WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher peak currents

  1. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  2. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  3. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  4. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  5. Several peaks of total current in Trichel pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, O.; Golota, V.; Kadolin, B.; Mankovskyi, S.; Ostroushko, V.; Pashchenko, I.; Taran, G.; Zavada, L.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical simulations of negative corona at constant voltage in Trichel pulse mode are carried out in assumptions of presence and absence of photoemission from cathode. In absence of photoemission two peaks of total current or the step before the main peak were obtained for very small values of ion-electron emission coefficient. In presence of photoemission there were observed several maximums, connected with instability development of the process based on radiation of photons, photoemission, and avalanche multiplication

  6. Dynamics and stabilization of peak current-mode controlled buck converter with constant current load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Min-Rui; Zhou, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Kai-Tun; Li, Zhen-Hua

    2015-10-01

    The discrete iterative map model of peak current-mode controlled buck converter with constant current load (CCL), containing the output voltage feedback and ramp compensation, is established in this paper. Based on this model the complex dynamics of this converter is investigated by analyzing bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent spectrum. The effects of ramp compensation and output voltage feedback on the stability of the converter are investigated. Experimental results verify the simulation and theoretical analysis. The stability boundary and chaos boundary are obtained under the theoretical conditions of period-doubling bifurcation and border collision. It is found that there are four operation regions in the peak current-mode controlled buck converter with CCL due to period-doubling bifurcation and border-collision bifurcation. Research results indicate that ramp compensation can extend the stable operation range and transfer the operating mode, and output voltage feedback can eventually eliminate the coexisting fast-slow scale instability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61371033), the Fok Ying-Tung Education Foundation for Young Teachers in the Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant No. 142027), the Sichuan Provincial Youth Science and Technology Fund, China (Grant Nos. 2014JQ0015 and 2013JQ0033), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. SWJTU11CX029).

  7. Analysis of Peak-to-Peak Current Ripple Amplitude in Seven-Phase PWM Voltage Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Grandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase systems are nowadays considered for various industrial applications. Numerous pulse width modulation (PWM schemes for multiphase voltage source inverters with sinusoidal outputs have been developed, but no detailed analysis of the impact of these modulation schemes on the output peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude has been reported. Determination of current ripple in multiphase PWM voltage source inverters is important for both design and control purposes. This paper gives the complete analysis of the peak-to-peak current ripple distribution over a fundamental period for multiphase inverters, with particular reference to seven-phase VSIs. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically determined as a function of the modulation index, and a simplified expression to get its maximum value is carried out. Although reference is made to the centered symmetrical PWM, being the most simple and effective solution to maximize the DC bus utilization, leading to a nearly-optimal modulation to minimize the RMS of the current ripple, the analysis can be readily extended to either discontinuous or asymmetrical modulations, both carrier-based and space vector PWM. A similar approach can be usefully applied to any phase number. The analytical developments for all different sub-cases are verified by numerical simulations.

  8. Dynamics and stabilization of peak current-mode controlled buck converter with constant current load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Min-Rui; Zhou Guo-Hua; Zhang Kai-Tun; Li Zhen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The discrete iterative map model of peak current-mode controlled buck converter with constant current load (CCL), containing the output voltage feedback and ramp compensation, is established in this paper. Based on this model the complex dynamics of this converter is investigated by analyzing bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent spectrum. The effects of ramp compensation and output voltage feedback on the stability of the converter are investigated. Experimental results verify the simulation and theoretical analysis. The stability boundary and chaos boundary are obtained under the theoretical conditions of period-doubling bifurcation and border collision. It is found that there are four operation regions in the peak current-mode controlled buck converter with CCL due to period-doubling bifurcation and border-collision bifurcation. Research results indicate that ramp compensation can extend the stable operation range and transfer the operating mode, and output voltage feedback can eventually eliminate the coexisting fast-slow scale instability. (paper)

  9. Higher spin currents in orthogonal Wolf space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Paeng, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    For the N=4 superconformal coset theory by ((SO(N+4))/(SO(N)×SU(2)))×U(1) (that contains an orthogonal Wolf space) with N = 4, the N=2 WZW affine current algebra is obtained. The 16 generators (or 11 generators) of the large N=4 linear (or nonlinear) superconformal algebra are described by these WZW affine currents explicitly. Along the line of large N=4 holography, the extra 16 currents with spins (2,(5/2),(5/2),3), ((5/2),3,3,(7/2)), ((5/2),3,3,(7/2)), and (3,(7/2),(7/2),4) are obtained in terms of the WZW affine currents. The lowest spin of this N=4 multiplet is two rather than one, which is for a unitary Wolf space. The operator product expansions between the above 11 currents and these extra 16 higher spin currents are found explicitly. (paper)

  10. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  11. Achievable peak electrode voltage reduction by neurostimulators using descending staircase currents to deliver charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the achievable reduction in peak voltage across two driving terminals of an RC circuit when delivering charge using a stepped current waveform, comprising a chosen number of steps of equal duration, compared with using a constant current over the total duration. This work has application to the design of neurostimulators giving reduced peak electrode voltage when delivering a given electric charge over a given time duration. Exact solutions for the greatest possible peak voltage reduction using two and three steps are given. Furthermore, it is shown that the achievable peak voltage reduction, for any given number of steps is identical for simple series RC circuits and parallel RC circuits, for appropriate different values of RC. It is conjectured that the maximum peak voltage reduction cannot be improved using a more complicated RC circuit.

  12. COMMUNITARIAN INSTITUTIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION: CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Radke Bittencourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Brazilian communitarian institutions for higher education are not included officially under this designation in the INEP’s microdata, with the extinction of the category “communitarian, religious and philanthropic”. Since then, the Brazilian private’s higher education institutions are classified according to their legal nature: for-profit or non-profit. Nevertheless, the new law 12.881 of 2013, enacted in November 2013, has changed this reality after the approval by the National Congress, establishing the definition and purpose of the Community institutions, and confirming, in particular, their characteristics of non-profit institutions belonging to civil society, and their organization into associations or foundations (BRAZIL, 2013. The recent expansion of the federal and for-profit higher education institutions has directly affected the so far called communitarian institutions, which present differentiated characteristics compared to forprofit private higher education institutions as well as public education. In this article, data and contemporary aspects related to the new scenario of Brazilian higher education are analyzed, with special focus on higher education institutions members of the Association of Community Universities (ABRUC, and were found better performance of these ones in comparison to the private for-profit higher education institutions. The obtained results, combined with the regional impact of the communitarian higher education institutions, justify the importance of these institutions to improve the consolidation of higher education in Brazil.

  13. Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandieri, K; Baranovskii, S D; Stolz, W; Gebhard, F; Guter, W; Hermle, M; Bett, A W

    2009-01-01

    Interband tunnel diodes are widely used to electrically interconnect the individual subcells in multi-junction solar cells. Tunnel diodes have to operate at high current densities and low voltages, especially when used in concentrator solar cells. They represent one of the most critical elements of multi-junction solar cells and the fluctuations of the peak current in the diodes have an essential impact on the performance and reliability of the devices. Recently we have found that GaAs tunnel diodes exhibit extremely high peak currents that can be explained by resonant tunnelling through defects homogeneously distributed in the junction. Experiments evidence rather large fluctuations of the peak current in the diodes fabricated from the same wafer. It is a challenging task to clarify the reason for such large fluctuations in order to improve the performance of the multi-junction solar cells. In this work we show that the large fluctuations of the peak current in tunnel diodes can be caused by relatively small fluctuations of the dopant concentration. We also show that the fluctuations of the peak current become smaller for deeper energy levels of the defects responsible for the resonant tunnelling.

  14. Proposal for a race-track microtron with high peak current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Haselhoff, E.H.; Witteman, W.J.; Botman, J.I.M.; van Genderen, W.; Hagedoorn, H.L.; van der Heide, J.A.; Kleeven, W.J.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    In order to obtain high gain in a free electron laser a high-quality electron beam with high peak current is required. It is well-known that a microtron is able to produce a high-quality beam having low emittance and small energy spread (1%). Because a circular microtron has a limited high-current

  15. Higher Mellin moments for charged current DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogal, M.; Moch, S.

    2007-06-01

    We report on our recent results for deep-inelastic neutrino(ν)-proton(P) scattering. We have computed the perturbative QCD corrections to three loops for the charged current structure functions F 2 , F L and F 3 for the combination νP- anti νP. In leading twist approximation we have calculated the first six odd-integer Mellin moments in the case of F 2 and F L and the first six even-integer moments in the case of F 3 . As a new result we have obtained the coefficient functions to O(α 3 s ) and we have found the corresponding anomalous dimensions to agree with known results in the literature. (orig.)

  16. A simplified controller and detailed dynamics of constant off-time peak current control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Dimitrova, Ekaterina; Valchev, Vencislav; Feradov, Firgan

    2017-09-01

    A fast and reliable current control is often the base of power electronic converters. The traditional constant frequency peak control is unstable above 50 % duty ratio. In contrast, the constant off-time peak current control (COTCC) is unconditionally stable and fast, so it is worth analyzing it. Another feature of the COTCC is that one can combine a current control together with a current protection. The time dynamics show a zero-transient response, even when the inductor changes in a wide range. It can also be modeled as a special transfer function for all frequencies. The article shows also that it can be implemented in a simple analog circuit using a wide temperature range IC, such as the LM2903, which is compatible with PV conversion and automotive temperature range. Experiments are done using a 3 kW step-up converter. A drawback is still that the principle does not easily fit in usual digital controllers up to now.

  17. A non-linear algorithm for current signal filtering and peak detection in SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putignano, M; Intermite, A; Welsch, C P

    2012-01-01

    Read-out of Silicon Photomultipliers is commonly achieved by means of charge integration, a method particularly susceptible to after-pulsing noise and not efficient for low level light signals. Current signal monitoring, characterized by easier electronic implementation and intrinsically faster than charge integration, is also more suitable for low level light signals and can potentially result in much decreased after-pulsing noise effects. However, its use is to date limited by the need of developing a suitable read-out algorithm for signal analysis and filtering able to achieve current peak detection and measurement with the needed precision and accuracy. In this paper we present an original algorithm, based on a piecewise linear-fitting approach, to filter the noise of the current signal and hence efficiently identifying and measuring current peaks. The proposed algorithm is then compared with the optimal linear filtering algorithm for time-encoded peak detection, based on a moving average routine, and assessed in terms of accuracy, precision, and peak detection efficiency, demonstrating improvements of 1÷2 orders of magnitude in all these quality factors.

  18. Experimental evaluation of IGBT junction temperature measurement via peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Temperature sensitive electrical parameters allow junction temperature measurements on power semiconductors without modification to module packaging. The peak gate current has recently been proposed for IGBT junction temperature measurement and relies on the temperature dependent resistance...... of the gate pad. Consequently, a consideration of chip geometry and location of the gate pad is required before interpreting temperature data from this method. Results are also compared with a traditional electrical temperature measurement method: the voltage drop under low current....

  19. Digital peak current mode control with adaptive slope compensation for DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    performance and stability of current mode control. The presented method adapt to DC-DC converter operating conditions by estimating the rising and falling inductor current slopes, to apply a current slope compensation value to obtain a constant quality factor. The experimental results verifies the theoretical......This paper presents an adaptive slope compensation method for peak current mode control of digital controlled DC-DC converters, which controls the quality factor of the complex conjugated poles at half the switching frequency. Using quality factor control enables optimization of the dynamic...

  20. Optimum Peak Current Hysteresis Control for Energy Recovering Converter in CDI Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Pernía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability of CDI cells allows it to be reused in other CDI cells, thus minimizing consumption. The goal of the power stage responsible of the energy recovery is transferring the stored energy from one cell to another with the maximum possible efficiency, thus allowing the desalination process to continue. Assuming hysteresis current control is implemented at the DC/DC (direct current converter, this paper aims to determine the optimum peak current through the inductor in each switching period with a view to maximizing overall efficiency. The geometrical parameters of the desalination cell and the NaCl concentration modify the cell electrical properties. The peak current control of the power stage should be adapted to the cell characteristics so that the efficiency behavior of the whole CDI system can be improved. The mathematical model defined in this paper allows the CDI plant automation using the peak inductor current as control variable, adapting its value to the salt concentration during the desalination process.

  1. Controlling nonlinear longitudinal space charge oscillations for high peak current bunch train generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Musumeci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of picosecond modulations of the longitudinal profile of an electron beam generated in an rf photoinjector is analyzed and optimized with the goal of obtaining high peak current electron bunch trains at very high frequencies (≥THz. Taking advantage of nonlinear longitudinal space charge forces, it is found that more than 500 A peak current 1 THz bunch trains can be generated using a standard 1.6 cell SLAC/UCLA/BNL rf gun. Postacceleration is used to freeze the longitudinal phase space dynamics after one half plasma oscillation. Applications range from tunable narrow bandwidth THz radiation generation to drivers for high frequency high gradient accelerators.

  2. Unified Subharmonic Oscillation Conditions for Peak or Average Current Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an extension of the author's recent research in which only buck converters were analyzed. Similar analysis can be equally applied to other types of converters. In this paper, a unified model is proposed for buck, boost, and buck-boost converters under peak or average current mode control to predict the occurrence of subharmonic oscillation. Based on the unified model, the associated stability conditions are derived in closed forms. The same stability condition can be applied to ...

  3. A programmable controller for constant primary peak current in capacitor charging fet switcher for nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalka, A.

    1983-01-01

    New switching power supplies were designed for the 10 mm laser amplifiers in the Nova master oscillator room. The flashlamp supply must be repeatable. Therefore, the authors designed a constant current, linearly charging power supply. Since it is a capacitor, the load varies through-out the charge cycle. At first the load is great, and DI/DT of load current is at a maximum. As the capacitor charges the initial conditions for each cycle change, the power supply in effect sees a smaller capacitance, and DI/DT decreases. We need a way of gradually increasing the on-time of the current pulses so that the transistors in the power bridge are turned off when they reach their maximum peak current. The normal current sense response of the control chip is not fast enough to be useful for the application. The deadtime, or the time that all the bridge transistors are turned off, is fixed so that as the pulse width varies so does the period. We end up with a constant peak current, switching power supply whose frequency varies from 50 khz to 20 khz. Finally, an overcurrent latch protects the transistors from bridge or transformer faults. the circuit is described and results are shown

  4. Modeling of Lightning Strokes Using Two-Peaked Channel-Base Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Javor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning electromagnetic field is obtained by using “engineering” models of lightning return strokes and new channel-base current functions and the results are presented in this paper. Experimentally measured channel-base currents are approximated not only with functions having two-peaked waveshapes but also with the one-peaked function so as usually used in the literature. These functions are simple to be applied in any “engineering” or electromagnetic model as well. For the three “engineering” models: transmission line model (without the peak current decay, transmission line model with linear decay, and transmission line model with exponential decay with height, the comparison of electric and magnetic field components at different distances from the lightning channel-base is presented in the case of a perfectly conducting ground. Different heights of lightning channels are also considered. These results enable analysis of advantages/shortages of the used return stroke models according to the electromagnetic field features to be achieved, as obtained by measurements.

  5. Higher balance task demands are associated with an increase in individual alpha peak frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben eHülsdünker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance control is fundamental for most daily motor activities, and its impairment is associated with an increased risk of falling. Growing evidence suggests the human cortex is essentially contributing to the control of standing balance. However, the exact mechanisms remain unclear and need further investigation. In a previous study we introduced a new protocol to identify electrocortical activity associated with performance of different continuous balance tasks with the eyes opened. The aim of this study was to extend our previous results by investigating the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF, a neurophysiological marker of thalamo-cortical information transmission, which remained unconsidered so far in balance research. Thirty-seven subjects completed nine balance tasks varying in surface stability and base of support. Electroencephalography (EEG was recorded from 32 scalp locations throughout balancing with the eyes closed to ensure reliable identification of the iAPF. Balance performance was quantified as the sum of anterior-posterior and medio-lateral movements of the supporting platform. The iAPF, as well as power in the theta, lower alpha and upper alpha frequency bands were determined for each balance task after applying an ICA-based artifact rejection procedure. Higher demands on balance control were associated with a global increase in iAPF and a decrease in lower alpha power. These results may indicate increased thalamo-cortical information transfer and general cortical activation, respectively. In addition, a significant increase in upper alpha activity was observed in the fronto-central region whereas it decreased in the centro-parietal region. Furthermore, midline theta increased with higher task demands probably indicating activation of error detection/processing mechanisms. IAPF as well as theta and alpha power were correlated with platform movements. The results provide new insights into spectral and spatial characteristics

  6. A fast high-voltage current-peak detection system for the ALICE transition radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verclas, Robert [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    During LHC operation in run 1, the gaseous detectors of ALICE occasionally experienced simultaneous trips in their high voltage which affected the majority of the high voltage channels. These trips are caused by large anode currents in the detector and are potentially related to LHC machine operations. We developed and installed a fast current-peak detection system for the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector. This system is based on FPGA technology and monitors 144 out 522 high voltage channels minimally invasively at a maximum readout rate of 2 MHz. It is an integral part of the LHC beam monitoring system. We report on the latest status.

  7. A Comparative Study of Voltage, Peak Current and Dual Current Mode Control Methods for Noninverting Buck-Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Č. Bošković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of voltage mode control (VMC and two current mode control (CMC methods of noninverting buck-boost converter. The converter control-to-output transfer function, line-to-output transfer function and the output impedance are obtained for all methods by averaging converter equations over one switching period and applying small-signal linearization. The obtained results are required for the design procedure of feedback compensator to keep a system stable and robust. A comparative study of VMC, peak current mode control (PCMC and dual-current mode control (DCMC is performed. Performance evaluation of the closed-loop system with obtained compensator between these methods is performed via numerical simulations.

  8. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO2/nc-Si/SiO2 multi-layers at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO 2 /nc-Si/SiO 2 multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V 2 ) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V 1/2 . Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages

  9. Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Yuan, Chang; Xin, Zhao; Fan, Yang; Cheng-En, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter working in continuous conduction mode (CCM) are studied in this paper. First of all, the two-dimensional discrete mapping model is established. Next, reference current at the period-doubling point and the border of inductor current are derived. Then, the bifurcation diagrams are drawn with the aid of MATLAB. Meanwhile, circuit simulations are executed with PSIM, and time domain waveforms as well as phase portraits in i L-v C plane are plotted with MATLAB on the basis of simulation data. After that, we construct the Jacobian matrix and analyze the stability of the system based on the roots of characteristic equations. Finally, the validity of theoretical analysis has been verified by circuit testing. The simulation and experimental results show that, with the increase of reference current I ref, the corresponding switching frequency f is approaching to low-frequency stage continuously when the period-doubling bifurcation happens, leading to the converter tending to be unstable. With the increase of f, the corresponding I ref decreases when the period-doubling bifurcation occurs, indicating the stable working range of the system becomes smaller. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376029), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the College Graduate Research and Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SJLX15_0092).

  10. Higher spin currents in the orthogonal coset theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Changhyun [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In the coset model (D{sub N}{sup (1)} + D{sub N}{sup (1)}, D{sub N}{sup (1)}) at levels (k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}), the higher spin 4 current that contains the quartic WZW currents contracted with a completely symmetric SO(2N) invariant d tensor of rank 4 is obtained. The three-point functions with two scalars are obtained for any finite N and k{sub 2} with k{sub 1} = 1. They are determined also in the large N 't Hooft limit. When one of the levels is the dual Coxeter number of SO(2N), k{sub 1} = 2N - 2, the higher spin (7)/(2) current, which contains the septic adjoint fermions contracted with the above d tensor and the triple product of structure constants, is obtained from the operator product expansion (OPE) between the spin (3)/(2) current living in the N = 1 superconformal algebra and the above higher spin 4 current. The OPEs between the higher spin (7)/(2), 4 currents are described. For k{sub 1} = k{sub 2} = 2N - 2 where both levels are equal to the dual Coxeter number of SO(2N), the higher spin 3 current of U(1) charge (4)/(3), which contains the six products of spin (1)/(2) (two) adjoint fermions contracted with the product of the d tensor and two structure constants, is obtained. The corresponding N = 2 higher spin multiplet is determined by calculating the remaining higher spin (7)/(2), (7)/(2), 4 currents with the help of two spin (3)/(2) currents in the N = 2 superconformal algebra. The other N = 2 higher spin multiplet, whose U(1) charge is opposite to the one of the above N = 2 higher spin multiplet, is obtained. The OPE between these two N = 2 higher spin multiplets is also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  12. Higher spin currents in Wolf space. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Changhyun [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Taegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-20

    For the N=4 superconformal coset theory described by ((SU(N+2))/(SU(N))) (that contains a Wolf space) with N=3, the N=2 WZW affine current algebra with constraints is obtained. The 16 generators of the large N=4 linear superconformal algebra are described by those WZW affine currents explicitly. By factoring out four spin-(1/2) currents and the spin-1 current from these 16 generators, the remaining 11 generators (spin-2 current, four spin-(3/2) currents, and six spin-1 currents) corresponding to the large N=4 nonlinear superconformal algebra are obtained. Based on the recent work by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar on the large N=4 holography, the extra 16 currents, with spin contents (1,(3/2),(3/2),2), ((3/2),2,2,(5/2)), ((3/2),2,2,(5/2)), and (2,(5/2),(5/2),3) described in terms of N=2 multiplets, are obtained and realized by the WZW affine currents. As a first step towards N=4W algebra (which is NOT known so far), the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the above 11 currents and these extra 16 higher spin currents are found explicitly. It turns out that the composite fields with definite U(1) charges, made of above (11+16) currents (which commute with the Wolf space subgroup SU(N=3)×SU(2)×U(1) currents), occur in the right hand sides of these OPEs.

  13. Long-Term Geomagnetically Induced Current Observations From New Zealand: Peak Current Estimates for Extreme Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Craig J.; Mac Manus, Daniel H.; Dalzell, Michael; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Clarke, Ellen; Petersen, Tanja; Clilverd, Mark A.; Divett, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) observations made in New Zealand over 14 years show induction effects associated with a rapidly varying horizontal magnetic field (dBH/dt) during geomagnetic storms. This study analyzes the GIC observations in order to estimate the impact of extreme storms as a hazard to the power system in New Zealand. Analysis is undertaken of GIC in transformer number six in Islington, Christchurch (ISL M6), which had the highest observed currents during the 6 November 2001 storm. Using previously published values of 3,000 nT/min as a representation of an extreme storm with 100 year return period, induced currents of 455 A were estimated for Islington (with the 95% confidence interval range being 155-605 A). For 200 year return periods using 5,000 nT/min, current estimates reach 755 A (confidence interval range 155-910 A). GIC measurements from the much shorter data set collected at transformer number 4 in Halfway Bush, Dunedin, (HWB T4), found induced currents to be consistently a factor of 3 higher than at Islington, suggesting equivalent extreme storm effects of 460-1,815 A (100 year return) and 460-2,720 A (200 year return). An estimate was undertaken of likely failure levels for single-phase transformers, such as HWB T4 when it failed during the 6 November 2001 geomagnetic storm, identifying that induced currents of 100 A can put such transformer types at risk of damage. Detailed modeling of the New Zealand power system is therefore required to put this regional analysis into a global context.

  14. Higher quantum conserved current in a new completely integrable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.R.

    1980-06-01

    The first higher local quantum conserved current is the recently proposed new completely integrable (2esup(βphi)+esup(-2βphi)) 2 model is explicitly constructed thus proving absence of particle production and factorization of multiparticle scattering. (author)

  15. Improving the reproducibility in capillary electrophoresis by incorporating current drift in mobility and peak area calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Hansen, Steen H

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of calculating mobility and peak areas in capillary electrophoresis does not take into account the changes in the buffer viscosity at different thermostatic control and that the analytes may accelerate during the individual runs due to Joule heating effects. We present a method...

  16. Average current is better than peak current as therapeutic dosage for biphasic waveforms in a ventricular fibrillation pig model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihua; Yu, Tao; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin

    2014-10-01

    Defibrillation current has been shown to be a clinically more relevant dosing unit than energy. However, the effects of average and peak current in determining shock outcome are still undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between average current, peak current and defibrillation success when different biphasic waveforms were employed. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in 22 domestic male pigs. Animals were then randomized to receive defibrillation using one of two different biphasic waveforms. A grouped up-and-down defibrillation threshold-testing protocol was used to maintain the average success rate of 50% in the neighborhood. In 14 animals (Study A), defibrillations were accomplished with either biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) or rectilinear biphasic waveforms. In eight animals (Study B), shocks were delivered using two BTE waveforms that had identical peak current but different waveform durations. Both average and peak currents were associated with defibrillation success when BTE and rectilinear waveforms were investigated. However, when pathway impedance was less than 90Ω for the BTE waveform, bivariate correlation coefficient was 0.36 (p=0.001) for the average current, but only 0.21 (p=0.06) for the peak current in Study A. In Study B, a high defibrillation success (67.9% vs. 38.8%, pcurrent (14.9±2.1A vs. 13.5±1.7A, pcurrent unchanged. In this porcine model of VF, average current was better than peak current to be an adequate parameter to describe the therapeutic dosage when biphasic defibrillation waveforms were used. The institutional protocol number: P0805. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  18. Dependence of electron peak current on hollow cathode dimensions and seed electron energy in a pseudospark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetiner, S. O.; Stoltz, P.; Messmer, P.; Cambier, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The prebreakdown and breakdown phases of a pseudospark discharge are investigated using the two-dimensional kinetic plasma simulation code OOPIC PRO. Trends in the peak electron current at the anode are presented as function of the hollow cathode dimensions and mean seed injection velocities at the cavity back wall. The plasma generation process by ionizing collisions is examined, showing the effect on supplying the electrons that determine the density of the beam. The mean seed velocities used here are varied between the velocity corresponding to the energy of peak ionization cross section, 15 times this value and no mean velocity (i.e., electrons injected with a temperature of 2.5 eV). The reliance of the discharge characteristics on the penetrating electric field is shown to decrease as the mean seed injection velocity increases because of its ability to generate a surplus plasma independent of the virtual anode. As a result, the peak current increases with the hollow cathode dimensions for the largest average injection velocity, while for the smallest value it increases with the area of penetration of the electric field in the hollow cathode interior. Additionally, for a given geometry an increase in the peak current with the surplus plasma generated is observed. For the largest seed injection velocity used a dependence of the magnitude of the peak current on the ratio of the hole thickness and hollow cathode depth to the hole height is demonstrated. This means similar trends of the peak current are generated when the geometry is resized. Although the present study uses argon only, the variation in the discharge dependencies with the seed injection energy relative to the ionization threshold is expected to apply independently of the gas type. Secondary electrons due to electron and ion impact are shown to be important only for the largest impact areas and discharge development times of the study

  19. Current status of the quantification of roughness and the peak shear strength criteria for rock joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Kang, Chul Hyung

    1999-04-01

    In order to understand the effects of spent nuclear fuel on the hydraulic behaviour of the rock mass it is necessary to have knowledge about the relationship between the stresses and hydraulic properties of the fractures. The roughness of a fracture surface govern the dilation of the fracture and the displacement of the fracture surface under shear stress. The peak shear strength and hydraulic flow properties of fractures depend very much on the surface roughness. This report describes different methods and techniques used in the characterization of rock joint surfaces and their applications in rock mechanics. Joint roughness is an important factor in the shear resistance of a joint. The joint shear strength shows anisotropic properties due to roughness variation with the shearing direction in direct shear tests. Various shear strength criteria are described in this report. (author)

  20. Mean Velocity vs. Mean Propulsive Velocity vs. Peak Velocity: Which Variable Determines Bench Press Relative Load With Higher Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco L; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Rojas, Francisco J; Gregory Haff, G

    2018-05-01

    García-Ramos, A, Pestaña-Melero, FL, Pérez-Castilla, A, Rojas, FJ, and Haff, GG. Mean velocity vs. mean propulsive velocity vs. peak velocity: which variable determines bench press relative load with higher reliability? J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1273-1279, 2018-This study aimed to compare between 3 velocity variables (mean velocity [MV], mean propulsive velocity [MPV], and peak velocity [PV]): (a) the linearity of the load-velocity relationship, (b) the accuracy of general regression equations to predict relative load (%1RM), and (c) the between-session reliability of the velocity attained at each percentage of the 1-repetition maximum (%1RM). The full load-velocity relationship of 30 men was evaluated by means of linear regression models in the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press throw (BPT) variants performed with a Smith machine. The 2 sessions of each BPT variant were performed within the same week separated by 48-72 hours. The main findings were as follows: (a) the MV showed the strongest linearity of the load-velocity relationship (median r = 0.989 for concentric-only BPT and 0.993 for eccentric-concentric BPT), followed by MPV (median r = 0.983 for concentric-only BPT and 0.980 for eccentric-concentric BPT), and finally PV (median r = 0.974 for concentric-only BPT and 0.969 for eccentric-concentric BPT); (b) the accuracy of the general regression equations to predict relative load (%1RM) from movement velocity was higher for MV (SEE = 3.80-4.76%1RM) than for MPV (SEE = 4.91-5.56%1RM) and PV (SEE = 5.36-5.77%1RM); and (c) the PV showed the lowest within-subjects coefficient of variation (3.50%-3.87%), followed by MV (4.05%-4.93%), and finally MPV (5.11%-6.03%). Taken together, these results suggest that the MV could be the most appropriate variable for monitoring the relative load (%1RM) in the BPT exercise performed in a Smith machine.

  1. The high peak current polarized electron source of the Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.; Alley, R.; Aoyagi, H.; Clendenin, J.; Frisch, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Kirby, R.; Klaisner, L.; Kulikov, A.; Mulhollan, G.; Prescott, C.; Saez, P.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Woods, M.; Yeremian, D.; Zolotorev, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider injector requires two 2 ns pulses of 4.5-5.5 x 10 10 electrons, separated by 61 ns at 120 Hz, from its source. Since 1992, these currents have been provided by a polarized electron source based on GaAs photocathodes. A beam polarization of 76±4% has been measured at the end of the 50 GeV linac. At low photocathode quantum efficiencies, and for excitation near threshold, the maximum current delivered by the source is constrained, not by the space charge limit of the gun, but by a ''charge limit'' of the photocathode. The charge limited current is proportional to the photocathode quantum efficiency, but the proportionality varies for different photocathode types. Experience with high polarization strained GaAs photocathodes on a test beamline and on the SLC is presented. (orig.)

  2. Simple DCM or CRM analog peak current controller for HV capacitor charge-discharge applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analog current controller suitable for buck and boost converter topologies. The controller operates in DCM or CRM, depending on the setup. The experimental results are presented to validate the proposed controller functionality for a high voltage capacitor charge...

  3. Programmable controller with overcurrent latch for constant primary peak current in capacitor-charging FET switcher for Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    New switching power supplies were designed for the 10 mm laser amplifiers in the Nova Master Oscillator Room. The flashlamp supply must be repratable. Therefore, we designed a constant current, linearly charging power supply. Since it is a capacitor, the load varies throughout the charge cycle. At first the load is great, and di/dt of load current is at a maximum. As the capacitor charges the initial conditions for each cycle change, the power supply in effect sees a smaller capacitance, and di/dt decreases. We need a way of gradually increasing the on-time of the current pulses so that the transistors in the power bridge are turned off when they reach their maximum peak current. The normal current sense response of the control chip is not fast enough to be useful for our application. The deadtime, or the time that all the bridge transistors are turned off, is fixed so that as the pulse width varies so does the period. We end up with a constant peak current, switching power supply whose frequency varies from 50 khz to 20 khz. Finally, an overcurrent latch protects the transistors from bridge or transformer faults. The circuit is described and results are shown

  4. IR Camera Validation of IGBT Junction Temperature Measurement via Peak Gate Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Dupont, Laurent; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    partial bond-wire lift-off. Results are also compared with a traditional electrical temperature measurement method: the voltage drop under low current (VCE(low)). In all cases, the IGPeak method is found to provide a temperature slightly overestimating the temperature of the gate pad. Consequently, both...... the gate pad position and chip temperature distribution influence whether the measurement is representative of the mean junction temperature. These results remain consistent after chips are degraded through bondwire lift-off. In a paralleled IGBT configuration with non-negligible temperature disequilibrium...

  5. Process stabilization by peak current regulation in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T; Villamayor, M; Helmersson, U; Lundin, D

    2016-01-01

    A simple and cost effective approach to stabilize the sputtering process in the transition zone during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is proposed. The method is based on real-time monitoring and control of the discharge current waveforms. To stabilize the process conditions at a given set point, a feedback control system was implemented that automatically regulates the pulse frequency, and thereby the average sputtering power, to maintain a constant maximum discharge current. In the present study, the variation of the pulse current waveforms over a wide range of reactive gas flows and pulse frequencies during a reactive HiPIMS process of Hf-N in an Ar–N 2 atmosphere illustrates that the discharge current waveform is a an excellent indicator of the process conditions. Activating the reactive HiPIMS peak current regulation, stable process conditions were maintained when varying the N 2 flow from 2.1 to 3.5 sccm by an automatic adjustment of the pulse frequency from 600 Hz to 1150 Hz and consequently an increase of the average power from 110 to 270 W. Hf–N films deposited using peak current regulation exhibited a stable stoichiometry, a nearly constant power-normalized deposition rate, and a polycrystalline cubic phase Hf-N with (1 1 1)-preferred orientation over the entire reactive gas flow range investigated. The physical reasons for the change in the current pulse waveform for different process conditions are discussed in some detail. (paper)

  6. Top-Off Injection and Higher Currents at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Liu, James C.; Prinz, Alyssa A.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a 234 m circumference storage ring for 3 GeV electrons with its synchrotron radiation serving currently 13 beamlines with about 27 experimental stations. It operated for long time with 100 mA peak current provided by usually three injections per day. In July 2009, the maximum beam current was raised to 200 mA. Over the period from June 2009 to March 2010, Top-Off operation started at every beamline. Top-Off, i.e., the injection of electrons into the storage ring with injection stoppers open, is necessary for SSRL to reach its design current of 500 mA. In the future, the maximal power of the injection current will also soon be raised from currently 1.5 W to 5 W. The Radiation Protection Department at SLAC worked with SSRL on the specifications for the safety systems for operation with Top-Off injection and higher beam currents.

  7. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  8. Preliminary Upper Estimate of Peak Currents in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation at Distant Locations From a TMS Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Sergey N; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Piazza, Matthew W; Helderman, Alex M; Thang, Niang S; Burnham, Edward H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of TMS might cause whole-body exposure to undesired induced currents in patients and TMS operators. The aim of this study is to test and justify a simple analytical model known previously, which may be helpful as an upper estimate of eddy current density at a particular distant observation point for any body composition and any coil setup. We compare the analytical solution with comprehensive adaptive mesh refinement-based FEM simulations of a detailed full-body human model, two coil types, five coil positions, about 100 000 observation points, and two distinct pulse rise times; thus, providing a representative number of different datasets for comparison, while also using other numerical data. Our simulations reveal that, after a certain modification, the analytical model provides an upper estimate for the eddy current density at any location within the body. In particular, it overestimates the peak eddy currents at distant locations from a TMS coil by a factor of 10 on average. The simple analytical model tested in this study may be valuable as a rapid method to safely estimate levels of TMS currents at different locations within a human body. At present, safe limits of general exposure to TMS electric and magnetic fields are an open subject, including fetal exposure for pregnant women.

  9. Current Issues for Higher Education Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Issues identified as important to the future of information resources management and use in higher education include information policy in a networked environment, distributed computing, integrating information resources and college planning, benchmarking information technology, integrated digital libraries, technology integration in teaching,…

  10. The Evaluation of Music Faculty in Higher Education: Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to ascertain the methods used to evaluate music faculty and whether achievement measures, or student progress, impact the evaluations made about teacher effectiveness for music faculty in the higher education context. The author surveyed Chairs of Departments or Directors of Schools of Music (n = 412) listed as…

  11. Higher-order turbulence statistics of wave–current flow over a submerged hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, Krishnendu; Debnath, Koustuv; Mazumder, Bijoy S, E-mail: debnath_koustuv@yahoo.com [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2017-04-15

    Higher-order turbulence characteristics such as turbulence production, turbulence kinetic energy flux, third order moments and velocity spectra associated with turbulent bursting events due to the influence of a submerged hemisphere under wave–current interactions are presented. The velocity components were measured using three dimensional (3D) 16 MHz micro-acoustic Doppler velocimetry (Micro-ADV). In the wave–current interactions, the contributions of turbulent bursting events such as ejections and sweeps significantly reduce in comparison to the current-only case. The distributions of the mean time intervals of ejection and sweeping events are found to alter due to the superposition of surface waves. Results also depict that the turbulence production in the wake region of the hemisphere reduces remarkably, due to the superposition of surface waves on the current. Further, spectral and co-spectral analysis demonstrates that there is a significant reduction of power spectral peak for both longitudinal and bottom-normal velocities upon superposition of surface waves, which signifies a remarkable change in energy distribution between different frequencies of waves. (paper)

  12. Remediation of print: On the current restructuration of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Høivik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational establishment was built and structured on a communication pattern at the core of the Gutenberg Galaxy that combines the spoken word with printed and handwritten resources. The current digitization of text is a pacesetter for retooling the workplace in the "industries of signs", for replacing skills on a broad scale and for developing new formal and informal social relationships. In addition to technological developments, a strong driver of this process is the cost of the mainly manual modes of academic operation. Core inhibitors to change are century-old traditions embedded in brick-and-mortar institutions, the impossibility of enforcing industrial-type organization on knowledge work and an elitist and scholastic bent in the academic concept of self. The field is thus in need of a new Grammar of Schooling that reflects technologically and socially driven participation modes that better address educational needs and cost considerations. The educational institution is challenged to develop a new logic of production in its educational mission.

