WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher paying positions

  1. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  2. The Gender Pay Gap and the Representation of Women in Higher Education Administrative Positions: The Century so Far. A CUPA-HR Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; McChesney, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    This brief provides a nuanced interpretation of how higher education has paid women in administrative positions from 2001-2016, as well as the number of women holding top leadership positions in colleges and universities nationwide. Findings in this brief include the following: (1) In 2001, women administrators in higher education earned…

  3. Pay and Representation of Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Higher Education Administrative Positions: The Century So Far. A CUPA-HR Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; McChesney, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The pay gap between minority men and White men has remained virtually unchanged since 1980, with Hispanic men currently earning 69 cents and Black men currently earning 73 cents on the dollar that White men earn. The pay gap is even greater for minority women. The College and University Professional Association for Human Resources (CUPA-HR) has…

  4. Who Should Pay for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Habib, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Policies that shift the costs of higher education from the taxpayer to the university student or graduate are increasingly popular, yet they have not been subjected to a thorough normative analysis. This paper provides a critical survey of the standard arguments that have been used in the public debate on higher education funding. These arguments…

  5. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  6. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  7. The Equal Pay Act: Higher Education and the Court's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Swanson, Austin D.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 for college and university employees are reviewed through an examination of trends in court decisions and legal treatment of the issues. It is concluded that case law has been evolutionary, with concepts of "equal,""work," and others not altered drastically by the courts in recent years.…

  8. 76 FR 80268 - Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific or Professional Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... 3206-AL88 Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific or Professional Positions AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to amend rules for setting and adjusting pay of senior-level (SL) and scientific or professional (ST) employees. The Senior Professional Performance Act of 2008 changes pay for these employees by providing for...

  9. The Impact of Higher Fixed Pay and Lower Bonuses on Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.; Huberts, L.C.E.

    This study analyzes the effects of performance related pay on productivity exploiting a change in the payment structure of a large Dutch marketing company. Specifically, we investigate the consequences for company sales of higher fixed pay in combination with lower bonuses. Exploiting shift level

  10. Paying for Higher Education. Paper No. EA026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyness, Gill

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has dramatically increased the supply of graduates over the last four decades. The university system has successfully produced a huge increase in mass higher education over the last 40 years to meet an increased demand for skilled workers. It is one of the UK's most successful export industries in terms of attracting…

  11. Should people with unhealthy lifestyles pay higher health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David R

    2011-02-01

    This commentary sets the article by Dubois on the ethical justification for charging higher insurance premiums for people with unhealthy lifestyles in the context of US health care reform. It reviews the relevance and strength of normative concerns identified by Dubois about the acceptability of such differentiated "means-tested" plans. It identifies key issues involving whether certain health behaviors matter ethically, and if so, the grounds that would justify an obligation for people to take action. The article frames the answer in terms of the need to achieve an ethically acceptable balance between the principle of equality and principle of merit and concludes with four ethical standards to focus the terms of the debate.

  12. Positioning Theory and Higher Education Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Musaeus, Peter; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    The aim of this symposium is to connect scholars who use positioning theory in their research on very diverse issues in higher education and to open up the analytic to others who may be interested in taking it up. Positioning theory is a social constructionist approach and it emerged in the 1980s...... available. After this introduction, four paper presentations will follow (see abstracts below), and the session will conclude with a whole-group discussion of the potentials and pitfalls of the approach.......The aim of this symposium is to connect scholars who use positioning theory in their research on very diverse issues in higher education and to open up the analytic to others who may be interested in taking it up. Positioning theory is a social constructionist approach and it emerged in the 1980s...... in gender studies and social psychology. It is concerned with theorising and analysing how people position themselves and others, and the personal, relational, cultural, moral, political, and institutional effects hereof. Positioning theory is most commonly used in studies of the discursive constitution...

  13. Understanding Gender-Based Wage Discrimination: Legal Interpretation and Trends of Pay Equity in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gaye

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of laws and litigation concerning pay equity issues, also referred to as wage equity and comparable worth. Suggests that universities and colleges identify possible problems and take voluntary corrective measures before pay-equity problems arise. (MLF)

  14. 5 CFR 550.153 - Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.151 is authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Administratively... once a week. (3) There must be a definite basis for anticipating that the irregular or occasional... circumstances must be a definite, official, and special requirement of his position. (2) The employee must...

  15. Gender Pay Differences in the European Union: Do Higher Wages Make Up For Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.F. Canton (Erik); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the role of social interactions at the work floor for understanding gender pay differences in the EU. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, we find that sex similarity of subordinate and supervisor decreases the pay disadvantage for women in

  16. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other human resources flexibilities and pay authorities, such as recruitment, relocation, and retention... the use of other available human resources flexibilities and pay authorities. Agency requests must... could not, through diligent and comprehensive recruitment efforts and without using the critical...

  17. Education Pays, 2010: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer; Payea, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Students who attend institutions of higher education obtain a wide range of personal, financial, and other lifelong benefits; likewise, taxpayers and society as a whole derive a multitude of direct and indirect benefits when citizens have access to postsecondary education. Accordingly, uneven rates of participation in higher education across…

  18. Islands Unto Themselves: How Merit Pay Schemes May Undermine Positive Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, T. Jameson; Myers, P. S.; Zhang, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Educational reforms have become the new policy mainstay in educational discourse and policy. Without doubt, "fixing" teachers and increasing student test scores have both been a large component of much of the reform rhetoric. Moreover, calls for implementing merit pay schemes have uniquely combined reformer's efforts to "fix"…

  19. Is the Pay-Performance Relationship Always Positive? : Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffhues, Pieter; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul

    This study examines the widespread belief that executive pay should reflect firm performance. We compile a hand-collected data set of compensation paid to executive directors of Dutch listed companies and analyze if executive compensation is indeed determined by firm performance. A variety of

  20. Paying out and Crowding out? The Globalisation of Higher Education. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the rapid influx of overseas students into UK higher education and the impact on the number of domestic students. Using administrative data since 1994/5, we find no evidence of crowd out of domestic undergraduate students and indications of increases in the domestic numbers of postgraduate students as overseas enrolments have grown.…

  1. Give what you get: capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes to conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Leimgruber

    Full Text Available The breadth of human generosity is unparalleled in the natural world, and much research has explored the mechanisms underlying and motivating human prosocial behavior. Recent work has focused on the spread of prosocial behavior within groups through paying-it-forward, a case of human prosociality in which a recipient of generosity pays a good deed forward to a third individual, rather than back to the original source of generosity. While research shows that human adults do indeed pay forward generosity, little is known about the origins of this behavior. Here, we show that both capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes in an identical testing paradigm. These results suggest that a cognitively simple mechanism present early in phylogeny and ontogeny leads to paying forward positive, as well as negative, outcomes.

  2. 5 CFR 550.143 - Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.141 is authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Regularly Scheduled... requirement must be definite and the employee must be officially ordered to remain at his station. The...

  3. Survey results show that adults are willing to pay higher insurance premiums for generous coverage of specialty drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romley, John A; Sanchez, Yuri; Penrod, John R; Goldman, Dana P

    2012-04-01

    Generous coverage of specialty drugs for cancer and other diseases may be valuable not only for sick patients currently using these drugs, but also for healthy people who recognize the potential need for them in the future. This study estimated how healthy people value insurance coverage of specialty drugs, defined as high-cost drugs that treat cancer and other serious health conditions like multiple sclerosis, by quantifying willingness to pay via a survey. US adults were estimated to be willing to pay an extra $12.94 on average in insurance premiums per month for generous specialty-drug coverage--in effect, $2.58 for every dollar in out-of-pocket costs that they would expect to pay with a less generous insurance plan. Given the value that people assign to generous coverage of specialty drugs, having high cost sharing on these drugs seemingly runs contrary to what people value in their health insurance.

