher WFC, but lower working hours, less irregular work schedule and lower skill utilization at work. Women's higher rate of depression is intrinsically linked to their different social experiences as shaped by a gendered social structure and gendered organizations

  11. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.

    2010-10-01

    The vulnerability of buildings to the impact of rockfalls is a topic that has recently attracted increasing attention in the scientific literature. The quantification of the vulnerability, when based on empirical or heuristic approaches requires data recorded from historical rockfalls, which are not always available. This is the reason why appropriate alternatives are required. The use of analytical and numerical models can be one of them. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings. The vulnerability is included in the risk equation by incorporating the uncertainty of the impact location of the rock block and the subsequent damage level. The output is a weighted vulnerability that ranges from 0 to 1 and expresses the potential damage that a rock block causes to a building in function of its velocity and size. The vulnerability is calculated by the sum of the products of the probability of block impact on each element of the building and its associated damage state, the latter expressed in relative recovery cost terms. The probability of exceeding a specific damage state such as non-structural, local, partial, extensive or total collapse is also important for the quantification of risk and to this purpose, several sets of fragility curves for various rock diameters and increasing velocities have been prepared. An example is shown for the case of a simple reinforced concrete building and impact energies from 0 to 4075 kJ.

  12. Hippocampal developmental vulnerability to methylmercury extends into prepubescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann eObiorah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The developing brain is sensitive to environmental toxicants such as methylmercury (MeHg, to which humans are exposed via contaminated seafood. Prenatal exposure in children is associated with learning, memory and IQ deficits, which can result from hippocampal dysfunction. To explore underlying mechanisms, we have used the postnatal day (P7 rat to model the third trimester of human gestation. We previously showed that a single low exposure (0.6 µg/gbw that approaches human exposure reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG 24 hours later, including later proliferation and memory in adolescence. Yet, the vulnerable stem cell population and period of developmental vulnerability remain undefined. In this study, we find that P7 exposure of stem cells has long-term consequences for adolescent neurogenesis. It reduced the number of mitotic S-phase cells (BrdU, especially those in the highly proliferative Tbr2+ population, and immature neurons (Doublecortin in adolescence, suggesting partial depletion of the later stem cell pool. To define developmental vulnerability to MeHg in prepubescent (P14 and adolescent (P21 rats, we examined acute 24 h effects of MeHg exposure on mitosis and apoptosis. We found that low exposure did not adversely impact neurogenesis at either age, but that a higher exposure (5 µg/gbw at P14 reduced the total number of neural stem cells (Sox2+ by 23% and BrdU+ cells by 26% in the DG hilus, suggesting that vulnerability diminishes with age. To see if these effects may reflect changes in MeHg transfer across the blood brain barrier, we assessed Hg content in the hippocampus after peripheral injection and found that similar levels (~800 ng/gm were obtained at 24 h at both P14 and P21, declining in parallel, suggesting that changes in vulnerability depend more on local tissue and cellular mechanisms. Together, we show that MeHg vulnerability depends on age, and that early exposure impairs later neurogenesis in

  13. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    some monitoring wells, which have been related to anthropogenic activity. Vulnerability maps were produced using different parametric methods (e.g.: DRASTIC, GOD, DISCO, AVI), then the results are compared and assessed. Since each one of these methods use different number of parameters and weights, relatively different results were obtained, although the results have been evaluated with common cartographic inputs. The comparison between selected methods shows that the GOD method results are more correlated with the other methods and produces vulnerability maps comparable with them. Even though groundwater vulnerability is a critical issue around the world, no protection zones have been delineated in Guadalajara city, one of the biggest in Latin America. The groundwater contamination in the study area poses a serious risk for a large population and the environment. This work aims to propose an approach for groundwater protection cartography, based on the application and the comparison of results from different contamination vulnerability methods. These outcomes may assist water authorities to identify the higher vulnerable zones of the aquifers, in order to improving and adapting the land planning and management according to the protection of the own water resources.

  14. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  15. Methamphetamine use and dependence in vulnerable female populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Srikosai, Soontaree; Wittayanookulluk, Apisak

    2017-07-01

    The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric patients, suburban women, and pregnant women, in which amphetamine type stimulants (ATSs) are the most commonly reported illicit drug used among them. The prenatal exposure of ATS demonstrated the small for gestational age and low birth weight; however, more research is needed on long-term studies of methamphetamine-exposed children. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly reported by female methamphetamine users as perpetrators and victims. However, statistics and gendered power dynamics suggest that methamphetamine-related IPV indicates a higher chance of femicide. Methamphetamine-abusing women often have unresolved childhood trauma and are introduced to ATS through families or partners. Vulnerable populations of women at risk of methamphetamine abuse and dependence. Impacts on their physical and mental health, IPV, and pregnancy have been reported continuing, which guide that empowering and holistic substance abuse are necessary for specific group.

  16. Implicit Motives and Men's Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers' perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers' life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children ( N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  17. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction. PMID:27933023

  18. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ruppen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276. They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  19. What is the influence of self-image and perceived parenting role expectations on adolescent fathers' perceived role performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones

    2000-05-01

    Background: "Adolescent pregnancy is one of the most pressing, persistent, and poignant problems facing society" (Yoos, 1987, p. 247). Manitoba's teen pregnancy rates are among the highest in Canada. Yet, little is known about adolescent fathers and their parenting involvement. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to explore variables which may influence teen fathers' participation in parenting.Methods: A convenience sample of 30 adolescent fathers, whose partners were attending an Adolescent Prenatal Clinic, completed two questionnaires: Offer Self-Image-Revised, and Perceived Parenting Role Performance. Guided by family role theory, four hypotheses were examined utilizing a quantitative research method.Results: Data analysis revealed that 30% of these respondents had a low to very low self-image. Pearson's correlation coefficient, which facilitated hypotheses testing, failed to validate a relationship between teen fathers' perceived role performance and self-image, and perceived parenting role expectations. Nevertheless, a moderate negative correlation was noted between teen fathers' self-image and their perceived parenting role expectations (r = -.35, p adolescence with the responsibilities of fatherhood increase their vulnerability to parenting failure.

  20. Vulnerability and fragility risk indices for non-renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Steele, Nicholas; Tobin, Benjamin W

    2018-06-02

    Protected areas are tasked with mitigating impacts to a wide range of invaluable resources. These resources are often subject to a variety of potential natural and anthropogenic impacts that require monitoring efforts and management actions to minimize the degradation of these resources. However, due to insufficient funding and staff, managers often have to prioritize efforts, leaving some resources at higher risk to impact. Attempts to address this issue have resulted in numerous qualitative and semi-quantitative frameworks for prioritization based on resource vulnerability. Here, we add to those methods by modifying an internationally standardized vulnerability framework, quantify both resource vulnerability, susceptibility to human disturbance, and fragility, susceptibility to natural disturbance. This modified framework quantifies impacts through a six-step process: identifying the resource and management objectives, identifying exposure and sensitivity indicators, define scoring criteria for each indicator, collect and compile data, calculate indices, and prioritize sites for mitigations. We applied this methodology to two resource types in Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA): caves and fossil sites. Three hundred sixty-five cave sites and 127 fossil sites in GRCA were used for this analysis. The majority of cave and fossil sites scored moderate to low vulnerability (0-6 out of 10 points) and moderate to low fragility for fossils. The percentage of sites that fell in the high-priority range was 5.5% for fossils and 21.9% for caves. These results are consistent with the known state of these resources and the results present a tool for managers to utilize to prioritize monitoring and management needs.

  1. A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

  2. Vulnerable Bullies: Perpetration of Peer Harassment Among Youths Across Sexual Orientation, Weight, and Disability Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

    2015-09-01

    We examined perpetration of bullying among youths in vulnerable groups relative to youths in peer groups not categorized as vulnerable. Data were collected in 2013 from a large school-based survey of adolescents conducted in Minnesota (n = 122,180). We used the χ(2) test and logistic regression to compare measures of perpetration of physical and relational bullying, as well as experiences of victimization and perpetration (or both), across categories of sexual orientation, weight status, and disability status. Rates of physical and relational bullying perpetration were significantly higher among youths in vulnerable groups than among those not in vulnerable groups. With respect to context of victimization experiences, young men and women from vulnerable groups were overrepresented in the group comprising both perpetrators and victims. For example, odds of being both a perpetrator and a victim were 1.41 to 3.22 times higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths than among heterosexual youths. Vulnerable youths, who are prone to peer harassment, may also act as perpetrators of bullying. Prevention strategies should address the particular needs of these populations; targeted programming may be appropriate.