  13. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  14. Extension of the TCV Operating Space Towards Higher Elongation and Higher Normalized Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, F.; Coda, S.; Lavanchy, P.; Llobet, X.; Marmillod, Ph.; Martin, Y.; Martynov, A.; Mlynar, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Pochelon, A.; Sauter, O.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, an experimental campaign has been launched on TCV with the aim of exploring and extending the limits of the operating space. The vertical position control system has been optimized, with the help of extensive model calculations, in order to allow operation at the lowest possible stability margin. In addition, the growth rate of the axisymmetric instability has been minimized by choosing optimum values for the plasma triangularity and squareness and by operating close to the current limit imposed by the n= 1 external kink mode. These measures have allowed us to reach record values of elongation, κ=2.8, and normalized current, I N =3.6, in a tokamak with standard aspect ratio, R/a=3.5. (author)

  15. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.

  16. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    We have accomplished deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles at 800 nm, using millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power. This is achieved by carefully choosing the pulse parameters, derived from time-resolved rate-equation analysis, which result in higher intrinsic...... quantum yield that is utilized by upconverting nanoparticles for generating this near infrared upconversion emission. The pulsed excitation approach thus promises previously unreachable imaging depths and shorter data acquisition times compared with continuous wave excitation, while simultaneously keeping...... therapy and remote activation of biomolecules in deep tissues....

  17. Higher-spin currents in the Gross-Neveu model at 1/n"2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manashov, A.N.

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents, both singlet and non-singlet, in the Gross - Neveu model at the 1/n"2 order. It was conjectured that in the critical regime this model is dual to a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS_4. The AdS/CFT correspondence predicts that the masses of higher-spin fields correspond to the scaling dimensions of the singlet currents in the Gross - Neveu model.

  18. Current interactions from the one-form sector of nonlinear higher-spin equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The form of higher-spin current interactions in the sector of one-forms is derived from the nonlinear higher-spin equations in AdS4. Quadratic corrections to higher-spin equations are shown to be independent of the phase of the parameter η = exp ⁡ iφ in the full nonlinear higher-spin equations. The current deformation resulting from the nonlinear higher-spin equations is represented in the canonical form with the minimal number of space-time derivatives. The non-zero spin-dependent coupling constants of the resulting currents are determined in terms of the higher-spin coupling constant η η bar . Our results confirm the conjecture that (anti-)self-dual nonlinear higher-spin equations result from the full system at (η = 0) η bar = 0.

  19. Enhanced Power Quality and Minimized Peak Current Control in An Inverter based Microgrid under Unbalanced Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Sulligoi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The microgrid inverter experiences the power oscillations and current harmonics in case of the unbalanced grid voltage faults. However, there is a trade-off between power oscillations and current harmonics should be considered in three phase three wire inverter systems during the conventional fault...... ride through control. In order to solve this problem, a novel control strategy is proposed to enhance the output current quality while mitigating the active and reactive output power oscillations. Moreover, a simple current-limited control strategy can be achieved without the necessity of the voltage....../current positive/negative sequence extraction. Finally, the simulation tests of the conventional and proposed control solutions are carried out. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....

  20. A fast novel soft-start circuit for peak current-mode DC—DC buck converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jie; Yang Miao; Sun Weifeng; Lu Xiaoxia; Xu Shen; Lu Shengli

    2013-01-01

    A fully integrated soft-start circuit for DC—DC buck converters is presented. The proposed high speed soft-start circuit is made of two sections: an overshoot suppression circuit and an inrush current suppression circuit. The overshoot suppression circuit is presented to control the input of the error amplifier to make output voltage limit increase in steps without using an external capacitor. A variable clock signal is adopted in the inrush current suppression circuit to increase the duty cycle of the system and suppress the inrush current. The DC—DC converter with the proposed soft-start circuit has been fabricated with a standard 0.13 μm CMOS process. Experimental results show that the proposed high speed soft-start circuit has achieved less than 50 μs start-up time. The inductor current and the output voltage increase smoothly over the whole load range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Students and Instant Messaging: Survey on Current Use and Demands for Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, Gijs; Sloep, Peter; Jochems, Wim

    2008-01-01

    De Bakker, G., Sloep, P. B., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2007). Students and instant messaging: survey on current use and demands for higher education. Research in Learning Technology (ALT-J), 15(2), 143-153.

  2. Higher Education in Kenya: An Assessment of Current Responses to the Imperative of Widening Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is a key factor in a nation's effort to develop a highly skilled workforce for competing in the global economy. In this paper, current trends in accessibility, equity, participation and financing of higher education in Kenya are examined. The paper explores the challenges which need to be confronted and discusses the way forward…

  3. State Higher Education Funding Models: An Assessment of Current and Emerging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzell, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of the current and emerging approaches used by state governments in allocating funding for higher education institutions and programs. It reviews a number of desired characteristics or outcomes for state higher education funding models, including equity, adequacy, stability, and flexibility. Although there is…

  4. Higher-spin currents in the Gross-Neveu model at 1/n{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manashov, A.N. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Hamburg, D-22761 (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Regensburg, D-93040 (Germany); Skvortsov, E.D. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, D-80333 (Germany); Lebedev Institute of Physics,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-30

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents, both singlet and non-singlet, in the Gross-Neveu model at the 1/n{sup 2} order. It was conjectured that in the critical regime this model is dual to a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS{sub 4}. The AdS/CFT correspondence predicts that the masses of higher-spin fields correspond to the scaling dimensions of the singlet currents in the Gross-Neveu model.

  5. Higher spin currents in the critical O(N) vector model at 1/N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manashov, A.N.; Strohmaier, M.

    2017-06-01

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher spin singlet currents in the critical O(N) vector model at order 1/N 2 . The results are shown to be in agreement with the four-loop perturbative computation in φ 4 theory in 4-2ε dimensions. It is known that the order 1/N anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents happen to be the same in the Gross-Neveu and the critical vector model. On the contrary, the order 1/N 2 corrections are different. The results can also be interpreted as a prediction for the two-loop computation in the dual higher-spin gravity.

  6. Higher spin currents in the enhanced N=3 Kazama-Suzuki model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Hyunsu [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Taegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    The N=3 Kazama-Suzuki model at the ‘critical’ level has been found by Creutzig, Hikida and Ronne. We construct the lowest higher spin currents of spins ((3/2),2,2,2,(5/2),(5/2),(5/2),3) in terms of various fermions. In order to obtain the operator product expansions (OPEs) between these higher spin currents, we describe three N=2 OPEs between the two N=2 higher spin currents denoted by ((3/2),2,2,(5/2)) and (2,(5/2),(5/2),3) (corresponding 36 OPEs in the component approach). Using the various Jacobi identities, the coefficient functions appearing on the right hand side of these N=2 OPEs are determined in terms of central charge completely. Then we describe them as one single N=3 OPE in the N=3 superspace. The right hand side of this N=3 OPE contains the SO(3)-singlet N=3 higher spin multiplet of spins (2,(5/2),(5/2),(5/2),3,3,3,(7/2)), the SO(3)-singlet N=3 higher spin multiplet of spins ((5/2),3,3,3,(7/2),(7/2),(7/2),4), and the SO(3)-triplet N=3 higher spin multiplets where each multiplet has the spins (3,(7/2),(7/2),(7/2),4,4,4,(9/2)), in addition to N=3 superconformal family of the identity operator. Finally, by factoring out the spin-(1/2) current of N=3 linear superconformal algebra generated by eight currents of spins ((1/2),1,1,1,(3/2),(3/2),(3/2),2), we obtain the extension of so-called SO(3) nonlinear Knizhnik Bershadsky algebra.

  7. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  8. Students and recorded lectures: survey on current use and demands for higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Pierre; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, P., Van Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2012). Students and recorded lectures: survey on current use and demands for higher education. Research In Learning Technology, 20(3). doi:10.3402/rlt.v20i0.17299

  9. Current Approaches to the Assessment of Graphic Design in a Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloi, Susan; du Toit, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current trends in assessment practice within the field of graphic design. The demands placed on educators to apply sound assessment practice for Higher Education subjects is as intense in the field of graphic design as in any other. Forcing the assessment of creative visual work into existing assessment…

  10. The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy of colonial proposals and legislations dating back to the early 19th century. The social sciences and humanities still carry disciplinary burdens that need revisiting as we attempt to think of new educational strategies for the 21st century.

  11. Higher order equivalent edge currents for fringe wave radar scattering by perfectly conducting polygonal plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    1992-01-01

    An approach for including higher order edge diffraction in the equivalent edge current (EEC) method is proposed. This approach, which applies to monostatic as well as bistatic radar configurations with perfectly conducting polygonal plates, involves three distinct sets of EECs. All of these sets...

  12. The Locations of Ring Current Pressure Peaks: Comparison of TWINS Measurements and CIMI Simulations for the 7-10 September 2015 CIR Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S. C.; Edmond, J. A.; Xu, H.; Perez, J. D.; Fok, M. C. H.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of a four day 7-10 September 2015 co-rotating interaction region (CIR) storm (min. SYM/H ≤ -110 nT) are categorized by storm phase. Ion distributions of trapped particles in the ring current as measured by the Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) are compared with the simulated ion distributions of the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model (CIMI). The energetic neutral atom (ENA) images obtained by TWINS are deconvolved to extract equatorial pitch angle, energy spectra, ion pressure intensity, and ion pressure anisotropy distributions in the inner magnetosphere. CIMI, using either a self-consistent electric field or a semi-empirical electric field, simulates comparable distributions. There is good agreement between the data measured by TWINS and the different distributions produced by the self-consistent electric field and the semi-empirical electric field of CIMI. Throughout the storm the pitch angle distribution (PAD) is mostly perpendicular in both CIMI and TWINS and there is agreement between the anisotropy distributions. The locations of the ion pressure peaks seen by TWINS and by the self-consistent and semi empirical electric field parameters in CIMI are usually between dusk and midnight. On average, the self-consistent electric field in CIMI reveals ion pressure peaks closer to Earth than its semi empirical counterpart, while TWINS reports somewhat larger radial values for the ion pressure peak locations. There are also notable events throughout the storm during which the simulated observations show some characteristics that differ from those measured by TWINS. At times, there are ion pressure peaks with magnetic local time on the dayside and in the midnight to dawn region. We discuss these events in light of substorm injections indicated by fluctuating peaks in the AE index and a positive By component in the solar wind. There are also times in which there are multiple ion pressure peaks. This may

  13. High peak current operation of x-ray free-electron laser multiple beam lines by suppressing coherent synchrotron radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Kondo, Chikara; Inagaki, Takahiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Fukami, Kenji; Nakazawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Taichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Yoshioka, Masamichi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Otake, Yuji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The parallel operation of multiple beam lines is an important means to expand the opportunity of user experiments at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities. At SPring-8 Angstrom free-electron laser (SACLA), the multi-beam-line operation had been tested using two beam lines, but transverse coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects at a dogleg beam transport severely limited the laser performance. To suppress the CSR effects, a new beam optics based on two double bend achromat (DBA) structures was introduced for the dogleg. After the replacement of the beam optics, high peak current bunches of more than 10 kA are now stably transported through the dogleg and the laser pulse output is increased by a factor of 2-3. In the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA, the electron beam parameters, such as the beam energy and peak current, can be adjusted independently for each beam line. Thus the laser output can be optimized and wide spectral tunability is ensured for all beam lines.

  14. Peak tree: a new tool for multiscale hierarchical representation and peak detection of mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Houqiang; Wang, Honghui; Wong, Stephen T C; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Peak detection is one of the most important steps in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. However, the detection result is greatly affected by severe spectrum variations. Unfortunately, most current peak detection methods are neither flexible enough to revise false detection results nor robust enough to resist spectrum variations. To improve flexibility, we introduce peak tree to represent the peak information in MS spectra. Each tree node is a peak judgment on a range of scales, and each tree decomposition, as a set of nodes, is a candidate peak detection result. To improve robustness, we combine peak detection and common peak alignment into a closed-loop framework, which finds the optimal decomposition via both peak intensity and common peak information. The common peak information is derived and loopily refined from the density clustering of the latest peak detection result. Finally, we present an improved ant colony optimization biomarker selection method to build a whole MS analysis system. Experiment shows that our peak detection method can better resist spectrum variations and provide higher sensitivity and lower false detection rates than conventional methods. The benefits from our peak-tree-based system for MS disease analysis are also proved on real SELDI data.

  15. 'Peak oil' or 'peak demand'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Bruno; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Rolland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a workshop which addressed several energy issues like the objectives and constraints of energy mix scenarios, the differences between the approaches in different countries, the cost of new technologies implemented for this purposes, how these technologies will be developed and marketed, which will be the environmental and societal acceptability of these technical choices. Different aspects and issues have been more precisely presented and discussed: the peak oil, development of shale gases and their cost (will non conventional hydrocarbons modify the peak oil and be socially accepted?), energy efficiency (its benefits, its reality in France and other countries, its position in front of the challenge of energy transition), and strategies in the transport sector (challenges for mobility, evolution towards a model of sustainable mobility)

  16. Electric current precedes emergence of a lateral root in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ezaki, S; Hayashi, K; Toko, K; Yamafuji, K

    1992-10-01

    Stable electrochemical patterns appear spontaneously around roots of higher plants and are closely related to growth. An electric potential pattern accompanied by lateral root emergence was measured along the surface of the primary root of adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) over 21 h using a microelectrode manipulated by a newly developed apparatus. The electric potential became lower at the point where a lateral root emerged. This change preceded the emergence of the lateral root by about 10 h. A theory is presented for calculating two-dimensional patterns of electric potential and electric current density around the primary root (and a lateral root) using only data on the one-dimensional electric potential measured near the surface of the primary root. The development of the lateral root inside the primary root is associated with the influx of electric current of about 0.7 muA.cm(-2) at the surface.

  17. Current status of educational services in higher agricultural education in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cobets’

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Perspective directions of integration state policy of Ukraine Higher Education  into the European educational space and steps of implementation are determined. It is analysed the current state of higher agricultural education and integration current state policy of Ukraine Higher Education into the European educational space which allowed to identify problems and highlighted areas for further development. It is considered that it is necessary to establish cooperation in the triangle «production ­ education – science», extend the impact of scientists and experts on the content of  educational sector, come educational standards to needs and challenges of the real economy, as upgrades of industry standards for higher education, forming curricula, new teaching methods. Professionals training is possible only in a simulation of modern production principles, including the European Union. It is necessary to strengthen the position of agricultural universities as international educational and scientific centers in the framework of the European educational space. This refers to the practice and teaching students abroad, teachers training, participation in international programs, joint research. Ukrainian agricultural education system has competitive advantages despite the general neglect and can be considered unique in the educational market, it has conditions for the creation and testing of innovative products for different agro­climatic zones within a region. This provides the results of knowledge­based real conditions of agricultural production. Among the weaknesses of the education system it is possible to note a lack of cooperation with employers, lack of logistical and information and communication resources, mismatch of modern innovative designs and high technologies. It is therefore necessary to overcome the gap between the content of education and the real needs of innovation economy. In general, you need to ensure long­term practice

  18. Doppler ultrasound for detection of renal transplant artery stenosis - Threshold peak systolic velocity needs to be higher in a low-risk or surveillance population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, U.; Khaw, K.K.; Hughes, N.C.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To establish the ideal threshold arterial velocity for the diagnosis of renal transplant artery stenosis in a surveillance population with a low pre-test probability of stenosis. METHODS: Retrospective review of Doppler ultrasound, angiographic and clinical outcome data of patients transplanted over a 3-year period. Data used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for various threshold peak systolic velocity values. RESULTS: Of 144 patients transplanted, full data were available in 117 cases. Five cases had renal transplant artery stenosis--incidence 4.2% [stenosis identified at a mean of 6.5 months (range 2-10 months)]. All five cases had a significant arterial pressure gradient across the narrowing and underwent angioplasty. Threshold peak systolic velocity of ≥2.5 m/s is not ideal [specificity=79% (CI 65-82%), PPV=18% (CI 6-32%), NPV=100% (CI 94-100%)], subjecting many patients to unnecessary angiography--8/117 (6%) in our population. Comparable values if the threshold is set at ≥3.0 m/s are 93% (CI 77-96%), 33% (CI 7-44%) and 99% (CI 93-100%), respectively. The clinical outcome of all patients was satisfactory, with no unexplained graft failures or loss. CONCLUSIONS: In a surveillance population with a low pre-test probability of stenosis, absolute renal artery velocity ≥2.5 m/s is a limited surrogate marker for significant renal artery stenosis. The false-positive rate is high, and ≥3.0 m/s is a better choice which will halve the number of patients enduring unnecessary angiography. Close clinical follow-up of patients in the 2.5-3.0 m/s range, with repeat Doppler ultrasound if necessary, will identify the test false-negatives

  19. Business intelligence and data warehouse programs in higher education institutions: current status and recommendations for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marinova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation and the main challenges in existing Business Intelligence (BI and Data Warehouse (DW curricula. On the base of this research, certain recommendations for their improvement are made. At the same time, the paper gives concrete guidelines for the development of a clear and comprehensive graduate profile with knowledge, skills and social competence in the field of BI and DW. This is particularly beneficial for universities and other higher education institutions, that seek to offer courses with high quality content and tendencies, adequate to the latest education, in the concerned area. The paper is written within the Erasmus plus KA2 project “Developing the innovative methodology of teaching Business Informatics” (DIMBI, 2015-1-PL01-KA203-0016636.

  20. Solar cells from 120 PPMA carbon-contaminated feedstock without significantly higher reverse current or shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Coletti, G. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In a bid to drive down the cost of silicon wafers, several options for solar grade silicon feedstock have been investigated over the years. All methods have in common that the resulting silicon contains higher levels of impurities like dopants, oxygen, carbon or transition metals, the type and level of impurities depending on the raw materials and refining processes. In this work wafers from a p-type mc-Si ingot made with feedstock contaminated with 120 ppma of carbon have been processed into solar cells together with reference uncontaminated feedstock from semiconductor grade polysilicon with <0.4 ppma carbon. The results show that comparable reverse current, shunts, and efficiencies can be reached for both types of wafers. Gettering and defect hydrogenation effectiveness also did not deviate from the reference. Electroluminescence pictures do not show increased hotspot formation, even at -16V.

  1. THE CURRENT ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION AT THE INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Arenas-Romero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the current form of teacher assessment at a higher level and criteria used, based on surveys of student opinion is analyzed. Such surveys do not reflect the real capacity of teachers and only serves as a form of administrative control. This paper establishes the utility of these assessments as a tool for improvement and as part of an early detection of needs, be altered by the biased way he handles himself. In addition, a criticism of this type of evaluation is done; the results are disclosed extemporaneously, which also restricts the development of teachers through the bureaucratic control of that information not timely feedback to teachers in order to improve their performance.

  2. Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Helle; Ahring, Philip Kiær; Timmermann, Daniel Brunicardi

    2009-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators. The molecu......Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators......) in micromolar: 10 (CTZ), 26 (NS1493), 43 (NS5206), and 48 (NS5217)]. The four modulators divide into three groups according to efficacy and desensitization kinetics: (1) CTZ increases the peak current efficacy twice as much as the three analogues and nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization; (2) NS5206...... and NS5217 have low efficacy and only attenuate desensitization partially; (3) NS1493 has low efficacy but nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization. A hydrophobic substituent at the 3-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system is important for compound...

  3. Peak effect in laser ablated DyBa2Cu3O7-δ films at microwave frequencies at subcritical currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhangale, A.R.; Raychaudhuri, P.; Banerjee, T.; Shirodkar, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we report the observation of a peak in the microwave surface resistance (at frequencies ~10 GHz) of laser ablated DyBa2Cu3O7-δ films in magnetic field ranging from 2 to 9 kOe (||c) close to the superconducting transition temperature [Tc(H)]. The exact nature of the peak is sample

  4. Current Situation in Occupational Health and Safety Education in Higher Education Institutions of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman SİVRİKAYA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, “the occupational health and safety” topic, which has gained importance in different countries in the world, has got attention in Turkey as well. The importance of human life and health is being increased in the world especially in the developed countries. As a result of this, in order to prevent the work accidents involving death or personal injury in the work life, the importance of the “occupational health and safety” is increasing gradually. In Turkey, the regulation studies are being carried out on this topic with the successive regulations especially during recent years. The application aspect of the topic, which is related to employers on the occasion of legal liabilities in accordance with the regulations, and for the graduates who are seeking for a job and especially want to be occupational safety specialists, it is popular from the point of view to be hope for a job. However, due to the difficulties to follow the rapidly changing developments, efficient awareness about the topic is not possible. It is possible that to get true and current information about the topic is possible by showing necessary sensitivity about occupational health and safety education. The graduates from different departments wonder the topics such as what is “occupational health and safety” education and “what kind of an education is necessary to become an occupational safety specialist”. Hence, in this article, by giving current information about occupational health and safety education and their content in the higher education institutions in Turkey, the points, which have had improvements compared to the past, are considered, and certain suggestions are presented to have better occupational health and safety education.

  5. The next 16 higher spin currents and three-point functions in the large N = 4 holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Dong-gyu; Kim, Man Hea [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    By using the known operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, (3)/(2), (3)/(2), (3)/(2), (3)/(2), 2,2,2,2,2,2, (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), 3) in an extension of the large N = 4 linear superconformal algebra, one determines the OPEs between the lowest 16 higher spin currents in an extension of the large N = 4 nonlinear superconformal algebra for generic N and k. The Wolf space coset contains the group G = SU(N + 2) and the affine Kac-Moody spin 1 current has the level k. The next 16 higher spin currents of spins (2, (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), 3,3,3,3,3,3, (7)/(2), (7)/(2), (7)/(2), (7)/(2), 4) arise in the above OPEs. The most general lowest higher spin 2 current in this multiplet can be determined in terms of affine Kac-Moody spin (1)/(2), 1 currents. By careful analysis of the zero mode (higher spin) eigenvalue equations, the three-point functions of bosonic higher spin 2, 3, 4 currents with two scalars are obtained for finite N and k. Furthermore, we also analyze the three-point functions of bosonic higher spin 2, 3, 4 currents in the extension of the large N = 4 linear superconformal algebra. It turns out that the three-point functions of higher spin 2, 3 currents in the two cases are equal to each other at finite N and k. Under the large (N, k) 't Hooft limit, the two descriptions for the three-point functions of higher spin 4 current coincide with each other. The higher spin extension of SO(4) Knizhnik Bershadsky algebra is described. (orig.)

  6. Exploring the Current Position of ESD in UK Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiselier, Evelien S.; Longhurst, James W. S.; Gough, Georgina K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the position of education for sustainable development in the UK Higher Education (HE) sector with respect to the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) and Higher Education Academy (HEA) Guidance for education for sustainable development (ESD). Design/methodology/approach: By means of a mixed-method…

  7. Benchmarking in European Higher Education: A Step beyond Current Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burquel, Nadine; van Vught, Frans

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a two-year EU-funded project (DG Education and Culture) "Benchmarking in European Higher Education", carried out from 2006 to 2008 by a consortium led by the European Centre for Strategic Management of Universities (ESMU), with the Centre for Higher Education Development, UNESCO-CEPES, and the…

  8. Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in Higher Education: Current Institutional Practice and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jeremy Scott

    2014-01-01

    Cyber-bullying led a Rutgers University student to commit suicide, which led the Federal government and institutions of higher education to take a closer look at bullying and cyber-bullying on college campuses. Congress introduced the "Tyler Clementi Higher Education Anti-Harassment Act" (Tyler Clementi Act) that would require…

  9. Digital Curation as a Core Competency in Current Learning and Literacy: A Higher Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, Leona M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital curation may be regarded as a core competency in higher education since it contributes to establishing a sense of metaliteracy (an essential requirement for optimally functioning in a modern media environment) among students. Digital curation is gradually finding its way into higher education curricula aimed at fostering social media…

  10. Current Trends, Challenges and Prospects of Student Mobility in the African Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Doevenspeck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the development in the international dimension of higher education including student/scholar mobility, regional and international research networks and initiatives have brought new opportunities for African higher education to be incorporated in the global knowledge production and circulation processes. One of the instruments of…

  11. The Current State and Developments in Higher Education in Gerontology in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Heidi; Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Parkatti, Terttu; Heikkinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    The growing size of the older population challenges not only researchers but also higher education in gerontology. On the basis of an online survey the authors describe the situation of Nordic higher education in gerontology in 2008 and 2009 and also give some good examples of Nordic- and European-level collaboration. The survey results showed…

  12. Current Trends in Higher Education Research in the USSR and in Other Countries of the CMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexander Y.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S.S.R.'s Scientific Research Institute for Higher Education Problems and its research efforts are described, and other individual and cooperative efforts for higher education research by member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance are discussed. (MSE)

  13. Does Peak Urine Flow Rate Predict the Development of Incident Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Mild to No Current Symptoms? Results from REDUCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Roehrborn, Claus; Vidal, Adriana; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    We determined whether decreased peak urine flow is associated with future incident lower urinary tract symptoms in men with mild to no lower urinary tract symptoms. Our population consisted of 3,140 men from the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial with mild to no lower urinary tract symptoms, defined as I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) less than 8. REDUCE was a randomized trial of dutasteride vs placebo for prostate cancer prevention in men with elevated prostate specific antigen and negative biopsy. I-PSS measures were obtained every 6 months throughout the 4-year study. The association between peak urine flow rate and progression to incident lower urinary tract symptoms, defined as the first of medical treatment, surgery or sustained and clinically significant lower urinary tract symptoms, was tested by multivariable Cox models, adjusting for various baseline characteristics and treatment arm. On multivariable analysis as a continuous variable, decreased peak urine flow rate was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident lower urinary tract symptoms (p = 0.002). Results were similar in the dutasteride and placebo arms. On univariable analysis when peak flow was categorized as 15 or greater, 10 to 14.9 and less than 10 ml per second, flow rates of 10 to 14.9 and less than 10 ml per second were associated with a significantly increased risk of incident lower urinary tract symptoms (HR 1.39, p = 0.011 and 1.67, p urinary tract symptoms a decreased peak urine flow rate is independently associated with incident lower urinary tract symptoms. If confirmed, these men should be followed closer for incident lower urinary tract symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends and EIE higher education response to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian; Livint, Gheorghe; Friesel, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Education Institutions (SALEIE), an EU supported project, gathers together a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. This paper deals with findings within the SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges......), namely: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, technical challenges that the EIE higher education faces nowadays, and existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges....

  15. Tuition Elasticity of the Demand for Higher Education among Current Students: A Pricing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Glenn A.; Whipple, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A pricing model is offered, based on retention of current students, that colleges can use to determine appropriate tuition. A computer-based model that quantifies the relationship between tuition elasticity and projected net return to the college was developed and applied to determine an appropriate tuition rate for a small, private liberal arts…

  16. Can ELT in Higher Education Be Successful? The Current Status of ELT in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Alberto Mora; Guzman, Nelly Paulina Trejo; Roux, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the determinants of the current state of the ELT field in Mexican contexts. In particular, it explores the ways in which diverse social and political factors hamper the successful implementation of national and institutional ELT policies. Drawing on a case study carried out throughout a period of five years,…

  17. Current State of the Art: Management of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-08-01

    The higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) as intermediate-2 or high-risk groups, compromise a third of MDS patients who have an expected survival of less than 1.5 years. Our ability to better define higher risk MDS improved with the proposal of new clinical risk models such as the revised IPSS and by integration of molecular data, including somatic gene mutations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) remains the only curative option. In higher risk MDS patients, proceeding early with AHSCT is associated with maximum survival gain. The decision to pursue AHSCT is individualized according to disease risk, comorbidities, and functional status. The role of therapy before AHSCT remains controversial, and the role of post-AHSCT maintenance is evolving. Hypomethylating agents are the only medications that alter the natural history of the disease. Azacitidine is the only drug reported to improve overall survival in higher risk MDS patients. Appropriate use and assessment of response is key for assuring patients benefit of such limited options. Treatment after failure of hypomethylating agents is an unmet need. The role of detectable somatic gene mutations in prognosis and tailoring therapy continue to emerge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Introduction to Current Trends and Benefits of Mobile Wireless Technology Use in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Mims, Clif; Holmes, Kerry P.

    2006-01-01

    The development of mobile wireless technologies has generated a considerable amount of excitement among practitioners and academics because it results in shifting the academic environment from traditional settings to mobile learning (m-learning) settings. Increasing numbers of institutions of higher education offer courses using mobile wireless…

  19. Effects of Globalisation on Higher Engineering Education in Germany--Current and Future Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Christophe; May, Dominik; Terkowsky, Claudius; Reynet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Germany is well known around the world for the strength of its economy, its industry and for the "German model" for higher engineering education based on developing technological skills at a very high level. In this article, we firstly describe the former and present model of engineering education in Germany in a context of the…

  20. Entrepreneurship Education in Malaysia's Public Institutions of Higher Learning--A Review of the Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Yusoff, Mohd Nor Hakimin; Zainol, Fakhrul Anwar; Bin Ibrahim, Mohamed Dahlan

    2015-01-01

    The need for a practical and applicable model for entrepreneurial learning is becoming critical. In this study, we aimed to collect data related to entrepreneurship education practices by all institutes of higher learning (IHLs) in Malaysia as well as challenges faced, facilities, and supports offered by the universities. Given the important role…

  1. Adaptive or Transactional Leadership in Current Higher Education: A Brief Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions operate in a complex environment that includes influence from external factors, new technologies for teaching and learning, globalization, and changing student demographics to name a few. Maneuvering such complexity and change requires a leadership strategy that is flexible and supportive. This paper reviews two…

  2. Faculty Development for Advancing Community Engagement in Higher Education: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Marshall; Plaxton-Moore, Star

    2017-01-01

    This research involved the conduct of a conceptual review of 28 refereed journal articles and a survey of campus centers for community engagement staff to identify salient features and trends of existing faculty development programming designed to advance service-learning and community engagement in higher education. Results of this investigation…

  3. Professional Development for Sessional Staff in Higher Education: A Review of Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, Danielle; Mahoney, Paige; Macfarlane, Susie

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an integrated review of evidence published in the past decade around professional development for sessional staff in higher education. Using the Integrating Theory, Evidence and Action method, the review analysed recent evidence using the three principles of the Benchmarking Leadership and Advancement of…

  4. Integrated and Inclusive Higher Education in Vladimir State University: Current State and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegorov I.N.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the many years of experience in methodological support and training at the Center of Professional Education for the Disabled and at the “Inclusive Education” Research and Educational Center of the Vladimir State University. At these centers the work is aimed at establishing a system of continuous higher inclusive education for persons with hearing and visual impairments. The paper focuses on the issues concerning the organization of educational process and the adaptation of learning materials for students with hearing and visual impairments; it addresses the problem of creating a system of academic support for students with disabilities and providing psychological and educational assistance to individuals with hearing and visual impairments in the system of higher education.

  5. Key processes shaping the current role and operation of higher education institutions in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piróg Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concurrent processes of globalisation, computerisation, and integration shape and constantly modify developmental factors and generate multidirectional social changes. Among social life fields, one of them has been particularly sensitive to the impact of those processes and has remained in clear feedback relationship with them is education, including university-level education. This article aims to present some reflections on the key processes which influence the environment of higher education institutions’ activity and on what their impact specifically is. The factors taken into account include: the transformation of the political and economic system, integration with the European higher education area, the market shift of education, evolving social demands towards higher education institutions and society’s attitude towards work. As knowledge has become an asset largely affecting the quality of life of people and society, universities have changed their focus from searching for and exploring truth, good and beauty in the world towards becoming innovation centres, transferring knowledge as offering their educational services. In this article, those trends have been exemplified in relation to geography degree programmes, and shown through an evolution of the model of the university. Based on a review of the literature, it seems that the processes discussed also concern geography degree programmes, and the future operation of these programmes closely depends on whether they can maintain their care for high quality education coupled with genuine efforts to ensure the smooth transition of graduates into the labour market.

  6. Hydrological model calibration for flood prediction in current and future climates using probability distributions of observed peak flows and model based rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlandt, Uwe; Wallner, Markus; Radtke, Imke

    2013-04-01

    Derived flood frequency analysis based on continuous hydrological modelling is very demanding regarding the required length and temporal resolution of precipitation input data. Often such flood predictions are obtained using long precipitation time series from stochastic approaches or from regional climate models as input. However, the calibration of the hydrological model is usually done using short time series of observed data. This inconsistent employment of different data types for calibration and application of a hydrological model increases its uncertainty. Here, it is proposed to calibrate a hydrological model directly on probability distributions of observed peak flows using model based rainfall in line with its later application. Two examples are given to illustrate the idea. The first one deals with classical derived flood frequency analysis using input data from an hourly stochastic rainfall model. The second one concerns a climate impact analysis using hourly precipitation from a regional climate model. The results show that: (I) the same type of precipitation input data should be used for calibration and application of the hydrological model, (II) a model calibrated on extreme conditions works quite well for average conditions but not vice versa, (III) the calibration of the hydrological model using regional climate model data works as an implicit bias correction method and (IV) the best performance for flood estimation is usually obtained when model based precipitation and observed probability distribution of peak flows are used for model calibration.

  7. Higher critical current density achieved in Bi-2223 High-Tc superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Shalaby

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223 were prepared using a solid state reaction method at different sintering times and temperatures. Structural phase identifications have been done using X-Ray analysis and refinement by Reitveld method which proves the coexistence of Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. The critical transition temperature Tc and critical current density Jc values were measured using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and by the magneto-optics technique. A remarkable rapid decrease to the diamagnetic signal in the magnetization versus temperature M(T at 110 K and Jc around 1.2 × 107 A/m2 at 5 K are confirmed for the Bi-2223 compound.

  8. The algebras of higher order currents of the fermionic Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltini, Luis Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported from our studies on the following 2-dimensional field theories: the supersymmetric non-linear sigma model and the fermionic Gross-Neveu model. About the supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, an attempt is made to solve the the algebraic problem of finding the non-local conserved charges and the corresponding algebra, extending the methods described in a previous article for the case of the purely bosonic non linear sigma model. For the fermionic Gross-Neveu model, we intend to construct the conserved currents and the respective charges, related to the abelian U(1) symmetry and non-abelian SU(n) symmetry, at the conformal point and calculate the correlation functions between them. From these results at the conformal point, we want to study the effects of perturbation to get a massive but integral theory

  9. University tutorials in the setting of the European Higher Education Area: current profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina FERNÁNDEZ-SALINERO MIGUEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the new setting promoted by the European Higher Education Area, university guidance and tutorials have become more important than ever. We understand tutorials as part of the teaching responsibility in which a more personal interaction between professor and student, professor and novice teacher, or student and student is established, and whose goal is to guide learning according to the individual characteristics and learning styles of the individuals involved. Now is the time to set up guidance and tutorials systems for students –both during the training process and in their first professional steps– and for novice teachers also. Among such systems we can mention professor coaching, peer mentoring, professional tutoring in training centres or mentoring of an experienced university professor on the novice teacher.

  10. Hochschule und Geschlecht – aktuelle Forschungsperspektiven Higher Education and Gender—Current Research Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cord Arendes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sowohl einzelne Universitäten als auch die Institution Universität als gesamteuropäischer Typus können heute auf eine bis weit in das Mittelalter zurückreichende Kontinuität verweisen. Die Universitäten stellen aber nicht einen geschlechtsneutralen Forschungsgegenstand, sondern eine in vielerlei Hinsicht „gendered organization“ dar. Der Sammelband präsentiert verschiedene Blickwinkel auf diese Geschlechterdimension. Um ‚Gender‘ als Erkenntniskategorie im Verhältnis zur sozialen Organisation Hochschule und zur Geschlechterkultur untersuchen zu können, ist nicht nur eine verbesserte gegenseitige Beachtung von Hochschul- sowie Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung notwendig. Entscheidende Bedeutung kommt insbesondere der reflexiven Wahrnehmung der eigenen „Betroffenheit“ der Hochschul- und der Geschlechterforscher/-innen zu.Many individual universities as well as the specifically European institution of the university can point to a continuity that reaches back well into the Middle Ages. However, universities present not a gender-neutral object of study, but instead in many respects represent a “gendered organization.” The collected volume provides different views on this gendered dimension. In order to study ‘gender’ as a category of knowledge in relation to the social organization of higher education and to gender culture it is necessary that there exist a better mutual respect between research on higher education and research on women and gender studies. Especially the reflexive perception of the way in which the university and gender researchers are themselves affected is accorded crucial meaning.