  4. Engagement as a Brand Position in the Higher Education Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine public engagement as a branding and public relations strategy at colleges and universities. Specifically, this paper posits the idea that engagement efforts require a focused and, if possible, centralized approach on the part of colleges and universities. Successful branding and marketing of engagement…

  5. Positive outcomes of office ergonomics in terms of higher productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terek Edit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.

  6. Collaborative Learning in Higher Education: Evoking Positive Interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scager, Karin; Boonstra, Johannes; Peeters, Ton; Vulperhorst, Jonne; Wiegant, Fred

    Collaborative learning is a widely used instructional method, but the learning potential of this instructional method is often underused in practice. Therefore, the importance of various factors underlying effective collaborative learning should be determined. In the current study, five different life sciences undergraduate courses with successful collaborative-learning results were selected. This study focuses on factors that increased the effectiveness of collaboration in these courses, according to the students. Nine focus group interviews were conducted and analyzed. Results show that factors evoking effective collaboration were student autonomy and self-regulatory behavior, combined with a challenging, open, and complex group task that required the students to create something new and original. The design factors of these courses fostered a sense of responsibility and of shared ownership of both the collaborative process and the end product of the group assignment. In addition, students reported the absence of any free riders in these group assignments. Interestingly, it was observed that students seemed to value their sense of achievement, their learning processes, and the products they were working on more than their grades. It is concluded that collaborative learning in higher education should be designed using challenging and relevant tasks that build shared ownership with students. © 2016 K. Scager et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Does it pay to attend a for-profit college? Vertical and horizontal stratification in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denice, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Despite the recent growth of for-profit colleges, scholars are only beginning to understand the labor market consequences of attending these institutions. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I find that for-profit associate's degree holders encounter lower hourly earnings than associate's degree holders educated at public or private, nonprofit colleges, and earnings that are not significantly different than high school graduates. However, individuals who complete a bachelor's degree by attending college in either the for-profit or nonprofit sectors encounter positive returns. These findings, robust to model selection, suggest that the distinction between for-profit and nonprofit colleges constitutes an important axis in the horizontal dimension of education at the sub-baccalaureate level, and complicate notions of vertical stratification such that higher levels of educational attainment do not necessarily guarantee a wage premium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  9. The Relationship between Pay-for-Performance Perceptions and Pay Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed relationship between pay-for-performance perceptions and pay satisfaction among 104 hospital employees. Results indicated positive relationship between pay-for-performance perceptions and pay-raise satisfaction, pay-level satisfaction, and overall pay satisfaction even after effects of salary level, salary increases, performance ratings,…

  10. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...

  11. Higher-order-mode damper as beam-position monitors; Higher-Order-Mode Daempfer als Stahllagemonitore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, C.

    2006-03-15

    In the framework of this thesis a beam-position monitor was developed, which can only because of the signals from the HOM dampers of a linear-accelerator structure determine the beam position with high accuracy. For the unique determination of the beam position in the plane a procedure was developed, which uses the amplitudes and the start-phase difference between a dipole mode and a higher monopole mode. In order tocheck the suitability of the present SBLC-HOM damper as beam position monitor three-dimensional numerical field calculations in the frequency and time range and measurements on the damper cell were performed. For the measurements without beam a beam simulator was constructed, which allows computer-driven measurements with variable depositions of the simulated beam with a resolution of 1.23 {mu}m. Because the complete 6 m long, 180-cell accelerator structure was not available for measurements and could also with the available computers not be three-dimensionally simulated simulated, a one-dimensional equivalent-circuit based model of the multi-cell was studied. The equivalent circuits with 879 concentrated components regards the detuning from cell to cell, the cell losses, the damper losses, and the beam excitation in dependence on the deposition. the measurements and simulations let a resolution of the ready beam-position monitor on the 180-cell in the order of magnitude of 1-10 {mu}m and a relative accuracy smaller 6.2% be expected.

  12. Exploring the Current Position of ESD in UK Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiselier, Evelien S.; Longhurst, James W. S.; Gough, Georgina K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the position of education for sustainable development in the UK Higher Education (HE) sector with respect to the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) and Higher Education Academy (HEA) Guidance for education for sustainable development (ESD). Design/methodology/approach: By means of a mixed-method…

  13. Sustainable Interventions in Enhancing Gender Parity in Senior Leadership Positions in Higher Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoni, Watende Pius; He, Chen; Yusuph, Mashala Lameck

    2017-01-01

    Despite the international campaigns for gender equality and equity in Higher Education Institutions, studies conducted in several countries continue to show that women are underrepresented in senior leadership positions in universities. Women leaders in higher education subsector in Tanzania are very few. Of all the 60 and above universities and…

  14. Partner Positioning: Examining International Higher Education Partnerships through a Mutuality Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Mwangi, Chrystal A.

    2017-01-01

    Scholarship on international higher education partnerships is often framed by strategic management and organization theories. These approaches are useful, but can minimize how power dynamics and positioning of partners impact engagement and outcomes. This study uses qualitative inquiry to examine 60 international higher education partnerships…

  15. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  16. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  17. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... position in a lower pay band offered by an activity to accommodate a disabling medical condition similar to... within the employee's new pay band or by establishing a retained rate that exceeds the maximum rate of the new pay band. Local market supplements are not considered part of base salary in applying pay...

  18. Spiraling through the Glass Ceiling: Seven Critical Lessons for Negotiating a Leadership Position in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses seven critical lessons for navigating a leadership position in higher education. The author focuses on developing a personal means of remaining centered regardless of circumstances or situations as well as building an ethical foundation for one's work. He uses spiraling as a metaphor to describe his own…

  19. The public sector pay gap in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Raffaela

    2010-01-01

    I investigate the public-private pay gap using Italian microdata covering the period 1980-2006. Even after controlling for observable characteristics of the labour force, I find a positive wage premium for the public sector, almost negligible during the eighties and averaging at about 12 percent in the period 1993-2006. While the pay gap for women and workers in southern regions turns out to be higher than the average in the whole sample period, the greater advantage from working in the publi...

  20. Greater preference consistency during the Willingness-to-Pay task is related to higher resting state connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Olafsson, Valur; Aupperle, Robin; Lu, Kun; Fonzo, Greg; Parnass, Jason; Liu, Thomas; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of why a similar set of brain regions are associated with the default mode network and value-related neural processes remains to be clarified. Here, we examined i) whether brain regions exhibiting willingness-to-pay (WTP) task-related activity are intrinsically connected when the brain is at rest, ii) whether these regions overlap spatially with the default mode network, and iii) whether individual differences in choice behavior during the WTP task are reflected in functional brain connectivity at rest. Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed the WTP task and at rest with eyes open. Brain regions that tracked the value of bids during the WTP task were used as seed regions in an analysis of functional connectivity in the resting state data. The seed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was functionally connected to core regions of the WTP task-related network. Brain regions within the WTP task-related network, namely the ventral precuneus, ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex overlapped spatially with publically available maps of the default mode network. Also, those individuals with higher functional connectivity during rest between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum showed greater preference consistency during the WTP task. Thus, WTP task-related regions are an intrinsic network of the brain that corresponds spatially with the default mode network, and individual differences in functional connectivity within the WTP network at rest may reveal a priori biases in choice behavior. PMID:26271206

  1. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  2. Higher positive identification of malignant CSF cells using the cytocentrifuge than the Suta chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To define how to best handle cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimens to obtain the highest positivity rate for the diagnosis of malignancy, comparing two different methods of cell concentration, sedimentation and cytocentrifugation. Methods A retrospective analysis of 411 CSF reports. Results This is a descriptive comparative study. The positive identification of malignant CSF cells was higher using the centrifuge than that using the Suta chamber (27.8% vs. 19.0%, respectively; p = 0.038. Centrifuge positively identified higher numbers of malignant cells in samples with a normal concentration of white blood cells (WBCs (< 5 cells/mm3 and with more than 200 cells/mm3, although this was not statistically significant. There was no lymphocyte loss using either method. Conclusions Cytocentrifugation positively identified a greater number of malignant cells in the CSF than cytosedimentation with the Suta chamber. However, there was no difference between the methods when the WBC counts were within the normal range.