  3. Vulnerable Bullies: Perpetration of Peer Harassment Among Youths Across Sexual Orientation, Weight, and Disability Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined perpetration of bullying among youths in vulnerable groups relative to youths in peer groups not categorized as vulnerable. Methods. Data were collected in 2013 from a large school-based survey of adolescents conducted in Minnesota (n = 122 180). We used the χ2 test and logistic regression to compare measures of perpetration of physical and relational bullying, as well as experiences of victimization and perpetration (or both), across categories of sexual orientation, weight status, and disability status. Results. Rates of physical and relational bullying perpetration were significantly higher among youths in vulnerable groups than among those not in vulnerable groups. With respect to context of victimization experiences, young men and women from vulnerable groups were overrepresented in the group comprising both perpetrators and victims. For example, odds of being both a perpetrator and a victim were 1.41 to 3.22 times higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths than among heterosexual youths. Conclusions. Vulnerable youths, who are prone to peer harassment, may also act as perpetrators of bullying. Prevention strategies should address the particular needs of these populations; targeted programming may be appropriate. PMID:26180987

  4. Associations between perceived leadership and presenteeism in an industrial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänni, Kimmo J; Neupane, Subas; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2017-12-30

    Presenteeism has received increasing attention in occupational health research but the evidence for its association with perceived leadership is scant. To assess the association of perceived leadership and presenteeism among industrial workers. Survey responses from employees on perceived leadership were linked to the personnel register of a food industry company. The Presenteeism Scale method was used to determine the presenteeism percentage. Perceived leadership was measured as a composite variable of six individual items on motivating and participating leadership. Generalized linear models were used to determine the association of perceived leadership with presenteeism. There were 847 participants. The majority of office workers of both genders reported better perceived leadership than factory workers. We found that perceived poor leadership was associated with a higher likelihood of presenteeism (rate ratio (RR) 1.64, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.51-1.78). However, there was variation amongst and within occupational groups and genders, with a higher risk of presenteeism amongst male factory workers (RR 2.28, 95% CI 2.02-2.52) than female office workers. Leadership was found to be significantly associated with presenteeism, with a greater risk of presenteeism in those reporting poor perceived leadership. The association between levels of perceived leadership and presenteeism was stronger in men than women. Organizations should focus on motivating leadership practices to reduce the risk of presenteeism, especially among men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly at

  7. Adirondack tourism: perceived consequences of acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1984-03-01

    This report seeks to place in perspective the perceived effects of acid precipitation on the tourist industry in the Adirondacks. The 9375-square mile park is host to almost nine million tourists annually, not including seasonal residents. Since the park was established almost 100 years ago, there have been many changes in tourist characteristics, available recreational facilities, kinds of activities, accessibility of the area, and land use and resource management policies. The tourist industry has been influenced by both controllable and uncontrollable factors. At present the overwhelming majority of recreational opportunities and natural resources important to the Adirondack tourist industry are relatively unaffected by acid precipitation. Fishing, a significant component of the tourist industry, is the most vulnerable, but any presumed adverse economic effect has to be weighed against the location of the impacted waters, total Adirondack fishing habitat, substitution available, habitat usage, fisherman characteristics, resource management, and the declining importance of fishing as an Adirondack recreational attraction. Concern is expressed as to whether present minimal acidification impacts are the precursor of major future impacts on Adirondack terrestrial and aquatic environments, and ultimately tourism. Tourism in the Adirondacks is increasing, while many other regional employment sectors are declining. It is becoming a more stable multiseason industry. Its future growth and character will be affected by government, private organization, business community, and resident controversies regarding land use and resource management attitudes, policies, budgets, and regulations. The acid precipitation issue is only one of many related controversies. 65 references, 2 figures.

  8. Perceptions of Provider Communication Among Vulnerable Patients With Diabetes: Influences of Medical Mistrust and Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard O; Chakkalakal, Rosette J; Presley, Caroline A; Bian, Aihua; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Wallston, Kenneth A; Barto, Shari; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Patient-provider communication is modifiable and is linked to diabetes outcomes. The association of communication quality with medical mistrust is unknown. We examined these factors within the context of a low-literacy/numeracy-focused intervention to improve diabetes care, using baseline data from diverse patients enrolled in a randomized trial of a health communication intervention. Demographics, measures of health communication (Communication Assessment Tool [CAT], Interpersonal Processes of Care survey [IPC-18]), health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults), depression, medical mistrust, and glycemic control were ascertained. Adjusted proportional odds models were used to test the association of mistrust with patient-reported communication quality. The interaction effect of health literacy on mistrust and communication quality was also assessed. A total of 410 patients were analyzed. High levels of mistrust were observed. In multivariable modeling, patients with higher mistrust had lower adjusted odds of reporting a higher CAT score (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.52, 0.86], p = .003) and higher scores on the Communication (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.55, 0.88], p = .008), Decided Together (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.59, 0.93], p = .02), and Interpersonal Style (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.53, 0.90], p = .015) subscales of the IPC-18. We observed evidence of an interaction effect of health literacy for the association between mistrust and the Decided Together subscale of the IPC-18 such that patients with higher mistrust and lower literacy perceived worse communication relative to mistrustful patients with higher literacy. In conclusion, medical mistrust was associated with poorer communication with providers in this public health setting. Patients' health literacy level may vary the effect of mistrust on interactional aspects of communication. Providers should consider the impact of mistrust on communication

  9. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Perceived intimacy of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, A; Conway, M

    1990-08-01

    Research on norms for emotional expression and self-disclosure provided the basis for two hypotheses concerning the perceived intimacy of emotional self-disclosure. The first hypothesis was that the perceived intimacy of negative emotional disclosure would be greater than that of positive emotional disclosure; the second was that disclosures of more intense emotional states would be perceived as more intimate than disclosures of less intense emotional states for both negative and positive disclosures. Both hypotheses received support when male students in Canada rated the perceived intimacy of self-disclosures that were equated for topic and that covered a comprehensive sample of emotions and a range of emotional intensities. The effects were observed across all the topics of disclosure examined.

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of perceived usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vi, Chi Thanh; Hornbæk, Kasper; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    Usability has a distinct subjective component, yet surprisingly little is known about its neural basis and relation to the neuroanatomy of aesthetics. To begin closing this gap, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in which participants were shown static webpages (in...... the first study) and videos of interaction with webpages (in the second study). The webpages were controlled so as to exhibit high and low levels of perceived usability and perceived aesthetics. Our results show unique links between perceived usability and brain areas involved in functions such as emotional...... processing (left fusiform gyrus, superior frontal gyrus), anticipation of physical interaction (precentral gyrus), task intention (anterior cingulate cortex), and linguistic processing (medial and bilateral superior frontal gyri). We use these findings to discuss the brain correlates of perceived usability...

  12. Risk and social vulnerability in the sayings of Pedagogy academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinora Tereza Zucchetti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay is produced from teaching experience in Higher Education. Its central problematic is the practices of students of a Pedagogy Course of a University located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre / RS. The text problematizes the expression of risk and social vulnerability categories in the initial formation of teachers and educators in the field of school and non-school education, considering the dimension of the pedagogical interventions developed. It seeks, ultimately, from the developed reflections, to contribute to the students training as teachers.

  13. [Ecological vulnerability of coal mining area: a case study of Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zhan-Jun; Li, Yuan; Li, Jun-Sheng; Han, Yu; Xiao, Neng-Wen; Fu, Meng-Di

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, an ecological vulnerability evaluation index system for the Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia was established, which included 16 factors in ecological sensitivity, natural and social pressure, and ecological recovery capacity, respectively. Based on the expert scoring method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an ecological vulnerability model was built for the calculation of the regional ecological vulnerability by means of RS and GIS spatial analysis. An analysis of the relationships between land use and ecological vulnerability was also made, and the results were tested by spatial auto-correlation analysis. Overall, the ecological vulnerability of the study area was at medium-high level. The exploitation of four opencast areas in the Coalfield caused a significant increase of ecological vulnerability. Moreover, due to the effects of mine drained water and human activities, the 300 -2000 m around the opencast areas was turning into higher ecologically fragile area. With further exploitation, the whole Coalfield was evolved into moderate and heavy ecological vulnerability area, and the coal resources mining was a key factor in this process. The cluster analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability in the study area had reasonable clustering characteristics. To decrease the population density, control the grazing capacity of grassland, and regulate the ratios of construction land and cultivated land could be the optimal ways for resolving the natural and social pressure, and to increase the investment and improve the vegetation recovery coefficient could be the fundamental measures for decreasing the ecological vulnerability of the study area.

  14. Perceived versus Actual Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeier, Michael R.; Yeager, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between farm characteristics and perceived sources of competitive advantage, and cost-based and revenue-based efficiency indices. Gross farm income and the percentage of labor devoted to crop production were significant and positively correlated with cost and revenue efficiency while the perception of the cowherd being the most important part of the operation was negatively correlated with efficiency. In general, perceived sources of competitive advantage ...

  15. Fluctuation between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Whitney L; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Current literature on narcissistic personality disorder has emphasized a distinction between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Some researchers have further suggested that narcissistic persons fluctuate between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. However, this perception has been confined largely to clinical experience with no systematic research testing the hypothesis. Clinicians and clinical psychology professors in the current study identified 143 persons who fit a description of either a grandiose or a vulnerable narcissist and indicated the extent to which these persons ever demonstrated traits of the complementary variant. The results supported the fluctuation hypothesis, particularly for episodes of vulnerable narcissism in persons identified as a grandiose narcissist. Correlations of the grandiose and vulnerable narcissism traits with a brief five-factor model measure corroborated past trait descriptions of the 2 respective variants of narcissism. The results of the current study are compared with existing cross-sectional and longitudinal research, and suggestions for future research are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Rizka

    2018-02-01

    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  17. Vulnerability of multiple-barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    'Vulnerability' is defined as the ratio of the probability of failure of a damaged system to the probability of failure of the undamaged system. This definition applies to all engineered systems and can be specialized to particular system types. Some disastrous failures (e.g., Chernobyl) have shown that systems can be highly vulnerable. open-quotes Defense in depthclose quotes is a powerful design principle, reducing vulnerability when the consequences of failure can be catastrophic. In the nuclear industry, defense in depth is widely used in radiation protection, reactor control, and shutdown systems. A multiple-barrier system is a simple example of a system that has defense in depth. The idea is that the system is not vulnerable. It cannot fail if one barrier fails because there is another to take its place. This idea is untenable in waste management, but a quantified vulnerability of a system can help owners, designers, and regulators decide how much defense in depth is desirable or enough. Many multiple-barrier systems can be modeled as systems of components physically in a series, each individually able to prevent failure. Components typically have bimodal distributions of the service time to failure, as illustrated by an example of application to a hypothetical nuclear fuel waste repository

  18. Windows Server 2012 vulnerabilities and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyses the history of the vulnerabilities of the base system Windows Server 2012 highlighting the most critic vulnerabilities given every 4 months since its creation until the current date of the research. It was organized by the type of vulnerabilities based on the classification of the NIST. Next, given the official vulnerabilities of the system, the authors show how a critical vulnerability is treated by Microsoft in order to countermeasure the security flaw. Then, the authors present the recommended security approaches for Windows Server 2012, which focus on the baseline software given by Microsoft, update, patch and change management, hardening practices and the application of Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS. AD RMS is considered as an important feature since it is able to protect the system even though it is compromised using access lists at a document level. Finally, the investigation of the state of the art related to the security of Windows Server 2012 shows an analysis of solutions given by third parties vendors, which offer security products to secure the base system objective of this study. The recommended solution given by the authors present the security vendor Symantec with its successful features and also characteristics that the authors considered that may have to be improved in future versions of the security solution.