  11. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  12. Higher spin currents in the critical O(N) vector model at 1/N{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manashov, A.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Skvortsov, E.D. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strohmaier, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-06-15

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher spin singlet currents in the critical O(N) vector model at order 1/N{sup 2}. The results are shown to be in agreement with the four-loop perturbative computation in φ{sup 4} theory in 4-2ε dimensions. It is known that the order 1/N anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents happen to be the same in the Gross-Neveu and the critical vector model. On the contrary, the order 1/N{sup 2} corrections are different. The results can also be interpreted as a prediction for the two-loop computation in the dual higher-spin gravity.

  13. A current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two timeslower hybrid resonance frequency on tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient current drive scheme in central or off-axis region is required for the steady state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. The current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two times lower hybrid resonance (w>2wlh could be such a scheme in high density, high temperature reactor-grade tokamak plasmas. First, it has relatively higher parallel electric field to the magnetic field favorable to the current generation, compared to fast waves in other frequency range. Second, it can deeply penetrate into high density plasmas compared to the slow wave in the same frequency range. Third, parasitic coupling to the slow wave can contribute also to the current drive avoiding parametric instability, thermal mode conversion and ion heating occured in the frequency range w<2wlh. In this study, the propagation boundary, accessibility, and the energy flow of the fast wave are given via cold dispersion relation and group velocity. The power absorption and current drive efficiency are discussed qualitatively through the hot dispersion relation and the polarization. Finally, those characteristics are confirmed with ray tracing code GENRAY for the KSTAR plasmas.

  14. Higher Mortality in registrants with sudden model for end-stage liver disease increase: Disadvantaged by the current allocation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Alejo, Jennifer L; Poon, Anna K; Cameron, Andrew M; Segev, Dorry L

    2015-05-01

    Liver allocation is based on current Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, with priority in the case of a tie being given to those waiting the longest with a given MELD score. We hypothesized that this priority might not reflect risk: registrants whose MELD score has recently increased receive lower priority but might have higher wait-list mortality. We studied wait-list and posttransplant mortality in 69,643 adult registrants from 2002 to 2013. By likelihood maximization, we empirically defined a MELD spike as a MELD increase ≥ 30% over the previous 7 days. At any given time, only 0.6% of wait-list patients experienced a spike; however, these patients accounted for 25% of all wait-list deaths. Registrants who reached a given MELD score after a spike had higher wait-list mortality in the ensuing 7 days than those with the same resulting MELD score who did not spike, but they had no difference in posttransplant mortality. The spike-associated wait-list mortality increase was highest for registrants with medium MELD scores: specifically, 2.3-fold higher (spike versus no spike) for a MELD score of 10, 4.0-fold higher for a MELD score of 20, and 2.5-fold higher for a MELD score of 30. A model incorporating the MELD score and spikes predicted wait-list mortality risk much better than a model incorporating only the MELD score. Registrants with a sudden MELD increase have a higher risk of short-term wait-list mortality than is indicated by their current MELD score but have no increased risk of posttransplant mortality; allocation policy should be adjusted accordingly. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  16. Progress of African Americans in higher education attainment: The widening gender gap and its current and future implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadu J. Kaba

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research argues that despite all of the obstacles that African Americans have confronted in the history of the United States, they have made substantial progress in higher education attainment from the 1970s to the beginning of the 21st century. It reveals that the rise in attainment of college and university degrees has resulted in a substantial increase in living standards and that African Americans are making important economic, social and political contributions to the United States. I present several reasons why black males are not performing as well as black females in higher education attainment. Analyses are also presented regarding the current and future implications of the growing gap between black males and black females.

  17. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet L Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city; population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods. Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible.

  18. Current Status of the MOOC Movement in the World and Reaction of the Turkish Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan Aydin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript intends to elaborate the current status of MOOC movement in the world and to reveal the results of a survey study in which the Turkish higher education institutions’ reactions to this movement was investigated. The survey was actually a part of a larger survey study that, as a deliverable of the EU funded HOME project, was conducted to contribute to the literature by providing an insight about European perspectives on MOOCs, to gain a better understanding of the strategic reasons why a higher education institution is or isn’t involved in MOOCs, and to compare these reasons with the results of similar studies in U.S. After a brief background and history of MOOC movement, following sections of the manuscript present the details (methodology and results of the survey study on the Turkish HE institutions’ strategies regarding adaptation of MOOCs. The final part of the manuscript consists of discussions and conclusions drawn in the light of the results of the study.

  19. Models of technology and change in higher education: an international comparative survey on the current and future use of ICT in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; van der Wende, Marijk

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which scenarios are emerging with respect to the use of ICT in higher education and how future developments can be predicted and strategic choices can be based on that. It seeks to answer the following questions: What strategic responses do institutions make

  20. Peak effect in twinned superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Marchetti, M.C.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    A sharp maximum in the critical current J c as a function of temperature just below the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice has recently been observed in both low- and high-temperature superconductors. This peak effect is strongest in twinned crystals for fields aligned with the twin planes. We propose that this peak signals the breakdown of the collective pinning regime and the crossover to strong pinning of single vortices on the twin boundaries. This crossover is very sharp and can account for the steep drop of the differential resistivity observed in experiments. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  1. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  2. RESULTS OF TESTS OF LIGHTNING-RODS WITH UNIVERSAL CLAMPS BY THE APERIODIC IMPULSES OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING WITH THE PEAK-TEMPORAL PARAMETERS RATIONED ON FOREIGN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Test in obedience to the requirements of row of operating foreign standards of round metallic lightning-rods with the flat metallic universal clamps of the special type on firmness to direct action of аperiodic impulses of current of temporal form 10/350 μs by amplitude of 50 кА (N− class and 100 кА (H− class. Methodology. The order of leadthrough of these tests is certain the followings normative documents: International IEC 62305-1: 2010, Russian national GOST R IEC 62305-1-2010 and German national DIN EN 50164-1:2008 Standards. Results. Conducted on a powerful high-voltage pulsed current of artificial linear lightning with the peak-temporal parameters and admittances of test rationed on the indicated foreign standards rationed that all of the lightning-rods tested in collection with universal clamps, isolating holders and ceramic elements of roof of technical building were survive electrodynamics and electrothermal action of in-use single short blow of an artificial storm digit. Originality. First in domestic practice the similar model tests of lightning-rods are conducted with universal clamps, executed from different explorer materials, on firmness to flowing to on by it the indicated large impulsive currents of artificial lightning. Practical value. Real firmness to lightning of round copper and zincked steel lightning-rods is certain with the flat copper, zincked steel and non-rusting steel universal clamps of the special execution.

  3. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...... fokuspersonen ønsker at tage op (nye mål eller nye processer). Nærværende workingpaper beskriver, hvad der menes med et peak-interview, peakinterviwets teoretiske fundament samt metodikken til at foretage et tillidsfuldt og effektiv peak-interview....

  4. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Fred [Department of Economics, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  5. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  6. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  7. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  8. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  10. Controlling Cu–Sn mixing so as to enable higher critical current densities in RRP® Nb3Sn wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Charlie; Field, Michael; Lee, Peter J.; Miao, Hanping; Parrell, Jeff; Larbalestier, David C.

    2018-06-01

    Dipole magnets for the proposed Future Circular Collider (FCC) demand specifications significantly beyond the limits of all existing Nb3Sn wires, in particular a critical current density (J c) of more than 1500 A mm‑2 at 16 T and 4.2 K with an effective filament diameter (D eff) of less than 20 μm. The restacked-rod-process (RRP®) is the technology closest to meeting these demands, with a J c (16 T) of up to 1400 A mm‑2, residual resistivity ratio > 100, for a sub-element size D s of 58 μm (which in RRP® wires is essentially the same as D eff). An important present limitation of RRP® is that reducing the sub-element size degrades J c to as low as 900 A mm‑2 at 16 T for D s = 35 μm. To gain an understanding of the sources of this J c degradation, we have made a detailed study of the phase evolution during the Cu–Sn ‘mixing’ stages of the wire heat treatment that occur prior to Nb3Sn formation. Using extensive microstructural quantification, we have identified the critical role that the Sn–Nb–Cu ternary phase (Nausite) can play. The Nausite forms as a well-defined ring between the Sn source and the Cu/Nb filament pack, and acts as an osmotic membrane in the 300 °C–400 °C range—greatly inhibiting Sn diffusion into the Cu/Nb filament pack while supporting a strong Cu counter-diffusion from the filament pack into the Sn core. This converts the Sn core into a mixture of the low melting point (408 °C) η phase (Cu6Sn5) and the more desirable ε phase (Cu3Sn), which decomposes at 676 °C. After the mixing stages, when heated above 408 °C towards the Nb3Sn reaction, any residual η liquefies to form additional irregular Nausite on the inside of the membrane. All Nausite decomposes into NbSn2 on further heating, and ultimately transforms into coarse-grain (and often disconnected) Nb3Sn which has little contribution to current transport. Understanding this critical Nausite reaction pathway has allowed us to simplify the mixing heat treatment to

  11. The Current Status of E-learning and Strategies to Enhance Educational Competitiveness in Korean Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghoon Leem

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of e-Learning in Korean higher education and find ways to encourage the further use and development of e-Learning systems that aim to enhance Korea's academic competitiveness. A total of 201 universities in Korea (27 national and public, 163 private, and 11 national universities of education were examined in this study. At the time of the study, 85 percent of the universities and colleges had investigated implementing e-Learning. There were special e-Learning teams in most national and public universities, as well as private universities and colleges. Findings from this study found that both teachers and learners alike, lacked meaningful support systems and opportunities to actively participate in e-Learning programs. Although such lack of support was found to be endemic, such lack of support and opportunity was found to be more accute in private universities, private colleges, universities of education, than mid-sized, small-sized, and provincial universities and colleges. Except for a few mid- and small-sized universities and colleges, most large universities and colleges were equipped with technical support such as infrastructure and operational platforms. These same schools, however, did not provide institutional support, nor did they employ appropriate policies needed to further the quality and enhancement of e-Learning offerings. Also, there was no meaningful link found between schools and industry, nor was there adequate financial support in place for the implementation of e-Learning systems, simply because many universities failed to allocate sufficient funding for e-Learning.In conclusion, the strategies for enhancing university competitiveness through e-Learning are as follows: 1 establishing support strategies according to the types of universities; 2 developing quality assurance systems for e-Learning; 3 enhancing support systems for professors and learners; 4 developing

  12. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montellano, Andres Garcia Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themessl, N.

    2018-01-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However......, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible...... of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler....

  13. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Saravia Ortiz de Montellano, Andrés; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.

    2018-05-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection that is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak-detection algorithm especially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterizes the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterize the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  14. Analysis of Expediency to Apply LCL Model with Source of Higher Harmonics of Current While Investigating Resonance Condition of Power Supply Network

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pavlovsky; A. Shimansky; Z. Fialkovsky

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.

  15. Analysis of Expediency to Apply LCL Model with Source of Higher Harmonics of Current While Investigating Resonance Condition of Power Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavlovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.

  16. Actuality the process of relaxation on the lessons of physical training on the current stage of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vankova A.U.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Facilities are considered of making healthy for the improvement of ability to resist stress situations of students. Engaged in a physical culture in the net of educational clock must be conducted in the institute of higher before and after the special disciplines. Application of method of relaxation together with musical accompaniment promote claim of higher type of pedagogical organization of employments. A chronic mental overstrain without the sufficient physical discharging results in a nervous overstrain, negative emotions, deficit of time, violation of the mode of labour and rest, reduction of possibility of physical activity.

  17. The Impact of the Current Economic Crisis on the Demand for Higher Education: An Analysis of Spanish Distance Education Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina-Paz, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Oromendía, Ainhoa; Sevilla-Sevilla, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Spain is currently experiencing a difficult economic situation, and in recent years a significant change has been observed in the behavior of the demand for educational programs as a result of this situation. Recent studies reveal a change in student demand that does not have the same effect on all academic institutions. Bearing this behavior in…

  18. The Current Provision for Further and Higher Education in Wales. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1627.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, D. T.

    Provision for postsecondary higher education in Wales, the nature of the Welsh system, and future concerns are discussed. The roles of the Welsh Office and the Welsh Joint Education Committee contrast greatly with central organizations in England. There is one university in Wales, comprising seven constituent colleges. Additional institutions in…

  19. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Evidence for a Higher Number of Species of Odontotermes (Isoptera) than Currently Known from Peninsular Malaysia from Mitochondrial DNA Phylogenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shawn; Kirton, Laurence G.; Panandam, Jothi M.; Siraj, Siti S.; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Tan, Soon-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Termites of the genus Odontotermes are important decomposers in the Old World tropics and are sometimes important pests of crops, timber and trees. The species within the genus often have overlapping size ranges and are difficult to differentiate based on morphology. As a result, the taxonomy of Odontotermes in Peninsular Malaysia has not been adequately worked out. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of 40 samples of Odontotermes from Peninsular Malaysia using two mitochondrial DNA regions, that is, the 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes, to aid in elucidating the number of species in the peninsula. Phylogenies were reconstructed from the individual gene and combined gene data sets using parsimony and likelihood criteria. The phylogenies supported the presence of up to eleven species in Peninsular Malaysia, which were identified as O. escherichi, O. hainanensis, O. javanicus, O. longignathus, O. malaccensis, O. oblongatus, O. paraoblongatus, O. sarawakensis, and three possibly new species. Additionally, some of our taxa are thought to comprise a complex of two or more species. The number of species found in this study using DNA methods was more than the initial nine species thought to occur in Peninsular Malaysia. The support values for the clades and morphology of the soldiers provided further evidence for the existence of eleven or more species. Higher resolution genetic markers such as microsatellites would be required to confirm the presence of cryptic species in some taxa. PMID:21687629

  1. Current practices in the prediction and prevention of preterm birth in patients with higher-order multiple gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily; Hunter, Tiffany; Okun, Nanette; Farine, Dan

    2015-05-01

    We sought to determine the interventions utilized by maternal-fetal medicine specialists in the prediction and prevention of preterm labor in higher-order multiple (HOM) gestations. Online questionnaires and email surveys were sent to all the maternal-fetal medicine specialists in Canada (n=122). Questionnaire items included interventions physicians routinely recommended for HOM gestations including: (1) bed rest; (2) cervical length measurement on transvaginal ultrasound; (3) corticosteroids use; (4) cerclage; and (5) tocolytic therapy. Response rate was 66% (81/122), with 68% of respondents in practice for >10 years. Of physicians, 91% did not routinely recommend bed rest (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7-97.2). In all, 82% (95% CI, 73.63-90.4%) recommended routine cervical length assessment with 32.3% (95% CI, 20.7-43.2) and 37.1% (95% CI, 25.3-48.6) of this group suggesting assessment at 16-18 and 19-21 weeks, respectively. Frequency of assessment varied from biweekly (53.3%; 95% CI, 40.9-65.0), to monthly (23.3%; 95% CI, 12.8-33.1), to a single measurement repeated only if abnormal (12.5%; 95% CI, 4.5-20.8). In all, 28% (95% CI, 18.2-37.8) recommended routine administration of corticosteroids for lung maturation. Timing of administration varied, with 24% initiating steroids between 24-26 weeks, 59% between 27-28 weeks, and 17% after 28 weeks. None reported routine cerclage placement. However, 71% (95% CI, 61.1-80.8) would perform cerclage based on history or ultrasound. Of respondents, 81% (95% CI, 72.4-89.5) would consider using tocolytic agents for threatened preterm labor including calcium channel blockers (94%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (5%), and nitroglycerin transdermal patch (24%). The variable practice guidelines and paucity of data for management of HOM pregnancy places the onus on individual practitioners to develop their own management schemes. This results in heterogeneous management, which is based on conflicting international

  2. An Overview of the Current State of Women’s Leadership in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia and a Proposal for Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzah Alsubaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predominance of perspectives on women’s leadership, which consistently emphasize the underrepresentation of women in virtually every sphere of political and economic life in countries around the world, very little is known about women’s leadership, especially in higher education, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. This has resulted in a gap in the literature, since higher education is one area of employment where Saudi women have made progress, and in spite of complex social, religious, cultural and organisational barriers, some have broken through the glass ceiling into higher education leadership. One goal of this paper is to highlight, through a synthesis of existing literature, the current state of women’s higher education leadership in Saudi Arabia. The second goal of this paper is to propose new directions for future research to address the current dearth of empirical work on women’s leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia. This may be relevant to other regions of the Middle East and elsewhere.

  3. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  4. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  5. Comparison of the peak resolution and the stationary phase retention between the satellite and the planetary motions using the coil satellite centrifuge with counter-current chromatographic separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl sugar derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Zaima, Kazumasa; Harada, Yukina; Yasue, Miho; Harikai, Naoki; Tokura, Koji; Ito, Yoichiro

    2017-01-20

    Coil satellite centrifuge (CSC) produces the complex satellite motion consisting of the triplicate rotation of the coiled column around three axes including the sun axis (the angular velocity, ω 1 ), the planet axis (ω 2 ) and the satellite axis (the central axis of the column) (ω 3 ) according to the following formula: ω 1 =ω 2 +ω 3 . Improved peak resolution in the separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl sugar derivatives was achieved using the conventional multilayer coiled columns with ethyl acetate/1-butanol/water (3: 2: 5, v/v) for the lower mobile phase at the combination of the rotation speeds (ω 1 , ω 2 , ω 3 )=(300, 150, 150rpm), and (1:4:5, v/v) for the upper mobile phase at (300:100:200rpm). The effect of the satellite motion on the peak resolution and the stationary phase retention was evaluated by each CSC separation with the different rotation speeds of ω 2 and ω 3 under the constant revolution speed at ω 1 =300rpm. With the lower mobile phase, almost constant peak resolution and stationary phase retention were yielded regardless of the change of ω 2 and ω 3 , while with the upper mobile phase these two values were sensitively varied according to the different combination of ω 2 and ω 3 . For example, when ω 2 =147 or 200rpm is used, no stationary phase was retained in the coiled column while ω 2 =150rpm could retain enough volume of stationary phase for separation. On the other hand, the combined rotation speeds at (ω 1 , ω 2 , ω 3 )=(300, 300, 0rpm) or (300, 0, 300rpm) produced insufficient peak resolution regardless of the choice of the mobile phase apparently due to the lack of rotation speed except at (300, 0, 300rpm) with the upper mobile phase. At lower rotation speed of ω 1 =300rpm, better peak resolution and stationary phase retention were obtained by the satellite motion (ω 3 ) than by the planetary motion (ω 2 ), or ω 3 >ω 2 . The effect of the hydrophobicity of the two-phase solvent systems on the stationary phase

  6. Limitation of peak fitting and peak shape methods for determination of activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sunta, C M; Piters, T M; Watanabe, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the limitation of general order peak fitting and peak shape methods for determining the activation energy of the thermoluminescence glow peaks in the cases in which retrapping probability is much higher than the recombination probability and the traps are filled up to near saturation level. Right values can be obtained when the trap occupancy is reduced by using small doses or by post-irradiation partial bleaching. This limitation in the application of these methods has not been indicated earlier. In view of the unknown nature of kinetics in the experimental samples, it is recommended that these methods of activation energy determination should be applied only at doses well below the saturation dose.

  7. Peak Running Intensity of International Rugby: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Pryor, John F; Stewart, Andrew M; Dascombe, Ben J; Duthie, Grant M

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies. Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from 2 nations across 33 international matches. A moving-average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m/min), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m/s 2 ), and average metabolic power (P met ) for a range of durations (1-10 min). Differences between positions and durations were described using a magnitude-based network. Peak running intensity increased as the length of the moving average decreased. There were likely small to moderate increases in relative distance and AveAcc for outside backs, halfbacks, and loose forwards compared with the tight 5 group across all moving-average durations (effect size [ES] = 0.27-1.00). P met demands were at least likely greater for outside backs and halfbacks than for the tight 5 (ES = 0.86-0.99). Halfbacks demonstrated the greatest relative distance and P met outputs but were similar to outside backs and loose forwards in AveAcc demands. The current study has presented a framework to describe the peak running intensities achieved during international rugby competition by position, which are considerably higher than previously reported whole-period averages. These data provide further knowledge of the peak activity profiles of international rugby competition, and this information can be used to assist coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

  8. Peak effect in surface resistance at microwave frequencies in Dy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the measurements at both frequencies the induced microwave current was always less than the critical current of the films. The reason for observation of this peak effect in these films has been explained in our earlier publication [5]. Comparing figures 1 and 2, it is observed that the peaks in sample S1 are broader and.

  9. Analysis of fuel end-temperature peaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Jiang, Q.; Lai, L.; Shams, M. [CANDU Energy Inc., Fuel Engineering Dept., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    During normal operation and refuelling of CANDU® fuel, fuel temperatures near bundle ends will increase due to a phenomenon called end flux peaking. Similar phenomenon would also be expected to occur during a postulated large break LOCA event. The end flux peaking in a CANDU fuel element is due to the fact that neutron flux is higher near a bundle end, in contact with a neighbouring bundle or close to heavy water coolant, than in the bundle mid-plane, because of less absorption of thermal neutrons by Zircaloy or heavy water than by the UO{sub 2} material. This paper describes Candu Energy experience in analysing behaviour of bundle due to end flux peaking using fuel codes FEAT, ELESTRES and ELOCA. (author)

  10. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  11. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  12. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Ronald; Mahieu, Ronald; Schlichter, Felix

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to allocate optimal positions in peak and off-peak forward contracts. It is shown that the optimal allocations are based on the difference in risk premiums per unit of day-ahead risk as a measure of relati...

  13. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  14. Peaking-factor of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Noboru; Kato, Yasuji; Yokoi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Output peaking factor often plays an important role in the safety and operation of nuclear reactors. The meaning of the peaking factor of PWRs is categorized into two features or the peaking factor in core (FQ-core) and the peaking factor on the basis of accident analysis (or FQ-limit). FQ-core is the actual peaking factor realized in nuclear core at the time of normal operation, and FQ-limit should be evaluated from loss of coolant accident and other abnormal conditions. If FQ-core is lower than FQ-limit, the reactor may be operated at full load, but if FQ-core is larger than FQ-limit, reactor output should be controlled lower than FQ-limit. FQ-core has two kinds of values, or the one on the basis of nuclear design, and the other actually measured in reactor operation. The first FQ-core should be named as FQ-core-design and the latter as FQ-core-measured. The numerical evaluation of FQ-core-design is as follows; FQ-core-design of three-dimensions is synthesized with FQ-core horizontal value (X-Y) and FQ-core vertical value, the former one is calculated with ASSY-CORE code, and the latter one with one dimensional diffusion code. For the evaluation of FQ-core-measured, on-site data observation from nuclear reactor instrumentation or off-site data observation is used. (Iwase, T.)

  15. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  16. Robust Peak Recognition in Intracranial Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsneider Marvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The waveform morphology of intracranial pressure pulses (ICP is an essential indicator for monitoring, and forecasting critical intracranial and cerebrovascular pathophysiological variations. While current ICP pulse analysis frameworks offer satisfying results on most of the pulses, we observed that the performance of several of them deteriorates significantly on abnormal, or simply more challenging pulses. Methods This paper provides two contributions to this problem. First, it introduces MOCAIP++, a generic ICP pulse processing framework that generalizes MOCAIP (Morphological Clustering and Analysis of ICP Pulse. Its strength is to integrate several peak recognition methods to describe ICP morphology, and to exploit different ICP features to improve peak recognition. Second, it investigates the effect of incorporating, automatically identified, challenging pulses into the training set of peak recognition models. Results Experiments on a large dataset of ICP signals, as well as on a representative collection of sampled challenging ICP pulses, demonstrate that both contributions are complementary and significantly improve peak recognition performance in clinical conditions. Conclusion The proposed framework allows to extract more reliable statistics about the ICP waveform morphology on challenging pulses to investigate the predictive power of these pulses on the condition of the patient.

  17. Hubbert's Peak: the Impending World oil Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffeyes, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Global oil production will probably reach a peak sometime during this decade. After the peak, the world's production of crude oil will fall, never to rise again. The world will not run out of energy, but developing alternative energy sources on a large scale will take at least 10 years. The slowdown in oil production may already be beginning; the current price fluctuations for crude oil and natural gas may be the preamble to a major crisis. In 1956, the geologist M. King Hubbert predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s.1 Almost everyone, inside and outside the oil industry, rejected Hubbert's analysis. The controversy raged until 1970, when the U.S. production of crude oil started to fall. Hubbert was right. Around 1995, several analysts began applying Hubbert's method to world oil production, and most of them estimate that the peak year for world oil will be between 2004 and 2008. These analyses were reported in some of the most widely circulated sources: Nature, Science, and Scientific American.2 None of our political leaders seem to be paying attention. If the predictions are correct, there will be enormous effects on the world economy. Even the poorest nations need fuel to run irrigation pumps. The industrialized nations will be bidding against one another for the dwindling oil supply. The good news is that we will put less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The bad news is that my pickup truck has a 25-gallon tank.

  18. Can You Hear That Peak? Utilization of Auditory and Visual Feedback at Peak Limb Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Tristan; de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: At rest, the central nervous system combines and integrates multisensory cues to yield an optimal percept. When engaging in action, the relative weighing of sensory modalities has been shown to be altered. Because the timing of peak velocity is the critical moment in some goal-directed movements (e.g., overarm throwing), the current study…

  19. Particle in cell simulation of peaking switch for breakdown evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbarkar, Sachin B.; Bindu, S.; Mangalvedekar, H.A.; Saxena, A.; Singh, N.M., E-mail: sachin.b.umbarkar@gmail.com [Department of Electric Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai (India); Sharma, Archana; Saroj, P.C.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Marx generator connected to peaking capacitor and peaking switch can generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radiation. A new peaking switch is designed for converting the existing nanosecond Marx generator to a UWB source. The paper explains the particle in cell (PIC) simulation for this peaking switch, using MAGIC 3D software. This peaking switch electrode is made up of copper tungsten material and is fixed inside the hermitically sealed derlin material. The switch can withstand a gas pressure up to 13.5 kg/cm{sup 2}. The lower electrode of the switch is connected to the last stage of the Marx generator. Initially Marx generator (without peaking stage) in air; gives the output pulse with peak amplitude of 113.75 kV and pulse rise time of 25 ns. Thus, we design a new peaking switch to improve the rise time of output pulse and to pressurize this peaking switch separately (i.e. Marx and peaking switch is at different pressure). The PIC simulation gives the particle charge density, current density, E counter plot, emitted electron current, and particle energy along the axis of gap between electrodes. The charge injection and electric field dependence on ionic dissociation phenomenon are briefly analyzed using this simulation. The model is simulated with different gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Air) under different pressure (2 kg/cm{sup 2}, 5 kg/cm{sup 2}, 10 kg/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  20. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  1. Determination of gaussian peaks in gamma spectra by iterative regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The parameters of the peaks in gamma-ray spectra are determined by a simple iterative regression method. For each peak, the parameters are associated with a gaussian curve (3 parameters) located above a linear continuum (2 parameters). This method may produces the complete result of the calculation of statistical uncertainties and an accuracy higher than others methods. (author) [pt

  2. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  3. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Graczyk; Maria Pąchalska; Artur Ziółkowski; Grzegorz Mańko; Beata Łukaszewska; Kazimierz Kochanowicz; Andrzej Mirski; Iurii D. Kropotov

    2014-01-01

    [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneou...

  4. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  5. Evaluation of concurrent peak responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.C.; Curreri, J.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of combining two or more concurrent responses which are induced by dynamic loads acting on nuclear power plant structures. Specifically, the acceptability of using the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) value of peak values as the combined response is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a simplified criterion that is convenient and relatively easy to use by design engineers

  6. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  7. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  8. The Agony and the Ecstasy: Current Status of Hispanic Individuals' Achievement in Higher Education and Earnings - With a Glimpse to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Santos, Gilberto; Asgary, Nader; Nazemzadeh, Asghar; DeShields, Jr., Oscar W.

    2005-01-01

    Some projections about Hispanic individuals point to a rosy picture regarding gains in higher educational enrollment. Other studies lament that these gains are, at best, minimal. Although the so-called higher education pie is undoubtedly expanding, this article concludes that Hispanic adults are losing, rather than gaining, educational attainment…

  9. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  10. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  11. Environmental impacts of public transport. Why peak-period travellers cause a greater environmental burden than off-peak travellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Given the difference between peak and off-peak occupancy rates in public transport, emissions per traveller kilometre are lower in the peak than in the off-peak period, whereas the opposite pattern is observed for cars. It is argued that it is much more fruitful to analyse environmental effects in marginal terms. This calls for a careful analysis of capacity management policies of public transport suppliers that are facing increased demand during both peak and off-peak periods. A detailed analysis of capacity management by the Netherlands Railways (NS) revealed that off-peak capacity supply is mainly dictated by the demand levels during the peak period. The analysis included the effects of increased frequency and increased vehicle size on environmental impacts, while environmental economies of vehicle size were also taken into account. The main conclusion is that the marginal environmental burden during the peak hours is much higher than is usually thought, whereas it is almost zero during the off-peak period. This implies a pattern that is the precise opposite of the average environmental burden. Thus, an analysis of environmental effects of public transport based on average performance would yield misleading conclusions [nl

  12. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  13. An overview of the current state of women’s\\ud leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia\\ud and a proposal for future research directions

    OpenAIRE

    Alsubaie, Azzah; Jones, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Despite the predominance of perspectives on women’s leadership, which consistently emphasize the underrepresentation of women in virtually every sphere of political and economic life in countries around the world, very little is known about women’s leadership, especially in higher education, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This has resulted in a gap in the literature, since higher education is one area of employment where Saudi women have made progress, and in spite of complex social, r...

  14. Peak thrust operation of linear induction machines from parameter identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Eastham, T.R.; Dawson, G.E. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Various control strategies are being used to achieve high performance operation of linear drives. To maintain minimum volume and weight of the power supply unit on board the transportation vehicle, peak thrust per unit current operation is a desirable objective. True peak thrust per unit current through slip control is difficult to achieve because the parameters of linear induction machines vary during normal operation. This paper first develops a peak thrust per unit current control law based on the per-phase equivalent circuit for linear induction machines. The algorithm for identification of the variable parameters in induction machines is then presented. Application to an operational linear induction machine (LIM) demonstrates the utility of this algorithm. The control strategy is then simulated, based on an operational transit LIM, to show the capability of achieving true peak thrust operation for linear induction machines.

  15. Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Current State and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-14-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Frankel, Lois; Roohr, Katrina Crotts

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is one of the most important skills deemed necessary for college graduates to become effective contributors in the global workforce. The first part of this article provides a comprehensive review of its definitions by major frameworks in higher education and the workforce, existing assessments and their psychometric qualities,…

  16. Current Explorations of Adult Learner: Implications for Mentoring and More. Adult Higher Education Alliance Annual Conference Proceedings (36th, Orlando, Florida, March 10-11, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elufiede, Kemi, Ed.; Flynn, Bonnie, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The 36th Annual Adult Higher Education Alliance (AHEA) Conference was held on March 10-11, 2016 in Orlando, Florida, on the campus of the University of Central Florida. There were 48 presentations from scholars and practitioners from 20 states who participated in the conference. The contributions to these proceedings represent the best of the…

  17. Set potential regulation reveals additional oxidation peaks of Geobacter sulfurreducens anodic biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2012-08-01

    Higher current densities produced in microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems are associated with the presence of various Geobacter species. A number of electron transfer components are involved in extracellular electron transfer by the model exoelectrogen, Geobacter sulfurreducens. It has previously been shown that 5 main oxidation peaks can be identified in cyclic voltammetry scans. It is shown here that 7 separate oxidation peaks emerged over relatively long periods of time when a larger range of set potentials was used to acclimate electroactive biofilms. The potentials of oxidation peaks obtained with G. sulfurreducens biofilms acclimated at 0.60 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) were different from those that developed at - 0.46 V, and both of their peaks were different from those obtained for biofilms incubated at - 0.30 V, 0 V, and 0.30 V. These results expand the known range of potentials for which G. sulfurreducens produces identifiable oxidation peaks that could be important for extracellular electron transfer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  19. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  20. Neurofeedback training for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D

    2014-01-01

    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  1. Core fueling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1994-06-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. We show that with radially ''hollow'' diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles which are peaked off-axis. The fueling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fueling does not require MeV particle energy. Even with beam voltages of ∼200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement, τ p much-gt τ E is required to achieve net electrical power generation. In system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fueling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fueling systems with low energy cost per particle (such as cryogenic pellet injection) must be used in power producing tokamaks when τ p ∼ τ E . Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/sec show the peaking factor, n eo /left-angle n e right-angle, approaching 2

  2. Core fuelling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. It is shown that with radially 'hollow' diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles that are peaked off-axis. The fuelling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fuelling does not require Megavolt particle energies. Even with beam voltages of ∼ 200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement is needed to achieve net electrical power generation. The required ratio of particle to thermal diffusivities is an order of magnitude outside the range reported for tokamaks. In a system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fuelling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fuelling systems with low energy cost per particle - such as cryogenic pellet injection - must be used in power producing tokamaks when τ P ∼ τ E . Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/s show that the peaking factor, n e0 / e >, approaches 2. (author). 65 refs, 8 figs

  3. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  4. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  5. New Raman-peak at 1850 cm(-1) observed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes produced by hydrogen arc discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Kadowaki, Y; Inoue, S; Ohkohchi, M; Zhao, X; Ando, Y

    2010-06-01

    The new peak (near 1850 cm(-1)) assigned to carbon linear chain included in the centre of very thin innermost multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) has been verified by Raman spectroscopy. These MWNTs were produced by dc arc discharge of pure graphite rods in pure hydrogen gas and existed in the cathode deposit. In this paper, we clarified that the new Raman-peaks could also be observed in the cathode deposit including MWNTs produced by hydrogen dc arc discharge using graphite electrode with added Y or La. By changing the quantity of addition (Y or La), dc arc current and pressure of ambient hydrogen gas, the optimum condition to get maximum intensity of the new Raman-peaks was obtained. For the case of 1 wt% La, dc 50 A, H2 pressure of 50 Torr was found to be optimum, and the intensity of new Raman-peak was even higher than the G-band peak. For the case of 1 wt% Y, dc 50 A, H2 pressure of 50 Torr was optimum, but the intensity of new Raman-peak was weaker than the G-band peak. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the crystallinity of MWNTs produced with pure graphite rod was better than those produced with added Y or La.

  6. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Erik, E-mail: e.g.j.blokhuis@tue.nl [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brouwers, Bart [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, Eric van der [Endinet, Gas and Electricity Network Operations, P.O. Box 2005, 5600CA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schaefer, Wim [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Building and Planning, Vertigo 8.11, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: > Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. > Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. > Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. > The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. > Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  7. Peak loads and network investments in sustainable energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhuis, Erik; Brouwers, Bart; Putten, Eric van der; Schaefer, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Current energy distribution networks are often not equipped for facilitating expected sustainable transitions. Major concerns for future electricity networks are the possibility of peak load increases and the expected growth of decentralized energy generation. In this article, we focus on peak load increases; the effects of possible future developments on peak loads are studied, together with the consequences for the network. The city of Eindhoven (the Netherlands) is used as reference city, for which a scenario is developed in which the assumed future developments adversely influence the maximum peak loads on the network. In this scenario, the total electricity peak load in Eindhoven is expected to increase from 198 MVA in 2009 to 591-633 MVA in 2040. The necessary investments for facilitating the expected increased peak loads are estimated at 305-375 million Euros. Based upon these projections, it is advocated that - contrary to current Dutch policy - choices regarding sustainable transitions should be made from the viewpoint of integral energy systems, evaluating economic implications of changes to generation, grid development, and consumption. Recently applied and finished policies on energy demand reduction showed to be effective; however, additional and connecting policies on energy generation and distribution should be considered on short term. - Highlights: → Sustainable energy transitions can result in major electricity peak load increases. → Introduction of heat pumps and electrical vehicles requires network expansion. → Under worst case assumptions, peak loads in Eindhoven increase with 200% until 2040. → The necessary investment for facilitating this 2040 peak demand is Euro 305-375 million. → Future policy choices should be made from the viewpoint of the integral energy system.

  8. Positioning end-of-life care education within the pre-registration therapeutic radiography curriculum: A survey of current practices amongst UK higher education institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: It is essential that all health professionals who come into contact with patients with terminal diagnoses are equipped to effectively and competently provide end of life care. This study aims to investigate the manner in which Higher Education Institutions address this requirement with their programmes of pre-registration therapeutic radiography education. Method: A structured survey was administered electronically to all UK universities with responsibility for therapeutic radiography education. The scope of the survey addressed mode and duration of end of life care education, its location, curricular assessment, identifiable barriers and best practice. Results: All respondents confirmed the presence of dedicated end of life care education within their curriculum. Variation in the duration and location of this education is reported as are approaches to assessment of associated skills and knowledge. Analysis of respondent commentary has identified three themes-preparedness for the clinical role, dissonance between technology and care, and holistic approaches to course design. Conclusion: Respondents have highlighted the importance of end of life care instruction with their programmes of study and identified aspects of the mode and duration of its delivery. Inclusion of this aspect of study may be problematic in the face of competing demands arising from the volume and complexity of the curriculum. Practical experience of end of life care predominantly occurs within the radiotherapy department, although there is scope to explore opportunities within the hospice and community care setting. - Highlights: • Effective end of life care training within radiotherapy radiography programmes is necessary. • Universities confirm the inclusion of end of life care training in their curriculum. • Variations in contact time and mode of delivery are reported. • The majority of end of life care practice experience is gained within the radiotherapy department. • Wider

  9. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll B Ronan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min. All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique. Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments.