  3. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  4. Higher-order stochastic differential equations and the positive Wigner function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    General higher-order stochastic processes that correspond to any diffusion-type tensor of higher than second order are obtained. The relationship of multivariate higher-order stochastic differential equations with tensor decomposition theory and tensor rank is explained. Techniques for generating the requisite complex higher-order noise are proved to exist either using polar coordinates and γ distributions, or from products of Gaussian variates. This method is shown to allow the calculation of the dynamics of the Wigner function, after it is extended to a complex phase space. The results are illustrated physically through dynamical calculations of the positive Wigner distribution for three-mode parametric downconversion, widely used in quantum optics. The approach eliminates paradoxes arising from truncation of the higher derivative terms in Wigner function time evolution. Anomalous results of negative populations and vacuum scattering found in truncated Wigner quantum simulations in quantum optics and Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics are shown not to occur with this type of stochastic theory.

  5. Estimating the cost of referral and willingness to pay for referral to higher-level health facilities: a case series study from an integrated community case management programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyonjo, Agnes; Bagorogoza, Benson; Kasteng, Frida; Ayebale, Godfrey; Makumbi, Fredrick; Tomson, Göran; Källander, Karin

    2015-08-28

    Integrated community case management (iCCM) relies on community health workers (CHWs) managing children with malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, and referring children when management is not possible. This study sought to establish the cost per sick child referred to seek care from a higher-level health facility by a CHW and to estimate caregivers' willingness to pay (WTP) for referral. Caregivers of 203 randomly selected children referred to higher-level health facilities by CHWs were interviewed in four Midwestern Uganda districts. Questionnaires and document reviews were used to capture direct, indirect and opportunity costs incurred by caregivers, CHWs and health facilities managing referred children. WTP for referral was assessed through the 'bidding game' approach followed by an open-ended question on maximum WTP. Descriptive analysis was conducted for factors associated with referral completion and WTP using logistic and linear regression methods, respectively. The cost per case referred to higher-level health facilities was computed from a societal perspective. Reasons for referral included having fever with a negative malaria test (46.8%), danger signs (29.6%) and drug shortage (37.4%). Among the referred, less than half completed referral (45.8%). Referral completion was 2.8 times higher among children with danger signs (p = 0.004) relative to those without danger signs, and 0.27 times lower among children who received pre-referral treatment (p average cost per case referred was US$ 4.89 and US$7.35 per case completing referral. For each unit cost per case referred, caregiver out of pocket expenditure contributed 33.7%, caregivers' and CHWs' opportunity costs contributed 29.2% and 5.1% respectively and health facility costs contributed 39.6%. The mean (SD) out of pocket expenditure was US$1.65 (3.25). The mean WTP for referral was US$8.25 (14.70) and was positively associated with having received pre-referral treatment, completing referral and increasing

  6. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  7. Polyharmonic boundary value problems positivity preserving and nonlinear higher order elliptic equations in bounded domains

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzola, Filippo; Sweers, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This monograph covers higher order linear and nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems in bounded domains, mainly with the biharmonic or poly-harmonic operator as leading principal part. Underlying models and, in particular, the role of different boundary conditions are explained in detail. As for linear problems, after a brief summary of the existence theory and Lp and Schauder estimates, the focus is on positivity or - since, in contrast to second order equations, a general form of a comparison principle does not exist - on “near positivity.” The required kernel estimates are also presented in detail. As for nonlinear problems, several techniques well-known from second order equations cannot be utilized and have to be replaced by new and different methods. Subcritical, critical and supercritical nonlinearities are discussed and various existence and nonexistence results are proved. The interplay with the positivity topic from the first part is emphasized and, moreover, a far-reaching Gidas-Ni-Nirenbe...

  8. Public Service Entrance Examinations for Executive Secretary Position in Federal Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nunes de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The professional with a bachelor in Secretarial Science is increasingly placed on the labor market, both in the private and the public sector. However, recent public service entrance examination, on several occasions, offer positions for executive secretary – in which, neither the undergraduate degree in Secretarial Science nor the professional registry is mandatory, allowing undergraduates in different areas enter the public sector as executive secretaries. On the above, this article aims at identifying and introduce the public service entrance examinations for executive secretary, specifically in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES, from 2009 to 2015. It was identified 110 public service entrance examination rules which provided 531 positions. Of these, only 308 positions (from 57 public service entrance examination rules were exclusively intended for applicants professionally qualified according to the Law No 7.377 of September 30th, 1985. It was noted that some IFES did not demand, in their public service entrance examination rules, the professional qualification required by the Circular Letter No 015/2005 from MEC, causing a loss to the professionals with the professional qualification.

  9. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Concept of Alliance as an Image and Positioning Instrument for Institutions of Higher Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Alcántar Enríquez

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a foundation for the concept of alliance which includes the ability of this to foster the university’s societal position as based on public perception of the institution. Accordingly, the work briefly addresses the development of the university’s collaboration with the productive sector, and emphasizes the need for institutions of higher learning to consider as well, those social sectors (including the government outside the realm of industry or technological expansion. The study concludes by affirming that alliance can become an effective instrument for promoting the university. It is therefore necessary to research the social perception of the university as a means of bolstering its relevance.

  11. Positive energy theorem in generalized Kaluza-Klein theories of higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreschi, O.M.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of using spinors in the proof of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is extended to the case of Kaluza-Klein theories in spaces of 4 + n dimensions. First a useful presentation of generalized Kaluza-Klein theories is introduced, in which just from the observation of conformal symmetries it is possible to detect a nice splitting of the Ricci tensor into a 4-dimensional Ricci part and a Yang-Mills part, among others. Consideration of linear dependence among the symmetries is not excluded in this treatment. Relevant to the introduction of spinors, a discussion of Clifford Algebras is presented. In particular a real representation of these algebras is introduced for spaces of higher dimensions and its structure is analyzed. The Lie derivative of spinors is presented probably more clearly than in former treatments. After the introduction of these preliminary themes, a brief review of the relevant aspects of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is presented, followed by the extension of these ideas to the case of 5 dimensions. Here an earlier result involving gravitational mass and electromagnetic charges is improved. Finally the results are generalized to spaces of 4 + n dimensions, and a more complicated condition to be satisfied by the usual matter tensor is discovered. This procedure leads to a natural definition of invariant Yang-Mills charges, which is compared with former studies

  12. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Baboi, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrum...

  13. 5 CFR 534.604 - Pay administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equals or exceeds the rate of basic pay the employee received immediately prior to such appointment, not... that equals or exceeds the employee's highest previous rate of basic pay in a Federal civil service.... Advancement to a higher rate takes effect on the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after...

  14. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pei

    2013-02-01

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of

  15. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei

    2013-02-15

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of

  16. 5 CFR 534.603 - Rates of basic pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rates of basic pay. 534.603 Section 534.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.603 Rates of basic pay. (a) The...