  19. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Bertolozzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite.METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique.RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths.CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites.

  20. Perceived parental efficacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.

  1. The perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and smoking susceptibility among seventh graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, D L; Flora, J A; Feighery, E; Schooler, C

    1999-01-01

    A perceptual bias, the third person effect, has been observed where individuals believe themselves to differ from others regarding the perceived influence of media messages. Given the frequency with which youth encounter prosmoking messages and the reported negative effects of these messages, it is of value to study whether youth perceive cigarette advertisements to influence themselves and their friends and peers. This study examined the associations between exposure to social and information prosmoking environments, the perceived influence of cigarette advertisements on self, best friends, and other youth, and smoking susceptibility. A sample of 571 seventh graders completed surveys on tobacco advertisements and promotions. Using Student's-t, chi-square, ANOVA tests and proportional odds models, we found significant associations between perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and exposure to social and information prosmoking environments as well as smoking susceptibility. These data suggest that youth be taught that everyone is vulnerable to the tobacco industry's strategies and be given skills to resist prosmoking advertising.

  2. Perceived Spaciousness and Preference in Sequential Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaei, Saleheh; Nasar, Jack L

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the perceived spaciousness and preference for a destination space in relation to six attributes (size, lighting, window size, texture, wall mural, and amount of furniture) of it and of the space experienced before it. Studies have examined effects of these attributes but not for dynamic experience or preference. We created 24 virtual reality walks between each possible pair of two levels of each attribute. For each destination space, 31 students (13 men, 18 women) rated spaciousness and 30 students (16 men, 14 women) rated preference. We conducted separate 2 × 2 repeated-measure ANOVAs across each condition for perceived spaciousness and preference. Participants judged the space that was larger, was more brightly lit, with a larger window, or with less furniture as the more spacious. These attributes also increased preference. Consonant with adaptation-level theory, participants judged offices as higher in spaciousness and preference if preceded by a space that was smaller, was more dimly lit, or had smaller windows. The findings suggest that perceived spaciousness varies with size, lightness, window size, and amount of furniture but that perception also depends on the size, lightness, and size of the space experienced before. Designers could use the findings to manipulate features to make a space appear larger or more desirable. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    vulnerability. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6°C by 2050. These upward temperature trends are projected to continue beyond 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. It is concluded that the Overall vulnerability of agriculture to climate change in Jordan is high, where impacts such as drought and increased temperatures and decreased precipitation will be more pronounced. Major implications on rain fed agriculture are possible shorter growing season, increasing moisture and heat stress to field and horticultural crops and eventually low income and food insecurity. There were different impacts among studied communities, which is related to the: economic capability, local knowledge, physical infrastructure, institutional capacity, modern technology used, age group of farmers and diversification of their income.

  4. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O

    2010-07-01

    This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design.

  5. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of the Perceived Importance of Conversational Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Sun

    1994-01-01

    Investigates how cultural groups differ in the relative importance they attach to conversational constraints. Suggests that the perceived importance of clarity is higher in the more individualistic cultures but that the perceived importance of avoiding hurting the hearer's feelings and of minimizing imposition is higher in the more collectivistic…

  6. Influence of Body Odors and Gender on Perceived Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Alho, Laura; Nobre, Pedro; Olsson, Mats J; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Olfaction is often linked to mating behavior in nonhumans. Additionally, studies in mating behavior have shown that women seem to be more affected by odor cues than men. However, the relationship between odor cues and sexual response-specifically, sexual arousal-has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the exposure to human body odors (from individuals of the opposite gender) on perceived genital arousal, while these were presented concomitantly to sexually explicit video clips. Eighty university students (40 women) rated their perceived genital arousal (perceived degree of erection/genital lubrication) in response to an audiovisual sexual stimulus, while simultaneously exposed to a body odor from an opposite-gender donor or no odor. Participants also rated each odor sample's (body odor and no odor) perceived pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. Findings indicated that odor condition had an effect on women's (but not men's) perceived genital arousal, with women showing higher levels of perceived genital arousal in the no odor condition. Also, results showed that women rated body odors as less pleasant than no odor. Notwithstanding, the odor ratings do not seem to explain the association between body odor and perceived genital arousal. The current results support the hypothesis that women, rather than men, are sensitive to odors in the context of sexual response. The findings of this study have relevance for the understanding of human sexuality with respect to chemosensory communication.

  7. The Relationships Among Socio-Demographics, Perceived Health, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Miller, Michael J.; Lord, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores explore the relationships among socio-demographics, perceived health, and happiness in a patient population of 221 adults recruited from 39 primary care practices in Alabama. We also explored whether the relationship between socio-demographics and happiness is mediated by perceived health. The dependent variable, happiness, was dichotomized as happy versus unhappy. Independent variables or correlates of happiness included race (Black or White), age (happiness and its correlates. Our findings suggest that adequate health literacy and better perceived health are associated with an increase in the likelihood of happiness. In addition, the relationship between perceived sufficient income and happiness is mediated by perceived health; whereas, individuals with sufficient income are more likely to have better perceived health, and as a result more likely to be happy. Other individual factors, such as gender, age, and race were not significantly associated with being happy or having higher perceived health in any of the models. Results suggest that policies aimed at increasing health literacy, promoting health, and reducing income disparities may be associated with greater happiness. PMID:28757904

  8. Assessing species vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Michela; Foden, Wendy B.; Visconti, Piero; Watson, James E. M.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Scheffers, Brett R.; Hole, David G.; Martin, Tara G.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Corlett, Richard T.; Huntley, Brian; Bickford, David; Carr, Jamie A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Midgley, Guy F.; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Pearson, Richard G.; Williams, Stephen E.; Willis, Stephen G.; Young, Bruce; Rondinini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    The effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly well documented, and many methods have been developed to assess species' vulnerability to climatic changes, both ongoing and projected in the coming decades. To minimize global biodiversity losses, conservationists need to identify those species that are likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this Review, we summarize different currencies used for assessing species' climate change vulnerability. We describe three main approaches used to derive these currencies (correlative, mechanistic and trait-based), and their associated data requirements, spatial and temporal scales of application and modelling methods. We identify strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and highlight the sources of uncertainty inherent in each method that limit projection reliability. Finally, we provide guidance for conservation practitioners in selecting the most appropriate approach(es) for their planning needs and highlight priority areas for further assessments.

  9. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  10. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  11. Reflexivity and vulnerability in collaborative knowledge production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    -reports of positive learning outcomes and fails to illuminate how power is always at play leaving certain participants exposed and potentially vulnerable (Fenwick, 2008). As such, it remains unclear how power relations unfold in moment-by-moment interactions including how the researcher’s position matters...... because their voices are subjugated and they appear to be vulnerable. The extent of this development in the peer interactions and the reproductive nature of the knowledge produced were unexpected. In other words we – the researchers – became struck in the analytical process. In the final part of the paper......, we discuss how the reproduction of power relations invokes ethical concerns and raises critical perspectives on the undeniable common good of collaborative research in which participants’ vulnerability may be overlooked in potentially reflexive moments (Nordentoft and Kappel, 2011). Still, we find...

  12. A new approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility,

  13. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Perceived threat and perceived neglect: Couples' underlying concerns during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-06-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. Perceived threat involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. Perceived neglect involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or investments. Scales measuring these 2 underlying concerns were developed in Study 1, where a sample of 1,224 married people rated a pool of 57 words describing oneself and perceptions of a partner during a specific episode of conflict. Factor analysis identified 2 dimensions, and 2 brief 8-item scales were created. In Study 2, a sample of 2,315 married people completed the resulting 16-item inventory along with 10 self-report scales measuring types of emotion, cognition, and behavior during conflict. A 2-dimensional factor structure was confirmed, and measurement invariance was demonstrated across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Both perceived threat and perceived neglect correlated with relationship satisfaction and conflict communication. More importantly, each concern was associated with a different, and theoretically expected, set of variables regarding self emotion, emotion perceived in a partner, and cognition during conflict.

  15. Vulnerability and controllability of networks of networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueming; Peng, Hao; Gao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Network science is a highly interdisciplinary field ranging from natural science to engineering technology and it has been applied to model complex systems and used to explain their behaviors. Most previous studies have been focus on isolated networks, but many real-world networks do in fact interact with and depend on other networks via dependency connectivities, forming “networks of networks” (NON). The interdependence between networks has been found to largely increase the vulnerability of interacting systems, when a node in one network fails, it usually causes dependent nodes in other networks to fail, which, in turn, may cause further damage on the first network and result in a cascade of failures with sometimes catastrophic consequences, e.g., electrical blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. The vulnerability of a NON can be analyzed by percolation theory that can be used to predict the critical threshold where a NON collapses. We review here the analytic framework for analyzing the vulnerability of NON, which yields novel percolation laws for n-interdependent networks and also shows that percolation theory of a single network studied extensively in physics and mathematics in the last 50 years is a specific limited case of the more general case of n interacting networks. Understanding the mechanism behind the cascading failure in NON enables us finding methods to decrease the vulnerability of the natural systems and design of more robust infrastructure systems. By examining the vulnerability of NON under targeted attack and studying the real interdependent systems, we find two methods to decrease the systems vulnerability: (1) protect the high-degree nodes, and (2) increase the degree correlation between networks. Furthermore, the ultimate proof of our understanding of natural and technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. We also review the recent studies and challenges on the

  16. Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities

  17. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Risk and vulnerability analyses are an important preliminary stage in civil contingency planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency has developed a generic model and a set of tools that may be used in the preparedness planning, i.e. for identifying and describing society’s critical functions......, for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for further...