  10. [A new peak detection algorithm of Raman spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Liang, Jing-Qiu; An, Yan; Liu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The authors proposed a new Raman peak recognition method named bi-scale correlation algorithm. The algorithm uses the combination of the correlation coefficient and the local signal-to-noise ratio under two scales to achieve Raman peak identification. We compared the performance of the proposed algorithm with that of the traditional continuous wavelet transform method through MATLAB, and then tested the algorithm with real Raman spectra. The results show that the average time for identifying a Raman spectrum is 0.51 s with the algorithm, while it is 0.71 s with the continuous wavelet transform. When the signal-to-noise ratio of Raman peak is greater than or equal to 6 (modern Raman spectrometers feature an excellent signal-to-noise ratio), the recognition accuracy with the algorithm is higher than 99%, while it is less than 84% with the continuous wavelet transform method. The mean and the standard deviations of the peak position identification error of the algorithm are both less than that of the continuous wavelet transform method. Simulation analysis and experimental verification prove that the new algorithm possesses the following advantages: no needs of human intervention, no needs of de-noising and background removal operation, higher recognition speed and higher recognition accuracy. The proposed algorithm is operable in Raman peak identification.

  11. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  12. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  13. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  14. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  15. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  16. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Draxler, M; Taglauer, E; Schmid, K; Gruber, R; Ermolov, S N; Bauer, P

    2003-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from approx 2 atomic...

  17. Superoxide dismutase levels and peak expiratory flow in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Kurniasih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory process which involve variety of cells such as inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and cytokines. The inflammatory process would be exacerbated in the presence of oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first important enzyme to protect the respiratory tract against oxidative stress. The decreased of SOD has a correlation with increased of airway obstruction and bronchospasm. Objective To assess for a correlation between superoxide dismutase (SOD levels and peak expiratory flow, as well as to determine the impact of SOD levels for predicting asthma attacks. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, between February and April 2011 involving asthmatic children aged 5-18 years. Subjects’ serum SOD levels and peak expiratory flow were measured at the same time point. We then performed a prospective study following up on the same subjects to find out if they had a recurrent asthma attack within one month of the tests. We also reassessed their peak expiratory flow one month after blood specimens were obtained. Results Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. There was no significant correlation between SOD level and peak expiratory flow [r=0.289; 95%CI -0.025 to 0.47; P=0.074]. However, older age was significantly associated with higher peak expiratory flow (=0.5; 95%CI 3.10 to 11.57; P=0.01. Lower levels of SOD increased the risk of asthma attacks in a month following the initial measurements (RR=5.5; 95%CI 1.6 to 18.9; P=0.009. Conclusion Superoxide dismutase (SOD level is not significantly associated with peak expiratory flow. However, we find a relationship between older age and higher peak expiratory flow and a relationship between lower SOD levels and risk of asthma attacks within one month following the tests.

  18. Impacts of rising air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak electricity load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew; Chester, Mikhail; Johnson, Nathan; Gorman, Brandon; Eisenberg, Daniel; Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Climate change may constrain future electricity supply adequacy by reducing electric transmission capacity and increasing electricity demand. The carrying capacity of electric power cables decreases as ambient air temperatures rise; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity loads typically increase with hotter air temperatures due to increased air conditioning usage. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher ambient air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by simultaneously reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity load. We estimate the impacts of rising ambient air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak per-capita electricity load for 121 planning areas in the United States using downscaled global climate model projections. Together, these planning areas account for roughly 80% of current peak summertime load. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with future temperature projections to determine the percent change in rated ampacity. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity load by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), increases in ambient air temperature may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 1.9%-5.8% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak per-capita summertime loads may rise by 4.2%-15% on average due to increases in ambient air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs and transmission infrastructure upgrades, these load increases have the potential to upset current assumptions about future electricity supply adequacy.

  19. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  20. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  1. Peak load pricing lowers generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Before a utility implements peak load pricing for different classes of consumers, the costs and the benefits should be compared. The methodology described enables a utility to determine whether peak load pricing should be introduced for specific users. Cost-benefit analyses for domestic consumers and commercial/industrial consumers, showing break-even points are presented. (author)

  2. Peak Shaving Considering Streamflow Uncertainties | Iwuagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric Power Authority. The random ...

  3. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  4. The peak in neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laar, B. van; Yelon, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    For the application of Rietveld profile analysis to neutron powder diffraction data a precise knowledge of the peak profile, in both shape and position, is required. The method now in use employs a Gaussian shaped profile with a semi-empirical asymmetry correction for low-angle peaks. The integrated intensity is taken to be proportional to the classical Lorentz factor calculated for the X-ray case. In this paper an exact expression is given for the peak profile based upon the geometrical dimensions of the diffractometer. It is shown that the asymmetry of observed peaks is well reproduced by this expression. The angular displacement of the experimental profile with respect to the nominal Bragg angle value is larger than expected. Values for the correction to the classical Lorentz factor for the integrated intensity are given. The exact peak profile expression has been incorporated into a Rietveld profile analysis refinement program. (Auth.)

  5. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-07

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at .

  6. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  7. Gnevyshev peaks in solar radio emissions at different frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunspots have a major 11-year cycle, but the years near the sunspot maximum show two or more peaks called GP (Gnevyshev Peaks. In this communication, it was examined whether these peaks in sunspots are reflected in other parameters such as Lyman-α (the chromospheric emission 121.6 nm, radio emissions 242–15 400 MHz emanating from altitude levels 2000–12 000 km, the low latitude (+45° to −45° solar open magnetic flux and the coronal green line emission (Fe XIV, 530.3 nm. In the different solar cycles 20–23, the similarity extended at least upto the level of 609 MHz, but in cycle 22, the highest level was of 242 MHz. The extension to the higher level in cycle 22 does not seem to be related to the cycle strength Rz(max, or to the cycle length.

  8. Does team lifting increase the variability in peak lumbar compression in ironworkers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Gert; Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2012-01-01

    Ironworkers frequently perform heavy lifting tasks in teams of two or four workers. Team lifting could potentially lead to a higher variation in peak lumbar compression forces than lifts performed by one worker, resulting in higher maximal peak lumbar compression forces. This study compared

  9. Peak Operation of Cascaded Hydropower Plants Serving Multiple Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bulk hydropower transmission via trans-provincial and trans-regional power networks in China provides great operational flexibility to dispatch power resources between multiple power grids. This is very beneficial to alleviate the tremendous peak load pressure of most provincial power grids. This study places the focus on peak operations of cascaded hydropower plants serving multiple provinces under a regional connected AC/DC network. The objective is to respond to peak loads of multiple provincial power grids simultaneously. A two-stage search method is developed for this problem. In the first stage, a load reconstruction strategy is proposed to combine multiple load curves of power grids into a total load curve. The purpose is to deal with different load features in load magnitudes, peaks and valleys. A mutative-scale optimization method is then used to determine the generation schedules of hydropower plants. In the second stage, an exterior point search method is established to allocate the generation among multiple receiving power grids. This method produces an initial solution using the load shedding algorithm, and further improves it by iteratively coordinating the generation among different power grids. The proposed method was implemented to the operations of cascaded hydropower plants on Xin-Fu River and another on Hongshui River. The optimization results in two cases satisfied the peak demands of receiving provincial power grids. Moreover, the maximum load difference between peak and valley decreased 12.67% and 11.32% in Shanghai Power Grid (SHPG and Zhejiang Power Grid (ZJPG, exceeding by 4.85% and 6.72% those of the current operational method, respectively. The advantage of the proposed method in alleviating peak-shaving pressure is demonstrated.

  10. PEAK SHIFTS PRODUCED BY CORRELATED RESPONSE TO SELECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor; Turelli, Michael; Slatkin, Montgomery

    1993-02-01

    Traits may evolve both as a consequence of direct selection and also as a correlated response to selection on other traits. While correlated response may be important for both the production of evolutionary novelty and in the build-up of complex characters, its potential role in peak shifts has been neglected empirically and theoretically. We use a quantitative genetic model to investigate the conditions under which a character, Y, which has two alternative optima, can be dragged from one optimum to the other as a correlated response to selection on a second character, X. High genetic correlations between the two characters make the transition, or peak shift, easier, as does weak selection tending to restore Y to the optimum from which it is being dragged. When selection on Y is very weak, the conditions for a peak shift depend only on the location of the new optimum for X and are independent of the strength of selection moving it there. Thus, if the "adaptive valley" for Y is very shallow, little reduction in mean fitness is needed to produce a shift. If the selection acts strongly to keep Y at its current optimum, very intense directional selection on X, associated with a dramatic drop in mean fitness, is required for a peak shift. When strong selection is required, the conditions for peak shifts driven by correlated response might occur rarely, but still with sufficient frequency on a geological timescale to be evolutionarily important. © 1993 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Isotope resolution of the iron peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, R.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    A stack of Lexan detectors from the Apollo 17 mission has been analyzed to obtain Z measurements of sufficient accuracy to resolve the iron peak into its isotopic components. Within this distribution several peaks are present. With the centrally located, most populated peak assumed to be 56 Fe, the measurements imply that the abundances of 54 Fe and 58 Fe are appreciable fractions of the 56 Fe abundance. This result is in agreement with those of Webber et al. and Siegman et al. but in disagreement with the predictions of Tsao et al. (Auth.)

  12. Enhanced vegetation growth peak and its key mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Ahlström, A.; Schwalm, C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Chen, J.; Cook, R. B.; Fang, Y.; Fisher, J. B.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Wei, Y.; Yan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    It remains unclear that whether and how the vegetation growth peak has been shifted globally during the past three decades. Here we used two global datasets of gross primary productivity (GPP) and a satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to characterize recent changes in seasonal peak vegetation growth. The attribution of changes in peak growth to their driving factors was examined with several datasets. We demonstrated that the growth peak of global vegetation has been linearly increasing during the past three decades. About 65% of this trend is evenly explained by the expanding croplands (21%), rising atmospheric [CO2] (22%), and intensifying nitrogen deposition (22%). The contribution of expanding croplands to the peak growth trend was substantiated by measurements from eddy-flux towers, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a global database of plant traits, all of which demonstrated that croplands have a higher photosynthetic capacity than other vegetation types. The contribution of rising atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen deposition are consistent with the positive response of leaf growth to elevated [CO2] (25%) and nitrogen addition (8%) from 346 manipulated experiments. The positive effect of rising atmospheric [CO2] was also well captured by 15 terrestrial biosphere models. However, most models underestimated the contributions of land-cover change and nitrogen deposition, but overestimated the positive effect of climate change.

  13. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  15. Automated Peak Picking and Peak Integration in Macromolecular NMR Spectra Using AUTOPSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradi, Reto; Billeter, Martin; Engeli, Max; Güntert, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    1998-12-01

    A new approach for automated peak picking of multidimensional protein NMR spectra with strong overlap is introduced, which makes use of the program AUTOPSY (automatedpeak picking for NMRspectroscopy). The main elements of this program are a novel function for local noise level calculation, the use of symmetry considerations, and the use of lineshapes extracted from well-separated peaks for resolving groups of strongly overlapping peaks. The algorithm generates peak lists with precise chemical shift and integral intensities, and a reliability measure for the recognition of each peak. The results of automated peak picking of NOESY spectra with AUTOPSY were tested in combination with the combined automated NOESY cross peak assignment and structure calculation routine NOAH implemented in the program DYANA. The quality of the resulting structures was found to be comparable with those from corresponding data obtained with manual peak picking.

  16. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  17. Peak MSC—Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are a critical raw material for many regenerative medicine products, including cell-based therapies, engineered tissues, or combination products, and are on the brink of radically changing how the world of medicine operates. Their unique characteristics, potential to treat many indications, and established safety profile in more than 800 clinical trials have contributed to their current consumption and will only fuel future demand. Given the large target patient populations with typical dose sizes of 10's to 100's of millions of cells per patient, and engineered tissues being constructed with 100's of millions to billions of cells, an unprecedented demand has been created for hMSCs. The fulfillment of this demand faces an uphill challenge in the limited availability of large quantities of pharmaceutical grade hMSCs for the industry—fueling the need for parallel rapid advancements in the biomanufacturing of this living critical raw material. Simply put, hMSCs are no different than technologies like transistors, as they are a highly technical and modular product that requires stringent control over manufacturing that can allow for high quality and consistent performance. As hMSC manufacturing processes are optimized, it predicts a future time of abundance for hMSCs, where scientists and researchers around the world will have access to a consistent and readily available supply of high quality, standardized, and economical pharmaceutical grade product to buy off the shelf for their applications and drive product development—this is “Peak MSC.”

  18. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  19. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  20. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  1. Instream flow needs below peaking hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhous, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a method developed to assist in the determination of instream flow needs below hydroelectric projects operated in a peaking mode. Peaking hydroelectric projects significantly change streamflow over a short period of time; consequently, any instream flow methodology must consider the dual flows associated with peaking projects. The dual flows are the lowest flow and the maximum generation flow of a peaking cycle. The methodology is based on elements of the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and uses habitat, rather than fish numbers or biomas, as at basic response variable. All aquatic animals are subject to the rapid changes in streamflow which cause rapid swings in habitat quality. Some aquatic organisms are relatively fixed in location in the stream while others can move when flows change. The habitat available from a project operated in peaking mode is considered to be the minimum habitat occurring during a cycle of habitat change. The methodology takes in to consideration that some aquatic animals can move and others cannot move during a peaking cycle

  2. Parameter selection for peak alignment in chromatographic sample profiling: Objective quality indicators and use of control samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; van Velzen, E.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    In chromatographic profiling applications, peak alignment is often essential as most chromatographic systems exhibit small peak shifts over time. When using currently available alignment algorithms, there are several parameters that determine the outcome of the alignment process. Selecting the

  3. Projection Effects of Large-scale Structures on Weak-lensing Peak Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuo; Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Wang, Qiao; Fan, Zuhui

    2018-04-01

    High peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps originate dominantly from the lensing effects of single massive halos. Their abundance is therefore closely related to the halo mass function and thus a powerful cosmological probe. However, besides individual massive halos, large-scale structures (LSS) along lines of sight also contribute to the peak signals. In this paper, with ray-tracing simulations, we investigate the LSS projection effects. We show that for current surveys with a large shape noise, the stochastic LSS effects are subdominant. For future WL surveys with source galaxies having a median redshift z med ∼ 1 or higher, however, they are significant. For the cosmological constraints derived from observed WL high-peak counts, severe biases can occur if the LSS effects are not taken into account properly. We extend the model of Fan et al. by incorporating the LSS projection effects into the theoretical considerations. By comparing with simulation results, we demonstrate the good performance of the improved model and its applicability in cosmological studies.

  4. Forecasting natural gas supply in China: Production peak and import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas consumption has increased rapidly in recent years making China a net gas importer. As a nonrenewable energy, the gas resource is exhaustible. Based on the forecast of this article, China's gas production peak is likely to approach in 2022. However, China is currently in the industrialization and urbanization stage, and its natural gas consumption will persistently increase. With China's gas production peak, China will have to face a massive expansion in gas imports. As the largest developing country, China's massive imports of gas will have an effect on the international gas market. In addition, as China's natural gas price is still controlled by the government and has remained at a low level, the massive imports of higher priced gas will exert great pressure on China's gas price reform. - Highlights: ► We figured out the natural gas production peak of China. ► We predict the import trends of natural gas of China. ► We study the international and national impacts of China's increasing import of gas. ► It is important for China to accelerate price reformation of natural gas.

  5. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  6. Statistics of peaks of Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bond, J.R.; Kaiser, N.; Szalay, A.S.; Stanford Univ., CA; California Univ., Berkeley; Cambridge Univ., England; Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A set of new mathematical results on the theory of Gaussian random fields is presented, and the application of such calculations in cosmology to treat questions of structure formation from small-amplitude initial density fluctuations is addressed. The point process equation is discussed, giving the general formula for the average number density of peaks. The problem of the proper conditional probability constraints appropriate to maxima are examined using a one-dimensional illustration. The average density of maxima of a general three-dimensional Gaussian field is calculated as a function of heights of the maxima, and the average density of upcrossing points on density contour surfaces is computed. The number density of peaks subject to the constraint that the large-scale density field be fixed is determined and used to discuss the segregation of high peaks from the underlying mass distribution. The machinery to calculate n-point peak-peak correlation functions is determined, as are the shapes of the profiles about maxima. 67 references

  7. Peak Oil, threat or energy worlds' phantasm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Peak Oil is based on the work of King Hubbert, a petroleum geologist who worked for Shell in the USA in the 1960's. Based on the fact that discoveries in America reached a maximum in the 1930's, he announced that American production would reach a maximum in 1969, which did actually occur. Geologists members of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil have extrapolated this result to a worldwide scale and, since oil discoveries reached a peak in the 1960's, argued that production will peak in the very near future. It is clear that hydrocarbon reserves are finite and therefore exhaustible. But little is known regarding the level of ultimate (i.e. total existing) reserves. There are probably very large reserves of non conventional oil in addition to the reserves of conventional oil. An increasing number of specialists put maximum production at less than 100 Mb/d more for geopolitical than physical reasons. Attainable peak production will probably vary from year to year and will depend on how crude oil prices develop

  8. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait). Div. of Environment and Urban Development

    2005-07-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  11. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  12. Demand Side Management: An approach to peak load smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi

    A preliminary national-level analysis was conducted to determine whether Demand Side Management (DSM) programs introduced by electric utilities since 1992 have made any progress towards their stated goal of reducing peak load demand. Estimates implied that DSM has a very small effect on peak load reduction and there is substantial regional and end-user variability. A limited scholarly literature on DSM also provides evidence in support of a positive effect of demand response programs. Yet, none of these studies examine the question of how DSM affects peak load at the micro-level by influencing end-users' response to prices. After nearly three decades of experience with DSM, controversy remains over how effective these programs have been. This dissertation considers regional analyses that explore both demand-side solutions and supply-side interventions. On the demand side, models are estimated to provide in-depth evidence of end-user consumption patterns for each North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) region, helping to identify sectors in regions that have made a substantial contribution to peak load reduction. The empirical evidence supports the initial hypothesis that there is substantial regional and end-user variability of reductions in peak demand. These results are quite robust in rapidly-urbanizing regions, where air conditioning and lighting load is substantially higher, and regions where the summer peak is more pronounced than the winter peak. It is also evident from the regional experiences that active government involvement, as shaped by state regulations in the last few years, has been successful in promoting DSM programs, and perhaps for the same reason we witness an uptick in peak load reductions in the years 2008 and 2009. On the supply side, we estimate the effectiveness of DSM programs by analyzing the growth of capacity margin with the introduction of DSM programs. The results indicate that DSM has been successful in offsetting the

  13. Climate Change Impacts on Peak Electricity Consumption: US vs. Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffhammer, M.

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change impacts on the electric sector will account for the majority of global economic damages by the end of the current century and beyond. This finding is at odds with the relatively modest increase in climate driven impacts on consumption. Comprehensive high frequency load balancing authority level data have not been used previously to parameterize the relationship between electric demand and temperature for any major economy. Using statistical models we analyze multi-year data from load balancing authorities in the United States of America and the European Union, which are responsible for more than 90% of the electricity delivered to residential, industrial, commercial and agricultural customers. We couple the estimated response functions between total daily consumption and daily peak load with an ensemble of downscaled GCMs from the CMIP5 archive to simulate climate change driven impacts on both outcomes. We show moderate and highly spatially heterogeneous changes in consumption. The results of our peak load simulations, however, suggest significant changes in the intensity and frequency of peak events throughout the United States and Europe. As the electricity grid is built to endure maximum load, which usually occurs on the hottest day of the year, our findings have significant implications for the construction of costly peak generating and transmission capacity.

  14. Standardization of I-125. Sum-Peak Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2011-01-01

    I-125 is a nuclide which presents difficulties for standardization. The sum-peak method is one of the procedures used to standardize this radionuclide. Initially NaI (Tl)detectors and then the semiconductor detectors with higher resolution have been used.This paper describes the different methods based on the sum-peak procedure and the different expressions used to calculate the activity are deduced. We describe a general procedure for obtaining all of the above equations and many more. We analyze the influence of uncertainties in the used parameters in the uncertainty of the activity. We give a complete example of the transmission of uncertainty and the effects of correlations in the uncertainty of the activity of the sample. High-resolution spectra show an unresolved doublet of 62.0 keV and 62.8 keV. The paper presents two approaches to solve this problem. One is based on the calculation of area ratio and the sum of peak areas obtained from atomic and nuclear data, in the other we modify the equations so that the sum of the peak areas doublet, rather than its components, is present. (Author) 19 refs.

  15. Standardization of I-125. Sum-Peak Coincidence Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2011-07-01

    I-125 is a nuclide which presents difficulties for standardization. The sum-peak method is one of the procedures used to standardize this radionuclide. Initially NaI (Tl)detectors and then the semiconductor detectors with higher resolution have been used.This paper describes the different methods based on the sum-peak procedure and the different expressions used to calculate the activity are deduced. We describe a general procedure for obtaining all of the above equations and many more. We analyze the influence of uncertainties in the used parameters in the uncertainty of the activity. We give a complete example of the transmission of uncertainty and the effects of correlations in the uncertainty of the activity of the sample. High-resolution spectra show an unresolved doublet of 62.0 keV and 62.8 keV. The paper presents two approaches to solve this problem. One is based on the calculation of area ratio and the sum of peak areas obtained from atomic and nuclear data, in the other we modify the equations so that the sum of the peak areas doublet, rather than its components, is present. (Author) 19 refs.

  16. Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Process to a Course Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Susie; Giles, David; Hagan, Bill

    2013-01-01

    While appreciative inquiry (AI) has its origins in organizational development, this article considers the application of AI within a course evaluation in higher education. An AI process was deemed appropriate given its concern for peak performance or life-centric experiences. Former students of a particular course, along with current students,…

  17. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone density are seen even during childhood and adolescence. Hormonal factors. The hormone estrogen has an effect on peak bone mass. For example, women who had their first menstrual cycle at an early age and those who use oral contraceptives, which contain estrogen, often have high bone mineral ...

  18. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    ; this makes the problem essentially more challenging. As our main contribution, we present a simple truthful-in-expectation mechanism that achieves an approximation ratio of 1+b=c for both the social and the maximum, cost, where b is the distance of the agent from the peak and c is the minimum cost...

  19. Liquid waste processing at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes-Edwards, L.M.; Edwards, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the radioactive waste processing at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Topics covered are the following: Reduction of liquid radioactive discharges (system leakage, outage planning); reduction of waste resin generation (waste stream segregation, processing methodology); reduction of activity released and off-site dose. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions

  1. Improved peak detection in mass spectrum by incorporating continuous wavelet transform-based pattern matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pan; Kibbe, Warren A; Lin, Simon M

    2006-09-01

    A major problem for current peak detection algorithms is that noise in mass spectrometry (MS) spectra gives rise to a high rate of false positives. The false positive rate is especially problematic in detecting peaks with low amplitudes. Usually, various baseline correction algorithms and smoothing methods are applied before attempting peak detection. This approach is very sensitive to the amount of smoothing and aggressiveness of the baseline correction, which contribute to making peak detection results inconsistent between runs, instrumentation and analysis methods. Most peak detection algorithms simply identify peaks based on amplitude, ignoring the additional information present in the shape of the peaks in a spectrum. In our experience, 'true' peaks have characteristic shapes, and providing a shape-matching function that provides a 'goodness of fit' coefficient should provide a more robust peak identification method. Based on these observations, a continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based peak detection algorithm has been devised that identifies peaks with different scales and amplitudes. By transforming the spectrum into wavelet space, the pattern-matching problem is simplified and in addition provides a powerful technique for identifying and separating the signal from the spike noise and colored noise. This transformation, with the additional information provided by the 2D CWT coefficients can greatly enhance the effective signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, with this technique no baseline removal or peak smoothing preprocessing steps are required before peak detection, and this improves the robustness of peak detection under a variety of conditions. The algorithm was evaluated with SELDI-TOF spectra with known polypeptide positions. Comparisons with two other popular algorithms were performed. The results show the CWT-based algorithm can identify both strong and weak peaks while keeping false positive rate low. The algorithm is implemented in R and will be

  2. High peak power tubes and gate effect Klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbelot, N.; Bres, M.; Faillon, G.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The conventional microwave tubes such as TWTs, Magnetrons, Klystrons... deliver the very high peak powers which are required by radar transmitters but more especially by many particle accelerators. In the range of a few hundred MHz to about 10 GHz, some dozen of MWs per unit are currently obtained and commercially available, according to the frequency and the pulse lengths. But peak power requirements are ever increasing, especially for the expected new linear particle acceleratores, where several hundred MWs per tube would be necessary. Also some special military transmitters begin to request GW pulses, with short pulse lengths - of course - but at nonnegligible repetition rates. Therefore several laboratories and microwave vacuum tube manufacturers have engaged - for several years - studies and development in the field of very high peak microwave power (HPM) toward two main directions: extended operation and extrapolation of the conventional tubes and devices; development of new concepts, among which the most promising are likely the high-current relativistic klystrons - that are also referred to as gate effect klystrons

  3. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D. Meinert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  4. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  5. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  6. The peak in anomalous magnetic viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocott, S.J.; Watterson, P.A.; Tan, X.H.; Xu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous magnetic viscosity, where the magnetization as a function of time exhibits non-monotonic behaviour, being seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, is observed on recoil lines in bulk amorphous ferromagnets, for certain magnetic prehistories. A simple geometrical approach based on the motion of the state line on the Preisach plane gives a theoretical framework for interpreting non-monotonic behaviour and explains the origin of the peak. This approach gives an expression for the time taken to reach the peak as a function of the applied (or holding) field. The theory is applied to experimental data for bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd 60−x Fe 30 Al 10 Dy x , x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, and it gives a reasonable description of the observed behaviour. The role played by other key magnetic parameters, such as the intrinsic coercivity and fluctuation field, is also discussed. When the non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetization of a number of alloys is viewed in the context of the model, features of universal behaviour emerge, that are independent of alloy composition. - Highlights: • Development of a simple geometrical model based on the Preisach model which gives a complete explanation of the peak in the magnetic viscosity. • Geometrical approach is extended by considering equations that govern the motion of the state line. • The model is used to deduce the relationship between the holding field and the time it takes to reach the peak. • The model is tested with experimental results for a range of Nd–Fe–Al–Dy bulk amorphous ferromagnets. • There is good agreement between the model and the experimental data

  7. Reference values for peak flow and FEV1 variation in healthy schoolchildren using home spirometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. F. J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Brand, P. L. P.

    2008-01-01

    Current reference values for diurnal peak flow variation in healthy children (median 8.2%; 95th percentile 31%) are so high that considerable overlap exists with those of asthmatic children. These values have been obtained using written peak flow diaries, which are unreliable. The aim of the present

  8. Decomposing the Bragg glass and the peak effect in a Type-II superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Balog, Sandor

    2018-01-01

    . In Type-II superconductors, disorder generally works to pin vortices, giving zero resistivity below a critical current j(c). However, peaks have been observed in the temperature and field dependences of j(c). This peak effect is difficult to explain in terms of an ordered Abrikosov vortex lattice. Here we...

  9. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    the number of participants 7.5 persons higher pr. activity compared to club activities. This implies that clubs during peak hours could include more participants. Another possibility to increase utilization is if the management of sport facilities forced sport clubs and other organisers to adapt...... their activities to a smaller amount of floor space, which would make it possible to have more than one activity on the floor at the same time. Hence, to achieve better utilization during prime time, further analysis and research could focus on how activities in sport halls can be adapted to include more......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...

  10. Sensitivity of peak flow to the change of rainfall temporal pattern due to warmer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhel, Sherien; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Han, Dawei

    2018-05-01

    The widely used design storms in urban drainage networks has different drawbacks. One of them is that the shape of the rainfall temporal pattern is fixed regardless of climate change. However, previous studies have shown that the temporal pattern may scale with temperature due to climate change, which consequently affects peak flow. Thus, in addition to the scaling of the rainfall volume, the scaling relationship for the rainfall temporal pattern with temperature needs to be investigated by deriving the scaling values for each fraction within storm events, which is lacking in many parts of the world including the UK. Therefore, this study analysed rainfall data from 28 gauges close to the study area with a 15-min resolution as well as the daily temperature data. It was found that, at warmer temperatures, the rainfall temporal pattern becomes less uniform, with more intensive peak rainfall during higher intensive times and weaker rainfall during less intensive times. This is the case for storms with and without seasonal separations. In addition, the scaling values for both the rainfall volume and the rainfall fractions (i.e. each segment of rainfall temporal pattern) for the summer season were found to be higher than the corresponding results for the winter season. Applying the derived scaling values for the temporal pattern of the summer season in a hydrodynamic sewer network model produced high percentage change of peak flow between the current and future climate. This study on the scaling of rainfall fractions is the first in the UK, and its findings are of importance to modellers and designers of sewer systems because it can provide more robust scenarios for flooding mitigation in urban areas.

  11. Similarities in the dynamical behavior across the classical peak effect and the second magnetization peak in single crystals of 2H-NbSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, A.D.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A.K.; Chandrasekhar Rao, T.V.; Uji, S.; Terashima, T.; Higgins, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The classical peak effect (CPE) and the second magnetization peak (SMP) are two distinct anomalies in critical current of superconductors. A nascent pinned single crystal sample of 2HNbSe 2 (T c (0) ∼7.2 K) shows only the sharp CPE. In a moderately pinned sample (T c (0) ∼6 K), the sharp CPE broadens with the addition of characteristic structure (stepwise amorphization) between the onset and the peak positions of the CPE. Also, there emerges another anomalous peak akin to SMP prior to the CPE. We have looked at samples of 2H-NbSe 2 with intermediate levels of quenched random pinning (T c (0) ∼ 7.1 K) and successfully explored the two peaks down to 50 mK. (author)

  12. Discovery and characterization of the first low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lacertae objects in the very high energy {gamma}-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Karsten

    2009-12-19

    20 years after the discovery of the Crab Nebula as a source of very high energy {gamma}-rays, the number of sources newly discovered above 100 GeV using ground-based Cherenkov telescopes has considerably grown, at the time of writing of this thesis to a total of 81. The sources are of different types, including galactic sources such as supernova remnants, pulsars, binary systems, or so-far unidentified accelerators and extragalactic sources such as blazars and radio galaxies. The goal of this thesis work was to search for {gamma}-ray emission from a particular type of blazars previously undetected at very high {gamma}-ray energies, by using the MAGIC telescope. Those blazars previously detected were all of the same type, the so-called high-peaked BL Lacertae objects. The sources emit purely non-thermal emission, and exhibit a peak in their radio-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution at X-ray energies. The entire blazar population extends from these rare, low-luminosity BL Lacertae objects with peaks at X-ray energies to the much more numerous, high-luminosity infrared-peaked radio quasars. Indeed, the low-peaked sources dominate the source counts obtained from space-borne observations at {gamma}-ray energies up to 10 GeV. Their spectra observed at lower {gamma}-ray energies show power-law extensions to higher energies, although theoretical models suggest them to turn over at energies below 100 GeV. This opened the quest for MAGIC as the Cherenkov telescope with the currently lowest energy threshold. In the framework of this thesis, the search was focused on the prominent sources BL Lac, W Comae and S5 0716+714, respectively. Two of the sources were unambiguously discovered at very high energy {gamma}-rays with the MAGIC telescope, based on the analysis of a total of about 150 hours worth of data collected between 2005 and 2008. The analysis of this very large data set required novel techniques for treating the effects of twilight conditions on the data quality

  13. Discovery and characterization of the first low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lacertae objects in the very high energy γ-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    20 years after the discovery of the Crab Nebula as a source of very high energy γ-rays, the number of sources newly discovered above 100 GeV using ground-based Cherenkov telescopes has considerably grown, at the time of writing of this thesis to a total of 81. The sources are of different types, including galactic sources such as supernova remnants, pulsars, binary systems, or so-far unidentified accelerators and extragalactic sources such as blazars and radio galaxies. The goal of this thesis work was to search for γ-ray emission from a particular type of blazars previously undetected at very high γ-ray energies, by using the MAGIC telescope. Those blazars previously detected were all of the same type, the so-called high-peaked BL Lacertae objects. The sources emit purely non-thermal emission, and exhibit a peak in their radio-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution at X-ray energies. The entire blazar population extends from these rare, low-luminosity BL Lacertae objects with peaks at X-ray energies to the much more numerous, high-luminosity infrared-peaked radio quasars. Indeed, the low-peaked sources dominate the source counts obtained from space-borne observations at γ-ray energies up to 10 GeV. Their spectra observed at lower γ-ray energies show power-law extensions to higher energies, although theoretical models suggest them to turn over at energies below 100 GeV. This opened the quest for MAGIC as the Cherenkov telescope with the currently lowest energy threshold. In the framework of this thesis, the search was focused on the prominent sources BL Lac, W Comae and S5 0716+714, respectively. Two of the sources were unambiguously discovered at very high energy γ-rays with the MAGIC telescope, based on the analysis of a total of about 150 hours worth of data collected between 2005 and 2008. The analysis of this very large data set required novel techniques for treating the effects of twilight conditions on the data quality. This was successfully achieved

  14. Stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellberg, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the technical aspects of a stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgical method for the head is presented. The preparatory radiographic studies are outlined and the stereotactic instrument and positioning of the patient are described. The instrument is so calibrated that after corrections for soft tissue and bone thickness, the Bragg peak superimposes upon the intracranial target. The head is rotated at specific intervals to allow predetermined portals of access for the beam path, all of which converge on the intracranial target. Normally, portals are arranged to oppose and overlap from both sides of the head. Using a number of beams (in sequence) on both sides of the head, the target dose is far greater than the path dose. The procedure normally takes 3/2-2 hours, following which the patient can walk away. (Auth./C.F.)

  15. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Francis F.; Curreli, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T e , drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a

  16. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  17. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site

  18. Commodity hydrogen from off-peak electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Biederman, N.; Konopka, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the use of off-peak electrical power as an energy source for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The present industrial uses for hydrogen are examined to determine if hydrogen produced in this fashion would be competitive with the industry's onsite production or existing hydrogen prices. The paper presents a technical and economic feasibility analysis of the various components required and of the operation of the system as a whole including production, transmission, storage, and markets.

  19. Some practical aspects of peak kilovoltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, A.Y.; Pugh, V.I.; Jeffery, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The peak kilovoltage (kVsub(p)) across the X-ray tube electrodes in diagnostic X-ray machines is a most important parameter, affecting both radiation output and beam quality. Four commercially available non-invasive devices used for kVsub(p) measurement were tested using a selection of generator waveforms. The majority of the devices provided satisfactory measurements of the kVsub(p) to within approximately +- kV provided certain operating conditions are observed. (U.K.)

  20. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  1. Acquisition of peak responding: what is learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Gallistel, Charles R; Allen, Brian D; Frank, Krystal M; Gibson, Jacqueline M; Brunner, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the common measures of timing performance behaved in the course of training on the peak procedure in C3H mice. Following fixed interval (FI) pre-training, mice received 16 days of training in the peak procedure. The peak time and spread were derived from the average response rates while the start and stop times and their relative variability were derived from a single-trial analysis. Temporal precision (response spread) appeared to improve in the course of training. This apparent improvement in precision was, however, an averaging artifact; it was mediated by the staggered appearance of timed stops, rather than by the delayed occurrence of start times. Trial-by-trial analysis of the stop times for individual subjects revealed that stops appeared abruptly after three to five sessions and their timing did not change as training was prolonged. Start times and the precision of start and stop times were generally stable throughout training. Our results show that subjects do not gradually learn to time their start or stop of responding. Instead, they learn the duration of the FI, with robust temporal control over the start of the response; the control over the stop of response appears abruptly later.

  2. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O.; Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E T miss > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m g or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  3. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and monitor the local power peaking coefficients by a method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Constitution: Representative values for the local power distribution can be obtained by determining corresponding burn-up degrees based on the burn-up degree of each of fuel assembly segments obtained in a power distribution monitor and by the interpolation and extrapolation of void coefficients. The typical values are multiplied with compensation coefficients for the control rod effect and coefficients for compensating the effect of adjacent fuel assemblies in a calculation device to obtain typical values for the present local power distribution compensated with all of the effects. Further, the calculation device compares them with typical values of the present local power distribution to obtain an aimed local power peaking coefficient as the maximum value thereof. According to the present invention, since the local power peaking coefficients can be determined not depending on the combination of the kind of fuels, if the combination of fuel assemblies is increased upon fuel change, the amount of operation therefor is not increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  5. Protocols for sagebrush seed processing and seedling production at the Lucky Peak Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark D. Fleege

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the production protocols currently practiced at the USDA Forest Service Lucky Peak Nursery (Boise, ID) for seed processing and bareroot and container seedling production for three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata).