  17. Well-Being, Leadership, and Positive Organizational Scholarship: A Case Study of Project-Based Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nance; Goodman, Fallon R.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging fields of positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship (POS) contribute new perspectives and approaches for leadership education and leadership development in higher education. While there are emerging empirical studies in these new fields, little connection has been made to the intellectual and practical applications…

  18. Constructing a National Higher Education Brand for the UK: Positional Competition and Promised Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie; Papatsiba, Vassiliki; Naidoo, Rajani

    2018-01-01

    This article examines national branding of UK higher education, a strategic intent and action to collectively brand UK higher education with the aim to attract prospective international students, using a Bourdieusian approach to understanding promises of capitals. We trace its development between 1999 and 2014 through a sociological study, one of…

  19. Flourishing for the Common Good: Positive Leadership in Christian Higher Education during Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlvig, Jolyn E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that higher education should exist for society's common good, a focus that has been lost in recent years (Dorn, 2011; Eagan et al., 2015; Ford 2016; Habley, Bloom & Robbins, 2012). To explore how Christian higher education can provide leadership in returning to a focus on the common good, this paper traces the movement of…

  20. [Women's willingness to pay for cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Son; Sung, Na-Young; Yang, Jeong Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, KuiSon

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study is to measure women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and to identify those factors associated with this willingness to pay A population-based telephone survey was performed on 1,562 women (aged 30 years or over) for 2 weeks (9-23th, July, 2004). Data about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, the intention of the cancer screenings and willingness to pay for cancer screening were collected. 1,400 respondents were included in the analysis. The women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and the factors associated with this willingness to pay were evaluated. The results show that 76% of all respondents have a willingness to pay for cancer screening. Among those who are willing to pay, the average and median amount of money for which the respondents are willing to pay are 126,636 (s.d.: 58,414) and 120,000 won, respectively. As the status of education & the income are higher, the average amount that women are willing to pay becomes much more. The amount of money women are willing to pay is the highest during the 'contemplation' stage. Being willing to pay or not is associated with a change of behavior (transtheoretical model), the income, the concern about the cancer risk, the family cancer history, the marital status, the general health exam, age and the place of residence. Income is associated with a greater willingness to pay. Old age was associated with a lower willingness to pay. According to the two-part model, income and TTM are the most important variables associated with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. The cancer screening participation rate is low compared with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. It is thought that we have to consider the participants' behavior that's associated with cancer screening and their willingness to pay in order to organize and manage cancer screening program.

  1. Existence of positive solutions for the system of higher order two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering ... In these applied settings, positive solutions are meaningful [1,9,13,21]. Due to ... In this paper, we shall consider the nonlinear system of differential equations,. ⎧.

  2. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  3. Higher Education: Improved Tax Information Could Help Families Pay for College. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. GAO-12-560

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R.; Scott, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The federal government provides billions of dollars in assistance each year to students and families through federal student aid programs authorized under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 and through tax expenditures, such as credits and deductions. GAO was asked to (1) describe the size and distribution of Title IV student aid and tax…

  4. Positive outcomes of participatory ergonomics in terms of greater comfort and higher productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Molenbroek, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Ergonomics sometimes has a negative connotation, as it is seen to be connected to illness or guidelines that limit innovations. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment. It consists of a part that studies the literature on success factors

  5. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  6. Strategic Agency and System Diversity: Conceptualizing Institutional Positioning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumasoli, Tatiana; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the impact of individual higher education institutions' strategies on system diversity should be explored. By looking at how universities respond strategically to governmental policies as well as to the actions of other (competing) institutions, our understanding of determinants of diversity can be enriched. A conceptual…

  7. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  8. The Application of Open Systems Theory and Organization Development to Higher Education: A Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Vicki; Mink, Oscar G.

    This monograph sets forth a portion of the research and theory base underlying the organization development program, 1 of the 3 major components of the National Laboratory for Higher Education''s Administrative and Organizational Systems program. It depicts some of the linkages among organization development, institutional research, information…

  9. Glocalization as an Alternative to Internationalization in Higher Education: Embedding Positive Glocal Learning Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Fay; Lynch, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    The notion of internationalization in higher education is understood as the recruitment of international students, marketing of academic programs and courses, and teaching English as a Second Language to student cohorts from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Various models of internationalization (Knight, 2004, 2006; Leask, 2009; Pimpa, 2009;…

  10. Positioning libraries to support the goals of higher education institutions: The Peabody Academic Library Leadership Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Breivik, Patricia Senn; Caboni, Timothy; Clark, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the genesis of Vanderbilt University's Peabody Academic Library Leadership Institute as an outcome of a particular philosophy. That philosophy is based on the concept that to fulfill their potential contributions, academic libraries need to direct their planning, resources, and services to support the priorities of their parent institutions. This article addresses the need for campus-focused leadership training; higher education leadership training for academic libraria...

  11. Females with a mutation in a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein pay a higher cost of survival than do males in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Richard G; Ballard, J William O

    2011-07-01

    Males and females age at different rates in a variety of species, but the mechanisms underlying the difference is not understood. In this study, we investigated sex-specific costs of a naturally occurring mildly deleterious deletion (DTrp85, DVal86) in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A (cox7A) in Drosophila simulans. We observed that females and males homozygous for the mutation had 30% and 26% reduced Cox activity, respectively, compared with wild type. Furthermore, 4-day-old females had 34%-42% greater physical activity than males. Greater physical activity in mutant females was correlated with a 19% lower 50% survival compared with wild-type females. Mutant and wild-type males had equal survival. These data suggest that females paid a higher cost of the mutation than did males. The data demonstrate linking population genetics and structural modeling to experimental manipulations that lead to functional predictions of mitochondrial bioenergetics and organism aging.

  12. Positioning Industrial Design Education within Higher Education: How to face increasingly challenging market forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Liem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.

  13. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  14. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  15. The Role of Ethnic Culture in Work-Family Balance among Armenian Women in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Hasmig

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…

  16. The advantages of creating a positive radiation safety culture in the higher education and research sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, T; Cole, P; Edwards, C; Makepeace, J; Murdock, C; Odams, H; Whitcher, R; Willis, S; Yates, L

    2015-01-01

    The safety culture of any organisation plays a critical role in setting the tone for both effective delivery of service and high standards of performance. By embedding safety at a cultural level, organisations are able to influence the attitudes and behaviours of stakeholders. To achieve this requires the ongoing commitment of heads of organisations and also individuals to prioritise safety no less than other competing goals (e.g. in universities, recruitment and retention are key) to ensure the protection of both people and the environment.The concept of culture is the same whatever the sector, e.g. medical, nuclear, industry, education, and research, but the higher education and research sectors within the UK are a unique challenge in developing a strong safety culture.This report provides an overview of the challenges presented by the sector, the current status of radiation protection culture, case studies to demonstrate good and bad practice in the sector and the practical methods to influence change. (practical matter)

  17. Gender Differences in Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2000-01-01

    We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...

  18. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  19. 3 CFR - Pay Freeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay Freeze Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Pay Freeze Memorandum for the Assistant to the President and Chief... the White House staff forgo pay increases until further notice. Accordingly, as a signal of our shared...

  20. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation

  1. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  2. Estimating Household Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Pham Thi Thuy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the household willingness to pay (WTP for improved solid waste management in Thu Dau Mot city, Binh Duong by using Dichotomons choice Contingent Valuation Method. A questionnaire was designed to draw a sample of 330 respondents for the study. The results show that mean household willingness to pay for solid waste management system in Thu Dau Mot is about 24 thousand VND/ month/ household, higher than the current fee (20 thousand VND month/ household.The paper used a logistic regression to establish the factor affecting to the household willingness to pay for solid waste management system. The logit results show that those with a higher income and more educated is willing to pay more for improvement in management of their solid waste. Also, more environmental aware the person the more they are willing to pay. Moreover, females are less likely to give a positive response to WTP compare to male.

  3. Public sector pay gap in Serbia during large-scale privatisation, by educational qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušev Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the effect of large-scale privatization of public sector activities on public-private sector pay differential, for groups of workers according to educational qualification on average and across the pay distribution in Serbia, from 2004 until 2008. The paper finds that both unskilled and skilled men and women in the public sector saw significant improvements in their financial position relative to their private sector counterparts with the progress of the economic transition. The results showed that the size of the public sector pay premium declines both with higher educational level and higher percentile of earnings distribution. This indicates, between and within groups, the inequality-reducing feature of the public sector pay determination.

  4. Pay as you throw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  5. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    .06). The regional and distant failure rate was not related to HPV/p16 positivity or histologic differentiation of ACA; however, HIV positivity appeared to be associated with a higher recurrence rate and worse recurrence-free survival.