  18. Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted...... explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences...

  19. The right to health care and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Loureiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to clarify the concept of vulnerability, by taking structural and epochal frailty into account. To understand the right to health care, the author reflects about the fundamental goods, and he then examines how that same right is present in the Portuguese and the Spanish constitutions. The association between vulnerability and the law is also tackled, with a special reference –in dialogue with Herbert Hart– to its fundamental level and to other links between both terms in the field of health. The article closes with a few remarks on posthumanist attempts at saying goodbye to human frailty.

  20. The 2-year stability of parental perceptions of child vulnerability and parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-08-01

    Clinicians often identify parent-child relationships that are believed to be problematic for the child's future emotional growth, yet there are minimal outcome data on which to base anticipatory guidance. This 2-year follow-up study examined the stability and child behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of increased child vulnerability and parental overprotection. Of 192 potential participants, 114 parents (93% mothers, 86% white, 75% married, 90% middle-upper socioeconomic status) with children age 4 to 7 years successfully completed the Parent Protection Scale, Child Vulnerability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The 2-year stability of high parental overprotection was 37%; for high parental perception of child vulnerability, it was 31%. High perceived vulnerability at enrollment was significantly associated with both internalizing (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive) behaviors at follow-up. A history of overprotection in the parent's childhood was not associated with current parental report of overprotective behaviors toward the child.

  1. Examining occupational health and safety vulnerability among Canadian workers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, F Curtis; Lay, A Morgan; Jetha, Arif; Smith, Peter

    2017-05-26

    To compare workers with and without disabilities on their reported workplace hazard exposure and the presence of occupational health and safety vulnerability factors. Working-aged adults in Ontario or British Columbia were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey (n = 1988). Self-reported measures included demographic factors, work-related variables, perceived level of activity limitation at work, and presence of work safety vulnerability factors utilizing a novel framework. Reporting a disability at work was significantly associated with greater hazard exposure than those without a disability. In addition, those reporting a disability at work were more likely to be employed in conditions where hazard exposure was combined with inadequate policies and procedures, or hazard exposures were combined with inadequate empowerment. Work safety vulnerability is one way that health inequalities can be perpetuated even among those with disabilities who have found work. Our results suggest that employers and policy makers need to focus on assessing and addressing hazard exposures and targeting occupational health and safety resources in the workplace in a way that includes workers with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Workers with disabilities experience greater hazard exposure than those without a disability. Those with moderate and severe disabilities reported occupational health and safety vulnerability, suggesting that workplace accommodations should be available to a broader range of disability levels. It appears that, above and beyond standard safety procedures, providing workplace accommodations for people with disabilities may further reduce their hazard exposure and improve their safety.

  2. Vulnerability and mental health in Afghanistan: looking beyond war exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-François; Bakhshi, Parul

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence of mental distress among groups in Afghanistan considered to be at risk. Data were drawn from a representative cross-sectional disability survey carried out in Afghanistan including 5,130 households in 171 clusters throughout the 34 provinces of the country. The sample included 838 nondisabled control participants aged above 14, and 675 disabled participants. Results showed that various vulnerable groups (disabled people, the unemployed, the elderly, minority ethnic groups, as well as widowed, divorced or separated women) were at higher risk of experiencing mild to severe mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for war-related disability compared to nondisabled was 4.09 (95% confidence interval 2.09 to 7.99) for mild mental distress disorders, and 7.10 (3.45-14.5) and 14.14 (3.38-59.00) for moderate or severe mental distress disorders, respectively. Women with disabilities (whatever the cause of impairment) when compared with nondisabled men, as well as poorer segments of society compared to the richest, had a higher prevalence of mental health problems. Women with non-war-related disabilities compared with nondisabled men were respectively 3.35 (1.27-8.81) and 8.57 (3.03-24.1) times more likely to experience mild or moderate mental distress disorders. People who experience multiple vulnerabilities are more at risk of deteriorating mental health in conflict zones. The study shows that mental health, in times of war, is influenced by a combination of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics linked to social exclusion mechanisms that were in place before the conflict began and that are redefined in relation to the changing social, cultural, and economic contexts. Mental health policies and programmes must prioritise the most vulnerable segments of Afghan society.

  3. Application of Higher Diploma Program training skills

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPO

    This article examines the application Higher Diploma training skills in classroom instruction as .... the intention of articulating the extent to which the ... graduates are applying HDP training skills ... HDP) to revisit their procedure, which result ..... not believe in the usefulness of the ... of this study perceived CPD as a program.

  4. Knowledge and perception about climate change and human health: findings from a baseline survey among vulnerable communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Azim, Syed; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-03-15

    Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change (CC). A basic understanding of public perception on vulnerability, attitude and the risk in relation to CC and health will provide strategic directions for government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines. The objective of this study was to collect community-based data on peoples' knowledge and perception about CC and its impact on health. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 6720 households of 224 enumeration areas of rural villages geographically distributed in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh, with total population of 19,228,598. Thirty households were selected randomly from each enumeration area using the household listing provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Information was collected from all the 6720 research participants using a structured questionnaire. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. In addition, we selected the head of each household as the eligible participant for an interview. Evidence of association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge of CC was explored by cross-tabulation and measured using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to further explore the predictors of knowledge. The study revealed that the residents of the rural communities selected for this study largely come from a low socioeconomic background: only 9.6% had postsecondary education or higher, the majority worked as day labourer or farmer (60%), and only 10% earned a monthly income above BDT 12000 (equivalent to US $150 approx.). The majority of the participants (54.2%) had some knowledge about CC but 45.8% did not (p change of climate (83.2%). Among all the respondents (n = 6720), 94.5% perceived change in climate and extreme weather events. Most of them (91.9%) observed change in rainfall patterns in the last 10 years, and 97

  5. Multi-dimensional flood vulnerability assessment using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Zalina; Saharizan, Nurul Syuhada; Hamzah, Paezah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia has been greatly impacted by flood during monsoon seasons. Even though flood prone areas are well identified, assessment on the vulnerability of the disaster is lacking. Assessment of flood vulnerability, defined as the potential for loss when a disaster occurs, is addressed in this paper. The focus is on the development of flood vulnerability measurement in 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia using a non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis. Scores for three dimensions of flood vulnerability (Population Vulnerability, Social Vulnerability and Biophysical) were calculated using secondary data of selected input and output variables across an 11-year period from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that Johor and Pahang were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Population Vulnerability, followed by Kelantan, the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Social Vulnerability and Kedah, Pahang and Terengganu were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Biophysical Vulnerability among the eleven states. The results also showed that the state of Johor, Pahang and Kelantan to be most vulnerable across the three dimensions. Flood vulnerability assessment is important as it provides invaluable information that will allow the authority to identify and develop plans for flood mitigation and to reduce the vulnerability of flood at the affected regions.

  6. MEASURING COERCION TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH WITHIN A DOUBLY VULNERABLE POPULATION: INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COERCION ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Festinger, David S.; Croft, Jason R.; Marlowe, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite many efforts aimed to ensure that research participation is autonomous and not coerced, there exists no reliable and valid measure of perceived coercion for the doubly vulnerable population of substance-abusing offenders. The current study describes the development and initial validation of an instrument measuring perceived coercion to participate in research among substance-abusing offenders. The results indicated that a substantial number of individuals report feeling coerced to participate in the study. In addition, the instrument has adequate levels of internal consistency, a one-dimensional factor structure, and evidence of discriminative validity. This study provides initial support for the instrument’s validity and clinical utility. PMID:20235867

  7. The shape of change in perceived stress, negative affect, and stress sensitivity during mindfulness based stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, E.; Dziak, J.J.; Lanza, S.T.; Nyklicek, I.; Wichers, M.

    2017-01-01

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  8. The Shape of Change in Perceived Stress, Negative Affect, and Stress Sensitivity During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Nykliek, Ivan; Wichers, Marieke

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  9. Health Services Vulnerability During the Ebola Outbreak: A Qualitative Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Amanat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola is an infectious disease, which is caused by a virus belonging to the Filoviridae group. The outbreak of the disease in the African countries in 2015 caused massive death and contamination of the healthcare personnel those who were engaged in treating the infected patients and caused irreparable damage to the healthcare system. In this study, the vulnerability of the team of health service providers during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone is studied. The article also proposes solutions that can be learned as a lesson, help in increasing their resilience in similar biological hazards and planning management strategies for similar events in the future. Long before the outbreak took place, West African countries were already facing acute problems in terms of access to health services and health infrastructure. The most important shortcomings for the same were identified as insufficient number of health personnel and capacity shortage that prevented the people from being ready to deal with such uncalled events viz. accidents and epidemic disease outbreak. The Ebola epidemic exacerbated the persisting problems caused due to a shortage of personnel in these countries and caused the death of a large number of common people as well as healthcare personnel. Generally, the vulnerability of the health team working during the Ebola outbreak could be divided into five general dimensions: 1. Management weakness; 2. Lack of engineering and environmental control; 3. Obstacles in the use of personal protective equipment; 4. Not having enough skills and practice exercises; and 5. Ignoring the social factors and satisfaction of the healthcare personnel. The main theme of the study was failure to understand the risk of personnel in accidents and disasters. Findings revealed building capacity and reducing vulnerability of the healthcare personnel against disasters and epidemics depends upon the perceived risk, which is a decisive factor

  10. Neighborhood Environments: Links to Health Behaviors and Obesity Status in Vulnerable Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Sooyeon

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity. Reduced availability of physical activity outlets was significantly and positively associated with sedentary behaviors. Mothers' perceptions of their neighborhoods fell into three content categories: (a) changed to be unfriendly for children, (b) adapted to fast food and convenience eating, and (c) confined to physically inactive living. Based on these findings, community-level environmental strategies for reducing unhealthy behaviors linked to neighborhood environments should be prioritized to prevent childhood obesity in vulnerable populations.