  6. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  7. Chinese emissions peak: Not when, but how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Wang, Xin; Sartor, Oliver; Waisman, Henri

    2016-07-01

    It seems highly likely that China will overachieve its 2020 and 2030 targets, and peak its emissions before 2030 and possibly at a lower level than often assumed. This paper argues that the debate on the timing of the peak is misplaced: what matters is not when by why. For the peak to be seen as a harbinger of deep transformation, it needs to be based on significant macro-economic reform and restructuring, with attendant improvement in energy intensity. The Chinese economic model has been extraordinarily investment and resource intensive, and has driven the growth in GHG emissions. That model is no longer economically or environmentally sustainable. Therefore Chinese policy-makers are faced with a trade-off between slower short-term growth and economic reform, versus supporting short-term growth but slowing economic reform. The outcome will be crucial for the transition to a low-carbon economy. Overall, the 13. FYP (2016-2020) gives the impression of a cautious reflection of the new normal paradigm on the economic front, and a somewhat conservative translation of this shift into the energy and climate targets. Nonetheless, the 13. FYP targets set China well on the way to overachieving its 2020 pledge undertaken at COP15 in Copenhagen, and to potentially overachieving its INDC. It thus seems likely that China will achieve its emissions peak before 2030. However, the crucial question is not when China peaks, but whether the underlying transformation of the Chinese economy and energy system lays the basis for deep decarbonization thereafter. Thorough assessments of the implications of the 'new normal' for Chinese emissions and energy system trajectories, taking into account the link with the Chinese macro-economy, are needed. Scenarios provide a useful framework and should focus on a number of short-term uncertainties. Most energy system and emissions scenarios published today assume a continuity of trends between 2010-2015 and 2015-2020, which is at odds with clear

  8. Hydration-coupled protein boson peak measured by incoherent neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Mikio; Joti, Yasumasa; Kitao, Akio; Shibata, Kaoru; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Tsukushi, Itaru; Go, Nobuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The boson peak of a protein was examined in relation to hydration using staphylococcal nuclease. Although the boson peak is commonly observed in synthetic polymers, glassy materials and amorphous materials, the origin of the boson peak is not fully understood. The motions that contribute to the peak are harmonic vibrations. Upon hydration the peak frequency shifts to a higher frequency and the effective force constant of the vibration increases at low temperatures, suggesting that the protein energy surface is modified. Hydration of the protein leads to a more rugged surface and the vibrational motions are trapped within the local minimum at cryogenic temperatures. The origin of the protein boson peak may be related to this rugged energy surface

  9. Physical performance and peak aerobic power at different body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, U; Ekblom, B

    1979-05-01

    In eight male subjects we studied the effect of different core (esophageal, (Tes 34.9--38.4 degrees C) and muscle (Tm 35.1--39.3 degrees C) temperature on 1) physical performance (time to exhaustion at a standard maximal rate of work, WT), 2) aerobic power (VO2), 3) heart rate (HR), and 4) blood lactate (LA) concentration during exhaustive combined arm and leg exercise. In three subjects the effects at different mean skin temperatures (Tsk 27 and 31 degrees C, respectively) were also studied. Peak VO2 was positively correlated to both Tes (r = 0.88) and Tm (r = 0.91). None of the subjects attained control VO2max at Tes and Tm lower than 37.5 and 38.0 degrees C, respectively. HR was correlated to both Tes (r = 0.97) and Tm (r = 0.95). Different Tsk did not affect peak VO2 and HR at subnormal body temperatures. Pulmonary ventilation was independent of Tes and Tm in all experimental situations. LA was significantly higher at Tes 37.5 degrees C compared to both Tes 34.9 and 38.5 degrees C, respectively. At Tes less than 37.5 degrees C and Tm less than 38.0 degrees C, there was a linear reduction in WT (20%.degrees C-1), peak VO2 (5--6%.degrees C-1), and HR (8 beats.min-1.degrees C-1) with lowered Tes and Tm.

  10. Kinetic energy storage of off-peak electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.; Oldaker, I.E.; Stermscheg, J.

    1975-09-01

    The concept of using large flywheels to store off-peak electricity has been considered. The development of high strength composite materials has made possible improvements in the energy storage capacity of such devices. The problems involved in designing large flywheels and their economic advantages over alternative means of energy storage are discussed. The economic arguments are based on the present or near future capabilities and costs of structural composite materials. The flywheel costs turn out to be considerably higher than for many alternative schemes including advanced batteries, gas turbine generators and pumped storage schemes. (author)

  11. Hurricane Mitch: Peak Discharge for Selected River Reachesin Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark E.; Phillips, Jeffrey V.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch began as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea on 22 October 1998. By 26 October, Mitch had strengthened to a Category 5 storm as defined by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (National Climate Data Center, 1999a), and on 27 October was threatening the northern coast of Honduras (fig. 1). After making landfall 2 days later (29 October), the storm drifted south and west across Honduras, wreaking destruction throughout the country before reaching the Guatemalan border on 31 October. According to the National Climate Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Climate Data Center, 1999b), Hurricane Mitch ranks among the five strongest storms on record in the Atlantic Basin in terms of its sustained winds, barometric pressure, and duration. Hurricane Mitch also was one of the worst Atlantic storms in terms of loss of life and property. The regionwide death toll was estimated to be more than 9,000; thousands of people were reported missing. Economic losses in the region were more than $7.5 billion (U.S. Agency for International Development, 1999). Honduras suffered the most widespread devastation during the storm. More than 5,000 deaths, and economic losses of more than $4 billion, were reported by the Government of Honduras. Honduran officials estimated that Hurricane Mitch destroyed 50 years of economic development. In addition to the human and economic losses, intense flooding and landslides scarred the Honduran landscape - hydrologic and geomorphologic processes throughout the country likely will be affected for many years. As part of the U.S. Government's response to the disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted post-flood measurements of peak discharge at 16 river sites throughout Honduras (fig. 2). Such measurements, termed 'indirect' measurements, are used to determine peak flows when direct measurements (using current meters or dye studies, for example) cannot be made. Indirect measurements of

  12. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W., E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K. [Department for Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, Garching 85748 (Germany); Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V. [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Moser, M.; Dollinger, G. [Institute for Applied Physics and Measurement Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Neubiberg 85577 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within ±30 μm and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 μm. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound

  13. Specific gas turbines for extreme peak-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellot, C.

    1992-12-01

    As with other European countries, in France peak consumption of electricity occurs during winter. Due to the increasing use of electricity for domestic heating, outside temperature greatly influences consumption (1 200 MW for a drop of 1 deg C). To meet requirements during cold spells, EDF has sought to determine which special facilities are best suited for extreme peak load conditions (i.e. offering short lifespan and minimum capital cost) and has studied the possibility of installing generation means in transformer substations (20 kV). This solution does not require extension of networks since these means are scattered near consumption areas. An experiment conducted on 3 Diesel generators of 800 kWe each at Senlis revealed some of the disadvantages of Diesel (maintenance requirements, polluting emissions and noise). EDF then examined, for this same application, the use of gas turbines, for which these drawbacks are significantly less. A study carried out under an EDF contract by the French manufacturer TURBOMECA showed that it is possible to design a small capacity gas turbine that can compete with Diesel generators, and that capital costs could be minimized by simplifying the machine, adapting its lifespan to extreme peak load needs, and taking advantage of lower cost provided by mass production. TURBOMECA defined the machine's characteristics (2 MW, 6 000 hours lifespan) and aerodynamic flow. It also estimated the cost of packaging. In terms of overall cost (including initial investment, maintenance and fuel) the gas turbine appears cheaper than Diesel generators for annual operation times of less than one hundred hours, which corresponds closely with extreme peak load use. The lower maintenance costs and the better availability counterbalance the higher capital cost (+6%) and the greater consumption (+50%). (author). 7 figs

  14. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  15. Octant vectorcardiography - the evaluation by peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufberger, V

    1982-01-01

    From the Frank lead potentials a computer prints out an elementary table. Therein, the electrical space of left ventricle depolarization is divided into eight spatial parts labelled by numbers 1-8 and called octants. Within these octants six peaks are determined labelled with letters ALPR-IS. Their localization is described by six-digit topograms characteristic for each patient. From 300 cases of patients after myocardial infarction, three data bases were compiled enabling every case to be classified into classes, subclasses and types. The follow up of patients according to these principles gives an objective and detailed image about the progress of coronary artery disease.

  16. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  17. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  18. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  19. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  20. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  1. Historical changes in annual peak flows in Maine and implications for flood-frequency analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses use statistical methods to compute peak streamflows for selected recurrence intervals— the average number of years between peak flows that are equal to or greater than a specified peak flow. Analyses are based on annual peak flows at a stream. It has long been assumed that the annual peak streamflows used in these computations were stationary (non-changing) over very long periods of time, except in river basins subject to direct effects of human activities, such as urbanization and regulation. Because of the potential effects of global warming on peak flows, the assumption of peak-flow stationarity has recently been questioned. Maine has many streamgages with 50 to 105 years of recorded annual peak streamflows. In this study, this long-term record has been tested for historical flood-frequency stationarity, to provide some insight into future flood frequency. Changes over time in annual instantaneous peak streamflows at 28 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages with long-term data (50 or more years) and relatively complete records were investigated by examining linear trends for each streamgage’s period of record. None of the 28 streamgages had more than 5 years of missing data. Eight streamgages have substantial streamflow regulation. Because previous studies have suggested that changes over time may have occurred as a step change around 1970, step changes between each streamgage’s older record (start year to 1970) and newer record (1971 to 2006) also were computed. The median change over time for all 28 streamgages is an increase of 15.9 percent based on a linear change and an increase of 12.4 percent based on a step change. The median change for the 20 unregulated streamgages is slightly higher than for all 28 streamgages; it is 18.4 percent based on a linear change and 15.0 percent based on a step change. Peak flows with 100- and 5-year recurrence intervals were computed for the 28 streamgages using the full annual peak-flow record

  2. Computation of peak discharge at culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rolland William

    1957-01-01

    Methods for computing peak flood flow through culverts on the basis of a field survey of highwater marks and culvert geometry are presented. These methods are derived from investigations of culvert flow as reported in the literature and on extensive laboratory studies of culvert flow. For convenience in computation, culvert flow has been classified into six types, according to the location of the control section and the relative heights of the head-water and tail-water levels. The type of flow which occurred at any site can be determined from the field data and the criteria given in this report. A discharge equation has been developed for each flow type by combining the energy and continuity equations for the distance between an approach section upstream from the culvert and a terminal section within the culvert barrel. The discharge coefficient applicable to each flow type is listed for the more common entrance geometries. Procedures for computing peak discharge through culverts are outlined in detail for each of the six flow types.

  3. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  4. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Smart households: Dispatch strategies and economic analysis of distributed energy storage for residential peak shaving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-effectiveness of building-based storage for peak shaving has hitherto not been well understood. • Several existing storage technologies are shown to provide cost-effective peak shaving. • Setting grid demand targets rather than hard demand limits improves economics. • Accounting for seasonal demand variations in storage dispatch strategy improves economics further. • Total-energy-throughput approach is used to determine storage lifetimes. - Abstract: Meeting time-varying peak demand poses a key challenge to the U.S. electricity system. Building-based electricity storage – to enable demand response (DR) without curtailing actual appliance usage – offers potential benefits of lower electricity production cost, higher grid reliability, and more flexibility to integrate renewables. DR tariffs are currently available in the U.S. but building-based storage is still underutilized due to insufficiently understood cost-effectiveness and dispatch strategies. Whether DR schemes can yield a profit for building operators (i.e., reduction in electricity bill that exceeds levelized storage cost) and which particular storage technology yields the highest profit is yet to be answered. This study aims to evaluate the economics of providing peak shaving DR under a realistic tariff (Con Edison, New York), using a range of storage technologies (conventional and advanced batteries, flywheel, magnetic storage, pumped hydro, compressed air, and capacitors). An agent-based stochastic model is used to randomly generate appliance-level demand profiles for an average U.S. household. We first introduce a levelized storage cost model which is based on a total-energy-throughput lifetime. We then develop a storage dispatch strategy which optimizes the storage capacity and the demand limit on the grid. We find that (i) several storage technologies provide profitable DR; (ii) annual profit from such DR can range from 1% to 39% of the household’s non-DR electricity

  6. Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joe P; Blackney, Donna M; Ennis, Erin J

    2017-11-10

    The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ r,Z , μ r,A ] that provides the maximum

  7. Survey on the Assessment of the Current Actual Expenses Incurred by Students on the Meals and Accommodation within and around the Campuses: The Case of Tanzania Higher Education Students' Loans Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyahende, Veronica R.; Bangu, Asangye N.; Chakaza, Benedicto C.

    2015-01-01

    This Survey analyses the current actual expenses incurred by students on the meals and accommodation within and around the campuses. The study was geared towards achieving the following objectives: (i) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for meals In Campus, (ii) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for accommodation…

  8. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports.

  9. Physical activity as a long-term predictor of peak oxygen uptake: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Nauman, Javaid; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Vatten, Lars Johan; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-09-01

    A physically active lifestyle and a relatively high level of cardiorespiratory fitness are important for longevity and long-term health. No population-based study has prospectively assessed the association of physical activity levels with long-term peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). 1843 individuals (906 women and 937 men) who were between 18 and 66 yr at baseline and were free from known lung or heart diseases at both baseline (1984-1986) and follow-up (2006-2008) were included in the study. Self-reported physical activity was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak) was measured at follow-up. The association of physical activity levels and VO(2peak) was adjusted for age, level of education, smoking status, and weight change from baseline to follow-up, using ANCOVA statistics. The level of physical activity at baseline was strongly associated with VO(2peak) at follow-up 23 yr later in both men and women (Ptrends active at baseline had higher (3.3 and 4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) VO(2peak) at follow-up. Women who were inactive at baseline but highly active at follow-up had 3.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) higher VO(2peak) compared with women who were inactive both at baseline and at follow-up. The corresponding comparison in men showed a difference of 5.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% confidence interval = 3.1-7.3) in VO(2peak). Physical activity level at baseline was positively associated with directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)) 23 yr later. People who changed from low to high activity during the observation period had substantially higher V˙O(2peak) at follow-up compared with people whose activity remained low.

  10. Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecha, R.

    2008-12-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some

  11. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  12. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  13. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  14. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  15. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  16. Degree of conversion of resin-based materials cured with dual-peak or single-peak LED light-curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Siobhan M; Santini, Ario; Roebuck, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of data on polymerization of resin-based materials (RBMs) used in paediatric dentistry, using dual-peak light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs). To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of RBMs cured with dual-peak or single-peak LED LCUs. Samples of Vit-l-escence (Ultradent) and Herculite XRV Ultra (Kerr) and fissure sealants Delton Clear and Delton Opaque (Dentsply) were prepared (n = 3 per group) and cured with either one of two dual-peak LCUs (bluephase(®) G2; Ivoclar Vivadent or Valo; Ultradent) or a single-peak (bluephase(®) ; Ivoclar Vivadent). High-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to confirm the presence or absence of initiators other than camphorquinone. The DC was determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Data were analysed using general linear model anova; α = 0.05. With Herculite XRV Ultra, the single-peak LCU gave higher DC values than either of the two dual-peak LCUs (P < 0.05). Both fissure sealants showed higher DC compared with the two RBMs (P < 0.05); the DC at the bottom of the clear sealant was greater than the opaque sealant, (P < 0.05). 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyldiphenylphosphine oxide (Lucirin(®) TPO) was found only in Vit-l-escence. Dual-peak LED LCUs may not be best suited for curing non-Lucirin(®) TPO-containing materials. A clear sealant showed a better cure throughout the material and may be more appropriate than opaque versions in deep fissures. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence Of Number Of Pregnancies In Peak Expiratory Flow And Body Composition Of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Brandao da Costa Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to describe and compare the mean values of the body composition and the peak expiratory flow (PEF in primigravidae and multigravidae and, to determine its correlation with obstetric, anthropometric and body composition variables. Method: it was performed a cross-sectional study of 120 healthy pregnant women at low risk, including 77 primigravidae and 43 multigravidae. The PEF was measured by spirometry and the body composition by multisegmental electrical impedance. The unpaired t test was used to compare the groups and the Pearson correlation test was used to determine the association between PEF and independent variables. A multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the dependent variable, the PEF and the independent variables. Results: the body composition variables in multigravidae women showed higher values compared to the primigravidae, being statistically significant, except for fat mass. In primigravidae, the PEF was correlated significantly with maternal age and height. In multigravidae, the PEF was correlated with maternal age, height, pre-pregnancy and current weight, total body water, extracellular water, fat mass, lean mass and fat-free mass. A Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, in primigravidae, height and maternal age were associated with PEF, being responsible for explaining 14.5% of its variability. The current weight and the maternal age explained 42.3% of peak flow variability in multigravidae. Conclusion: The PEF seemed to be influenced by the number of pregnancies. Changes were observed in relation to the body composition, as it was evidenced in correlation with the PEF in multigravidae women. Keywords: Pregnancy. Spirometry. Weight gain.

  18. OccuPeak: ChIP-Seq peak calling based on internal background modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; van Duijvenboden, Karel; van den Boogaard, Malou; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Barnett, Phil; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq has become a major tool for the genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding or histone modification sites. Most peak-calling algorithms require input control datasets to model the occurrence of background reads to account for local sequencing and GC bias. However, the

  19. Peak Fields of Nb$_{3}$Sn Superconducting Undulators and a Scaling Law

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S H

    2005-01-01

    The peak fields on the beam axis and the maximum fields in the conductor of Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting undulators (SCUs) were calculated for an undulator period length of 16 mm. Using a simple scaling law for SCUs [1], the peak fields, as well as the conductor maximum fields and the current densities, were calculated for a period range of 8 to 32 mm. The critical current densities of commercially available Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands were used for the calculations. The achievable peak fields are limited mainly by the flux-jump instabilities at low fields. The possible or feasible peak field will also be compared with that achieved in prototype development of SCUs.

  20. Novel five-state latch using double-peak negative differential resistance and standard ternary inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2016-04-01

    We propose complement double-peak negative differential resistance (NDR) devices with ultrahigh peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with conventional CMOS and its compact five-state latch circuit by introducing standard ternary inverter (STI). At the “high”-state of STI, n-type NDR device (tunnel diode with nMOS) has 1st NDR characteristics with 1st peak and valley by band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) and trap-assisted tunneling (TAT), whereas p-type NDR device (tunnel diode with pMOS) has second NDR characteristics from the suppression of diode current by off-state MOSFET. The “intermediate”-state of STI permits double-peak NDR device to operate five-state latch with only four transistors, which has 33% area reduction compared with that of binary inverter and 57% bit-density reduction compared with binary latch.

  1. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  2. Fast clustering using adaptive density peak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yifan

    2017-12-01

    Common limitations of clustering methods include the slow algorithm convergence, the instability of the pre-specification on a number of intrinsic parameters, and the lack of robustness to outliers. A recent clustering approach proposed a fast search algorithm of cluster centers based on their local densities. However, the selection of the key intrinsic parameters in the algorithm was not systematically investigated. It is relatively difficult to estimate the "optimal" parameters since the original definition of the local density in the algorithm is based on a truncated counting measure. In this paper, we propose a clustering procedure with adaptive density peak detection, where the local density is estimated through the nonparametric multivariate kernel estimation. The model parameter is then able to be calculated from the equations with statistical theoretical justification. We also develop an automatic cluster centroid selection method through maximizing an average silhouette index. The advantage and flexibility of the proposed method are demonstrated through simulation studies and the analysis of a few benchmark gene expression data sets. The method only needs to perform in one single step without any iteration and thus is fast and has a great potential to apply on big data analysis. A user-friendly R package ADPclust is developed for public use.

  3. Robustness of a Neural Network Model for Power Peak Factor Estimation in Protection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents results of robustness verification of artificial neural network correlations that improve the real time prediction of the power peak factor for reactor protection systems. The input variables considered in the correlation are those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial power differences obtained from measured ex-core detectors, and the position of control rods. The correlations, based on radial basis function (RBF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, estimate the power peak factor, without faulty signals, with average errors between 0.13%, 0.19% and 0.15%, and maximum relative error of 2.35%. The robustness verification was performed for three different neural network correlations. The results show that they are robust against signal degradation, producing results with faulty signals with a maximum error of 6.90%. The average error associated to faulty signals for the MLP network is about half of that of the RBF network, and the maximum error is about 1% smaller. These results demonstrate that MLP neural network correlation is more robust than the RBF neural network correlation. The results also show that the input variables present redundant information. The axial power difference signals compensate the faulty signal for the position of a given control rod, and improves the results by about 10%. The results show that the errors in the power peak factor estimation by these neural network correlations, even in faulty conditions, are smaller than the current PWR schemes which may have uncertainties as high as 8%. Considering the maximum relative error of 2.35%, these neural network correlations would allow decreasing the power peak factor safety margin by about 5%. Such a reduction could be used for operating the reactor with a higher power level or with more flexibility. The neural network correlation has to meet requirements of high integrity software that performs safety grade actions. It is shown that the

  4. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  5. Equivalence of the Boson Peak in Glasses to the Transverse Acoustic van Hove Singularity in Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, A. I.; Monaco, G.; Monaco, A.; Crichton, W. A.; Bosak, A.; Rueffer, R.; Meyer, A.; Kargl, F.; Comez, L.; Fioretto, D.; Giefers, H.; Roitsch, S.; Wortmann, G.; Manghnani, M. H.; Hushur, A.; Balogh, J.; Williams, Q.; Parlinski, K.; Jochym, P.; Piekarz, P.

    2011-01-01

    We compare the atomic dynamics of the glass to that of the relevant crystal. In the spectra of inelastic scattering, the boson peak of the glass appears higher than the transverse acoustic (TA) singularity of the crystal. However, the density of states shows that they have the same number of states. Increasing pressure causes the transformation of the boson peak of the glass towards the TA singularity of the crystal. Once corrected for the difference in the elastic medium, the boson peak matches the TA singularity in energy and height. This suggests the identical nature of the two features.

  6. An Evaluation of Peak Finding for DVR Classification of Biological Data

    KAUST Repository

    Knoll, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In medicine and the life sciences, volume data are frequently entropic, containing numerous features at different scales as well as significant noise from the scan source. Conventional transfer function approaches for direct volume rendering have difficulty handling such data, resulting in poor classification or undersampled rendering. Peak finding addresses issues in classifying noisy data by explicitly solving for isosurfaces at desired peaks in a transfer function. As a result, one can achieve better classification and visualization with fewer samples and correspondingly higher performance. This paper applies peak finding to several medical and biological data sets, particularly examining its potential in directly rendering unfiltered and unsegmented data.

  7. Multi-peak electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission from bull's-eye-shaped metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter R

    2010-08-16

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of the concentric multi-ring, or the bull's eye, structure as an extension of the dual-ring metamaterial which exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission characteristics. Our results show that adding inner rings produces additional EIT-like peaks, and widens the metamaterial's spectral range of operation. Analyses of the dispersion characteristics and induced current distribution further confirmed the peak's EIT-like nature. Impacts of structural and dielectric parameters are also investigated.

  8. Comparative analysis of peak-detection techniques for comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Indu; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tao, Qingping

    2011-09-23

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a powerful technology for separating complex samples. The typical goal of GC×GC peak detection is to aggregate data points of analyte peaks based on their retention times and intensities. Two techniques commonly used for two-dimensional peak detection are the two-step algorithm and the watershed algorithm. A recent study [4] compared the performance of the two-step and watershed algorithms for GC×GC data with retention-time shifts in the second-column separations. In that analysis, the peak retention-time shifts were corrected while applying the two-step algorithm but the watershed algorithm was applied without shift correction. The results indicated that the watershed algorithm has a higher probability of erroneously splitting a single two-dimensional peak than the two-step approach. This paper reconsiders the analysis by comparing peak-detection performance for resolved peaks after correcting retention-time shifts for both the two-step and watershed algorithms. Simulations with wide-ranging conditions indicate that when shift correction is employed with both algorithms, the watershed algorithm detects resolved peaks with greater accuracy than the two-step method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Disha, E-mail: sawant@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: amati@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  10. Steam generator deposit control program assessment at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.; Fellers, B.; Orbon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Comanche Peak has employed a variety of methods to assess the effectiveness of the deposit control program. These include typical methods such as an extensive visual inspection program and detailed corrosion product analysis and trending. In addition, a recently pioneered technique, low frequency eddy current profile analysis (LFEC) has been utilized. LFEC provides a visual mapping of the magnetite deposit profile of the steam generator. Analysis of the LFEC results not only provides general area deposition rates, but can also provide local deposition patterns, which is indicative of steam generator performance. Other techniques utilized include trending of steam pressure, steam generator hideout-return, and flow assisted corrosion (FAC) results. The sum of this information provides a comprehensive assessment of the deposit control program effectiveness and the condition of the steam generator. It also provides important diagnostic and predictive information relative to steam generator life management and mitigative strategies, such as special cleaning procedures. This paper discusses the techniques employed by Comanche Peak Chemistry to monitor the effectiveness of the deposit control program and describes how this information is used in strategic planning. (authors)

  11. Implications of Peak Oil for Industrialized Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Guy R.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2008-01-01

    The world passed the halfway point of oil supply in 2005. World demand for oil likely will severely outstrip supply in 2008, leading to increasingly higher oil prices. Consequences are likely to include increasing gasoline prices, rapidly increasing inflation, and subsequently a series of increasingly severe recessions followed by a worldwide…

  12. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  13. Does team lifting increase the variability in peak lumbar compression in ironworkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Gert; Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    Ironworkers frequently perform heavy lifting tasks in teams of two or four workers. Team lifting could potentially lead to a higher variation in peak lumbar compression forces than lifts performed by one worker, resulting in higher maximal peak lumbar compression forces. This study compared single-worker lifts (25-kg, iron bar) to two-worker lifts (50-kg, two iron bars) and to four-worker lifts (100-kg, iron lattice). Inverse dynamics was used to calculate peak lumbar compression forces. To assess the variability in peak lumbar loading, all three lifting tasks were performed six times. Results showed that the variability in peak lumbar loading was somewhat higher in the team lifts compared to the single-worker lifts. However, despite this increased variability, team lifts did not result in larger maximum peak lumbar compression forces. Therefore, it was concluded that, from a biomechanical point of view, team lifting does not result in an additional risk for low back complaints in ironworkers.

  14. The cost of electrolytic hydrogen from off-peak power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucki, S.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of electrolytic hydrogen depends on the capacity factor of the plant and the cost of electricity. Both these parameters are correlated if off-peak power is to be used for hydrogen production. Based on assumptions regarding the correlation between the electricity price and the availability of electric power, optimizations were run using a simple cost model for the electrolysis plant. The current density at which the electrolysis plant would be run is taken as a variable for optimization as well as the annual time of availability of electric power. The results of the optimizations show for a number of hypothetical electrolyser types that the optimum operation time or electricity price do not depend much on the technology used. Production cost of electrolytic hydrogen can, however, be cut by 30% by using advanced electrolysis technology. (author)

  15. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  16. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak......-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show...... four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate...

  17. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  18. Coinciding exercise with peak serum caffeine does not improve cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Tina L; Jenkins, David G; Taaffe, Dennis R; Leveritt, Michael D; Coombes, Jeff S

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with the onset of exercise enhances subsequent endurance performance. Randomised, double-blind, crossover. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 14 male trained cyclists and triathletes (age 31±5year, body mass 75.4±5.7 kg, VO₂max 69.5±6.1 mL kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and peak power output 417±35W, mean±SD) consumed 6 mg kg(-1) caffeine or a placebo either 1h (C(1h)) prior to completing a 40 km time trial or when the start of exercise coincided with individual peak serum caffeine concentrations (C(peak)). C(peak) was determined from a separate 'caffeine profiling' session that involved monitoring caffeine concentrations in the blood every 30 min over a 4h period. Following caffeine ingestion, peak serum caffeine occurred 120 min in 12 participants and 150 min in 2 participants. Time to complete the 40 km time trial was significantly faster (2.0%; p=0.002) in C(1h) compared to placebo. No statistically significant improvement in performance was noted in the C(peak) trial versus placebo (1.1%; p=0.240). Whilst no differences in metabolic markers were found between C(peak) and placebo conditions, plasma concentrations of glucose (p=0.005), norepinephrine and epinephrine (p≤0.002) were higher in the C(1h) trial 6 min post-exercise versus placebo. In contrast to coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with exercise onset, caffeine consumed 60 min prior to exercise resulted in significant improvements in 40 km time trial performance. The ergogenic effect of caffeine was not found to be related to peak caffeine concentration in the blood at the onset of endurance exercise. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detecting and accounting for multiple sources of positional variance in peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelter, Andrey; Rouchka, Eric C; Moseley, Hunter N B

    2017-08-01

    Peak lists derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are commonly used as input data for a variety of computer assisted and automated analyses. These include automated protein resonance assignment and protein structure calculation software tools. Prior to these analyses, peak lists must be aligned to each other and sets of related peaks must be grouped based on common chemical shift dimensions. Even when programs can perform peak grouping, they require the user to provide uniform match tolerances or use default values. However, peak grouping is further complicated by multiple sources of variance in peak position limiting the effectiveness of grouping methods that utilize uniform match tolerances. In addition, no method currently exists for deriving peak positional variances from single peak lists for grouping peaks into spin systems, i.e. spin system grouping within a single peak list. Therefore, we developed a complementary pair of peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping algorithms designed to overcome these limitations. We have implemented these algorithms into an approach that can identify multiple dimension-specific positional variances that exist in a single peak list and group peaks from a single peak list into spin systems. The resulting software tools generate a variety of useful statistics on both a single peak list and pairwise peak list alignment, especially for quality assessment of peak list datasets. We used a range of low and high quality experimental solution NMR and solid-state NMR peak lists to assess performance of our registration analysis and grouping algorithms. Analyses show that an algorithm using a single iteration and uniform match tolerances approach is only able to recover from 50 to 80% of the spin systems due to the presence of multiple sources of variance. Our algorithm recovers additional spin systems by reevaluating match tolerances in multiple iterations. To facilitate evaluation of the

  20. Origin of the Drude peak and of zero sound in probe brane holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At zero temperature, the charge current operator appears to be conserved, within linear response, in certain holographic probe brane models of strange metals. At small but finite temperature, we analytically show that the weak non-conservation of this current leads to both a collective “zero sound” mode and a Drude peak in the electrical conductivity. This simultaneously resolves two outstanding puzzles about probe brane theories. The nonlinear dynamics of the current operator itself appears qualitatively different.

  1. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  2. A prospective population study of resting heart rate and peak oxygen uptake (the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Nauman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prospective association of resting heart rate (RHR at baseline with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak 23 years later, and evaluated whether physical activity (PA could modify this association. BACKGROUND: Both RHR and VO(2peak are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association of RHR with VO(2peak and modifying effect of PA have not been prospectively assessed in population studies. METHODS: In 807 men and 810 women free from cardiovascular disease both at baseline (1984-86 and follow-up 23 years later, RHR was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak was measured by ergospirometry at follow-up. We used Generalized Linear Models to assess the association of baseline RHR with VO(2peak, and to study combined effects of RHR and self-reported PA on later VO(2peak. RESULTS: There was an inverse association of RHR at baseline with VO(2peak (p<0.01. Men and women with baseline RHR greater than 80 bpm had 4.6 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 6.3 and 1.4 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 3.1 lower VO(2peak at follow-up compared with men and women with RHR below 60 bpm at baseline. We found a linear association of change in RHR with VO(2peak (p=0.03, suggesting that a decrease in RHR over time is likely to be beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Participants with low RHR and high PA at baseline had higher VO(2peak than inactive people with relatively high RHR. However, among participants with relatively high RHR and high PA at baseline, VO(2peak was similar to inactive people with relatively low RHR. CONCLUSION: RHR is an important predictor of VO(2peak, and serial assessments of RHR may provide useful and inexpensive information on cardiovascular fitness. The results suggest that high levels of PA may compensate for the lower VO(2peak associated with a high RHR.

  3. Current generation time-of-flight 18F-FDG PET/CT provides higher SUVs for normal adrenal glands, while maintaining an accurate characterization of benign and malignant glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; Koopman, Daniëlle; van Dalen, Jorn A.; Stigt, Jos A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L.

    ObjectiveModern PET/CT scanners have significantly improved detectors and fast time-of-flight (TOF) performance and this may improve clinical performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of a current generation TOF PET/CT scanner on standardized uptake values (SUV), lesion-background

  4. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  5. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertanties in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (author) [pt

  6. PEAK TRACKING WITH A NEURAL NETWORK FOR SPECTRAL RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COENEGRACHT, PMJ; METTING, HJ; VANLOO, EM; SNOEIJER, GJ; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A peak tracking method based on a simulated feed-forward neural network with back-propagation is presented. The network uses the normalized UV spectra and peak areas measured in one chromatogram for peak recognition. It suffices to train the network with only one set of spectra recorded in one

  7. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Groot, J.F. de; Reneman, M.; Peters, R.; Vanhees, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  8. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.163 Nursery peak inventory endorsement. Nursery Crop Insurance Peak Inventory Endorsement This endorsement is not continuous and must be...

  9. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual

  10. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertainties both in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (orig.)

  11. Head-to-head comparison of peak supine bicycle exercise echocardiography and treadmill exercise echocardiography at peak and at post-exercise for the detection of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Estevez, Rodrigo; Pazos, Pablo; Piñeiro, Miriam; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2012-03-01

    Supine bicycle exercise (SBE) echocardiography and treadmill exercise (TME) echocardiography have been used for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although peak imaging acquisition has been considered unfeasible with TME, higher sensitivity for the detection of CAD has been recently found with this method compared with post-TME echocardiography. However, peak TME echocardiography has not been previously compared with the more standardized peak SBE echocardiography. The aim of this study was to compare peak TME echocardiography, peak SBE echocardiography, and post-TME echocardiography for the detection of CAD. A series of 116 patients (mean age, 61 ± 10 years) referred for evaluation of CAD underwent SBE (starting at 25 W, with 25-W increments every 2-3 min) and TME with peak and postexercise imaging acquisition, in a random sequence. Digitized images at baseline, at peak TME, after TME, and at peak SBE were interpreted in a random and blinded fashion. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Maximal heart rate was higher during TME, whereas systolic blood pressure was higher during SBE, resulting in similar rate-pressure products. On quantitative angiography, 75 patients had coronary stenosis (≥50%). In these patients, wall motion score indexes at maximal exercise were higher at peak TME (median, 1.45; interquartile range [IQR], 1.13-1.75) than at peak SBE (median, 1.25; IQR, 1.0-1.56) or after TME (median, 1.13; IQR, 1.0-1.38) (P = .002 between peak TME and peak SBE imaging, P peak TME (median, 5; IQR, 2-12) compared with peak SBE (median, 3; IQR, 0-8) or after TME (median, 2; IQR, 0-4) (P peak TME and peak SBE imaging, P peak TME, peak SBE, and post-TME echocardiography for CAD was 84%, 75%, and 60% (P = .001 between post-TME and peak TME echocardiography, P = .055 between post-TME and peak SBE echocardiography), with specificity of 63%, 80%, and 78%, respectively (P = NS) and accuracy of 77%, 77%, and 66%, respectively (P = NS). Peak TME

  12. Contribution to performing gas solutions and the complementarity of energies to address electric peak consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at outlining the contribution that gas-based solutions may have for the reduction of the seasonal electricity peak consumption. After having recalled the principles related to electricity peak consumption (daily peak in summer and in winter due to the use of various equipment which lasts few hours, seasonal peak in winter due to the use of electric heating which may last several weeks) and the associated evolution of electricity consumptions over the last years, this article describes the main challenges related to the electric peak consumption: how to maintain the balance in real time between production and consumption. In France, the network manager must use, beside nuclear power stations, thermal productions (gas or coal-based) which result in higher CO 2 emissions. Electricity imports from Germany also degrade the French carbon footprint. Thus, the management of daily and seasonal peaks can be based on three levers of action: to act on supply by developing capacities to face the residual peak, to act on demand by smoothing the load curve by controlling the load of electric equipment, or to act on demand by a global reduction of the thermo-sensitive consumption of electricity

  13. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Larsen, I.L.

    1980-01-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented. (orig.)

  14. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutshall, N H; Larsen, I L [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1980-12-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented.