  6. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  7. 5 CFR 534.504 - Annual adjustment in pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual adjustment in pay. 534.504 Section 534.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.504 Annual adjustment...

  8. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  9. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paying premium pay. 410.402 Section 410... for Training Expenses § 410.402 Paying premium pay. (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an agency may not use its funds, appropriated or otherwise available, to pay...

  10. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  11. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  12. Status of higher order mode beam position monitors in 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  13. Decision of pedagogical tasks as mean of forming of pedagogical position of students of higher education physical establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanchenko N.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of terms of forming of pedagogical position for the students of higher education physical establishments - decision of educational-pedagogical situations (EPS is examined. Monitoring of progress from pedagogical disciplines confronted with the results of experiment on determination of levels of decision of EPS by students is conducted. It is set that the traditional model of studies provides the high level of capture students theoretical knowledge, but does not influence on forming of them pedagogical position. Most students were shown by the medium-and-low levels of formed of abilities to decide EPS. It is set that the traditional model of teaching provides the high level of capture students theoretical knowledge's, but substantially does not influence on forming of their pedagogical position. Basic difficulties are certain at a decision the students of EPS, which allow to define the basic going near development of methodical accompaniment of EPS, which must include: educational material which is based on integration of pedagogical and sporting preparation with support on context approach; algorithm of decision of tasks; questions of cognitive character.

  14. The Effects of Introducing Advertising in Pay TV: A Model of Asymmetric Competition between Pay TV and Free TV

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Dietl; Markus Lang; Panlang Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of asymmetric competition between a pay TV and a free TV broadcaster. Our model shows that the pay TV broadcaster has incentives to place advertising on its channel if the marginal return on advertising exceeds the viewers' disutility from advertising. In this case, however, the pay TV advertising level is always below the corresponding level on free TV. The pay TV advertising level can increase with a higher viewer disutility from advertising but the p...

  15. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. - Research Highlights: →The study explored the drivers of willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for green electricity. →All the hypothesised drivers of WTP a premium were found to be significant. →Contrary to some former studies, income was found to be a good predictor of WTP and the pledged premium. →The quantum of the premium positively correlates with income levels.

  16. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  17. Trajectories of higher- and lower-order dimensions of negative and positive affect relative to restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Berg, Kelly C; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J

    2017-07-01

    Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Danish population, and information on household income and wealth from registers at Statistics Denmark. The results show that the willingness to pay is marginally higher than the actuarially fair value under expected utility theory, but significantly higher under rank-dependent utility theory, and up......We estimate how much Danish households are willing to pay for auto, home, and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from a large Danish insurance company, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates from a field experiment with a representative sample of the adult...

  19. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  20. Performance pay, sorting and the dimensions of job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    C Green; J S Heywood

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of performance related pay on several dimensions of job satisfaction. In cross-sectional estimates, performance related pay is associated with increased overall satisfaction, satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with job security and satisfaction with hours. It appears to be negatively associated with satisfaction with the work itself. Yet, after accounting for worker fixed-effects, the positive associations remain and the negative association vanishes. Th...

  1. Merit Pay Misfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Al

    2011-01-01

    Critics argue that the uniform salary schedule is unfair because it promotes mediocrity by rewarding poor performers while failing to recognize outstanding achievement on the job. Advocates for merit pay systems for preK-12 education also contend that the uniform salary schedule ignores the basic purpose of education--student learning. Although…

  2. Reactions to merit pay increases: a longitudinal test of a signal sensitivity perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul; Lockhart, Daniel E; Bowler, Matthew

    2003-06-01

    The relationships among merit pay raises, trait positive affectivity (PA), and reactions to merit pay increases (pay attitudes and behavioral intentions) were explored in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. Drawing on signal sensitivity theory, the authors expected that PA would moderate the relationship between merit pay raise size and reactions to the increase such that pay raise size would be more strongly related to pay attitudes and behavioral intentions among those low in PA. Results strongly supported the predictions in the case of reactions to the raise amount (happiness and effort intentions) but not for pay level satisfaction. Implications of the results and directions for future research are identified.

  3. Higher order structure in the 3'-minor domain of small subunit ribosomal RNAs from a gram negative bacterium, a gram positive bacterium and a eukaryote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1983-01-01

    of additional higher order structure in the renatured free RNA. It can be concluded that a high level of conservation of higher order structure has occurred during the evolution of the gram negative and gram positive eubacteria and the eukaryote in both the double helical regions and the "unstructured" regions...

  4. Efficiency of Pay for Performance Programs in Romanian Companies and the Mediating Role of Organizational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriesi Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the influences of pay for performance programs on employee performance in the Romanian context, by comparing a sample of employees in companies in which such programs are implemented to a sample of employees in organizations in which performance is not used as a criterion in deciding financial rewards. Results show that the work performances of the former, as evaluated by the direct supervisors of each employee, are significantly higher than those of the latter, and that this effect of performance pay is partly mediated by its positive effects on employee perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. Furthermore, results indicate that the individual – level financial incentive systems are more efficient in fostering work performance than the team – level performance pay programs in the Romanian employee sample, and that they also have stronger effects on the two dimensions of organizational justice.

  5. MULTI-SENSORY BRANDING AS A TOOL FOR THE FORMATION OF A POSITIVE IMAGE OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya A. Spirina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the relevance of the use of sensory branding in higher education and the development of an algorithm for educational brand, based on the use of the senses of the consumer: hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste.Methods. As a methodological basis author uses methods of scientific abstraction, modeling, analysis and synthesis, as well as the method of system analysis. Results. This article discusses the main directions of methodology for higher educationa...

  6. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, F.B. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Marel, K.S. van der; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. DESIGN: A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and

  7. Existence of Positive Solutions for a Coupled System of (p, q-Laplacian Fractional Higher Order Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence of at least three positive solutions for a system of (p,q-Laplacian fractional order two-point boundary value problems by applying five functionals fixed point theorem under suitable conditions on a cone in a Banach space.

  8. What Is and What Can Be: How a Liminal Position Can Change Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Sather, Alison; Alter, Zanny

    2011-01-01

    In this article we analyze what happens when undergraduate students are positioned as pedagogical consultants in a faculty development program. Drawing on their spoken and written perspectives, and using the classical anthropological concept of "liminality," we illustrate how these student consultants revise their relationships with their teachers…

  9. Pays en transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les périodes de transformation risquent de provoquer le chaos, mais elles sont également porteuses de rapides progrès sur le plan social et économique. Le CRDI est intervenu dans quelque 25 pays ayant amorcé une transition de la guerre à la paix, de la dictature à la démocratie ou d'une économie fermée à une.

  10. LES PAYS EN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    En 2002, une certaine paix sociale avait été rétablie, bien qu'elle fut instable et souvent entachée de violence. Le pays amorçait le ... mieux comprendre comment il recueille et diffuse l'information destinée ... transition) et les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Les étapes suivantes ont consisté à ...

  11. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  12. Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pay (RSLSP), providing $500 for each month/partial month served in stop loss status. Service members served under stop loss must submit a claim for the special pay. Throughout the year, the services have or extension of service, became ineligible to receive retroactive stop loss special pay. There may be

  13. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  14. Between Instrumental and Developmental Learning: Ambivalence in Student Values and Identity Positions in Marketized UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The move towards a market-driven HE system in the UK and active policy promotion of students as consumers has generated much commentary on the ways in which students' expectations and experiences have been transformed. This article introduces and develops a conceptualization of contemporary higher students' views of their relationship to higher…

  15. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  16. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  17. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353... upon promotion. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon an employee's promotion, DHS... basic pay after promotion may not be less than the minimum rate of the higher band. (b) DHS will issue...

  18. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We conduct an incentivized experiment to study the effect of the payment method on spending. We find that the willingness to pay is higher when subjects pay with debit cards compared to cash. The result is robust to controlling for cash-on-hand constraints, spending type, price familiarity...