  11. Ethnicity and Health in Colombia: What Do Self-Perceived Health Indicators Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana; Posada-López, Adriana; Rocha-Buelvas, Anderson

    2016-04-21

    To compare self-perceived health indicators between ethnic groups in Colombia. Cross-sectional study with data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey (ENSP-2007). Data from 57,617 people ≥18 years were used. Variables included: belonging to an ethnic group (exposure); self-rated health; mental health problems, injuries for accidents/violence (outcomes); sex, age, education level and occupation (explicative/control). A descriptive study was carried out of the explicative variables, and the prevalence of the outcomes was calculated according to ethnicity, education level and occupation. The association between the exposure variable and the outcomes was estimated by means of adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of outcomes was higher in people reporting to belong to an ethnic group and differences were found by sex, ethnic groups and health outcomes. Women from the Palenquero group were more likely to report poor self-rated health (aOR 7.04; 95%CI 2.50-19.88) and injuries from accidents/violence (aOR 7.99; 95%CI 2.89-22.07). Indigenous men were more likely to report mental health problems (aOR 1.75; 95%CI 1.41-2.17). Gradients according to ethnicity, education, occupation and sex were found. Minority ethnic groups are vulnerable to reporting poor health outcomes. Political actions are required to diminish health inequalities in these groups.

  12. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  13. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  14. Frailty and life satisfaction in Shanghai older adults: The roles of age and social vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Gu, Danan; Mitnitski, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between frailty and life satisfaction and the roles of age and social vulnerability underlying the links in Chinese older adults. Using a cross-sectional sample of 1970 adults aged 65 and older in 2013 in Shanghai, we employed regression analyses to investigate the interaction between frailty and age on life satisfaction in the whole sample and in different social vulnerability groups. Life satisfaction was measured using a sum score of satisfaction with thirteen domains. Using a cumulative deficit approach, frailty was constructed from fifty-two variables and social vulnerability was derived from thirty-five variables. Frailty was negatively associated with life satisfaction. The interaction between frailty and age was significant for life satisfaction, such that the negative association between frailty and life satisfaction was stronger among the young-old aged 65-79 than among the old-old aged 80+. Moreover, frailty's stronger association with life satisfaction in the young-old than in the old-old was only found among those in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of social vulnerability, but not for those in the 1st tertile of social vulnerability. Relation between frailty and life satisfaction likely weakens with age. A higher level of social vulnerability enlarges the negative impact of frailty on life satisfaction with a greater extent in the young-old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vulnerability and risk of deltaic social-ecological systems exposed to multiple hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenlocher, Michael; Renaud, Fabrice G; Haas, Susanne; Sebesvari, Zita

    2018-08-01

    Coastal river deltas are hotspots of global change impacts. Sustainable delta futures are increasingly threatened due to rising hazard exposure combined with high vulnerabilities of deltaic social-ecological systems. While the need for integrated multi-hazard approaches has been clearly articulated, studies on vulnerability and risk in deltas either focus on local case studies or single hazards and do not apply a social-ecological systems perspective. As a result, vulnerabilities and risks in areas with strong social and ecological coupling, such as coastal deltas, are not fully understood and the identification of risk reduction and adaptation strategies are often based on incomplete assumptions. To overcome these limitations, we propose an innovative modular indicator library-based approach for the assessment of multi-hazard risk of social-ecological systems across and within coastal deltas globally, and apply it to the Amazon, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), and Mekong deltas. Results show that multi-hazard risk is highest in the GBM delta and lowest in the Amazon delta. The analysis reveals major differences between social and environmental vulnerability across the three deltas, notably in the Mekong and the GBM deltas where environmental vulnerability is significantly higher than social vulnerability. Hotspots and drivers of risk vary spatially, thus calling for spatially targeted risk reduction and adaptation strategies within the deltas. Ecosystems have been identified as both an important element at risk as well as an entry point for risk reduction and adaptation strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A hybrid framework for assessing maize drought vulnerability in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, B.; Abbaspour, K. C.; Wehrli, B.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Drought has devastating impacts on crop yields. Quantifying drought vulnerability is the first step to better design of mitigation policies. The vulnerability of crop yield to drought has been assessed with different methods, however they lack a standardized base to measure its components and a procedure that facilitates spatial and temporal comparisons. This study attempts to quantify maize drought vulnerability through linking the Drought Exposure Index (DEI) to the Crop Failure Index (CFI). DEI and CFI were defined by fitting probability distribution functions to precipitation and maize yield respectively. To acquire crop drought vulnerability index (CDVI), DEI and CFI were combined in a hybrid framework which classifies CDVI with the same base as DEI and CFI. The analysis were implemented on Sub-Saharan African countries using maize yield simulated with the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at 0.5° resolution. The model was coupled with the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting algorithm for calibration at country level. Our results show that Central Africa and those Western African countries located below the Sahelian strip receive higher amount of precipitation, but experience high crop failure. Therefore, they are identified as more vulnerable regions compared to countries such as South Africa, Tanzania, and Kenya. We concluded that our hybrid approach complements information on crop drought vulnerability quantification and can be applied to different regions and scales.

  17. Trait evolution, resource specialization and vulnerability to plant extinctions among Antillean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Simmons, Benno I; Baquero, Andrea C; Martín González, Ana M; Timmermann, Allan; Maruyama, Pietro K; McGuire, Jimmy A; Ollerton, Jeff; Sutherland, William J; Rahbek, Carsten

    2018-03-28

    Species traits are thought to predict feeding specialization and the vulnerability of a species to extinctions of interaction partners, but the context in which a species evolved and currently inhabits may also matter. Notably, the predictive power of traits may require that traits evolved to fit interaction partners. Furthermore, local abiotic and biotic conditions may be important. On islands, for instance, specialized and vulnerable species are predicted to be found mainly in mountains, whereas species in lowlands should be generalized and less vulnerable. We evaluated these predictions for hummingbirds and their nectar-food plants on Antillean islands. Our results suggest that the rates of hummingbird trait divergence were higher among ancestral mainland forms before the colonization of the Antilles. In correspondence with the limited trait evolution that occurred within the Antilles, local abiotic and biotic conditions-not species traits-correlate with hummingbird resource specialization and the vulnerability of hummingbirds to extinctions of their floral resources. Specifically, hummingbirds were more specialized and vulnerable in conditions with high topographical complexity, high rainfall, low temperatures and high floral resource richness, which characterize the Antillean Mountains. These findings show that resource specialization and species vulnerability to extinctions of interaction partners are highly context-dependent. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  19. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  20. Understanding animal fears: a comparison of the cognitive vulnerability and harm-looming models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armfield Jason M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model holds that both clinical and sub-clinical manifestations of animal fears are a result of how an animal is perceived, and can be used to explain both individual differences in fear acquisition and the uneven distribution of fears in the population. This study looked at the association between fear of a number of animals and perceptions of the animals as uncontrollable, unpredictable, dangerous and disgusting. Also assessed were the perceived loomingness, prior familiarity, and negative evaluation of the animals as well as possible conditioning experiences. Methods 162 first-year University students rated their fear and perceptions of four high-fear and four low-fear animals. Results Perceptions of the animals as dangerous, disgusting and uncontrollable were significantly associated with fear of both high- and low-fear animals while perceptions of unpredictability were significantly associated with fear of high-fear animals. Conditioning experiences were unrelated to fear of any animals. In multiple regression analyses, loomingness did not account for a significant amount of the variance in fear beyond that accounted for by the cognitive vulnerability variables. However, the vulnerability variables accounted for between 20% and 51% of the variance in all animals fears beyond that accounted for by perceptions of the animals as looming. Perceptions of dangerousness, uncontrollability and unpredictability were highly predictive of the uneven distribution of animal fears. Conclusion This study provides support for the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of specific fears and phobias and brings into question the utility of the harm-looming model in explaining animal fear.

  1. Evaluation of Regional Vulnerability to Disasters by People of Ishikawa, Japan: A Cross Sectional Study Using National Health Insurance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiu, Makoto; Morisaki, Yuma; Takayama, Junichi; Yanagihara, Kiyoko; Nishino, Tatsuya; Sagae, Masahiko; Hirako, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    The 2013 Partial Amendment of the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law mandated that a roster of vulnerable persons during disasters be created, and further development of evacuation support is expected. In this study, the number of vulnerable people living in target analytical areas are identified in terms of neighborhood units by using the National Health Insurance Database to create a realistic and efficient evacuation support plan. Later, after considering the “vulnerability” of an area to earthquake disaster damage, a quantitative evaluation of the state of the disaster is performed using a principle component analysis that further divided the analytical target areas into neighborhood units to make a detailed determination of the number of disaster-vulnerable persons, the severity of the disaster, etc. The results of the disaster evaluation performed after considering the vulnerability of an area are that 628 disaster-vulnerable persons live in areas with a relatively higher disaster evaluation value. PMID:29534021

  2. Social support and vulnerability: state of the art in relation to families and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacElveen-Hoehn, P; Eyres, S J

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to review the concepts of social support and vulnerable families and children, propose a theoretical model on coping and adaptation, and ascertain any significant implications for the delivery of health care services and future research. The review of the literature indicates that major problems persist in the classification, conceptualization, empirical investigation, and clinical application of social support due to a lack of clarity regarding the definition of social support and how it works. Related perspectives such as bonding, child development, and child rearing also reaffirm the need for and the utilization of social support. High-risk factors, such as low maternal age, poverty, single parenthood, and long-term health problems, increase the vulnerability of families and children. This literature strongly suggests that the interactions of adults and children with supportive members of their social networks are important in the development of essential cognitive and social skills, as well as for the promotion of security and comfort. Supports from individuals, families, and groups also are associated with more successful adaptation and favorable outcomes. Despite numerous articles and research projects, however, questions concerning how social support works to assist vulnerable children and families remain. Seven factors are proposed as a theoretical model to identify threatening situations and coping difficulties so that appropriate support can be provided. These factors are surprise, experience, confusion, perceived effectiveness, perceived allies, perceived uniqueness of threat, and overload. Additional testing is required for this model so that a more meaningful investigation and utilization of social support can be established. Additional research also is indicated to determine the specific types of support needed in the presence of certain factors, network style preferences, the supply and demand for support over the

  3. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  4. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  5. Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van Saskia M.; Huisman, Wim; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However,

  6. Web vulnerability study of online pharmacy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems.

  7. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools' curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before ...