  15. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  16. A beam-synchronous gated peak-detector for the LHC beam observation system

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, T E; Wehrle, U

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the bunch peak amplitude using the longitudinal wideband wall-current monitor are a vital tool used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam observation system. These peak-detected measurements can be used to diagnose bunch shape oscillations, for example coherent quadrupole oscillations, that occur at injection and during beam manipulations. Peak-detected Schottky diagnostics can also be used to obtain the synchrotron frequency distribution and other parameters from a bunched beam under stable conditions. For the LHC a beam-synchronous gated peak detector has been developed to allow individual bunches to be monitored without the influence of other bunches circulating in the machine. The requirement for the observation of both low intensity pilot bunches and high intensity bunches for physics requires a detector front-end with a high bandwidth and a large dynamic range while the usage for Schottky measurements requires low noise electronics. This paper will present the design of this detector s...

  17. Peak capacity, peak-capacity production rate, and boiling point resolution for temperature-programmed GC with very high programming rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall; Leonard; Sacks

    2000-02-01

    Recent advances in column heating technology have made possible very fast linear temperature programming for high-speed gas chromatography. A fused-silica capillary column is contained in a tubular metal jacket, which is resistively heated by a precision power supply. With very rapid column heating, the rate of peak-capacity production is significantly enhanced, but the total peak capacity and the boiling-point resolution (minimum boiling-point difference required for the separation of two nonpolar compounds on a nonpolar column) are reduced relative to more conventional heating rates used with convection-oven instruments. As temperature-programming rates increase, elution temperatures also increase with the result that retention may become insignificant prior to elution. This results in inefficient utilization of the down-stream end of the column and causes a loss in the rate of peak-capacity production. The rate of peak-capacity production is increased by the use of shorter columns and higher carrier gas velocities. With high programming rates (100-600 degrees C/min), column lengths of 6-12 m and average linear carrier gas velocities in the 100-150 cm/s range are satisfactory. In this study, the rate of peak-capacity production, the total peak capacity, and the boiling point resolution are determined for C10-C28 n-alkanes using 6-18 m long columns, 50-200 cm/s average carrier gas velocities, and 60-600 degrees C/min programming rates. It was found that with a 6-meter-long, 0.25-mm i.d. column programmed at a rate of 600 degrees C/min, a maximum peak-capacity production rate of 6.1 peaks/s was obtained. A total peak capacity of about 75 peaks was produced in a 37-s long separation spanning a boiling-point range from n-C10 (174 degrees C) to n-C28 (432 degrees C).

  18. Quantifying the cepstral peak prominence, a measure of dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D; Sataloff, Robert T; Laureyns, Griet; Lurie, Deborah; Michael, Deirdre D; Heuer, Reinhardt; Rubin, Adam; Eller, Robert; Chandran, Swapna; Abaza, Mona; Lyons, Karen; Divi, Venu; Lott, Joanna; Johnson, Jennifer; Hillenbrand, James

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish normative values for the smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPS) and its sensitivity and specificity as a measure of dysphonia. Prospective cohort study. Voice samples of running speech were obtained from 835 patients and 50 volunteers. Eight laryngologists and four speech-language pathologists performed perceptual ratings of the voice samples on the degree of dysphonia/normality using an analog scale. The mean of their perceptual ratings was used as the gold standard for the detection of the presence or absence of dysphonia. CPPS was measured using the CPPS algorithm of Hillenbrand, and the cut-off value for positivity that has the highest sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between normal and severely dysphonia voices was determined based on ROC-curve analysis. The cut-off value for normal for CPPS was set at 4.0 or higher, which gave a sensitivity of 92.4%, a specificity of 79%, a positive predictive value of 82.5%, and a negative predictive value of 90.8%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.937 (P dysphonia, with the normal value of CPPS (Hillenbrand algorithm) of a running speech sample being defined as a value of 4.0 or higher. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  19. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  20. Analysis of Subway Interior Noise at Peak Commuter Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donguk; Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2017-07-01

    Although mass transit systems are convenient and efficient for urban people, little attention has been paid to the potential hearing hazard from their noise. The purpose of the current study was to measure and analyze levels of subway interior noise at peak commuter times and to provide information about commuters' daily dose of noise exposure. To measure the subway interior noise, nine subway lines inside Seoul (i.e., lines 1-9) and six lines surrounding the capital city area (i.e., Central, Bundang, Sinbundang, Incheon, Gyeongui, and Gyeongchun) were chosen. The noise was measured and recorded by a sound level meter for two-hour periods in the morning and evening. 1) In the LZeq analysis, the average noise level of all 15 lines was 72.78 dB; the maximum and minimum noise levels were 78.34 and 62.46 dB, respectively. The average noise level of the nine lines inside Seoul was 73.45 dB, which was 1.68-dB louder than that of the six lines surrounding the capital city area. 2) Based on the LZeq analysis of 33 measured frequencies, 12.5 Hz was the highest frequency and 20,000 Hz was the lowest. 3) There was no remarkable difference in the level of subway interior noise between morning and evening peak commuter times. We concluded that the level of subway interior noise was not loud enough for commuters to incur noise-induced hearing loss. Regardless, environmental noise control efforts in the subway system might be needed for commuters who take a subway every day.

  1. THE LATE PEAKING AFTERGLOW OF GRB 100418A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F. E.; Holland, S. T.; Sakamoto, T.; Antonelli, L. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Siegel, M. H.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S. R.; Evans, P. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Liang, E. W.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    GRB 100418A is a long gamma-ray burst (GRB) at redshift z = 0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves. After an initial short-lived, rapid decline in X-rays, the optical and X-ray light curves observed with Swift are approximately flat or rising slightly out to at least ∼7 x 10 3 s after the trigger, peak at ∼5 x 10 4 s, and then follow an approximately power-law decay. Such a long optical plateau and late peaking is rarely seen in GRB afterglows. Observations with Rapid Eye Mount during a gap in the Swift coverage indicate a bright optical flare at ∼2.5 x 10 4 s. The long plateau phase of the afterglow is interpreted using either a model with continuous injection of energy into the forward shock of the burst or a model in which the jet of the burst is viewed off-axis. In both models the isotropic kinetic energy in the late afterglow after the plateau phase is ≥10 2 times the 10 51 erg of the prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy release. The energy injection model is favored because the off-axis jet model would require the intrinsic T 90 for the GRB jet viewed on-axis to be very short, ∼10 ms, and the intrinsic isotropic gamma-ray energy release and the true jet energy to be much higher than the typical values of known short GRBs. The non-detection of a jet break up to t ∼ 2 x 10 6 s indicates a jet half-opening angle of at least ∼14 0 , and a relatively high-collimation-corrected jet energy of E jet ≥ 10 52 erg.

  2. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed; Kong, Xin-Bing; Liu, Zhi; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  3. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2013-01-07

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  4. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules.

  5. Views on peak oil and its relation to climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Al Marchohi, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Definitions of fossil fuel reserves and resources and assessed stock data are reviewed and clarified. Semantics explain a large stake of conflict between advocate and critical voices on peak oil. From a holistic sources-sinks perspective, limited carrying capacity of atmospheric sinks, not absolute scarcity in oil resources, will impose tight constraints on oil use. Eventually observed peaks in oil production in nearby years will result from politically imposed limits on carbon emissions, and not be caused by physical lack of oil resources. Peak-oil belief induces passive climate policy attitudes when suggesting carbon dioxide emissions will peak naturally linked to dwindling oil supplies. Active policies for reducing emissions and use of fossil fuels will also encompass higher energy end-use prices. Revenues obtained from higher levies on oil use can support financing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. But when oil producers charge the higher prices they can pump new oil for many decades, postponing peak oil to occur while extending carbon lock-in.

  6. Can We Distinguish Emotions from Faces? Investigation of Implicit and Explicit Processes of Peak Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ruiqi; Li, Xianchun; Li, Lin; Wang, Yanmei

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on facial expression recognition have focused on the moderate emotions; to date, few studies have been conducted to investigate the explicit and implicit processes of peak emotions. In the current study, we used transiently peak intense expression images of athletes at the winning or losing point in competition as materials, and investigated the diagnosability of peak facial expressions at both implicit and explicit levels. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to evaluate isolated faces, isolated bodies, and the face-body compounds, and eye-tracking movement was recorded. The results revealed that the isolated body and face-body congruent images were better recognized than isolated face and face-body incongruent images, indicating that the emotional information conveyed by facial cues was ambiguous, and the body cues influenced facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, eye movement records showed that the participants displayed distinct gaze patterns for the congruent and incongruent compounds. In Experiment 2A, the subliminal affective priming task was used, with faces as primes and bodies as targets, to investigate the unconscious emotion perception of peak facial expressions. The results showed that winning face prime facilitated reaction to winning body target, whereas losing face prime inhibited reaction to winning body target, suggesting that peak facial expressions could be perceived at the implicit level. In general, the results indicate that peak facial expressions cannot be consciously recognized but can be perceived at the unconscious level. In Experiment 2B, revised subliminal affective priming task and a strict awareness test were used to examine the validity of unconscious perception of peak facial expressions found in Experiment 2A. Results of Experiment 2B showed that reaction time to both winning body targets and losing body targets was influenced by the invisibly peak facial expression primes, which indicated the

  7. Estimated Prestroke Peak VO2 Is Related to Circulating IGF-1 Levels During Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattlage, Anna E; Rippee, Michael A; Abraham, Michael G; Sandt, Janice; Billinger, Sandra A

    2017-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective after stroke and is regulated by insulin-like binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In healthy individuals, exercise and improved aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake; peak VO 2 ) increases IGF-1 in circulation. Understanding the relationship between estimated prestroke aerobic fitness and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 after stroke may provide insight into the benefits of exercise and aerobic fitness on stroke recovery. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 to estimated prestroke peak VO 2 in individuals with acute stroke. We hypothesized that (1) estimated prestroke peak VO 2 would be related to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and (2) individuals with higher than median IGF-1 levels will have higher estimated prestroke peak VO 2 compared to those with lower than median levels. Methods Fifteen individuals with acute stroke had blood sampled within 72 hours of hospital admission. Prestroke peak VO 2 was estimated using a nonexercise prediction equation. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results Estimated prestroke peak VO 2 was significantly related to circulating IGF-1 levels (r = .60; P = .02) but not IGFBP-3. Individuals with higher than median IGF-1 (117.9 ng/mL) had significantly better estimated aerobic fitness (32.4 ± 6.9 mL kg -1 min -1 ) than those with lower than median IGF-1 (20.7 ± 7.8 mL kg -1 min -1 ; P = .03). Conclusions Improving aerobic fitness prior to stroke may be beneficial by increasing baseline IGF-1 levels. These results set the groundwork for future clinical trials to determine whether high IGF-1 and aerobic fitness are beneficial to stroke recovery by providing neuroprotection and improving function. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Peak oxygen uptake in swimmers and pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilson Colantonio

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: a to analyze the behavior of VO2MAX (absolute and relative of males of different age groups sex; b to compare VO2MAX (absolute and relative, of swimmers (SWM and schoolchildren (SCH in the same age groups. Seventy-one boys aged 7-17 years were evaluated (35 SWM and 36 SCH and distributed into the age groups 7-10, 11-14 and 15-17 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken (height, body mass and sum of skin folds and the metabolic (VO2MAX tests were carried out using VO2000® gas analysis and an Inbrasport ATL® treadmill, using a modified version of the Bruce protocol. Statistical analysis: ANOVA for repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (p<0.05. Absolute VO2MAX: there were statistically significant differences between all age groups and between SWM (0.99 + 0.20 and 1.27 + 0.21 L.min-1 and SCH (0.98 + 0.36 and 0.80 + 0.12 L.min-1. Relative VO2MAX: there were statistically significant differences between SWM1 and SWM2 (10.88 + 0.09 and 0.75 + 0.47 ml.kg-1.min-1 and between SCH1 and SCH3 (6.96 + 1.23 and 0.98 + 2.29 ml.kg-1.min-1, although SWM and SCH were different. The results indicate that VO2MAX increased as the subjects got older, which is the result of natural development. However, the effect of swimming training predominated. Although the behavior of the variable was similar for the 11-14 and 15-17 age groups, the figures for SWM and SCH are different at these ages, with the swimmers having higher VO2MAX.

  9. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  10. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  11. Studies of the absorbance peak on the N719 dye influence by combination between Cadmium Selenide (CdSeQDs and Zinc Sulfide(ZnSQDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Mohammad Azren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption rate of the photoanode can be influenced by the combination between the difference semiconductor quantum dot sensitizer. Six samples were prepared with difference weight percent (wt% of ZnS from 0% to 50% and constant wt% of CdSe which then will be called as semiconductor QDs were immersed in 0.5mM of N719 dye. The purity of ZnS powder and CdSe powder was determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD.The ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (Uv-Vis use to investigate the absorption spectrum and absorbance peak of this sample. 50 wt% of ZnS is the best composition to increase the absorbance peak of the photoanode. The Cyclic voltammetry (CV of varying wt% of ZnS, found that the 40 wt% of ZnS is suitable combination for a DSSC’s photoanode and produced the higher current.

  12. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  13. Gamma-Ray Peak Integration: Accuracy and Precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard M. Lindstrom

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of singlet gamma-ray peak areas obtained by a peak analysis program is immaterial. If the same algorithm is used for sample measurement as for calibration and if the peak shapes are similar, then biases in the integration method cancel. Reproducibility is the only important issue. Even the uncertainty of the areas computed by the program is trivial because the true standard uncertainty can be experimentally assessed by repeated measurements of the same source. Reproducible peak integration was important in a recent standard reference material certification task. The primary tool used for spectrum analysis was SUM, a National Institute of Standards and Technology interactive program to sum peaks and subtract a linear background, using the same channels to integrate all 20 spectra. For comparison, this work examines other peak integration programs. Unlike some published comparisons of peak performance in which synthetic spectra were used, this experiment used spectra collected for a real (though exacting) analytical project, analyzed by conventional software used in routine ways. Because both components of the 559- to 564-keV doublet are from 76 As, they were integrated together with SUM. The other programs, however, deconvoluted the peaks. A sensitive test of the fitting algorithm is the ratio of reported peak areas. In almost all the cases, this ratio was much more variable than expected from the reported uncertainties reported by the program. Other comparisons to be reported indicate that peak integration is still an imperfect tool in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

  14. Relationships between electroencephalographic spectral peaks across frequency bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Jennifer Van Albada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which electroenencephalographic (EEG spectral peaks are independent, and the relationships between their frequencies have been debated. A novel fitting method was used to determine peak parameters in the range 2–35 Hz from a large sample of eyes-closed spectra, and their interrelationships were investigated. Findings were compared with a mean-field model of thalamocortical activity, which predicts near-harmonic relationships between peaks. The subject set consisted of 1424 healthy subjects from the Brain Resource International Database. Peaks in the theta range occurred on average near half the alpha peak frequency, while peaks in the beta range tended to occur near twice and three times the alpha peak frequency on an individual-subject basis. Moreover, for the majority of subjects, alpha peak frequencies were significantly positively correlated with frequencies of peaks in the theta and low and high beta ranges. Such a harmonic progression agrees semiquantitatively with theoretical predictions from the mean-field model. These findings indicate a common or analogous source for different rhythms, and help to define appropriate individual frequency bands for peak identification.

  15. Relationships between Electroencephalographic Spectral Peaks Across Frequency Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Albada, S. J.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which electroencephalographic spectral peaks are independent, and the relationships between their frequencies have been debated. A novel fitting method was used to determine peak parameters in the range 2–35 Hz from a large sample of eyes-closed spectra, and their interrelationships were investigated. Findings were compared with a mean-field model of thalamocortical activity, which predicts near-harmonic relationships between peaks. The subject set consisted of 1424 healthy subjects from the Brain Resource International Database. Peaks in the theta range occurred on average near half the alpha peak frequency, while peaks in the beta range tended to occur near twice and three times the alpha peak frequency on an individual-subject basis. Moreover, for the majority of subjects, alpha peak frequencies were significantly positively correlated with frequencies of peaks in the theta and low and high beta ranges. Such a harmonic progression agrees semiquantitatively with theoretical predictions from the mean-field model. These findings indicate a common or analogous source for different rhythms, and help to define appropriate individual frequency bands for peak identification. PMID:23483663

  16. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  17. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ν ≥ 3 is ∼11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ∼7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg 2 , the bias in (Ω m , σ 8 ) is already intolerably large and close to 3σ. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  18. Study on the influence of lipid peak to the results of MR spectroscopy in the central gland of prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanjun; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Jiang Xuexiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of lipid peak to MRS in central gland of prostate gland. Methods: Seventeen patients performed transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were enrolled in this study. Three groups were divided according to the pathological findings: glandular-BPH (GBPH) (7 cases), stromal-BPH (SBPH) (6 cases), and incidentally detected prostate carcinoma (IDPC) (4 cases). The voxel with lipid peak in the field of volume was counted. Compared with pathology, the following studies were performed: (1) The location of the voxels that more frequently presented lipid peak in the central gland. (2) Whether the appearance of the lipid peak would obscure the identification of the peaks of the endogenous metabolites. Results: The ratio of voxels with lipid peak in central gland was about 22.8% (834/3567). There were 1477 (397 voxels with lipid peak), 1434(396 voxels with lipid peak), and 656(41 voxels with lipid peak) voxels in CBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups, respectively. The percentage in GBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups was 23.6%, 27.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. The percentage of voxels with lipid peak at the edge of the central gland (79.6%, 68.6% and 72.4%, respectively) was higher than that in other regions. The lipid peak in most of the voxels didn't influence the identification of the citrate and choline peak (82.8%, 98.0%, and 96.4%, respectively). Conclusion: The lipid peak in the central gland may result from the lipid tissues near the gland, and most lipid peak had no influence on the identification of endogenous metabolites. (authors)

  19. Holographic heat current as Noether current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    We employ the Noether procedure to derive a general formula for the radially conserved heat current in AdS planar black holes with certain transverse and traceless perturbations, for a general class of gravity theories. For Einstein gravity, the general higher-order Lovelock gravities and also a class of Horndeski gravities, we derive the boundary stress tensor and show that the resulting boundary heat current matches precisely the bulk Noether current.

  20. Estimation of the peak factor based on watershed characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, Jean; Nolin, Simon; Ruest, Benoit [BPR Inc., Quebec, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Hydraulic modeling and dam structure design require the river flood flow as a primary input. For a given flood event, the ratio of peak flow over mean daily flow defines the peak factor. The peak factor value is dependent on the watershed and location along the river. The main goal of this study consisted in finding a relationship between watershed characteristics and this peak factor. Regression analyses were carried out on 53 natural watersheds located in the southern part of the province of Quebec using data from the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). The watershed characteristics included in the analyses were the watershed area, the maximum flow length, the mean slope, the lake proportion and the mean elevation. The results showed that watershed area and length are the major parameters influencing the peak factor. Nine natural watersheds were also used to test the use of a multivariable model in order to determine the peak factor for ungauged watersheds.

  1. Evaluation of peak power prediction equations in male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M

    2008-07-01

    This study compared peak power estimated using 4 commonly used regression equations with actual peak power derived from force platform data in a group of adolescent basketball players. Twenty-five elite junior male basketball players (age, 16.5 +/- 0.5 years; mass, 74.2 +/- 11.8 kg; height, 181.8 +/- 8.1 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Actual peak power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump on a force platform. Estimated peak power was determined using countermovement jump height and body mass. All 4 prediction equations were significantly related to actual peak power (all p jump prediction equations, 12% for the Canavan and Vescovi equation, and 6% for the Sayers countermovement jump equation. In all cases peak power was underestimated.

  2. Analytic fitting of x- and gamma-ray peaks in Ge and Si(Li) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Maxwell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A review is presented of current methodology for non-linear least squares fitting of single and multiple peaks, with the emphasis on planar Ge detectors used in the 50-150 keV energy region. The need for new work on Si(Li) detectors at energies 1-40 keV is stressed

  3. Peak effect in untwinned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; André, M.-O.; Indenbom, M. V.; Benoit, W.

    1994-12-01

    We report on the observation of a weak effect of the critical current density in untwinned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystals of different purity, using a low frequency torsion pendulum. We construct the peak effect line and the irreversibility line.

  4. Impact of peak electricity demand in distribution grids: a stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Schuring, Friso; Kootstra, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The number of (hybrid) electric vehicles is growing, leading to a higher demand for electricity in distribution grids. To investigate the effects of the expected peak demand on distribution grids, a stress test with 15 electric vehicles in a single street is conducted and described in this paper.

  5. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

  6. Extragalactic Peaked-spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sadler, E. M.; Lenc, E. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Line, J. L. B.; Hancock, P. J.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKinley, B.; Procopio, P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Tingay, S. J.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Morgan, J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bangalore 560080 (India); For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Offringa, A. R., E-mail: joseph.callingham@sydney.edu.au [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others

    2017-02-20

    We present a sample of 1483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low-frequency analogs of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesized to be the precursors to massive radio galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of known peaked-spectrum candidates, and 95% of our sample have a newly characterized spectral peak. We highlight that some GPS sources peaking above 5 GHz have had multiple epochs of nuclear activity, and we demonstrate the possibility of identifying high-redshift ( z > 2) galaxies via steep optically thin spectral indices and low observed peak frequencies. The distribution of the optically thick spectral indices of our sample is consistent with past GPS/CSS samples but with a large dispersion, suggesting that the spectral peak is a product of an inhomogeneous environment that is individualistic. We find no dependence of observed peak frequency with redshift, consistent with the peaked-spectrum sample comprising both local CSS sources and high-redshift GPS sources. The 5 GHz luminosity distribution lacks the brightest GPS and CSS sources of previous samples, implying that a convolution of source evolution and redshift influences the type of peaked-spectrum sources identified below 1 GHz. Finally, we discuss sources with optically thick spectral indices that exceed the synchrotron self-absorption limit.

  7. The sharp peak-flat trough pattern and critical speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Roehner, B. M.; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    We find empirically a characteristic sharp peak-flat trough pattern in a large set of commodity prices. We argue that the sharp peak structure reflects an endogenous inter-market organization, and that peaks may be seen as local ``singularities'' resulting from imitation and herding. These findings impose a novel stringent constraint on the construction of models. Intermittent amplification is not sufficient and nonlinear effects seem necessary to account for the observations.

  8. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  9. Statistics of peaks in cosmological nonlinear density fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginohara, Tatsushi; Suto, Yasushi.

    1990-06-01

    Distribution of the high-density peaks in the universe is examined using N-body simulations. Nonlinear evolution of the underlying density field significantly changes the statistical properties of the peaks, compared with the analytic results valid for the random Gaussian field. In particular, the abundances and correlations of the initial density peaks are discussed in the context of biased galaxy formation theory. (author)

  10. The dislocation-internal friction peak γ in tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.; Benoit, W.; Schultz, H.

    1989-01-01

    Torsion-pendulum measurements were carried out on high-purity single crystal specimens of tantalum, having extremely low oxygen contents ( 2 peak, which appears close to γ is small traces of oxygen are presents. The γ 2 peak was formerly explained as a ''dislocation-enhanced Snoek peak''. The γ peak recovers at the peak temperature, whereas the γ 2 peak is more stable. On the basis of their results, and making use of earlier investigations of Rodrian and Schultz, the authors suggest that γ 2 is modified γ relaxation, related to screw-dislocation segments, stabilized by oxygen-decorated kinks. The stability of the γ 2 peak allows an accurate determination of the activation energy, found to be 1.00 +- 0.03 eV. This value is distinctly lower than the activation energy of the oxygen Snoek effect (1.10 eV) and is related here to the mechanism of ''kink-pair formation'' in screw dislocations, as the original γ peak. The numerical value is compatible with recent values derived from flow-stress measurements. The peak γ 2 shows increasing stability with increasing oxygen content. This is explained by single- and multi-decorated kinks

  11. Evaluation of peak-fitting software for gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Moralles, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    In all applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy, one of the most important and delicate parts of the data analysis is the fitting of the gamma-ray spectra, where information as the number of counts, the position of the centroid and the width, for instance, are associated with each peak of each spectrum. There's a huge choice of computer programs that perform this type of analysis, and the most commonly used in routine work are the ones that automatically locate and fit the peaks; this fit can be made in several different ways - the most common ways are to fit a Gaussian function to each peak or simply to integrate the area under the peak, but some software go far beyond and include several small corrections to the simple Gaussian peak function, in order to compensate for secondary effects. In this work several gamma-ray spectroscopy software are compared in the task of finding and fitting the gamma-ray peaks in spectra taken with standard sources of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 133 Ba and 152 Eu. The results show that all of the automatic software can be properly used in the task of finding and fitting peaks, with the exception of GammaVision; also, it was possible to verify that the automatic peak-fitting software did perform as well as - and sometimes even better than - a manual peak-fitting software. (author)

  12. Individual vision and peak distribution in collective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng

    2017-06-01

    People make decisions on whether they should participate as participants or not as free riders in collective actions with heterogeneous visions. Besides of the utility heterogeneity and cost heterogeneity, this work includes and investigates the effect of vision heterogeneity by constructing a decision model, i.e. the revised peak model of participants. In this model, potential participants make decisions under the joint influence of utility, cost, and vision heterogeneities. The outcomes of simulations indicate that vision heterogeneity reduces the values of peaks, and the relative variance of peaks is stable. Under normal distributions of vision heterogeneity and other factors, the peaks of participants are normally distributed as well. Therefore, it is necessary to predict distribution traits of peaks based on distribution traits of related factors such as vision heterogeneity and so on. We predict the distribution of peaks with parameters of both mean and standard deviation, which provides the confident intervals and robust predictions of peaks. Besides, we validate the peak model of via the Yuyuan Incident, a real case in China (2014), and the model works well in explaining the dynamics and predicting the peak of real case.

  13. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2012-03-20

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual one-dimensional peaks have been originated from the same compound and should then be arranged in a two-dimensional peak. The merging algorithm is based on Bayesian inference. The user sets prior information about certain parameters (e.g., second-dimension retention time variability, first-dimension band broadening, chromatographic noise). On the basis of these priors, the algorithm calculates the probability of myriads of peak arrangements (i.e., ways of merging one-dimensional peaks), finding which of them holds the highest value. Uncertainty in each parameter can be accounted by adapting conveniently its probability distribution function, which in turn may change the final decision of the most probable peak arrangement. It has been demonstrated that the Bayesian approach presented in this paper follows the chromatographers' intuition. The algorithm has been applied and tested with LC × LC and GC × GC data and takes around 1 min to process chromatograms with several thousands of peaks.

  14. Determination of activity of I-125 applying sum-peak methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelo Penna, Y.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Serra Aguila, R.; Moreno Leon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of activity of I-125 in radioactive solutions, applying sum-peak methods, by using an n-type HPGe detector of extended range is described. Two procedures were used for obtaining I-125 specific activity in solutions: a) an absolute method, which is independent of nuclear parameters and detector efficiency, and b) an option which consider constant the efficiency in the region of interest and involves calculations using nuclear parameters. The measurement geometries studied are specifically solid point sources. The relative deviations between specific activities, obtained by these different procedures are not higher than 1 %. Moreover, the activity of the radioactive solution was obtained by measuring it in NIST ampoule using a CAPINTEC CRC 35R dose calibrator. The consistency of obtained results, confirm the feasibility of applying direct methods of measurement for I-125 activity determinations, which allow us to achieve lower uncertainties in comparison with the relative methods of measurement. The establishment of these methods is aimed to be applied for the calibration of equipment and radionuclide dose calibrators used currently in clinical RIA/IRMA assays and Nuclear medicine practice respectively. (Author)

  15. Combined effect of storm movement and drainage network configuration on flood peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Son, Kwang Ik; Choi, Hyun Il

    2016-04-01

    This presentation reports the combined effect of storm movement and drainage network layout on resulting hydrographs and its implication to flood process and also flood mitigation. First, we investigate, in general terms, the effects of storm movement on the resulting flood peaks, and the underlying process controls. For this purpose, we utilize a broad theoretical framework that uses characteristic time and space scales associated with stationary rainstorms as well as moving rainstorms. For a stationary rainstorm the characteristic timescales that govern the peak response include two intrinsic timescales of a catchment and one extrinsic timescale of a rainstorm. On the other hand, for a moving rainstorm, two additional extrinsic scales are required; the storm travel time and storm size. We show that the relationship between the peak response and the timescales appropriate for a stationary rainstorm can be extended in a straightforward manner to describe the peak response for a moving rainstorm. For moving rainstorms, we show that the augmentation of peak response arises from both effect of overlaying the responses from subcatchments (resonance condition) and effect of increased responses from subcatchments due to increased duration (interdependence), which results in maximum peak response when the moving rainstorm is slower than the channel flow velocity. Second, we show the relation between channel network configurations and hydrograph sensitivity to storm kinematics. For this purpose, Gibbs' model is used to evaluate the network characteristics. The results show that the storm kinematics that produces the maximum peak discharge depends on the network configuration because the resonance condition changes with the network configuration. We show that an "efficient" network layout is more sensitive and results in higher increase in peak response compared to "inefficient" one. These results imply different flood potential risks for river networks depending on network

  16. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D. R., E-mail: dmikkelsen@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Podpaly, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); AAAS S and T Fellow placed in the Directorate for Engineering, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Ma, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.

  17. Chemometric Strategies for Peak Detection and Profiling from Multidimensional Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Reig, Meritxell; Bedia, Carmen; Tauler, Romà; Jaumot, Joaquim

    2018-04-03

    The increasing complexity of omics research has encouraged the development of new instrumental technologies able to deal with these challenging samples. In this way, the rise of multidimensional separations should be highlighted due to the massive amounts of information that provide with an enhanced analyte determination. Both proteomics and metabolomics benefit from this higher separation capacity achieved when different chromatographic dimensions are combined, either in LC or GC. However, this vast quantity of experimental information requires the application of chemometric data analysis strategies to retrieve this hidden knowledge, especially in the case of nontargeted studies. In this work, the most common chemometric tools and approaches for the analysis of this multidimensional chromatographic data are reviewed. First, different options for data preprocessing and enhancement of the instrumental signal are introduced. Next, the most used chemometric methods for the detection of chromatographic peaks and the resolution of chromatographic and spectral contributions (profiling) are presented. The description of these data analysis approaches is complemented with enlightening examples from omics fields that demonstrate the exceptional potential of the combination of multidimensional separation techniques and chemometric tools of data analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Memory effects and peak effect in type II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, G.; Luna, D.; Eismann, B.; Bettachini, V.; Bekeris, V.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of experimental and theoretical work has been devoted to understand memory effects (ME) in the solid vortex lattice (VL) but has remained, however, controversial until now. In the vicinity of the anomaly known as the peak effect (PE) both the VL mobility and the measured critical current density are found to be dependent of the dynamical history of the sample, in both low T c (LTS) and high T c (HTS) superconductors. Experiments in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) crystals have shown that the mobility of the VL increases after assisting the system with a symmetric AC field (or current) of moderated amplitude. On the other hand, after an asymmetric AC field assists vortices, the VL becomes less mobile. These features indicate that ME in these samples cannot be ascribed to an equilibration process, but probably are related to the organization of the lattice after nearest neighbor re-accommodation or induced plastic VL deformation. Recently, we have shown evidence that in YBCO the PE is a dynamic anomaly observed in the non-linear response, and is absent in the Labusch constant derived from the linear Campbell regime. However, this behavior seems not to be extensive to other systems as the traditional LTS NbSe 2 . In this work, the AC response in the PE region of NbSe 2 and YBCO samples are presented and compared. Very salient differences both in the linear and non-linear response as well as in the ME characteristics indicate that a different physics governs the PE phenomena in each case

  19. The origin of high-Mg magmas in Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, Cascade Arc (California): higher and lower than mantle oxygen isotope signatures attributed to current and past subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Bindeman, I.; Grove, T. L.

    2011-11-01

    We report the oxygen isotope composition of olivine and orthopyroxene phenocrysts in lavas from the main magma types at Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake Volcanoes: primitive high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT), basaltic andesites (BA), primitive magnesian andesites (PMA), and dacites. The most primitive HAOT (MgO > 9 wt%) from Mt. Shasta has olivine δ18O (δ18OOl) values of 5.9-6.1‰, which are about 1‰ higher than those observed in olivine from normal mantle-derived magmas. In contrast, HAOT lavas from Medicine Lake have δ18OOl values ranging from 4.7 to 5.5‰, which are similar to or lower than values for olivine in equilibrium with mantle-derived magmas. Other magma types from both volcanoes show intermediate δ18OOl values. The oxygen isotope composition of the most magnesian lavas cannot be explained by crustal contamination and the trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts precludes a pyroxenitic mantle source. Therefore, the high and variable δ18OOl signature of the most magnesian samples studied (HAOT and BA) comes from the peridotitic mantle wedge itself. As HAOT magma is generated by anhydrous adiabatic partial melting of the shallow mantle, its 1.4‰ range in δ18OOl reflects a heterogeneous composition of the shallow mantle source that has been influenced by subduction fluids and/or melts sometime in the past. Magmas generated in the mantle wedge by flux melting due to modern subduction fluids, as exemplified by BA and probably PMA, display more homogeneous composition with only 0.5‰ variation. The high-δ18O values observed in magnesian lavas, and principally in the HAOT, are difficult to explain by a single-stage flux-melting process in the mantle wedge above the modern subduction zone and require a mantle source enriched in 18O. It is here explained by flow of older, pre-enriched portions of the mantle through the slab window beneath the South Cascades.

  20. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  1. Constraining the shape of the CMB: A peak-by-peak analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedman, Carolina J.; Hobson, Michael P.; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The recent measurements of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies are consistent with the simplest inflationary scenario and big bang nucleosynthesis constraints. However, these results rely on the assumption of a class of models based on primordial adiabatic perturbations, cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In this paper we investigate the need for deviations from the Λ-CDM scenario by first characterizing the spectrum using a phenomenological function in a 15 dimensional parameter space. Using a Monte Carlo Markov chain approach to Bayesian inference and a low curvature model template we then check for the presence of new physics and/or systematics in the CMB data. We find an almost perfect consistency between the phenomenological fits and the standard Λ-CDM models. The curvature of the secondary peaks is weakly constrained by the present data, but they are well located. The improved spectral resolution expected from future satellite experiments is warranted for a definitive test of the scenario

  2. Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a mother with severe pre-eclampsia at 32 weeks' gestation and non-immune fetal hydrops without obvious cause. Since the. MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) was ... Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity .... [7] found MCA PSV of value in 9 women with chronic abruption, but in 5.

  3. Daily Nigerian peak load forecasting using artificial neural network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A daily peak load forecasting technique that uses artificial neural network with seasonal indices is presented in this paper. A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction network is used to predict the daily peak load for a period of one year over which the actual daily load data are available using one ...

  4. Diffraction peaks in x-ray spectroscopy: Friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, R.G.; Goehner, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Diffraction peaks can occur as unidentifiable peaks in the energy spectrum of an x-ray spectrometric analysis. Recently, there has been increased interest in oriented polycrystalline films and epitaxial films on single crystal substrates for electronic applications. Since these materials diffract x-rays more efficiently than randomly oriented polycrystalline materials, diffraction peaks are being observed more frequently in x-ray fluorescent spectra. In addition, micro x-ray spectrometric analysis utilizes a small, intense, collimated x-ray beam that can yield well defined diffraction peaks. In some cases these diffraction peaks can occur at the same position as elemental peaks. These diffraction peaks, although a possible problem in qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis, can give very useful information about the crystallographic structure and orientation of the material being analyzed. The observed diffraction peaks are dependent on the geometry of the x-ray spectrometer, the degree of collimation and the distribution of wavelengths (energies) originating from the x-ray tube and striking the sample

  5. Quality Assurance in the Determination of Overlapping Peak Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Heydorn, K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of different computer programs to yield accurate peak areas in statistical control in the case of partially overlapping photopeaks has been tested by the Analysis of Precision. A modified Covell method, two commercially available peak-fitting programs from Nuclear Data and Ortec, and ...

  6. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......-202) (mean and range) at sea level to 189 (179-200), 182 (172-189), 175 (166-183), and 165 (162-169) in the acute hypoxic conditions. Peak HR did not decrease further after 4 and 8 h at 4300 m compared to the acute exposure at this altitude. Between barometric pressures of 518 and 355 mmHg (approximately...... 3300 and 6300 m), peak HR decreased linearly: peak HR(hypobaria) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.135 x [hypobaria(3100) - hypobaria (mmHg)]; or peak HR(altitude) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.15 x (altitude - 3100 m). This corresponds to approximately 1-beat x min(-1) reduction in peak HR for every 7-mmHg decrease...

  7. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  8. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  9. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, Miroslav E-mail: fyzimiro@savba.sk; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-03-21

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector {gamma}-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges.