  19. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p basal end of the cochlea (3.4 dB). Additionally, the M-levels, which were fitted in our clinic using a standard profile, also increased toward the basal end, although with a lower amplitude (1.3 dB). Accordingly, the dynamic range decreased toward the basal end (2.1 dB). No correlation was found between the distance to the modiolus and the T-level or the M-level. Furthermore, the correlation between the insertion depth and stimulation levels was not affected by the duration of deafness, age at implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p stimulation levels of the cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at

  20. When Punishment Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma. PMID:23483907

  1. MULTI-SENSORY BRANDING AS A TOOL FOR THE FORMATION OF A POSITIVE IMAGE OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Spirina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the relevance of the use of sensory branding in higher education and the development of an algorithm for educational brand, based on the use of the senses of the consumer: hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste.Methods. As a methodological basis author uses methods of scientific abstraction, modeling, analysis and synthesis, as well as the method of system analysis. Results. This article discusses the main directions of methodology for higher educational brand formation through the involvement of educational services’ consumers by using different sensory organs. The author presents the main advantages of the sensory branding over conventional not focused on the senses of consumers.Scientific novelty. The author proves the need for innovative approaches to educational branding in economy of values. Market congestion with advertising messages and information noises makes it impossible to win the commitment of consumers of educational services on the basis of the functional characteristics (high-quality education, focusing only on the vision or hearing of consumers (video and print advertising. It is necessary to focus on other senses of the consumer, such as touch, smell, taste. This will enhance the emotional connection with the consumer, make it possible to expand the range of services using an existing brand, and also allow defending against competitors. Multi-sensory branding creates a strong link with the consumer, since emotional commitment is stronger than functional. In other words, a sense of interaction with the brand persists much longer than simple physical satisfaction of needs.Practical significance. The author proposes a system of sensory perception channels of educational brand and their influence on the formation of the image of the higher education institution in the minds of consumers. The author also offers the algorithm of creation the educational brand, based on the five senses of

  2. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate workers in FPI locations receive pay at five levels ranging from 5th grade pay (lowest) to 1st grade pay...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1242 - Back pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Back pay. 404.1242 Section 404.1242 Employees... Prior to 1987 § 404.1242 Back pay. (a) Back pay defined. Back pay is pay received in one period of time... an employer. It includes pay made under Federal or State laws intended to create an employment...

  4. Merit pay: the Federal Government's pay-for-performance experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Holliman, Sherry Diane.

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited For many years, businesses in private industry have been utilizing and experimenting with various forms of performance-based pay. These innovations have been part of a continuing search by organizations for better approaches to administering pay. With the passing of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Government began its form of this concept entitled, 'Merit Pay'. Although many studies have examined uses in the areas of ...

  5. Coarse-coded higher-order neural networks for PSRI object recognition. [position, scale, and rotation invariant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1993-01-01

    A higher-order neural network (HONN) can be designed to be invariant to changes in scale, translation, and inplane rotation. Invariances are built directly into the architecture of a HONN and do not need to be learned. Consequently, fewer training passes and a smaller training set are required to learn to distinguish between objects. The size of the input field is limited, however, because of the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected HONN. By coarse coding the input image, the input field size can be increased to allow the larger input scenes required for practical object recognition problems. We describe a coarse coding technique and present simulation results illustrating its usefulness and its limitations. Our simulations show that a third-order neural network can be trained to distinguish between two objects in a 4096 x 4096 pixel input field independent of transformations in translation, in-plane rotation, and scale in less than ten passes through the training set. Furthermore, we empirically determine the limits of the coarse coding technique in the object recognition domain.

  6. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  7. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei, E-mail: pei.zhang@desy.de [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Cockcroft Institute of Science and Technology, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Science and Technology, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-11

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 μm can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 μm.

  8. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M

    2014-01-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 micron can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 micron.

  9. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  10. Paying for Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    depends only on the relative costs of producing cash and card payments and can be used by regulators to assess privately set interchange fees. When calibrated to cost data, the model implies an optimal fee that is low and may even be negative. The findings are consistent with empirical evidence of high......Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how interchange fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay...... transaction fees to banks - a common feature in bank contracts - card use is declining in interchange fees, and surcharging does not neutralize interchange fees. According to my model, banks set interchange fees at too high a level, resulting in too few card payments. I derive an optimal interchange fee which...

  11. Confirming theoretical pay constructs of a variable pay scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibangilizwe Ncube

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Return on the investment in variable pay programmes remains controversial because their cost versus contribution cannot be empirically justified. Research purpose: This study validates the findings of the model developed by De Swardt on the factors related to successful variable pay programmes. Motivation for the study: Many organisations blindly implement variable pay programmes without any means to assess the impact these programmes have on the company’s performance. This study was necessary to validate the findings of an existing instrument that validates the contribution of variable pay schemes. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted using quantitative research. A total of 300 completed questionnaires from a non-purposive sample of 3000 participants in schemes across all South African industries were returned and analysed. Main findings: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the validation instrument developed by De Swardt is still largely valid in evaluating variable pay schemes. The differences between the study and the model were reported. Practical/managerial implications: The study confirmed the robustness of an existing model that enables practitioners to empirically validate the use of variable pay plans. This model assists in the design and implementation of variable pay programmes that meet critical success factors. Contribution/value-add: The study contributed to the development of a measurement instrument that will assess whether a variable pay plan contributes to an organisation’s success.

  12. 5 CFR 9901.212 - Pay schedules and pay bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9901.212 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL... Secretary may establish one or more pay schedules within each career group. (b) Each pay schedule may...

  13. Adequacy of Pay Structure and Its Impact on Personal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Salim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pay structure consists of two salient elements: monetary and non-monetary rewards. The ability of administrators to adequately provide these rewards may have a significant impact on personal outcomes. Although this relationship is vital, the role of adequacy of pay structures as an important antecedent was given less emphasis in the organizational pay structure research literature. Thus, this study was undertaken to examine the association between the adequacy of pay structure and personal outcomes. A survey method was conducted to collect data from employees who worked in private institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. The SmartPLS path model analysis demonstrated that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were important outcomes of the adequacy of pay structure in the studied organizations. Furthermore, this study also provided the relevant discussions, implications and conclusion.

  14. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  16. Teacher Pay and Teacher Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…

  17. Constructing a Measure of Private-pay Nursing Home Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Silver, Benjamin; Gozalo, Pedro L; Dosa, David; Grabowski, David C; Makineni, Rajesh; Mor, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    Nursing home (NH) care is financed through multiple sources. Although Medicaid is the predominant payer for NH care, over 20% of residents pay out-of-pocket for their care. Despite this large percentage, an accepted measure of private-pay NH occupancy has not been established and little is known about the types of facilities and the long-term care markets that cater to this population. To describe 2 novel measures of private-pay utilization in the NH setting, including the proportion of privately financed residents and resident days, and examine their construct validity. Retrospective descriptive analysis of US NHs in 2007-2009. We used Medicare claims, Medicare Enrollment records, and the Minimum Data Set to create measures of private-pay resident prevalence and proportion of privately financed NH days. We compared our estimates of private-pay utilization to payer data collected in the NH annual certification survey and evaluated the relationships of our measures with facility characteristics. Our measures of private-pay resident prevalence and private-pay days are highly correlated (r=0.83, Ppay residents and days in higher quality facilities. This new methodology provides estimates of private-pay resident prevalence and resident days. These measures were correlated with estimates using other data sources and validated against measures of facility quality. These data set the stage for additional work to examine questions related to NH payment, quality of care, and responses to changes in the long-term care market.

  18. 76 FR 52537 - Pay for Sunday Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... back pay claims permitted by the Barring Act of 1940, and noted that agencies could use the memorandum... of the Barring Act or the Back Pay Act of 1966 (as amended) and apply specifically to one Government...) An employee is entitled to pay at his or her rate of basic pay plus premium pay at a rate equal to 25...