  8. Development on Vulnerability Assessment Methods of PPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO; Qiang; ZHANG; Wen-liang; BU; Li-xin; YIN; Hong-he; LI; Xin-jun; FANG; Xin

    2013-01-01

    Through investigating information from domestic and abroad,joint the domestic assessment experience,we present a set of physical protection system(PPS)vulnerability assessment methods for on-operating nuclear power plants and for on-designing nuclear facilities.The methods will help to strengthen and upgrade the security measures of the nuclear facilities,improve the effectiveness and

  9. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  10. AGRICULTURAL VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    victoria

    climate change in eight selected rural settlements in Sokoto State, Nigeria adopting the ... on the environmental and socio-economic determinants of agricultural vulnerability to .... global warming show increasing trends in Sokoto. .... One of the consequences of desertification is southward migration of nomads to the more.

  11. Care and housing for vulnerable elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.Y. de Klerk

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Zorg en wonen voor kwetsbare ouderen. There is a general belief that old age automatically brings infirmities, though this is by no means always the case. This edition of the Report on the Elderly investigates which elderly people are vulnerable. They include older persons

  12. Using Fuzz Testing for Searching Software Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Leonidovich Kozirsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with fuzz testing (fuzzing, a software testing and vulnerability searching technique based on providing inputs of programs with random data and further analysis of their behavior. The basics of implementing cmdline argument fuzzer, environment variable fuzzer and syscall fuzzer in any UNIX-like OS have been closely investigated.

  13. Configuration Fuzzing for Software Vulnerability Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-02-15

    Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations of the software together with its particular runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing, which feeds a range of randomly modified inputs to a software application while monitoring it for failures. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, in this paper we present a new testing methodology called configuration fuzzing. Configuration fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is randomly modified at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks "security invariants" that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability; however, the fuzzing is performed in a duplicated copy of the original process, so that it does not affect the state of the running application. In addition to discussing the approach and describing a prototype framework for implementation, we also present the results of a case study to demonstrate the approach's efficiency.

  14. Defense Against National Vulnerabilities in Public Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    ingestion of subscription based precision data sources ( Business Intelligence Databases, Monster, others).  Flexible data architecture that allows for...components of program execution from technical design to business and program management, to ensure timely and complete execution of contract...type. Satellite Imagery Adapters Planet and Carto Adapter Juno Services Vulnerability Assessment Framework Computer Model Facebook Graph API

  15. Economic factors of vulnerability trade and exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime markets support the development and diffusion of new attack technologies, vulnerability exploits, and malware. Whereas the revenue streams of cyber attackers have been studied multiple times in the literature, no quantitative account currently exists on the economics of attack acquisition

  16. Monitoring the Vulnerability of Energy Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansonounou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of the world evolution, the public decision makers, the energy supply industry and the consumers in industrialised countries are more and more sensitive to the vulnerability of energy supply. The emergence of new big consumer countries and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about how to share fairly the remaining resources for the common and sustainable development of the mankind. Erratic energy prices discourage investment and delay the energy transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources and to avoid world struggle for energy procurement. In this contribution a synthetic energy vulnerability index is defined for monitoring energy supply vulnerability. The proposed index is based on energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply vulnerability and non-diversity in transport fuels. The preliminary assessment of this synthetic index for selected industrialised countries provides promising results that need however further refinement.(author)

  17. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  18. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  19. The vulnerability and resilience of historic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 8-12 ISSN 1842-5631 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : emergency situations * vulnerability * resilience * maintenance * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Architecture engineering

  20. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    anshory

    Development Studies (CEDS), Padjadjaran University, for his excellent research assistance. ... Malaysia, and Philippines) are the most vulnerable to climate change. 2. ... system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), ... national administrative areas in seven countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., ...

  1. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-01-01

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R and D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  2. Environmental conflicts and women's vulnerability in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based violence since environmental conflicts increase women's vulnerability .... on 'immediate' and 'hard' security issues over 'everyday politics' has meant that .... these studies provide valuable information about the plight of women and key ..... schools: Case studies from the Durban Metropolitan Area, M.A. dissertation ...

  3. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using hydrogeologic and geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing at Igbara Oke, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Oni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out at Igbara Oke Southwestern Nigeria, with a view to classify the area into vulnerability zones, by applying the electrical resistivity method, using Schlumberger electrode arrays with maximum electrode separation (AB/2 of 65 m in (41 different locations for data acquisition. Geoelectric parameters (layer resistivity and thickness were determined from the interpreted data. The study area comprises four geoelectric layers (topsoil, lateritic layer, weathered/fractured layer and fresh basement. The geoelectric parameters of the overlying layers across the area were used to assess the vulnerability of the underlying aquifers to near-surface contaminants with the aid of vulnerability maps generated. Three models were compared by maps using geo-electrically derived models; longitudinal conductance, GOD (groundwater occurrence, overlying lithology and depth to the aquifer and GLSI (geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing. The total longitudinal conductance map shows the north central part of the study area as a weakly protected (0.1–0.19 area, while the northern and southern parts have poor protective capacity (<0.1; this is in agreement with the GOD method which shows the northern part of the study area as less vulnerable (0–0.1 while the southern part has low/moderate (0.1–0.3 vulnerability to contamination. The longitudinal conductance exaggerates the degree of susceptibility to contamination than the GOD and GLSI models. From the models, vulnerability to contamination can be considered higher at the southern part than the northern part and therefore, sources of contamination like septic tank, refuse dump should be cited far from groundwater development area. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Longitudinal conductance, GOD and GLSI

  4. Perceived injustice predicts stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Molokie, Robert E; Wilkie, Diana J; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei

    2015-06-01

    Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. We examined the contribution of patients' perceived injustice regarding interactions with health care providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated comprehensive sickle cell clinic. Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ± 11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African American (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p pain (p = .002). Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p pain (p = .02). The procedural, distributive, and informational domains of perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients' perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients' pain. Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women’s Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Time to Shift the Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially “vulnerable” to HIV infection by way of biological susceptibility and men’s sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women’s vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. This paper reviews the etiology and successes of the paradi...

  6. Perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction and happiness of outlook for long-term care institution residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Hsiao, Chih-Tung; Glen, Robert; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Zeng, Sin-Huei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties and relationships of perceived service quality, perceived value and overall satisfaction for residents with respect to their long-term care institutions. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire administered through facetoface interviews. Fourteen long-term care institutions located in central and southern Taiwan stratified according to services and accommodation population. One hundred and eighty long-term institutional care residents. Perceived service quality (the SERVPERF model), perceived value and overall satisfaction (models based on the literature on perceived value and satisfaction). Student's t-test on institutional location shows a significant difference between overall satisfaction for central and southern institution long-term care recipients. The correlation test revealed that the higher a resident's level of education, the higher the scores for perceived value. The factor loading results of confirmation factor analysis show acceptable levels of reliability and index-of-model fits for perceived service, perceived value and overall satisfaction. In addition, the results suggest that an additional construct, a positive attitude (happiness of outlook) towards long-term care institutions, is also an important factor in residents' overall satisfaction. The primary goal of long-term institutional care policy in Taiwan, as in other countries, is to provide residents with practical, cost-effective but high-quality care. On the basis of the results of in-depth interviews with long-term institutional care residents, this study suggests long-term care institutions arrange more family visit days to increase the accessibility and interaction of family and residents and thereby increase the happiness of outlook of the residents. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Willingness to express emotion depends upon perceiving partner care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Culin, Katherine R; Hirsch, Jennifer L; Clark, Margaret S

    2017-06-01

    Two studies document that people are more willing to express emotions that reveal vulnerabilities to partners when they perceive those partners to be more communally responsive to them. In Study 1, participants rated the communal strength they thought various partners felt toward them and their own willingness to express happiness, sadness and anxiety to each partner. Individuals who generally perceive high communal strength from their partners were also generally most willing to express emotion to partners. Independently, participants were more willing to express emotion to particular partners whom they perceived felt more communal strength toward them. In Study 2, members of romantic couples independently reported their own felt communal strength toward one another, perceptions of their partners' felt communal strength toward them, and willingness to express emotions (happiness, sadness, anxiety, disgust, anger, hurt and guilt) to each other. The communal strength partners reported feeling toward the participants predicted the participants' willingness to express emotion to those partners. This link was mediated by participants' perceptions of the partner's communal strength toward them which, itself, was a joint function of accurate perceptions of the communal strength partners had reported feeling toward them and projections of their own felt communal strength for their partners onto those partners.

  8. A pragmatic analysis of vulnerability in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David

    2017-09-01

    Identifying which subjects are vulnerable, and implementing safeguards to protect them, is widely regarded as essential to clinical research. Commentators have endorsed a number of responses to these challenges and have thereby made significant progress in understanding vulnerability in clinical research. At the same time, this literature points to a central contradiction which calls into question its potential to protect vulnerable subjects in practice. Specifically, analysis suggests that all human subjects are vulnerable and vulnerability in clinical research is comparative and context dependent, in the sense that individuals are vulnerable relative to others and in some contexts only. Yet, if everyone is vulnerable, there seems to be no point in citing the vulnerability of some individuals. Moreover, the conclusion that everyone is vulnerable seems inconsistent with the claims that vulnerability is comparative and context dependent, raising concern over whether it will be possible to develop a comprehensive account of vulnerability that is internally consistent. The solution to this dilemma lies in recognition of the fact that the practical significance of claims regarding vulnerability depends on the context in which they are used. The claims that appear to lead to the central contradiction are in fact accurate conclusions that follow from different uses of the term 'vulnerability'. The present manuscript describes this 'pragmatic' approach to vulnerability in clinical research and considers its implications for ensuring that subjects receive appropriate protection. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Comparison of perceived value structural models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčana Piri Rajh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived value has been considered an important determinant of consumer shopping behavior and studied as such for a long period of time. According to one research stream, perceived value is a variable determined by perceived quality and perceived sacrifice. Another research stream suggests that the perception of value is a result of the consumer risk perception. This implies the presence of two somewhat independent research streams that are integrated by a third research stream – the one suggesting that perceived value is a result of perceived quality and perceived sacrifices while perceived (performance and financial risk mediates the relationship between perceived quality and perceived sacrifices on the one hand, and perceived value on the other. This paper describes the three approaches (models that have been mentioned. The aim of the paper is to determine which of the observed models show the most acceptable level of fit to the empirical data. Using the survey method, research involving three product categories has been conducted on a sample of Croatian consumers. Collected data was analyzed by the structural equation modeling (SEM method. Research has shown an appropriate level of fit of each observed model to the empirical data. However, the model measuring the effect of perceived risk on perceived value indicates the best level of fit, which implies that perceived performance risk and perceived financial risk are the best predictors of perceived value.