  10. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, Miroslav; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector γ-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges

  11. Probabilistic peak detection for first-order chromatographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Vivó-Truyols, G.; Sjerps, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for probabilistic peak detection in first-order chromatographic data. Unlike conventional methods that deliver a binary answer pertaining to the expected presence or absence of a chromatographic peak, our method calculates the probability of a point being affected by

  12. A new automatic fixed peak technology of microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liguo; Wang Dequan; Zhang Damin; Li Jun; Liu Yuwen; Guo Qingxue; Wang Guifeng

    1999-01-01

    The microcontroller automatic fixed peak technology which differs from fashion half channel fixed peak is described. It bases on the principles of selecting double single channel and readjusting the voltage of power source. This technology is suitable to the industrial isotope instruments with various radioactive sources

  13. Peak systolic pressure-volume relationships in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Haruhiko; Sugihara, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Katsume, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Masakazu; Ijichi, Hamao

    1985-01-01

    We determined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) peak systolic pressure (PSP) and end-systolic volume, non-invasively using cuff sphygmomanometry and radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in the arm was substituted for PSP. LV enddiastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were determined by a non-geometric method of gated RNA and recorded in three different hemodynamic states: at rest (basal state), during increased SBP after angiotensin administration (initial dose, 1-2 μg/min) and during decreased SBP after nitrate (sublingual nitroglycerin, 0.3-0.6 mg, or intravenous isosorbide dinitrate, 0.5-1.0 mg/min). The reproducibility of this method, tested in six subjects, proved to be good. Fifty-five subjects were divided into four groups based on EF at rest. The EDV and ESV were increased by angiotensin, and decreased by nitrate in all groups. EF was decreased by angiotensin and increased by nitrate. In contrast, the changes in PSP/ESVI due to these drugs remained in a narrow range in all groups. The regression lines of the PSP/ESVI relationship were almost linear and were steeper in the group with higher EF. Esub(max), the slope of the lines, was 5.75 +- 3.48 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 1 (EF>50%), 3.16 +- 1.83 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 2 (EF 49-40%), 2.27 +- 0.86 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 3 (EF 39-30%) and 0.59 +- 0.50 mmHg/ml/m 2 in group 4 (EF<29%). The theoretical volume at zero pressure (VoI) did not meet in a definite value and was not related to EF at rest. Thus, the left ventricular peak systolic pressure-end-systolic volume relationship can be assessed non-invasively from radionuclide angiocardiography, which can be widely used for the evaluation of ventricular contractility, even in patients with asynergic ventricular contraction for whom echocardiography is unsuitable in measuring ventricular volume. (author)

  14. Customers` response to residential peak-activated pricing. Evidence from a Japanese experiment; Peak taio ryokinka ni okeru kateiyo juyoka no fuka chosei kodo no bunseki. Kansetsu fuka seigyo jikken data wo mochiita kakaku koka no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Demand side management through a pricing mechanism, that is the indirect load control was experimented to analyze the pricing effect. When power consumption in indirect load control groups is compared between peak time band in weekdays in summer and off-the-peak time band, the power is less consumed when price gap is set than in a uniform charge time. When more number of persons is in home in daytime, room cooling is used in daytime including the peak band to adjust the demand. The substitution elasticity in price between demands in the peak time band and the off-the-peak time band is from about 0.06 to 0.07, which cannot be ignored. If the peak price is increased by four times, the demand in the peak band can be reduced by about 0.15 kW (when average power demand per household is assumed 0.75 kW). For room cooling devices, the first device is often installed in a living room and the second and further units in individual rooms such as bed rooms. The more the number of device, the higher the possibility that the use time band is outside the peak time band. This indirect load control experiment is a field test related to the peak-activated pricing for small power users, by which the users` behavior against the pricing effect was identified quantitatively. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  15. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  16. Photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Sridharbabu, Y.; Quamara, J. K.

    2014-10-01

    The photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide have been investigated for different applied electric fields at 200°C. Particularly the effect of illumination intensity on the maximum current obtained as a result of photoinduced polarization has been studied. Samples were irradiated by using PELLETRON facility, IUAC, New Delhi. The photo-carrier charge generation depends directly on intensity of illumination. The samples irradiated at higher fluence show a decrease in the peak current with intensity of illumination. The secondary radiation induced crystallinity (SRIC) is responsible for the increase in maximum photoinduced currents generated with intensity of illumination.

  17. Photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anu, E-mail: sharmaanu81@gmail.com; Sridharbabu, Y., E-mail: sharmaanu81@gmail.com; Quamara, J. K., E-mail: sharmaanu81@gmail.com [Physics Department, SGTB Khalsa college, Delhi University, Delhi (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119 (India); Echelon Group of Institutions, Faridabad (India)

    2014-10-15

    The photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide have been investigated for different applied electric fields at 200°C. Particularly the effect of illumination intensity on the maximum current obtained as a result of photoinduced polarization has been studied. Samples were irradiated by using PELLETRON facility, IUAC, New Delhi. The photo-carrier charge generation depends directly on intensity of illumination. The samples irradiated at higher fluence show a decrease in the peak current with intensity of illumination. The secondary radiation induced crystallinity (SRIC) is responsible for the increase in maximum photoinduced currents generated with intensity of illumination.

  18. Reduction of peak energy demand based on smart appliances energy consumption adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powroźnik, P.; Szulim, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper the concept of elastic model of energy management for smart grid and micro smart grid is presented. For the proposed model a method for reducing peak demand in micro smart grid has been defined. The idea of peak demand reduction in elastic model of energy management is to introduce a balance between demand and supply of current power for the given Micro Smart Grid in the given moment. The results of the simulations studies were presented. They were carried out on real household data available on UCI Machine Learning Repository. The results may have practical application in the smart grid networks, where there is a need for smart appliances energy consumption adjustment. The article presents a proposal to implement the elastic model of energy management as the cloud computing solution. This approach of peak demand reduction might have application particularly in a large smart grid.

  19. A peaking-regulation-balance-based method for wind & PV power integrated accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Nan; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Rapid development of China’s new energy in current and future should be focused on cooperation of wind and PV power. Based on the analysis of system peaking balance, combined with the statistical features of wind and PV power output characteristics, a method of comprehensive integrated accommodation analysis of wind and PV power is put forward. By the electric power balance during night peaking load period in typical day, wind power installed capacity is determined firstly; then PV power installed capacity could be figured out by midday peak load hours, which effectively solves the problem of uncertainty when traditional method hard determines the combination of the wind and solar power simultaneously. The simulation results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.

    1968-01-01

    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose

  1. Evaluation of different time domain peak models using extreme learning machine-based peak detection for EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Asrul; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Mokhtar, Norrima; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Cumming, Paul; Mubin, Marizan

    2016-01-01

    Various peak models have been introduced to detect and analyze peaks in the time domain analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In general, peak model in the time domain analysis consists of a set of signal parameters, such as amplitude, width, and slope. Models including those proposed by Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle are routinely used to detect peaks in EEG signals acquired in clinical studies of epilepsy or eye blink. The optimal peak model is the most reliable peak detection performance in a particular application. A fair measure of performance of different models requires a common and unbiased platform. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the four different peak models using the extreme learning machine (ELM)-based peak detection algorithm. We found that the Dingle model gave the best performance, with 72 % accuracy in the analysis of real EEG data. Statistical analysis conferred that the Dingle model afforded significantly better mean testing accuracy than did the Acir and Liu models, which were in the range 37-52 %. Meanwhile, the Dingle model has no significant difference compared to Dumpala model.

  2. Measuring saccade peak velocity using a low-frequency sampling rate of 50 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierts, Roel; Janssen, Maurice J A; Kingma, Herman

    2008-12-01

    During the last decades, small head-mounted video eye trackers have been developed in order to record eye movements. Real-time systems-with a low sampling frequency of 50/60 Hz-are used for clinical vestibular practice, but are generally considered not to be suited for measuring fast eye movements. In this paper, it is shown that saccadic eye movements, having an amplitude of at least 5 degrees, can, in good approximation, be considered to be bandwidth limited up to a frequency of 25-30 Hz. Using the Nyquist theorem to reconstruct saccadic eye movement signals at higher temporal resolutions, it is shown that accurate values for saccade peak velocities, recorded at 50 Hz, can be obtained, but saccade peak accelerations and decelerations cannot. In conclusion, video eye trackers sampling at 50/60 Hz are appropriate for detecting the clinical relevant saccade peak velocities in contrast to what has been stated up till now.

  3. The Risk of Residential Peak Electricity Demand: A Comparison of Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Torriti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances to different levels of peak demand risk.

  4. System dynamics model of Hubbert Peak for China's oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zaipu; Li Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    American geophysicist M. King Hubbert in 1956 first introduced a logistic equation to estimate the peak and lifetime production for oil of USA. Since then, a fierce debate ensued on the so-called Hubbert Peak, including also its methodology. This paper proposes to use the generic STELLA model to simulate Hubbert Peak, particularly for the Chinese oil production. This model is demonstrated as being robust. We used three scenarios to estimate the Chinese oil peak: according to scenario 1 of this model, the Hubbert Peak for China's crude oil production appears to be in 2019 with a value of 199.5 million tonnes, which is about 1.1 times the 2005 output. Before the peak comes, Chinese oil output will grow by about 1-2% annually, after the peak, however, the output will fall. By 2040, the annual production of Chinese crude oil would be equivalent to the level of 1990. During the coming 20 years, the crude oil demand of China will probably grow at the rate of 2-3% annually, and the gap between domestic supply and total demand may be more than half of this demand

  5. Probabilistic peak detection for first-order chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatka, M; Vivó-Truyols, G; Sjerps, M J

    2014-03-19

    We present a novel algorithm for probabilistic peak detection in first-order chromatographic data. Unlike conventional methods that deliver a binary answer pertaining to the expected presence or absence of a chromatographic peak, our method calculates the probability of a point being affected by such a peak. The algorithm makes use of chromatographic information (i.e. the expected width of a single peak and the standard deviation of baseline noise). As prior information of the existence of a peak in a chromatographic run, we make use of the statistical overlap theory. We formulate an exhaustive set of mutually exclusive hypotheses concerning presence or absence of different peak configurations. These models are evaluated by fitting a segment of chromatographic data by least-squares. The evaluation of these competing hypotheses can be performed as a Bayesian inferential task. We outline the potential advantages of adopting this approach for peak detection and provide several examples of both improved performance and increased flexibility afforded by our approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  7. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  8. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  9. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response. PMID:28387335

  10. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-04-07

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.

  11. Relaxation peak near 200 K in NiTi alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. S.; Schaller, R.; Benoit, W.

    1989-10-01

    Internal friction (IF), frequency ( f), electrical resistance ( R) and zero point movement of the torsion pendulum (ɛ) have been measured in near equi-atomic NiTi alloy in order to clarify the mechanism for the relaxation peak near 200 K. The height of the relaxation peak decreases successively with thermal cycling and settles down to a lower stable value in running 15 cycles. However, the electrical resistance of the sample shows a variation in contrast with the internal friction. Both of them will return to the initial state after a single annealing at 773 K for 1 h. The probable mechanism of this relaxation peak was discussed.

  12. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This three-volume report is responsive to the requirements of Contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program of computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. This section of the three volume report is a final report appendix with information on the National Energy Peak Leveling Program (NEPLP).

  13. The environmental impacts of peaking at hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halleraker, Jo Halvard

    2001-01-01

    A recent energy act in Norway allows hydropower plants to be operated so that hydro peaking is permitted. However, it is uncertain how fish react to the variations in discharge and depth that follow hydro peaking. SINTEF Energy Research is cooperating with other research institutions to investigate the consequences of these variations on the biota. Among the research tools is an aqua channel which is an indoor laboratory flume where fish behaviour can be studied in detail. It has been constructed to provide the hydropower industry and public authorities with means of better determining the effects of hydro peaking. (author)

  14. Hubbert's Peak, The Coal Question, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, D.

    2008-12-01

    The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) makes projections in terms of scenarios that include estimates of oil, gas, and coal production. These scenarios are defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios or SRES (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). It is striking how different these scenarios are. For example, total oil production from 2005 to 2100 in the scenarios varies by 5:1 (Appendix SRES Version 1.1). Because production in some of the scenarios has not peaked by 2100, this ratio would be comparable to 10:1 if the years after 2100 were considered. The IPCC says "... the resultant 40 SRES scenarios together encompass the current range of uncertainties of future GHG [greenhouse gas] emissions arising from different characteristics of these models ..." (Nakicenovic et al., 2000, Summary for Policy Makers). This uncertainty is important for climate modeling, because it is larger than the likely range for the temperature sensitivity, which the IPCC gives as 2.3:1 (Gerard Meehl et al., 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report, Chapter 10, Global Climate Projections, p. 799). The uncertainty indicates that we could improve climate modeling if we could make a better estimate of future oil, gas, and coal production. We start by considering the two major fossil-fuel regions with substantial exhaustion, US oil and British coal. It turns out that simple normal and logistic curve fits to the cumulative production for these regions give quite stable projections for the ultimate production. By ultimate production, we mean total production, past and future. For US oil, the range for the fits for the ultimate is 1.15:1 (225- 258 billion barrels) for the period starting in 1956, when King Hubbert made his prediction of the peak year of US oil production. For UK coal, the range is 1.26:1 for the period starting in 1905, at the time of a Royal Commission on coal supplies. We extend this approach to find fits for world oil and gas production, and by a regional

  15. Decomposition and correction overlapping peaks of LIBS using an error compensation method combined with curve fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Huang, Min; Zhu, Qibing; Guo, Ya; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-09-01

    The laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is an effective method to detect material composition by obtaining the plasma emission spectrum. The overlapping peaks in the spectrum are a fundamental problem in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of LIBS. Based on a curve fitting method, this paper studies an error compensation method to achieve the decomposition and correction of overlapping peaks. The vital step is that the fitting residual is fed back to the overlapping peaks and performs multiple curve fitting processes to obtain a lower residual result. For the quantitative experiments of Cu, the Cu-Fe overlapping peaks in the range of 321-327 nm obtained from the LIBS spectrum of five different concentrations of CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O solution were decomposed and corrected using curve fitting and error compensation methods. Compared with the curve fitting method, the error compensation reduced the fitting residual about 18.12-32.64% and improved the correlation about 0.86-1.82%. Then, the calibration curve between the intensity and concentration of the Cu was established. It can be seen that the error compensation method exhibits a higher linear correlation between the intensity and concentration of Cu, which can be applied to the decomposition and correction of overlapping peaks in the LIBS spectrum.

  16. Peak activation of lower limb musculature during high flexion kneeling and transitional movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, David C; Tennant, Liana M; Chong, Helen C; Acker, Stacey M

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have measured lower limb muscle activation during high knee flexion or investigated the effects of occupational safety footwear. Therefore, our understanding of injury and disease mechanisms, such as knee osteoarthritis, is limited for these high-risk postures. Peak activation was assessed in eight bilateral lower limb muscles for twelve male participants, while shod or barefoot. Transitions between standing and kneeling had peak quadriceps and tibialis anterior (TA) activations above 50% MVC. Static kneeling and simulated tasks performed when kneeling had peak TA activity above 15% MVC but below 10% MVC for remaining muscles. In three cases, peak muscle activity was significantly higher (mean 8.9% MVC) when shod. However, net compressive knee joint forces may not be significantly increased when shod. EMG should be used as a modelling input when estimating joint contact forces for these postures, considering the activation levels in the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles during transitions. Practitioner Summary: Kneeling transitional movements are used in activities of daily living and work but are linked to increased knee osteoarthritis risk. We found peak EMG activity of some lower limb muscles to be over 70% MVC during transitions and minimal influence of wearing safety footwear.

  17. Opinions on Current Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents eight reviews of current books, covering issues of particular interest to black educators and historians. Topics considered include slavery, college admissions and affirmative action, the marginalization of black scientists, black politics, bigotry, and higher education. (SLD)

  18. Modified echo peak correction for radial acquisition regime (RADAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Ito, Taeko; Itagaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Kanichirou; Harada, Junta

    2009-01-01

    Because radial sampling imposes many limitations on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging hardware, such as on the accuracy of the gradient magnetic field or the homogeneity of B(0), some correction of the echo signal is usually needed before image reconstruction. In our previous study, we developed an echo-peak-shift correction (EPSC) algorithm not easily affected by hardware performance. However, some artifacts remained in lung imaging, where tissue is almost absent, or in cardiac imaging, which is affected by blood flow. In this study, we modified the EPSC algorithm to improve the image quality of the radial aquisition regime (RADAR) and expand its application sequences. We assumed the artifacts were mainly caused by errors in the phase map for EPSC and used a phantom on a 1.5-tesla (T) MR scanner to investigate whether to modify the EPSC algorithm. To evaluate the effectiveness of EPSC, we compared results from T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images of a volunteer's lung region using the current and modified EPSC. We then applied the modified EPSC to RADAR spin echo (SE) and RADAR balanced steady-state acquisition with rewound gradient echo (BASG) sequence. The modified EPSC reduced phase discontinuity in the reference data used for EPSC and improved visualization of blood vessels in the lungs. Motion and blood flow caused no visible artifacts in the resulting images in either RADAR SE or RADAR BASG sequence. Use of the modified EPSC eliminated artifacts caused by signal loss in the reference data for EPSC. In addition, the modified EPSC was applied to RADAR SE and RADAR BASG sequences.

  19. Modified echo peak correction for radial acquisition regime (RADAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Ito, Taeko; Itagaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Kanichirou; Harada, Junta

    2009-01-01

    Because radial sampling imposes many limitations on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging hardware, such as on the accuracy of the gradient magnetic field or the homogeneity of B 0 , some correction of the echo signal is usually needed before image reconstruction. In our previous study, we developed an echo-peak-shift correction (EPSC) algorithm not easily affected by hardware performance. However, some artifacts remained in lung imaging, where tissue is almost absent, or in cardiac imaging, which is affected by blood flow. In this study, we modified the EPSC algorithm to improve the image quality of the radial acquisition regime (RADAR) and expand its application sequences. We assumed the artifacts were mainly caused by errors in the phase map for EPSC and used a phantom on a 1.5-tesla (T) MR scanner to investigate whether to modify the EPSC algorithm. To evaluate the effectiveness of EPSC, we compared results from T 1 -and T 2 -weighted images of a volunteer's lung region using the current and modified EPSC. We then applied the modified EPSC to RADAR spin echo (SE) and RADAR balanced steady-state acquisition with rewound gradient echo (BASG) sequence. The modified EPSC reduced phase discontinuity in the reference data used for EPSC and improved visualization of blood vessels in the lungs. Motion and blood flow caused no visible artifacts in the resulting images in either RADAR SE or RADAR BASG sequence. Use of the modified EPSC eliminated artifacts caused by signal loss in the reference data for EPSC. In addition, the modified EPSC was applied to RADAR SE and RADAR BASG sequences. (author)

  20. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  1. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  2. Disruption, vertical displacement event and halo current characterization for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.; Fujisawa, N.; Ortolani, S.; Putvinski, S.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics, in ITER, of plasma disruptions, vertical displacement events (VDEs) and the conversion of plasma current to runaway electron current in a disruption are presented. In addition to the well known potential of disruptions to produce rapid thermal energy and plasma current quenches and theoretical predictions that show the likelihood of ∼ 50% runaway conversion, an assessment of VDE and halo current characteristics in vertically elongated tokamaks shows that disruptions in ITER will result in VDEs with peak in-vessel halo currents of up to 50% of the predisruption plasma current and with toroidal peaking factors (peak/average current density) of up to 4:1. However, the assessment also shows an inverse correlation between the halo current magnitude and the toroidal peaking factor; hence, ITER VDEs can be expected to have a product of normalized halo current magnitude times toroidal peaking factor of ≤ 75%. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Peak effect and vortex dynamics in superconducting MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook; Jang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Heon-Jung; Kang, Byeongwon; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the vortex state of MgB 2 single crystals near the peak effect (PE) region, which is very different either from that of conventional low-temperature superconductors or from that of high-temperature cuprate superconductors, is introduced in this article. Relaxation from a disordered, metastable field-cooled (FC) state to an ordered, stable zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state of the MgB 2 single crystals under an applied magnetic field and current is investigated. From an analysis of the noise properties in the ZFC state, a dynamic vortex phase diagram of the MgB 2 is obtained near the PE region. Between the onset and the peak region in the critical current vs. magnetic field diagram, crossovers from a high-noise state to a noise-free state are observed with increasing current. Above the peak, however, an opposite phenomenon, crossovers from a noise-free to a high-noise state, is observed which has not been observed in any other superconductors. The hysteresis in the I-V curves and the two-level random telegraph noise in the time evolution of the voltage response under an constant applied current at the ZFC state are also studied in detail

  4. PolyaPeak: Detecting Transcription Factor Binding Sites from ChIP-seq Using Peak Shape Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ji, Hongkai

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq is a powerful technology for detecting genomic regions where a protein of interest interacts with DNA. ChIP-seq data for mapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) have a characteristic pattern: around each binding site, sequence reads aligned to the forward and reverse strands of the reference genome form two separate peaks shifted away from each other, and the true binding site is located in between these two peaks. While it has been shown previously that the accuracy and resolution of binding site detection can be improved by modeling the pattern, efficient methods are unavailable to fully utilize that information in TFBS detection procedure. We present PolyaPeak, a new method to improve TFBS detection by incorporating the peak shape information. PolyaPeak describes peak shapes using a flexible Pólya model. The shapes are automatically learnt from the data using Minorization-Maximization (MM) algorithm, then integrated with the read count information via a hierarchical model to distinguish true binding sites from background noises. Extensive real data analyses show that PolyaPeak is capable of robustly improving TFBS detection compared with existing methods. An R package is freely available. PMID:24608116

  5. The peak of oil production-Timings and market recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Pedro de; Silva, Pedro D.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is essential for present societies. In particular, transportation systems depend on petroleum-based fuels. That world oil production is set to pass a peak is now a reasonably accepted concept, although its date is far from consensual. In this work, we analyze the true expectations of the oil market participants about the future availability of this fundamental energy source. We study the evolution through time of the curves of crude oil futures prices, and we conclude that the market participants, among them the crude oil producers, already expect a near-term peak of oil production. This agrees with many technical predictions for the date of peak production, including our own, that point to peak dates around the end of the present decade. If this scenario is confirmed, it can cause serious social and economical problems because societies will have little time to perform the necessary adjustments

  6. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  7. Advancements of ultra-high peak power laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D.; Thiagarajan, P.; Goings, J.; Caliva, B.; Smith, S.; Walker, R.

    2018-02-01

    Enhancements of laser diode epitaxy in conjunction with process and packaging improvements have led to the availability of 1cm bars capable of over 500W peak power at near-infrared wavelengths (770nm to 1100nm). Advances in cooler design allow for multi-bar stacks with bar-to-bar pitches as low as 350μm and a scalable package architecture enabled a single diode assembly with total peak powers of over 1MegaWatt of peak power. With the addition of micro-optics, overall array brightness greater than 10kW/cm2 was achieved. Performance metrics of barbased diode lasers specifically engineered for high peak power and high brightness at wavelengths and pulse conditions commonly used to pump a variety of fiber and solid-state materials are presented.

  8. Improving EEG signal peak detection using feature weight learning ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asrul Adam

    4 School of Psychology and Counseling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia. 5 QIMR ... The groups of Acir et al .... difference between the peak and the floating mean, which is ..... Thus, the individual features were.

  9. Energy and public health: the challenge of peak petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Vindigni, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum is a unique and essential energy source, used as the principal fuel for transportation, in producing many chemicals, and for numerous other purposes. Global petroleum production is expected to reach a maximum in the near future and to decline thereafter, a phenomenon known as "peak petroleum." This article reviews petroleum geology and uses, describes the phenomenon of peak petroleum, and reviews the scientific literature on the timing of this transition. It then discusses how peak petroleum may affect public health and health care, by reference to four areas: medical supplies and equipment, transportation, energy generation, and food production. Finally, it suggests strategies for anticipating and preparing for peak petroleum, both general public health preparedness strategies and actions specific to the four expected health system impacts.

  10. OECD : Euroopa peaks laenuraha odava hoidma / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2002-01-01

    USA majanduse kiire toibumine võib varsti tuua laenuintresside tõusu, Euroopa Keskpank peaks vähemalt aasta lõpuni ootama ja laskma kasvul juurduda. Diagramm: OECD tõstis majanduskasvu prognoosi. Maksukoormus

  11. Hubbert's Oil Peak Revisited by a Simulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Sutter, A.; Denis, T.; Leonard, C.

    2010-01-01

    As conventional oil reserves are declining, the debate on the oil production peak has become a burning issue. An increasing number of papers refer to Hubbert's peak oil theory to forecast the date of the production peak, both at regional and world levels. However, in our views, this theory lacks micro-economic foundations. Notably, it does not assume that exploration and production decisions in the oil industry depend on market prices. In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, we have built an adaptative model, accounting for the behavior of one agent, standing for the competitive exploration-production industry, subjected to incomplete but improving information on the remaining reserves. Our work yields challenging results on the reasons for an Hubbert type peak oil, lying mainly 'above the ground', both at regional and world levels, and on the shape of the production and marginal cost trajectories. (authors)

  12. Brian Eno Hollandi Festivali peakülaliseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Inglise helilooja, videokunstnik ja muusikaprodutsent Brian Eno on 5.-26. juunini Amsterdamis toimuva avangardse Hollandi Festivali peakülaline, kelle videoinstallatsioon seatakse üles Stedelijki Muuseumis. Festivali programmist

  13. FHWA operations support : port peak pricing program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluates the applicability, Federal policy implications, and possible public and private sector roles related to peak pricing strategies at ports and intermodal facilities in the U.S. A number of ports and intermodal terminals are consid...

  14. The simple method of determination peaks areas in multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loska, L.; Ptasinski, J.

    1991-01-01

    Semiconductor germanium detectors used in γ-spectrometry give spectra with well-separated peaks. However, in some cases, energies of γ-lines are too near, to produce resolved and undisturbed peaks. Then, there is a necessity to perform a mathematical separation. The method proposed here is based on the assumption, that areas of peaks composing the analysed multiplet are proportional to their heights. The method can be applied for any number of interfering peaks, providing, that the function of the background under the multiplet is accurately determined. The results of testing calculations performed on a simulated spectrum are given. The method works successfully in a computer program used for neutron activation analysis data processing. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  15. Heavy Ion Testing at the Galactic Cosmic Ray Energy Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Xapsos, M. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Heidel, D. F.; Rodbell, K. P.; Hakey, M. C.; Dodd, P. E.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Schwank, J. R.; hide

    2009-01-01

    A 1 GeV/u Fe-56 Ion beam allows for true 90 deg. tilt irradiations of various microelectronic components and reveals relevant upset trends for an abundant element at the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux-energy peak.

  16. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Jay Peak, VT Quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG99-1 Compilation bedrock geologic map of the Jay Peak quadrangle, Compiled by B. Doolan, 1999: VGS Open-File Report VG99-1, 1 plate, scale...

  17. Neutron-induced peaks in Ge detectors from evaporation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gete, E.; Measday, D.F.; Moftah, B.A.; Saliba, M.A.; Stocki, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the peak shapes at 596 and 691 keV resulting from fast neutron interactions inside germanium detectors. We have used neutrons from a 252 Cf source, as well as from the 28 Si(μ - , nν), and 209 Bi(π - , xn) reactions to compare the peaks and to check for a dependence of peak shape on the incoming neutron energy. In our investigation, no difference between these three measurements has been observed. In a comparison of these peak shapes with other studies, we found similar results to ours except for those measurements using monoenergetic neutrons in which a significant variation with neutron energy has been observed. (orig.)

  18. Desert Peak East Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemach, Ezra [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Spielman, Paul [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Akerley, John [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This manuscript is a draft to replaced with a final version at a later date TBD. A summary of activities pertaining to the Desert Peak EGS project including the planning and resulting stimulation activities.

  19. Periodic transmission peak splitting in one dimensional disordered photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper we present ways to modulate the periodic transmission peaks arising in disordered one dimensional photonic structures with hundreds of layers. Disordered structures in which the optical length nd (n is the refractive index and d the layer thickness) is the same for each layer show regular peaks in their transmission spectra. A proper variation of the optical length of the layers leads to a splitting of the transmission peaks. Notably, the variation of the occurrence of high and low refractive index layers, gives a tool to tune also the width of the peaks. These results are of highest interest for optical application, such as light filtering, where the manifold of parameters allows a precise design of the spectral transmission ranges.

  20. Effects of peatland drainage management on peak flows

    OpenAIRE

    C. E. Ballard; N. McIntyre; H. S. Wheater

    2011-01-01

    Open ditch drainage has historically been a common land management practice in upland blanket peats, particularly in the UK. However, peatland drainage is now generally considered to have adverse effects on the upland environment, including increased peak flows. As a result, drain blocking has become a common management strategy in the UK over recent years, although there is only anecdotal evidence to suggest that this might decrease peak flows. The change in the hydrologica...

  1. Peak-load management, the security of supply warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Even if France owns an efficient power generation park, largely exporting and clean (90% with no CO 2 emission), it encounters some difficulties during peak-load periods. The successive peak power demand records which are recorded each year represent as many alerts about a possible collapse of the power system. In order to warrant the electricity supply, the present day regulatory framework must be changed to allow the industrial players to carry out the necessary investments

  2. Improvements to science operations at Kitt Peak National Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannan, Bruce

    1998-07-01

    In recent years Kitt Peak National Observatory has undertaken a number of innovative projects to optimize science operations with the suite of telescopes we operate on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Changing scientific requirements and expectations of our users, evolving technology and declining budgets have motivated the changes. The operations improvements have included telescope performance enhancements--with the focus on the Mayall 4-m--modes of observing and scheduling, telescope control and observing systems, planning and communication, and data archiving.

  3. Generation of narrow peaks in spectroscopy of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbers, Dirk, E-mail: dubbers@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmidt, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.schmidt@physi.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-11-21

    In spectroscopy of charged particles, narrow peaks may appear in continuous spectra if magnetic transport of the particles is involved. These artefacts, which so far have escaped the attention of investigators, can develop whenever geometric detection efficiency is less than 100%. As such peaks may be misinterpreted as new physics, their generation is investigated, both analytically and experimentally, for various detector configurations, including those used in searches for the spontaneous decay of the vacuum in heavy-ion collisions.

  4. Review of new shapes for higher gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    High-gradient superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are needed for energy frontier superconducting accelerators. Progress has been made over the past decades and the accelerating gradient E acc has been increased from a few MV/m to ∼42 MV/m in SRF niobium cavities. The corresponding peak RF magnetic field H pk on the niobium cavity surface is approaching the intrinsic RF critical magnetic field H crit,RF , a hard physical limit at which superconductivity breaks down. Pushing the gradient envelope further by adopting new cavity shapes with a lower ratio of H pk /E acc has been recently proposed. For a reduced H pk /E acc , a higher ultimate E acc is sustained when H pk finally strikes H crit,RF . The new cavity geometry include the re-entrant shape conceived at Cornell University and the so-called 'Low-loss' shape proposed by a DESY/JLAB/KEK collaboration. Experimental work is being pursued at Cornell, KEK and JLAB. Results of single-cell cavities are encouraging. A record gradient of 47 MV/m was first demonstrated in a 1.3 GHz re-entrant niobium cavity at Cornell University. At the time of writing, a new record of 52 MV/m has been realized with another 1.3 GHz re-entrant cavity, designed and built at Cornell and processed and tested at KEK. Single-cell low-loss cavities have reached equally high gradients in the range of 45-51 MV/m at KEK and JLAB. Owing to their higher gradient potential and the encouraging single-cell cavity results, the new cavity shapes are becoming attractive for their possible use in the international linear collider (ILC). Experimental work on multi-cell niobium cavities of new shapes is currently under active exploration

  5. Review of new shapes for higher gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, R. L.

    2006-07-01

    High-gradient superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are needed for energy frontier superconducting accelerators. Progress has been made over the past decades and the accelerating gradient Eacc has been increased from a few MV/m to ∼42 MV/m in SRF niobium cavities. The corresponding peak RF magnetic field Hpk on the niobium cavity surface is approaching the intrinsic RF critical magnetic field Hcrit,RF, a hard physical limit at which superconductivity breaks down. Pushing the gradient envelope further by adopting new cavity shapes with a lower ratio of Hpk/ Eacc has been recently proposed. For a reduced Hpk/ Eacc, a higher ultimate Eacc is sustained when Hpk finally strikes Hcrit,RF. The new cavity geometry include the re-entrant shape conceived at Cornell University and the so-called “Low-loss” shape proposed by a DESY/JLAB/KEK collaboration. Experimental work is being pursued at Cornell, KEK and JLAB. Results of single-cell cavities are encouraging. A record gradient of 47 MV/m was first demonstrated in a 1.3 GHz re-entrant niobium cavity at Cornell University. At the time of writing, a new record of 52 MV/m has been realized with another 1.3 GHz re-entrant cavity, designed and built at Cornell and processed and tested at KEK. Single-cell low-loss cavities have reached equally high gradients in the range of 45-51 MV/m at KEK and JLAB. Owing to their higher gradient potential and the encouraging single-cell cavity results, the new cavity shapes are becoming attractive for their possible use in the international linear collider (ILC). Experimental work on multi-cell niobium cavities of new shapes is currently under active exploration.

  6. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  7. Modeling the probability distribution of peak discharge for infiltrating hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-07-01

    Hillslope response plays a fundamental role in the prediction of peak discharge at the basin outlet. The peak discharge for the critical duration of rainfall and its probability distribution are needed for designing urban infrastructure facilities. This study derives the probability distribution, denoted as GABS model, by coupling three models: (1) the Green-Ampt model for computing infiltration, (2) the kinematic wave model for computing discharge hydrograph from the hillslope, and (3) the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) model for computing design rainfall intensity. The Hortonian mechanism for runoff generation is employed for computing the surface runoff hydrograph. Since the antecedent soil moisture condition (ASMC) significantly affects the rate of infiltration, its effect on the probability distribution of peak discharge is investigated. Application to a watershed in Sicily, Italy, shows that with the increase of probability, the expected effect of ASMC to increase the maximum discharge diminishes. Only for low values of probability, the critical duration of rainfall is influenced by ASMC, whereas its effect on the peak discharge seems to be less for any probability. For a set of parameters, the derived probability distribution of peak discharge seems to be fitted by the gamma distribution well. Finally, an application to a small watershed, with the aim to test the possibility to arrange in advance the rational runoff coefficient tables to be used for the rational method, and a comparison between peak discharges obtained by the GABS model with those measured in an experimental flume for a loamy-sand soil were carried out.