  19. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to... inmates at a location. (a) Eligibility. Inmates in first grade pay status may be considered for premium...

  20. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of...

  1. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted FPI vacation pay by the SOI when their continued good work performance justifies such pay, based on...

  2. 5 CFR 532.503 - Overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 532.503 Section 532.503... Pay and Differentials § 532.503 Overtime pay. (a)(1) Employees who are exempt from the overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, shall be paid overtime pay in accordance with...

  3. Do we pay our community preceptors? Results from a CERA clerkship directors' survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David; Jerpbak, Christine M; Margo, Katherine L; Power, David V; Slatt, Lisa M; Tarn, Derjung M

    2014-03-01

    Family medicine clerkships depend heavily on community-based family physician preceptors to teach medical students. These preceptors have traditionally been unpaid, but in recent years some clerkships have started to pay preceptors. This study determines trends in the number and geographic region of programs that pay their community preceptors, identifies reasons programs pay or do not pay, and investigates perceived advantages and disadvantages of payment. We conducted a cross-sectional, electronic survey of 134 family medicine clerkship directors at allopathic US medical schools. The response rate was 62% (83/132 clerkship directors). Nineteen of these (23%) currently pay community preceptors, 11 of whom are located in either New England or the South Atlantic region. Sixty-three percent of programs who pay report that their community preceptors are also paid for teaching other learners, compared to 32% of those programs who do not pay. Paying respondents displayed more positive attitudes toward paying community preceptors, though a majority of non-paying respondents indicated they would pay if they had the financial resources. The majority of clerkships do not pay their community preceptors to teach medical students, but competition from other learners may drive more medical schools to consider payment to help with preceptor recruitment and retention. Medical schools located in regions where there is competition for community preceptors from other medical and non-medical schools may need to consider paying preceptors as part of recruitment and retention efforts.

  4. Higher risk sexual behaviour is associated with unawareness of HIV-positivity and lack of viral suppression - implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Venables, Emilie; Ben-Farhat, Jihane; van Cutsem, Gilles; Ellman, Tom; Kenyon, Chris

    2017-11-23

    Efficacy of Treatment as Prevention Strategy depends on a variety of factors including individuals' likelihood to test and initiate treatment, viral load and sexual behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that people with higher risk sexual behaviour are less likely to know their HIV-positive status and be virologically suppressed. A cross-sectional population-based survey of individuals aged 15-59 years old was conducted in 2013 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A two-stage cluster probability sampling was used. After adjustment for age and sex, lack of awareness of HIV-positivity was strongly associated with having more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (aOR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-3.1). Inconsistent condom use was more common in individuals with more than one sexual partner (aOR: 16.6, 95%CI: 7.6-36.7) and those unaware (aOR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.6-5.4). Among people aware of their HIV-positivity, higher risk sexual behaviour was associated with lack of viral suppression (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.5). Risky sexual behaviour seems associated with factors linked to poor health-seeking behaviour which may have negative implications for HIV testing and Treatment as Prevention. Innovative strategies, driven by improved epidemiological and anthropological understanding, are needed to enable comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention.

  5. Are Consumers Willing to Pay for Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.; Woodward, Richard; Aiew, Wipon

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for irradiated food using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e., ground beef), real cash, and actual exchange in a market setting. Single-bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. Our results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of food-borne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Our respondents are willing to pay a premium of about $0.77 for a pound of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost to irradiate the product

  6. Hybrid All-Pay and Winner-Pay Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In many contests in economic and political life, both all-pay and winner-pay expenditures matter for winning. This paper studies such hybrid contests under symmetry and asymmetry. The symmetric model is very general but still yields a simple closed-form solution. More contestants tend to lead to ...... expenditures. An endogenous bias that maximizes total expenditures disfavors the high-valuation contestant but still makes her the more likely one to win....

  7. 5 CFR 550.604 - Biweekly pay periods and computation of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly pay periods and computation of pay. 550.604 Section 550.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Computation of Pay for Biweekly Pay Periods § 550.604 Biweekly pay...

  8. 5 CFR 534.305 - Pay periods and computation of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay periods and computation of pay. 534... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary...

  9. Willingness and ability to pay for unexpected dental expenses by Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widström Eeva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002, adults have been able to choose oral health care services in the public sector or in the private sector in Finland. Though various subsidies for care exist in both sectors, the Public Dental Service (PDS is a cheaper option for the patient but, on the other hand, there are no waiting lists for private care. The aim of this study was to assess middle-aged adults' use of dental services, willingness to pay (WTP and ability to pay (ATP for unexpected, urgent dental treatment. Methods Postal questionnaires on use of dental services were sent to a random sample of 1500 47-59 year old adults living in three large municipalities in the Helsinki region. The initial response rate was 65.8%. Two hypothetical scenarios were presented: "What would be the highest price you would be prepared to pay to have a lost filling replaced immediately, or, at the latest, the day after losing the filling?" and " How much could you pay for unexpected dental expenses at two weeks notice, if you suddenly needed more comprehensive treatment?" Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse factors related to WTP and ATP. Results Most respondents (89.6% had visited a dentist recently and a majority (76.1% had used private services. For immediate replacement of a lost filling, almost all respondents (93.2% were willing to pay the lower price charged in the PDS and 46.2% were willing to pay the private fee. High income and no subjective need for dental treatment were positively associated with the probability of paying a higher price. Most respondents (93.0% were able to pay a low fee, EUR 50 and almost half (41.6% at least EUR 300 for unexpected treatment at short notice. High income and male sex were associated with high ATP. Conclusion There was a strong and statistically significant relationship between income and WTP and ATP for urgent dental care, indicating that access to publicly provided services improved equity for persons with low

  10. Who pays for health care in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P; Somanathan, Aparnaa; Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Harbianto, Deni; Garg, Charu C; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Herrin, Alejandro N; Huq, Mohammed N; Ibragimova, Shamsia; Karan, Anup; Kwon, Soon-man; Leung, Gabriel M; Lu, Jui-fen Rachel; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Pande, Badri Raj; Racelis, Rachel; Tin, Keith; Tisayaticom, Kanjana; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Wan, Quan; Yang, Bong-Min; Zhao, Yuxin

    2008-03-01

    We estimate the distributional incidence of health care financing in 13 Asian territories that account for 55% of the Asian population. In all territories, higher-income households contribute more to the financing of health care. The better-off contribute more as a proportion of ability to pay in most low- and lower-middle-income territories. Health care financing is slightly regressive in three high-income economies with universal social insurance. Direct taxation is the most progressive source of finance and is most so in poorer economies. In universal systems, social insurance is proportional to regressive. In high-income economies, the out-of-pocket (OOP) payments are proportional or regressive while in low-income economies the better-off spend relatively more OOP. But in most low-/middle-income countries, the better-off not only pay more, they also get more health care.

  11. Striking Pay Dirt!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, George

    1984-01-01

    The conception and development of a plan to lease community college property for oil drilling is described, emphasizing the governing board's role in the process. The risks, uncertainties, relationships with local fuel companies, and positive public perception are discussed. (MSE)

  12. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon [University of Stellenbosch Business School, Carl Cronje Drive, Bellville, Western Cape 7535 (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. (author)

  13. Willingness to pay for excreta pellet fertilizer: Empirical evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN K. M. Kuwornu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined farmers’ willingness to pay for excreta pellet fertilizer in Ghana. Primary data was obtained from 461 farmers in 10 districts in the Western and Greater Accra regions of Ghana through randomized questionnaire administration. The contingent valuation method was used in eliciting the farmers’ willingness to pay decisions (WTP and maximum amount they are willing to pay. The Tobit regression model results revealed that being a household head, unit cost of current fertilizer used, and farm size positively influenced the willingness to pay amount whereas previous use of organic fertilizer influenced the willingness to pay amount negatively.