  10. The self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) theory of substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Newlin, David B.

    2002-01-01

    A new theory of substance use disorders is proposed—the SPFit theory—that is based on evolutionary biology and adaptive systems. Self‐perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) is proposed as a human psychobiological construct that prioritizes and organizes (i.e. motivates) behavior, but is highly vulnerable to temporary, artificial activation by drugs of abuse. Autoshaping/ sign‐tracking/feature positive phenomena are proposed to underlie the development of craving and expec...

  11. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Kirsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275. Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  12. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  13. Xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Deborah H; Sala, Anna

    2003-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa (ssp.) ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws) often co-occurs with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mayr) Franco). Despite previous reports showing higher shoot vulnerability to water-stress-induced cavitation in ponderosa pine, this species extends into drier habitats than Douglas-fir. We examined: (1) whether roots and shoots of ponderosa pine in riparian and slope habitats are more vulnerable to water-stress-induced cavitation than those of Douglas-fir; (2) whether species-specific differences in vulnerability translate into differences in specific conductivity in the field; and (3) whether the ability of ponderosa pine to extend into drier sites is a result of (a) greater plasticity in hydraulic properties or (b) functional or structural adjustments. Roots and shoots of ponderosa pine were significantly more vulnerable to water-stress-induced cavitation (overall mean cavitation pressure, Psi(50%) +/- SE = -3.11 +/- 0.32 MPa for shoots and -0.99 +/- 0.16 MPa for roots) than those of Douglas-fir (Psi(50%) +/- SE = -4.83 +/- 0.40 MPa for shoots and -2.12 +/- 0.35 MPa for roots). However, shoot specific conductivity did not differ between species in the field. For both species, roots were more vulnerable to cavitation than shoots. Overall, changes in vulnerability from riparian to slope habitats were small for both species. Greater declines in stomatal conductance as the summer proceeded, combined with higher allocation to sapwood and greater sapwood water storage, appeared to contribute to the ability of ponderosa pine to thrive in dry habitats despite relatively high vulnerability to water-stress-induced cavitation.

  14. Effect of perceived stress on depression of Chinese "Ant Tribe" and the moderating role of dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo

    2015-05-08

    This study examines the moderating role of dispositional optimism on the relationship between perceived stress and depression of the Chinese "Ant Tribe." A total of 427 participants from an Ant Tribe community completed the measures of perceived stress, optimism, and depression. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that dispositional optimism moderated the association between perceived stress and depression. The Ant Tribe with high perceived stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low perceived stress at low dispositional optimism level. However, the impact of perceived stress on depression was insignificant in the high dispositional optimism group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Perceived social support and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Sumiyo; Yasuoka, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Poudel, Krishna C; Ragi, Allan; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-09-01

    Parental deaths due to AIDS seriously affect the psychological well-being of children. Social support may provide an effective resource in the care of vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, few studies have examined the relationships between social support and psychological well-being among AIDS orphans. This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore associations between perceived social support (PSS) and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans, and to identify socio-demographic factors that are associated with PSS. Data were collected from 398 pairs of AIDS orphans (aged 10-18 years) and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. The participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, the children's PSS, and the children's psychological status (based on measures of depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Of the 398 pairs, 327 were included in the analysis. PSS scores of AIDS orphans showed significant correlations with depressive symptoms (ρ =-0.31, psiblings (β=3.044, p=0.016), were also associated with higher PSS scores. In particular, HIV-infected children (n=37) had higher scores of PSS from a special person (β=2.208, p=0.004), and children living with biological siblings (n=269) also had higher scores of PSS from both a special person (β=1.411, p=0.029) and friends (β=1.276, p=0.039). In conclusion, this study showed that PSS is positively associated with the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans. Siblings and special persons can be effective sources of social support for AIDS orphans, which help to promote their psychological well-being.

  16. Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress in adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.

  17. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  18. Terrorism, distress, and drinking: vulnerability and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Cloninger, Lea

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated effects of 9/11 on distress and drinking outcomes in individuals directly affected and indirectly affected across the United States. Fewer studies have addressed vulnerability and protective factors shown to moderate the effects of stress exposure. We report findings from a Midwestern workplace cohort study. Respondents to a 6 wave longitudinal mail survey completed questionnaires prior to September 11, 2001 and again in 2003 and 2005. Regression analyses encompassed measures of terrorism-related beliefs and fears, workplace stressors (sexual harassment, generalized abuse and low decision latitude), marital and parental status, and perceived social support in 2003, and distress and deleterious drinking outcomes in 2005. Analyses showed that terrorism-related fears significantly interacted with workplace stressors and interpersonal social relationships in predicting distress, drinking or both, controlling for pre-9/11 distress and drinking. Gender differences were also found. This article suggests that certain individuals may be at heightened risk for distressful reactions to and/or deleterious drinking resulting from terrorism-related issues and fears due to additional risk factors involving workplace stressors and inadequate interpersonal bonds. However, limitations of the study were noted and future research was recommended.

  19. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  20. Race differences in depression vulnerability following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jeanelle S; Farrell, Amy S; Alexander, Adam C; Forde, David R; Stockton, Michelle; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated whether racial disparities in depression were present after Hurricane Katrina. Data were gathered from 932 New Orleans residents who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and who returned to New Orleans the following year. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated racial differences in screening positive for depression (a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and explored whether differential vulnerability (prehurricane physical and mental health functioning and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support moderated and/or reduced the association of race with depression. A univariate logistic regression analysis showed the odds for screening positive for depression were 86% higher for African Americans than for Caucasians (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86 [1.28-2.71], p = .0012). However, after controlling simultaneously for sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors, race was no longer a significant correlate for screening positive for depression (OR = 1.54 [0.95-2.48], p = .0771). The racial disparity in postdisaster depression seems to be confounded by sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors. Nonetheless, even after adjusting for these factors, there was a nonsignificant trend effect for race, which could suggest race played an important role in depression outcomes following Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively, using stronger assessments for depression, and incorporate measures for discrimination and segregation, to further understand possible racial disparities in depression after Hurricane Katrina. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberger, M. G.; Cooley, H.; Moore, E.; Garzon, C.

    2011-12-01

    The western United States faces a range of impacts from global climate change, including increases in extreme heat, wildfires, and coastal flooding and erosion; changes are also likely to occur in air quality, water availability, and the spread of infectious diseases. To date, a great deal of research has been done to forecast the physical effects of climate change, while less attention has been given to the factors make different populations more or less vulnerable to harm from such changes. For example, mortality rates from Hurricane Audrey, which struck the coast of Louisiana in 1957, were more than eight times higher among blacks than among whites. While disaster events may not discriminate, impacts on human populations are shaped by "intervening conditions" that determine the human impact of the flood and the specific needs for preparedness, response, and recovery. In this study, we analyze the potential impacts of climate change by using recent downscaled climate model outputs, creating a variety of statistics and visualizations to communicate potential impacts to community groups and decision makers, after several meetings with these groups to ask, "What types of information are most useful to you for planning?" We relate climate impacts to social vulnerability - defined as the intersection of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of a person or group of people - with a focus on the U.S. state of California. Understanding vulnerability factors and the populations that exhibit these factors are critical for crafting effective climate change policies and response strategies. It is also important to the emerging study of climate justice, which is the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation.

  2. Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-06-01

    Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women

  3. Perceiving Tonal Structure in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research that may broaden understanding of how music of other styles and cultures is perceived and remembered. Experiments examined serve to isolate similarities and differences that exist across musical cultures and characterize their psychological effects and to study perception of compositional styles in Western music outside the…

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  5. Groundwater vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Jef; Joris, Ingeborg; Bronders, Jan; Van Looy, Stijn; Vanden Boer, Dirk; Heuvelmans, Griet; Seuntjens, Piet

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides are increasingly being detected in shallow groundwater and and are one of the main causes of the poor chemical status of phreatic groundwater bodies in Flanders. There is a need for groundwater vulnerability maps in order to design monitoring strategies and land-use strategies for sensitive areas such as drinking water capture zones. This research focuses on the development of generic vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders and a tool to calculate substance-specific vulnerability maps at the scale of Flanders and at the local scale. (1) The generic vulnerability maps are constructed using an index based method in which maps of the main contributing factors in soil and saturated zone to high concentrations of pesticides in groundwater are classified and overlain. Different weights are assigned to the contributing factors according to the type of pesticide (low/high mobility, low/high persistence). Factors that are taken into account are the organic matter content and texture of soil, depth of the unsaturated zone, organic carbon and redox potential of the phreatic groundwater and thickness and conductivity of the phreatic layer. (2) Secondly a tool is developed that calculates substance-specific vulnerability maps for Flanders using a hybrid approach where a process-based leaching model GeoPEARL is combined with vulnerability indices that account for dilution in the phreatic layer. The GeoPEARL model is parameterized for Flanders in 1434 unique combinations of soil properties, climate and groundwater depth. Leaching is calculated for a 20 year period for each 50 x 50 m gridcell in Flanders. (3) At the local scale finally, a fully process-based approach is applied combining GeoPEARL leaching calculations and flowline calculations of pesticide transport in the saturated zone to define critical zones in the capture zone of a receptor such as a drinking water well or a river segment. The three approaches are explained more in detail and illustrated