  8. Peak oil: The four stages of a new idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Ugo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas (ASPO), Polo Scientifico di Sesto Fiorentino, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Fi) (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    The present paper reviews the reactions and the path of acceptance of the theory known as ''peak oil''. The theory was proposed for the first time by M.K. Hubbert in the 1950s as a way to describe the production pattern of crude oil. According to Hubbert, the production curve is ''bell shaped'' and approximately symmetric. Hubbert's theory was verified with good approximation for the case of oil production in the United States that peaked in 1971, and is now being applied to the worldwide oil production. It is generally believed that the global peak of oil production (''peak oil'') will take place during the first decade of the 21st century, and some analysts believe that it has already occurred in 2005 or 2006. The theory and its consequences have unpleasant social and economical implications. The present paper is not aimed at assessing the peak date but offers a discussion on the factors that affect the acceptance and the diffusion of the concept of ''peak oil'' with experts and with the general public. The discussion is based on a subdivision of ''four stages of acceptance'', loosely patterned after a sentence by Thomas Huxley. (author)

  9. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  10. Peak energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Yan; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Changhong; Xiong, Minpeng; Guo, Jingsheng

    2014-01-01

    China is in the processes of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Based on the Kaya identity, this paper proposes an analytical framework for various energy scenarios that explicitly simulates China's economic development, with a prospective consideration on the impacts of urbanization and income distribution. With the framework, China's 2050 energy consumption and associated CO 2 reduction scenarios are constructed. Main findings are: (1) energy consumption will peak at 5200–5400 million tons coal equivalent (Mtce) in 2035–2040; (2) CO 2 emissions will peak at 9200–9400 million tons (Mt) in 2030–2035, whilst it can be potentially reduced by 200–300 Mt; (3) China's per capita energy consumption and per capita CO 2 emission are projected to peak at 4 tce and 6.8 t respectively in 2020–2030, soon after China steps into the high income group. - Highlights: • A framework for modeling China's energy and CO 2 emissions is proposed. • Scenarios are constructed based on various assumptions on the driving forces. • Energy consumption will peak in 2035–2040 at 5200–5400 Mtce. • CO 2 emissions will peak in 2030–2035 at about 9300 Mt and be cut by 300 Mt in a cleaner energy path. • Energy consumption and CO 2 emissions per capita will peak soon after China steps into the high income group

  11. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  12. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  13. The Mechanics of Peak-Ring Impact Crater Formation from the IODP-ICDP Expedition 364

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H.; Collins, G. S.; Morgan, J. V.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact crater is one of very few peak-ring impact craters on Earth. While small (less than 3 km on Earth) impact craters are typically bowl-shaped, larger craters exhibit central peaks, which in still larger (more than about 100 km on Earth) craters expand into mountainous rings with diameters close to half that of the crater rim. The origin of these peak rings has been contentious: Such craters are far too large to create in laboratory experiments and remote sensing of extraterrestrial examples has not clarified the mechanics of their formation. Two principal models of peak ring formation are currently in vogue, the "nested crater" model, in which the peak ring originates at shallow depths in the target, and the "dynamic collapse" model in which the peak ring is uplifted at the base of a collapsing, over-steepened central peak and its rocks originate at mid-crustal depths. IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 sought to elucidate, among other important goals, the mechanics of peak ring formation in the young (66 Myr), fresh, but completely buried Chicxulub impact crater. The cores from this borehole now show unambiguously that the rocks in the Chicxulub peak ring originated at mid-crustal depths, apparently ruling out the nested crater model. These rocks were shocked to pressures on the order of 10-35 GPa and were so shattered that their densities and seismic velocities now resemble those of sedimentary rocks. The morphology of the final crater, its structure as revealed in previous seismic imaging, and the results from the cores are completely consistent with modern numerical models of impact crater excavation and collapse that incorporate a model for post-impact weakening. Subsequent to the opening of a ca. 100 km diameter and 30 km deep transient crater, this enormous hole in the crust collapsed over a period of about 10 minutes. Collapse was enabled by movement of the underlying rocks, which briefly behaved in the manner of a high-viscosity fluid, a brittle

  14. Resistive flux saving and current profile control during lower hybrid waves assisted current rise in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Houtte, D.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Lecoustey, P.; Moreau, D.; Parlange, F.; Tonon, G.; Vallet, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Resistive flux saving at densities n e = (1 - 2) x 10 19 m -3 has been studied. High flux saving efficiency (0.7 x 10 13 Wb/J/m -1 ) can be achieved for a low rf power (P LH = 0.5 MW) due to the beneficial effect of the electric field on the suprathermal electrons. However for power higher than 1 MW, the efficiency is 0.25 x 10 13 Wb/J/m -1 . This flux saving efficiency is comparable to the one obtained during the flat top phase. The application of the LH power during a low density current ramp-up tends to peak the electron temperature and current density profiles. The rf power level, the parallel wavenumber and the current ramp rate allow to control the trajectories of the plasma discharges during the current rise inside the MHD stable domain

  15. Effect of external noise on the current response in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suqing Duan; Wu Binyi; Wang Zhigang; Zhao Xiangeng

    2004-01-01

    Within the single-band model and the nearest-neighbor approximation we investigate the effect of external noise on the current response driven by dc-ac field which has a fluctuating component. We find the external noise can destroy the current resonant peaks. When the strength of the external noise becomes enough large, all the current resonant peaks will completely disappear

  16. Simultaneous collection method of on-peak window image and off-peak window image in Tl-201 imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomonori; Noguchi, Yasushi; Kojima, Akihiro; Takagi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    Tl-201 imaging detects the photopeak (71 keV, in on-peak window) of characteristic X-rays of Hg-201 formed from Tl-201 decay. The peak is derived from 4 rays of different energy and emission intensity and does not follow in Gaussian distribution. In the present study, authors made an idea for the method in the title to attain the more effective single imaging, which was examined for its accuracy and reliability with phantoms and applied clinically to Tl-201 scintigraphy in a patient. The authors applied the triple energy window method for data acquisition: the energy window setting was made on Hg-201 X-rays photopeak in three of the lower (3%, L), main (72 keV, M) and upper (14%, U) windows with the gamma camera with 2-gated detector (Toshiba E. CAM/ICON). L, M and U images obtained simultaneously were then constructed to images of on-peak (L+M, Mock on-peak) and off-peak (M+U) window settings for evaluation. Phantoms for line source with Tl-201-containing swab and for multi-defect with acrylic plate containing Tl-201 solution were imaged in water. The female patient with thyroid cancer was subjected to preoperative scintigraphy under the defined conditions. Mock on-, off-peak images were found to be equivalent to the true (ordinary, clinical) on-, off-peak ones, and the present method was thought usable for evaluation of usefulness of off-peak window data. (R.T.)

  17. Recruiting, Training, Retaining, and Promoting the Workforce of the Future at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunseri, M.

    1999-01-01

    TXU Electric expects to encounter a relatively high turnover in the workforce in the coming years. To prepare for this challenge and to maintain a high level of performance, a number of approaches are being implemented. These approaches involve recruiting experienced personnel, recruiting and developing local nonexperienced personnel, and developing current employees. Through these approaches, TXU Electric expects to maintain a high-quality workforce for the continued support of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

  18. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is on the influence of coordination and peak-shaving operation of these individual units in realistic urban areas. Currently extensive amount of research exits on specific applications related to storage ...

  19. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, R. E.

    1998-02-01

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 5.8%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum.

  20. The duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Jeelani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pubertal growth peak is closely associated with a rapid increase in mandibular length and offers a wide range of therapeutic modifiability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the mean ages of onset and duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of 230 subjects with growth potential (110 males, 120 females. Subjects were categorized into three classes (Class I = 81, Class II = 82, Class III = 67, according to the sagittal relationship established between the maxilla and the mandible. The cervical vertebral maturation stage was recorded by means of Baccetti's method. The mean ages at CS3 and CS4 and the CS3-CS4 age interval were compared between boys and girls and among three skeletal classes. Results: Pubertal growth peak occurred on average four months earlier in girls than boys (p = 0.050. The average duration of pubertal growth peak was 11 months in Class I, seven months in Class II and 17 months in Class III subjects. Interclass differences were highly significant (Cohen's d > 0.08. However, no significant difference was found in the timing of pubertal growth peak onset among three skeletal classes (p = 0.126 in boys, p = 0.262 in girls. Conclusions: Girls enter pubertal growth peak on average four months earlier than boys. Moreover, the duration of pubertal growth peak is on average four months shorter in Class II and six months longer in Class III subjects as compared to Class I subjects.

  1. Managing peak loads in energy grids: Comparative economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, A.; Zeigarnik, Yu.; Buzoverov, E.; Sheindlin, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key issues in modern energy technology is managing the imbalance between the generated power and the load, particularly during times of peak demand. The increasing use of renewable energy sources makes this problem even more acute. Various existing technologies, including stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS), can be employed to provide additional power during peak demand times. In the future, integration of on-board batteries of the growing fleet of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) into the grid can provide power during peak demand hours (vehicle-to-grid, or V2G technology). This work provides cost estimates of managing peak energy demands using traditional technologies, such as maneuverable power plants, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants and peaker generators, as well as BESS and V2G technologies. The derived estimates provide both per kWh and kW year of energy supplied to the grid. The analysis demonstrates that the use of battery storage is economically justified for short peak demand periods of <1 h. For longer durations, the most suitable technology remains the use of maneuverable steam gas power plants, gas turbine,reciprocating gas engine peaker generators, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants. - Highlights: • Cost of managing peak energy demand employing different technologies are estimated. • Traditional technologies, stationary battery storage and V2G are compared. • Battery storage is economically justified for peak demand periods of <1 h. • V2G appears to have better efficiency than stationary battery storage in low voltage power grids.

  2. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1,000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 98%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum

  3. Mixed Higher Order Variational Model for Image Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed higher order regularizer involving the first and second degree image derivatives is proposed in this paper. Using spectral decomposition, we reformulate the new regularizer as a weighted L1-L2 mixed norm of image derivatives. Due to the equivalent formulation of the proposed regularizer, an efficient fast projected gradient algorithm combined with monotone fast iterative shrinkage thresholding, called, FPG-MFISTA, is designed to solve the resulting variational image recovery problems under majorization-minimization framework. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization scheme by the experimental comparisons with total variation (TV scheme, nonlocal TV scheme, and current second degree methods. Specifically, the proposed approach achieves better results than related state-of-the-art methods in terms of peak signal to ratio (PSNR and restoration quality.

  4. flowPeaks: a fast unsupervised clustering for flow cytometry data via K-means and density peak finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongchao; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2012-08-01

    For flow cytometry data, there are two common approaches to the unsupervised clustering problem: one is based on the finite mixture model and the other on spatial exploration of the histograms. The former is computationally slow and has difficulty to identify clusters of irregular shapes. The latter approach cannot be applied directly to high-dimensional data as the computational time and memory become unmanageable and the estimated histogram is unreliable. An algorithm without these two problems would be very useful. In this article, we combine ideas from the finite mixture model and histogram spatial exploration. This new algorithm, which we call flowPeaks, can be applied directly to high-dimensional data and identify irregular shape clusters. The algorithm first uses K-means algorithm with a large K to partition the cell population into many small clusters. These partitioned data allow the generation of a smoothed density function using the finite mixture model. All local peaks are exhaustively searched by exploring the density function and the cells are clustered by the associated local peak. The algorithm flowPeaks is automatic, fast and reliable and robust to cluster shape and outliers. This algorithm has been applied to flow cytometry data and it has been compared with state of the art algorithms, including Misty Mountain, FLOCK, flowMeans, flowMerge and FLAME. The R package flowPeaks is available at https://github.com/yongchao/flowPeaks. yongchao.ge@mssm.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  6. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  7. Assessment of end-use electricity consumption and peak demand by Townsville's housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhengen; Paevere, Phillip; Grozev, George; Egan, Stephen; Anticev, Julia

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive model to estimate annual end-use electricity consumption and peak demand of housing stock, considering occupants' use of air conditioning systems and major appliances. The model was applied to analyse private dwellings in Townsville, Australia's largest tropical city. For the financial year (FY) 2010–11 the predicted results agreed with the actual electricity consumption with an error less than 10% for cooling thermostat settings at the standard setting temperature of 26.5 °C and at 1.0 °C higher than the standard setting. The greatest difference in monthly electricity consumption in the summer season between the model and the actual data decreased from 21% to 2% when the thermostat setting was changed from 26.5 °C to 27.5 °C. Our findings also showed that installation of solar panels in Townville houses could reduce electricity demand from the grid and would have a minor impact on the yearly peak demand. A key new feature of the model is that it can be used to predict probability distribution of energy demand considering (a) that appliances may be used randomly and (b) the way people use thermostats. The peak demand for the FY estimated from the probability distribution tracked the actual peak demand at 97% confidence level. - Highlights: • We developed a model to estimate housing stock energy consumption and peak demand. • Appliances used randomly and thermostat settings for space cooling were considered. • On-site installation of solar panels was also considered. • Its' results agree well with the actual electricity consumption and peak demand. • It shows the model could provide the probability distribution of electricity demand

  8. The b Distribution and the Velocity Structure of Absorption Peaks in the Lyα Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, L.; Rutledge, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    A theory is developed that relates the observed b parameter of a Lyα absorption line to the velocity curvature of the corresponding peak in the optical depth fluctuation. Its relation to the traditional interpretation of b as the thermal broadening width is discussed. It is demonstrated that, independent of the details of the cosmological model, the differential b distribution has a high-b asymptote of dN/db∝b -m , where m≥5, when we make the reasonable assumption that low-curvature fluctuations are statistically favored over high-curvature ones. There in general always exist lines much broader than the thermal width. We develop a linear perturbative analysis of the optical depth fluctuation, which yields a single-parameter prediction for the full b distribution. In addition to exhibiting the high-velocity tail, it qualitatively explains the observed sharp low-b cutoff a simple reflection of the fact that high-curvature fluctuations are relatively rare. Although the existence of the high-b asymptote, which is independent of the validity of the linear expansion, is consistent with the observed b distribution, a detailed comparison of the linear prediction with six observational data sets indicates that higher order corrections are not negligible. The perturbative analysis nonetheless offers valuable insights into the dependence of the b distribution on cosmological parameters such as Ω and the power spectrum. A key parameter is the effective smoothing scale of the optical depth fluctuation, which is in turn determined by three scales: the thermal broadening width, the baryon smoothing scale (approximately the Jeans scale), and the observation/simulation resolution. The first two are determined by reionization history, but are comparable in general, whereas the third varies by about an order of magnitude in current hydrodynamic simulations. Studies with non resolution-dominated b distributions can be used to probe the reionization history of the universe

  9. Study of energy transfer in single and multi-emissive layer using Gaussian peak fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ju-An; Kim, You-Hyun; Kim, Nam Ho; Moon, Chang-Bum; He, Gufeng; Kim, Woo Young

    2014-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes(WOLEDs) were fabricated with the device structure of ITO(1800 Å)/NPB(700 Å)/emissive layer(300 Å)/Bphen(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å) using the two complementary colors method. Then, we investigated their electrical and optical characteristics to determine luminous efficiency, luminance and color coordinates of single, double, triple and quadruple emissive layered-WOLED. Thickness of emissive layer was fixed at 30 Å, and DPASN and BAlq were used for blue emissive host material and DCJTB was added as red dopant in the emissive layer. Then, we investigated the performance of OLEDs via its charge blocking structure and its different emissive region with emissive layers. Luminous efficiency of 5.30 cd/A at 50 mA/cm 2 of current density is obtained in WOLED device with double emissive layer of DPASN:DCJTB-0.1% (150 Å)/BAlq:DCJTB-0.1% (150 Å) and these are 80% higher than WOLED device with single emissive layer of DPASN:DCJTB-0.1% (300 Å). - Highlights: • White OLEDs with multiple-emissive layer were fabricated using p- and n-type emissive materials. • We fabricated WOLEDs only using a small quantity of fluorescent red dopant materials. • The spectroscopic analysis using multi-peak fits with a Gaussian function. • The explain electroluminescence spectra of white OLEDs with the multiple-emissive layer. • We examine changes in the number of emissive layer about white OLEDs performance

  10. Peak-load pricing in two-step-modeling of power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korunig, Jens-Holger

    2005-01-01

    For the use of electric current transmission and distribution networks, which represent a monopolistic bottleneck, are inevitable. In the context of the liberalization of the current markets vertical separation is possible to create a competitive generator market and separated current transmission and distribution networks, which can made be available to the same conditions to all potential net users. A private, independent network carrier, however, would arrange its net from the interest of profit: He would dimension the net probably smaller and would try to orientate the transmission prices to the actual costs. From the point of view of the system operator as well as from the economic point of view time-dependent transmission prices are preferable at the sight of periodically changing demand. The question, which arises thereby, is, to what extent the property structure affects prices and quantities for the current transmission and which property structure under economical aspects (maximization of the welfare, ...) represents the best. It is to be expected, that with a higher degree of competition a higher efficiency and a larger social welfare are obtained. This is to be analysed in a two-stage model with period-dependent demand and modelling both the power generation and the transmission sector regarding different property structures. Different types of market are assumed both on the production and on the distribution stage. Those market results are examined on their welfare effects. This is to accompany with a realistic modelling above all the network area, which represents further (in contrast to the power generation) a natural monopoly: A natural monopoly has compellingly sub additive cost functions. The net sector (and in a further step also the power generation) is to be modelled with decreasing average and marginal costs (current research task). If one permits each behaviour, an enterprise, which possesses this natural monopoly, will extract monopolist

  11. Pediatric Exercise Testing: Value and Implications of Peak Oxygen Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo T. Pianosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peak oxygen uptake (peak V ˙ O 2 measured by clinical exercise testing is the benchmark for aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness, estimated from maximal treadmill exercise, is a predictor of mortality in adults. Peak V ˙ O 2 was shown to predict longevity in patients aged 7–35 years with cystic fibrosis over 25 years ago. A surge of exercise studies in young adults with congenital heart disease over the past decade has revealed significant prognostic information. Three years ago, the first clinical trial in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension used peak V ˙ O 2 as an endpoint that likewise delivered clinically relevant data. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides clinicians with biomarkers and clinical outcomes, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response hidden at rest. Momentum from these pioneering observations in multiple disease states should impel clinicians to employ similar methods in other patient populations; e.g., sickle cell disease. Advances in pediatric exercise science will elucidate new pathways that may identify novel biomarkers. Our initial aim of this essay is to highlight the clinical relevance of exercise testing to determine peak V ˙ O 2 , and thereby convince clinicians of its merit, stimulating future clinical investigators to broaden the application of exercise testing in pediatrics.

  12. Effects of peatland drainage management on peak flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Ballard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Open ditch drainage has historically been a common land management practice in upland blanket peats, particularly in the UK. However, peatland drainage is now generally considered to have adverse effects on the upland environment, including increased peak flows. As a result, drain blocking has become a common management strategy in the UK over recent years, although there is only anecdotal evidence to suggest that this might decrease peak flows. The change in the hydrological regime associated with the drainage of blanket peat and the subsequent blocking of drains is poorly understood, therefore a new physics-based model has been developed that allows the exploration of the associated hydrological processes. A series of simulations is used to explore the response of intact, drained and blocked drain sites at field scales. While drainage is generally found to increase peak flows, the effect of drain blocking appears to be dependent on local conditions, sometimes decreasing and sometimes increasing peak flows. Based on insights from these simulations we identify steep smooth drains as those that would experience the greatest reduction in field-scale peak flows if blocked and recommend that future targeted field studies should be focused on examining surface runoff characteristics.

  13. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is realized without getting exact numbers of each calling floor's waiting passengers. Specifically, energy-saving oriented multi-objective scheduling price is proposed, RO uncertain peak scheduling model is built to minimize the price. Because RO uncertain model could not be solved directly, RO uncertain model is transformed to RO certain model by elevator scheduling robust counterparts. Because solution space of elevator scheduling is enormous, to solve RO certain model in short time, ant colony solving algorithm for elevator scheduling is proposed. Based on the algorithm, optimal scheduling solutions are found quickly, and group elevators are scheduled according to the solutions. Simulation results show the method could improve scheduling performances effectively in peak pattern. Group elevators' efficient operation is realized by the RO scheduling method.

  14. Energy Saving by Chopping off Peak Demand Using Day Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Maitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An artificial intelligent technique has been implemented in this research using real time datas to calculate how much energy can be chopped from peak load demand. The results are based on real time data that are taken from power delivering centers. These datas do reflect the present condition of power and a solution to those critical conditions during the peak period. These are done in such a way such that helps in judicious scheduling of load. The time based load scheduling has been done so as to understand the basic criteria for solving power crisis during morning peak and early evening peak. The sunray availability and percentage of load that will use day light saving (DLS technique has been taken into account in this work. The results shows that about 0.5% to 1% of load can be shedded off from the peak load period which otherwise is reduction of power. Thus it otherwise also means that an equivalent amount of energy is saved which amounts to a large saving of national money. This result is obtained on monthly and even daily basis. Thus this paper justifies DLS gives a new renewable technique to save energy.

  15. Non-Gaussian bias: insights from discrete density peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent; Riotto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Corrections induced by primordial non-Gaussianity to the linear halo bias can be computed from a peak-background split or the widespread local bias model. However, numerical simulations clearly support the prediction of the former, in which the non-Gaussian amplitude is proportional to the linear halo bias. To understand better the reasons behind the failure of standard Lagrangian local bias, in which the halo overdensity is a function of the local mass overdensity only, we explore the effect of a primordial bispectrum on the 2-point correlation of discrete density peaks. We show that the effective local bias expansion to peak clustering vastly simplifies the calculation. We generalize this approach to excursion set peaks and demonstrate that the resulting non-Gaussian amplitude, which is a weighted sum of quadratic bias factors, precisely agrees with the peak-background split expectation, which is a logarithmic derivative of the halo mass function with respect to the normalisation amplitude. We point out tha...

  16. Accuracy of portable devices in measuring peak cough flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulnik, Stefan Tino; Kalra, Lalit; MacBean, Victoria; Birring, Surinder Singh; Moxham, John; Rafferty, Gerrard Francis

    2015-01-01

    Peak cough flow (PCF) measurements can be used as indicators of cough effectiveness. Portable peak flow meters and spirometers have been used to measure PCF, but little is known about their accuracy compared to pneumotachograph systems. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of four portable devices (Mini–Wright and Assess peak flow meters, SpiroUSB and Microlab spirometers) in measuring PCF with a calibrated laboratory based pneumotachograph system. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean (SD) age 45 (16) years) coughed through a pneumotachograph connected in series with each portable device in turn, and the differences in PCF readings were analysed. In addition, mechanically generated flow waves of constant peak flow were delivered through each device both independently and when connected in series with the pneumotachograph. Agreement between PCF readings obtained with the pneumotachograph and the portable devices was poor. Peak flow readings were on average lower by approximately 50 L min −1 when measured using the portable devices; 95% limits of agreement spanned approximately 150 L min −1 . The findings highlight the potential for inaccuracy when using portable devices for the measurement of PCF. Depending on the measurement instrument used, absolute values of PCF reported in the literature may not be directly comparable. (paper)

  17. Variable threshold method for ECG R-peak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Hsein-Ping; Jeong, Do-Un

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a wearable belt-type ECG electrode worn around the chest by measuring the real-time ECG is produced in order to minimize the inconvenient in wearing. ECG signal is detected using a potential instrument system. The measured ECG signal is transmits via an ultra low power consumption wireless data communications unit to personal computer using Zigbee-compatible wireless sensor node. ECG signals carry a lot of clinical information for a cardiologist especially the R-peak detection in ECG. R-peak detection generally uses the threshold value which is fixed. There will be errors in peak detection when the baseline changes due to motion artifacts and signal size changes. Preprocessing process which includes differentiation process and Hilbert transform is used as signal preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, variable threshold method is used to detect the R-peak which is more accurate and efficient than fixed threshold value method. R-peak detection using MIT-BIH databases and Long Term Real-Time ECG is performed in this research in order to evaluate the performance analysis.

  18. A RTS-based method for direct and consistent calculating intermittent peak cooling loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingyao; Cui, Mingxian

    2010-01-01

    The RTS method currently recommended by ASHRAE Handbook is based on continuous operation. However, most of air-conditioning systems, if not all, in commercial buildings, are intermittently operated in practice. The application of the current RTS method to intermittent air-conditioning in nonresidential buildings could result in largely underestimated design cooling loads, and inconsistently sized air-conditioning systems. Improperly sized systems could seriously deteriorate the performance of system operation and management. Therefore, a new method based on both the current RTS method and the principles of heat transfer has been developed. The first part of the new method is the same as the current RTS method in principle, but its calculation procedure is simplified by the derived equations in a close form. The technical data available in the current RTS method can be utilized to compute zone responses to a change in space air temperature so that no efforts are needed for regenerating new technical data. Both the overall RTS coefficients and the hourly cooling loads computed in the first part are used to estimate the additional peak cooling load due to a change from continuous operation to intermittent operation. It only needs one more step after the current RTS method to determine the intermittent peak cooling load. The new RTS-based method has been validated by EnergyPlus simulations. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the relative additional peak cooling loads (RAPCLs) computed by the two methods is 1.8%. The deviation of the RAPCL varies from -3.0% to 5.0%, and the mean deviation is 1.35%.

  19. Wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, wave energy spectra, significant wave height, dominant wave period and direction, peak wave period and direction, currents, temperature, conductivity, pressure, sigma-theta, river level, sonar readings, and backscatter data collected at Myrtle Beach in the North Atlantic Ocean from instruments deployed on MOORINGS using platforms NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER and RV DAN MOORE from 2003-10-01 to 2004-05-01 (NODC Accession 0066109)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These bottom current, wave and associated observations were collected as part of a larger study to understand the physical processes that control the transport of...

  20. Categorification and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...

  1. Statistical analysis of the low-temperature dislocation peak of internal friction (Bordoni peak) in nanostructured copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatazhuk, E.N.; Natsik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    The temperature-frequency dependence of internal friction in the nanostructured samples of Cu and fibred composite C-32 vol.%Nb with the sizes of structure fragments approx 200 nm is analyzed. Experiments are used as initial information for such analysis. The characteristic for the heavily deformed copper Bordoni peak, located nearby a temperature 90 K, was recorded on temperature dependence of vibration decrement (frequencies 73-350 kHz) in previous experiments. The peak is due to the resonance interaction of sound with the system of thermal activated relaxators, and its width considerably greater in comparison with the width of standard internal friction peak with the single relaxation time. Statistical analysis of the peak is made in terms of assumption that the reason of broadening is random activation energy dispersion of relaxators as a result of intense distortion of copper crystal structure. Good agreement of experimental data and Seeger theory considers thermal activated paired kinks at linear segments of dislocation lines, placed in potential Peierls relief valley, as relaxators of Bordoni peak, was established. It is shown that the registered peak height in experiment correspond to presence at the average one dislocation segment in the interior of crystalline grain with size of 200 nm. Empirical estimates for the critical Peierls stress σp ∼ 2x10 7 Pa and integrated density of the interior grain dislocations ρ d ∼ 10 13 m -2 are made. Nb fibers in the composite Cu-Nb facilitate to formation of nanostructured copper, but do not influence evidently on the Bordoni peak.

  2. An internal friction peak caused by hydrogen in maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Makoto; Asano, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    Internal friction in hydrogen-charged iron and steel has so far been studied by a large number of investigators. For pure iron, a well-defined peak of internal friction has been observed under the cold-worked and hydrogen-charged conditions. This is called the hydrogen cold-work peak, or the Snoek-Koester relaxation, which originates from the hydrogen-dislocation interaction. In the present study, a high-strength maraging steel (Fe-18Ni-9Co-5Mo) was chosen as another high-alloy steel which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. The purpose of this paper is to show a new internal friction peak caused by hydrogen in the maraging steel and to compare it with those found in stainless steels which have so far been studied as typical engineering high-alloy materials

  3. Electron-electron Thomas peak in fast transfer ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmanov, S. G.; McGuire, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    ''Thomas process'' is a name used for a family of singular two-step processes that can lead to electron transfer. The Thomas process of the ''second kind,'' occurring in reactions with both transfer and ionization, utilizes the e-e scattering in the second step, so this Thomas process requires the dynamics of the electron-electron interaction. We calculate numerically the second order element of an S matrix and corresponding cross sections for the transfer ionization process. We find that the position and shape of the Thomas peak depend on both electron-electron and the electron-nucleus interaction. Also the direct and exchange amplitudes are equal at the peak position. We test the peaking approximation used for transfer ionization. Our results can be compared to experimental results for p + +He→H+He 2+ +e - . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.

  5. On dealing with multiple correlation peaks in PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, A.; Theunissen, R.

    2018-05-01

    A novel algorithm to analyse PIV images in the presence of strong in-plane displacement gradients and reduce sub-grid filtering is proposed in this paper. Interrogation windows subjected to strong in-plane displacement gradients often produce correlation maps presenting multiple peaks. Standard multi-grid procedures discard such ambiguous correlation windows using a signal to noise (SNR) filter. The proposed algorithm improves the standard multi-grid algorithm allowing the detection of splintered peaks in a correlation map through an automatic threshold, producing multiple displacement vectors for each correlation area. Vector locations are chosen by translating images according to the peak displacements and by selecting the areas with the strongest match. The method is assessed on synthetic images of a boundary layer of varying intensity and a sinusoidal displacement field of changing wavelength. An experimental case of a flow exhibiting strong velocity gradients is also provided to show the improvements brought by this technique.

  6. Correlation Filter Learning Toward Peak Strength for Visual Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yao; Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel visual tracking approach to correlation filter learning toward peak strength of correlation response. Previous methods leverage all features of the target and the immediate background to learn a correlation filter. Some features, however, may be distractive to tracking, like those from occlusion and local deformation, resulting in unstable tracking performance. This paper aims at solving this issue and proposes a novel algorithm to learn the correlation filter. The proposed approach, by imposing an elastic net constraint on the filter, can adaptively eliminate those distractive features in the correlation filtering. A new peak strength metric is proposed to measure the discriminative capability of the learned correlation filter. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach effectively strengthens the peak of the correlation response, leading to more discriminative performance than previous methods. Extensive experiments on a challenging visual tracking benchmark demonstrate that the proposed tracker outperforms most state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Order Tracking Based on Robust Peak Search Instantaneous Frequency Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Guo, Y; Chi, Y L; Qin, S R

    2006-01-01

    Order tracking plays an important role in non-stationary vibration analysis of rotating machinery, especially to run-up or coast down. An instantaneous frequency estimation (IFE) based order tracking of rotating machinery is introduced. In which, a peak search algorithms of spectrogram of time-frequency analysis is employed to obtain IFE of vibrations. An improvement to peak search is proposed, which can avoid strong non-order components or noises disturbing to the peak search work. Compared with traditional methods of order tracking, IFE based order tracking is simplified in application and only software depended. Testing testify the validity of the method. This method is an effective supplement to traditional methods, and the application in condition monitoring and diagnosis of rotating machinery is imaginable

  8. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000-15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert's visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition.

  9. The Peak Pairs algorithm for strain mapping from HRTEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, Pedro L. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail: pedro.galindo@uca.es; Kret, Slawomir [Institute of Physics, PAS, AL. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Sanchez, Ana M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Laval, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UPR5 CNRS-ESPCI, Paris (France); Yanez, Andres; Pizarro, Joaquin; Guerrero, Elisa [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    Strain mapping is defined as a numerical image-processing technique that measures the local shifts of image details around a crystal defect with respect to the ideal, defect-free, positions in the bulk. Algorithms to map elastic strains from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images may be classified into two categories: those based on the detection of peaks of intensity in real space and the Geometric Phase approach, calculated in Fourier space. In this paper, we discuss both categories and propose an alternative real space algorithm (Peak Pairs) based on the detection of pairs of intensity maxima in an affine transformed space dependent on the reference area. In spite of the fact that it is a real space approach, the Peak Pairs algorithm exhibits good behaviour at heavily distorted defect cores, e.g. interfaces and dislocations. Quantitative results are reported from experiments to determine local strain in different types of semiconductor heterostructures.

  10. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...... of households in Denmark. The model considers hourly consumption profiles for different household appliances and their contribution to annual household electricity consumption. When applying the model to an official scenario for annual electricity consumption, assuming non-flexible consumption due...... to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase.Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental...

  11. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  12. Modelling of electric characteristics of 150-watt peak solar panel using Boltzmann sigmoid function under various temperature and irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapteka, A. A. N. G.; Narottama, A. A. N. M.; Winarta, A.; Amerta Yasa, K.; Priambodo, P. S.; Putra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy utilized with solar panel is a renewable energy that needs to be studied further. The site nearest to the equator, it is not surprising, receives the highest solar energy. In this paper, a modelling of electrical characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panels using Boltzmann sigmoid function under various temperature and irradiance is reported. Current, voltage, temperature and irradiance data in Denpasar, a city located at just south of equator, was collected. Solar power meter is used to measure irradiance level, meanwhile digital thermometer is used to measure temperature of front and back panels. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage data was also collected at different temperature and irradiance level. Statistically, the electrical characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panel can be modelled using Boltzmann sigmoid function with good fit. Therefore, it can be concluded that Boltzmann sigmoid function might be used to determine current and voltage characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panel under various temperature and irradiance.

  13. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  14. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  15. Peak-locking centroid bias in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugu, Narsireddy; Garcia, Paulo J. V.; Correia, Carlos M.

    2018-05-01

    Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing relies on accurate spot centre measurement. Several algorithms were developed with this aim, mostly focused on precision, i.e. minimizing random errors. In the solar and extended scene community, the importance of the accuracy (bias error due to peak-locking, quantization, or sampling) of the centroid determination was identified and solutions proposed. But these solutions only allow partial bias corrections. To date, no systematic study of the bias error was conducted. This article bridges the gap by quantifying the bias error for different correlation peak-finding algorithms and types of sub-aperture images and by proposing a practical solution to minimize its effects. Four classes of sub-aperture images (point source, elongated laser guide star, crowded field, and solar extended scene) together with five types of peak-finding algorithms (1D parabola, the centre of gravity, Gaussian, 2D quadratic polynomial, and pyramid) are considered, in a variety of signal-to-noise conditions. The best performing peak-finding algorithm depends on the sub-aperture image type, but none is satisfactory to both bias and random errors. A practical solution is proposed that relies on the antisymmetric response of the bias to the sub-pixel position of the true centre. The solution decreases the bias by a factor of ˜7 to values of ≲ 0.02 pix. The computational cost is typically twice of current cross-correlation algorithms.

  16. Optimizing deep hyperthermia treatments: are locations of patient pain complaints correlated with modelled SAR peak locations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canters, R A M; Franckena, M; Van der Zee, J; Van Rhoon, G C, E-mail: r.canters@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam, PO Box 5201, 3008 AE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    During deep hyperthermia treatment, patient pain complaints due to heating are common when maximizing power. Hence, there exists a good rationale to investigate whether the locations of predicted SAR peaks by hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) are correlated with the locations of patient pain during treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed, using the treatment reports of 35 patients treated with deep hyperthermia controlled by extensive treatment planning. For various SAR indicators, the average distance from a SAR peak to a patient discomfort location was calculated, for each complaint. The investigated V{sub 0.1closest} (i.e. the part of the 0.1th SAR percentile closest to the patient complaint) performed the best, and leads to an average distance between the SAR peak and the complaint location of 3.9 cm. Other SAR indicators produced average distances that were all above 10 cm. Further, the predicted SAR peak location with V{sub 0.1} provides a 77% match with the region of complaint. The current study demonstrates that HTP is able to provide a global indication of the regions where hotspots during treatment will most likely occur. Further development of this technology is necessary in order to use HTP as a valuable toll for objective and advanced SAR steering. The latter is especially valid for applications that enable 3D SAR steering.

  17. Optimizing deep hyperthermia treatments: are locations of patient pain complaints correlated with modelled SAR peak locations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canters, R A M; Franckena, M; Van der Zee, J; Van Rhoon, G C

    2011-01-01

    During deep hyperthermia treatment, patient pain complaints due to heating are common when maximizing power. Hence, there exists a good rationale to investigate whether the locations of predicted SAR peaks by hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) are correlated with the locations of patient pain during treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed, using the treatment reports of 35 patients treated with deep hyperthermia controlled by extensive treatment planning. For various SAR indicators, the average distance from a SAR peak to a patient discomfort location was calculated, for each complaint. The investigated V 0.1closest (i.e. the part of the 0.1th SAR percentile closest to the patient complaint) performed the best, and leads to an average distance between the SAR peak and the complaint location of 3.9 cm. Other SAR indicators produced average distances that were all above 10 cm. Further, the predicted SAR peak location with V 0.1 provides a 77% match with the region of complaint. The current study demonstrates that HTP is able to provide a global indication of the regions where hotspots during treatment will most likely occur. Further development of this technology is necessary in order to use HTP as a valuable toll for objective and advanced SAR steering. The latter is especially valid for applications that enable 3D SAR steering.

  18. Operational and structural measures to reduce hydro-peaking impact on fish larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecki, Ianina; Schneider, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Eco-hydraulic investigations studying the effects of hydro-peaking on river biota are gaining in importance. Negative effects of rapid flow fluctuations due to hydro power production are well documented by many studies, with the larvae and juvenile fish identified among the mostly affected life stages. Therefore, elaboration of efficient hydro-peaking mitigation strategies is an important issue for energy companies as well as for water body administrations responsible for the fulfilment of WFD requirements. The present case study strives for practical solutions allowing to minimize or compensate the negative effects of hydro-peaking on the fish fauna of the 7 km long river reach on the river Lech (southern Germany). Model based investigations allow to access the impact from currently authorized discharge regime, suggest operational and structural measures within the reach in terms of reducing the risk of stranding for fish larvae and select the measures most easy to implement and with the largest ecological benefit. The paper describes the approach for accessing the effects of hydro-peaking based on 2D hydrodynamic modelling, fuzzy logic based habitat modelling and information on cutting-edge biological investigations on fish larvae from Lunz experimental facility (Austria). (authors)

  19. Probabilistic peak detection in CE-LIF for STR DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegebriel, Michael; van Asten, Arian; Kloosterman, Ate; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we present a novel probabilistic peak detection algorithm based on a Bayesian framework for forensic DNA analysis. The proposed method aims at an exhaustive use of raw electropherogram data from a laser-induced fluorescence multi-CE system. As the raw data are informative up to a single data point, the conventional threshold-based approaches discard relevant forensic information early in the data analysis pipeline. Our proposed method assigns a posterior probability reflecting the data point's relevance with respect to peak detection criteria. Peaks of low intensity generated from a truly existing allele can thus constitute evidential value instead of fully discarding them and contemplating a potential allele drop-out. This way of working utilizes the information available within each individual data point and thus avoids making early (binary) decisions on the data analysis that can lead to error propagation. The proposed method was tested and compared to the application of a set threshold as is current practice in forensic STR DNA profiling. The new method was found to yield a significant improvement in the number of alleles identified, regardless of the peak heights and deviation from Gaussian shape. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. An adaptive model for vanadium redox flow battery and its application for online peak power estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Meng, Shujuan; Tseng, King Jet; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Soong, Boon Hee; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2017-03-01

    An accurate battery model is the prerequisite for reliable state estimate of vanadium redox battery (VRB). As the battery model parameters are time varying with operating condition variation and battery aging, the common methods where model parameters are empirical or prescribed offline lacks accuracy and robustness. To address this issue, this paper proposes to use an online adaptive battery model to reproduce the VRB dynamics accurately. The model parameters are online identified with both the recursive least squares (RLS) and the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Performance comparison shows that the RLS is superior with respect to the modeling accuracy, convergence property, and computational complexity. Based on the online identified battery model, an adaptive peak power estimator which incorporates the constraints of voltage limit, SOC limit and design limit of current is proposed to fully exploit the potential of the VRB. Experiments are conducted on a lab-scale VRB system and the proposed peak power estimator is verified with a specifically designed "two-step verification" method. It is shown that different constraints dominate the allowable peak power at different stages of cycling. The influence of prediction time horizon selection on the peak power is also analyzed.