  6. Community vulnerability to climate change in the context of other exposure-sensitivities in Kugluktuk, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tozer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change in the Canadian north is, and will be, managed by communities that are already experiencing social, political, economic and other environmental changes. Hence, there is a need to understand vulnerability to climate change in the context of multiple exposure-sensitivities at the community level. This article responds to this perceived knowledge need based on a case study of the community of Kugluktuk in Nunavut, Canada. An established approach for vulnerability assessment is used to identify current climatic and non-climatic exposure-sensitivities along with their associated contemporary adaptation strategies. This assessment of current vulnerability is used as a basis to consider Kugluktuk's possible vulnerability to climatic change in the future. Current climate-related exposure-sensitivities in Kugluktuk relate primarily to subsistence harvesting and community infrastructure. Thinner and less stable ice conditions and unpredictable weather patterns are making travel and harvesting more dangerous and some community infrastructure is sensitive to permafrost melt and extreme weather events (e.g., flash floods. The ability of individuals and households to adapt to these and other climatic exposure-sensitivities is influenced by non-climatic factors that condition adaptive capacity including substance abuse, the erosion of traditional knowledge and youth suicide. These and other non-climatic factors often underpin adaptive capacity to deal with and adapt to changing conditions and must be considered in an assessment of vulnerability. This research argues that Northern communities are challenged by multiple exposure-sensitivities—beyond just those posed by climate—and effective adaptation to climate change requires consideration if not resolution of socio-economic and other issues in communities.

  7. Interpersonal vulnerability among offspring of Holocaust survivors gay men and its association with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Geva; Shrira, Amit; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) gay men report higher interpersonal vulnerability in comparison to non-OHS gay men, and to further assess whether that vulnerability mediates the association between having a Holocaust background and mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). For this purpose, a community-dwelling sample of 79 middle-aged and older OHS and 129 non-OHS gay men completed measures of hostile-world scenario (HWS) in the interpersonal domain, satisfaction from current steady relationship, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Results indicated that OHS reported higher HWS interpersonal vulnerability and lower satisfaction from current relationship in comparison to non-OHS gay men. Also, having a Holocaust background had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms and life satisfaction through HWS interpersonal vulnerability as well as through satisfaction from current relationship. These findings are the first to suggest interpersonal vulnerability of older OHS, in comparison to non-OHS, gay men, and an association between this vulnerability and adverse psychological outcomes. This interpersonal vulnerability, possibly representing HWS threats of both early family-based trauma and current sexual minority stress, along with its implications, should be addressed by practitioners who work with older gay men having a Holocaust background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years, middle-aged (44–55 years, and older (70–81 years men and women. We report novel findings supporting variations by face and perceiver age, in interaction with gender and emotion: although older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers generally rated faces of all ages as more attractive, young perceivers gave relatively higher attractiveness ratings to young compared to middle-aged and older faces. Controlling for variations in attractiveness, older compared to young faces were viewed as more distinctive by young and middle-aged perceivers. Age affected attractiveness more negatively for female than male faces. Furthermore, happy faces were rated as most attractive, while disgusted faces were rated as least attractive, particularly so by middle-aged and older perceivers and for young and female faces. Perceivers largely agreed on distinctiveness ratings for neutral and happy emotions, but older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers rated faces displaying negative emotions as more distinctive. These findings underscore the importance of a lifespan perspective on perception of facial characteristics and suggest possible effects of age on goal-directed perception, social motivation, and in-group bias. This publication makes available picture-specific normative data for experimental stimulus selection.

  9. Visualization Mode, Perceived Immediacy and Audience Evaluation of TV News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksobiech, Kenneth; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of audience perceptions of videotaped versus filmed actualities on television newscasts suggested that videotaped actualities were perceived as more immediate than filmed actualities, and that audience evaluation of newscasts using videotaped actualities was higher than audience evaluation of newscasts using filmed actualities. (GT)

  10. The Perceived Effects of Flipped Teaching on Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Galen; Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Ryun Jung; Brown, Brandy A.; Huston, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Increased demands for technological integration in higher education have resulted in new forms of course instruction. Under a flipped approach, students learn course materials outside the classroom while active learning methods are employed inside. This study focuses on the perceived effects of flipped instruction on knowledge acquisition in…

  11. How Affective Is a "Like"?: The Effect of Paralinguistic Digital Affordances on Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs.

  12. The influence of perceived family support on post surgery recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Moreno, M J; Tomás-Aragones, L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the possible relationship between perceived family support, levels of cortisol and post surgery recovery. The study sample comprised 42 patients that were due to undergo open cholecystectomy surgery in a Regional Health Authority Reference Centre of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura in Spain. The FACES-II questionnaire was used for the evaluation of perceived family support and to measure the three fundamental dimensions of perceived family behaviour: cohesion, adaptability and family type. The day before surgery, a sample of saliva was taken from each subject in order to determine the level of cortisol. Results showed a clear relationship between family support and recovery. Patients with higher scores on the Cohesion Scale demonstrated better post surgery recovery (F = 8.8; gl = 40; p = .005). A relationship between levels of cortisol, perceived family support and recovery was also revealed. Patients with lower scores on the Cohesion scale and higher cortisol levels demonstrated poorer post surgery recovery (F = 10.96; gl = 40; p = .006). These results are coherent with other studies that have highlighted the beneficial effects of perceived family support on mental and physical health.

  13. US command improvements and command vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    In essence, the United States still relies on the strategic command system erected during the 1960s and 1970s, but as we have seen, this system suffers from a number of serious weaknesses. Among these the authors emphasized the vulnerability of vital communications even before any warheads impact directly on U.S. targets, as well as the systems; heavy reliance on a relatively small number of limited-endurance aircraft as command posts and radio relays. This paper focuses on the committed improvement program, assess its impact on command vulnerability, and offer suggestions for further command improvements designed to enhance crisis stability and to facilitate ware termination should deterrence fail. The reader should note that this chapter is rather more technical than the remainder of this book

  14. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  15. Vulnerable populations: cultural and spiritual direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Tammie E; Franks, Nicole M

    2006-08-01

    Cultural, spiritual, and religious diversity of emergency department patients is increasing while that of emergency physicians in particular remains predominantly homogeneous. With a discordance of cultural, race, and ethnicity exist, in the case of ethical conflict -resolution becomes that much more difficult. Patients may feel vulnerable when their emergency care provider does not understand his or her cultural, spiritual, and religious uniqueness as it relates to the patient-doctor interaction and health care decision making. This review will examine (1) language differences; (2) cultural, religious, and spiritual differences between patient and provider; (3) differing explanatory models of disease between patient and provider; and (4) diverse bioethical models of decision making of differing cultures in an effort to reduce vulnerabilities.

  16. Coping with subjectivity in vulnerability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renis, T.A.; Cardwell, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and its safeguards operations and procedures. However, to evaluate safeguards effectiveness and give a performance rating, these models require additional performance data reflecting probabilities of detection, assessment, interruption, and neutralization, as well as the associated times for various adversary scenarios. These data may be attained from equipment design specifications, laboratory testing, expert judgment, or component testing. Regardless of how these data are obtained, they are inherently subjective. This paper addresses the uses of various vulnerability assessment models and the nature of subjectivity in those models. The paper also describes methods for coping with subjective data

  17. Vulnerability, diversity and scarcity: on universal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan Stanley; Dumas, Alex

    2013-11-01

    This article makes a contribution to the on-going debates about universalism and cultural relativism from the perspective of sociology. We argue that bioethics has a universal range because it relates to three shared human characteristics,--human vulnerability, institutional precariousness and scarcity of resources. These three components of our argument provide support for a related notion of 'weak foundationalism' that emphasizes the universality and interrelatedness of human experience, rather than their cultural differences. After presenting a theoretical position on vulnerability and human rights, we draw on recent criticism of this approach in order to paint a more nuanced picture. We conclude that the dichotomy between universalism and cultural relativism has some conceptual merit, but it also has obvious limitations when we consider the political economy of health and its impact on social inequality.

  18. Intelligent Techniques for Power Systems Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available With power grids considered national security matters, the reliable operation of the system is of top priority to utilities.  This concern is amplified by the utility’s deregulation, which increases the system’s openness while simultaneously decreasing the applied degree of control.  Vulnerability Assessment (VA deals with the power system’s ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic contingency.  Such contingencies may include unauthorized tripping, breaks in communication links, sabotage or intrusion by external agents, human errors, natural calamities and faults.  These contingencies could lead to a disruption of service to part or all of the system.  The service disruption is known as outage or blackout.  The paper outlines an approach by which feature extraction and boundary tracking can be implemented to achieve on line vulnerability assessment.

  19. [The Helsinki Declaration: relativism and vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Corrêa, M

    2001-01-01

    The Helsinki Declaration is a crucial ethical landmark for clinical research involving human beings. Since the Declaration was issued, a series of revisions and modifications have been introduced into the original text, but they have not altered its humanist approach or its international force for regulating clinical research. A proposal for an extensive revision of the Declaration's underlying ethical principles has been debated for the past four years. If the proposal is approved, international clinical research involving human beings will be modified, further increasing the vulnerability of certain social groups. This article discusses the historical process involved in passing the Helsinki Declaration and the most recent debate on the new draft. The article analyzes the new text's social implications for underdeveloped countries, arguing for a political approach to the vulnerability concept.

  20. Social Protection and Vulnerability to Climate Shocks: a Panel Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ' autonomous adaptation by reducing vulnerability to climatic shocks. This paper examines the role of the Productive Safety Net Program in reducing vulnerability to climate related shocks and its impacts on autonomous adaptation strategies ...