  14. Unions and the Sword of Justice: Unions and Pay Systems, Pay Inequality, Pay Discrimination and Low Pay

    OpenAIRE

    A Charlwood; K Hansen; David Metcalf

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion in pay is lower among union members than among non-unionists. This reflects two factors. First, union members and jobs are more homogeneous than their non-union counterparts. Second, union wage policies within and across firms lower pay dispersion. Unions'' minimum wage targets also truncate the lower tail of the union distribution. There are two major consequences of these egalitarian union wage policies. First, the return to human capital is lower in firms which recognise unions ...

  15. Incentives and control in primary health care: findings from English pay-for-performance case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth; Harrison, Stephen; Checkland, Kath

    2008-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate mechanisms and perceptions of control following the implementation of a new "pay-for-performance" contract (the new General Medical Services, or GMS, contract) in general practice. This article was based on an in-depth qualitative case study approach in two general practices in England. A distinction is emerging amongst ostensibly equal partners between those general practitioners conducting and those subject to surveillance. Attitudes towards the contract were largely positive, although discontent was higher in the practice which employed a more intensive surveillance regime and greater amongst nurses than doctors. The sample was small and opportunistic. Further research is required to examine the longer-term effects as new contractual arrangements evolve. Increased surveillance and feedback mechanisms associated with new pay-for-performance schemes have the potential to constrain and shape clinical practice. The paper highlights the emergence of new tensions within and between existing professional groupings.

  16. 5 CFR 550.707 - Computation of severance pay fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) in effect at separation. (3) For prevailing rate positions in which the amount of night shift... schedules, determine for each week in the averaging period the value of night shift differential pay... effect at separation. (4) For positions with seasonal work requirements, compute the weekly average of...

  17. 5 CFR 359.705 - Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 359.705 Section 359.705... EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.705 Pay. (a...) is entitled to receive basic pay at the highest of— (1) The rate of basic pay in effect for the...

  18. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work status...

  19. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from a job assignment may receive administrative pay for such circumstances as a general recall for an...

  20. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if the...

  1. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work status shall receive pay at the standard hourly rate, plus longevity where applicable, for all Federal...

  2. 5 CFR 551.501 - Overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An agency...

  3. 20 CFR 218.27 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 218.27 Section 218.27 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.27 Vacation pay. (a) From railroad employer. Vacation pay may be credited to the... vacation pay is credited to the vacation period, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the...

  4. Retrospective data suggests that the higher prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in individuals with type 2 diabetes is mediated by hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Linda J; Staecker, Hinrich; Lin, James; Sykes, Kevin J; Phadnis, Milind A; McMahon, Tamara M; Connolly, Dan; Sabus, Carla H; Whitney, Susan L; Kluding, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) has been linked to comorbidities like diabetes and hypertension. However, the relationship between type 2 diabetes (DM) and BPPV is unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the relationship between DM and BPPV in the presence of known contributors like age, gender and hypertension. A retrospective review of the records of 3933 individuals was categorized by the specific vestibular diagnosis and for the presence of type 2 DM and hypertension. As the prevalence of BPPV was higher in people with type 2 DM compared to those without DM, multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify variables predictive of BPPV. The relationship between type 2 DM, hypertension and BPPV was analyzed using mediation analysis. BPPV was seen in 46% of individuals with type 2 DM, compared to 37% of individuals without DM (pdiabetes affects the vestibular system. Individuals with complaints of dizziness, with comorbidities including hypertension and diabetes, may benefit from a screening for BPPV.

  5. Does a higher income have positive health effects? Using the earned income tax credit to explore the income-health gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Because health status may affect income, this article uses an "instrumental variable" strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  6. Higher baseline viral diversity correlates with lower HBsAg decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Zhang, Li; Ren, Hong; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Viral diversity seems to predict treatment outcomes in certain viral infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline intra-patient viral diversity and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) therapy. Twenty-six HBeAg-positive patients who were treated with Peg-IFN-α were enrolled. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, and sequencing of the hepatitis B virus S gene were performed on baseline samples, and normalized Shannon entropy (Sn) was calculated as a measure of small hepatitis B surface protein (SHBs) diversity. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the association between baseline Sn and HBsAg decline. Of the 26 patients enrolled in the study, 65.4% were male and 61.5% were infected with hepatitis B virus genotype B. The median HBsAg level at baseline was 4.5 log 10 IU/mL (interquartile range: 4.1-4.9) and declined to 3.0 log 10 IU/mL (interquartile range: 1.7-3.9) after 48 weeks of Peg-IFN-α treatment. In models adjusted for baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBsAg, the adjusted coefficients (95% CI) for ΔHBsAg and relative percentage HBsAg decrease were -1.3 (-2.5, -0.2) log 10 IU/mL for higher SHBs diversity (Sn≥0.58) patients and -26.4% (-50.2%, -2.5%) for lower diversity (Sndiversity. Baseline intra-patient SHBs diversity was inverse to HBsAg decline in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving Peg-IFN-α monotherapy. Also, more sequence variations within the "a" determinant upstream flanking region and the first loop of the "a" determinant were the main sources of the higher SHBs diversity.

  7. Does a Higher Income Have Positive Health Effects? Using the Earned Income Tax Credit to Explore the Income-Health Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Context The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Methods Because health status may affect income, this article uses an “instrumental variable” strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). Findings I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. Conclusions These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. PMID:22188352

  8. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo- Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam position diagnostics. These modes, together with some propagating, strong coupling modes, have been considered in the design of a dedicated electronics for beam diagnostics with HOMs for the third harmonic cavities.

  9. Does it pay to have a network contact? Social network ties, workplace racial context, and pay outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmec, Julie A; Trimble, Lindsey B

    2009-06-01

    This article investigates how social network use to find work affects pay. Analyses using the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality consider the extent to which a network contact's influence level affects a job applicant's pay, whether this effect differs for white, black, and Latino contacts, and how workplace racial context moderates this relationship. Three main findings emerge. First, having an influential contact--one with hiring authority--compared to having no contact yields higher pay. Second, white and minority contact influence on pay differs: among minority contacts, being an outsider (i.e., someone not employed by the firm to which the applicant applies) is associated with higher pay, but being an employee of the firm--an insider--is not. Third, regardless of workplace racial context, black and Latino contacts' influence is most beneficial when their race/ethnicity is not known to the hiring agent. We offer a new interpretation of the mixed findings with regard to the relationship between social network use and pay.

  10. Higher B-cell activating factor levels at birth are positively associated with maternal dairy farm exposure and negatively related to allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hesselmar, Bill; Nordström, Inger; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A high proportion of circulating immature/naive CD5(+) B cells during early infancy is a risk factor for allergy development. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is an important cytokine for B-cell maturation. We sought to investigate whether BAFF levels are related to environmental exposures during pregnancy and early childhood and whether BAFF levels are associated with postnatal B-cell maturation and allergic disease. In the FARMFLORA study, including both farming and nonfarming families, we measured BAFF levels in plasma from mothers and their children at birth and at 1, 4, 18, and 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples were also analyzed for B-cell numbers and proportions of CD5(+) and CD27(+) B cells. Allergic disease was clinically evaluated at 18 and 36 months of age. Circulating BAFF levels were maximal at birth, and farmers' children had higher BAFF levels than nonfarmers' children. Higher BAFF levels at birth were positively associated with proportions of CD27(+) memory B cells among farmers' children and inversely related to proportions of CD5(+) immature/naive B cells among nonfarmers' children. Children with allergic disease at 18 months of age had lower cord blood BAFF levels than nonallergic children. At birth, girls had higher BAFF levels and lower proportions of CD5(+) B cells than boys. Farm exposure during pregnancy appears to induce BAFF production in the newborn child, and high neonatal BAFF levels were associated with more accelerated postnatal B-cell maturation, which lend further strength to the role of B cells in the hygiene hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer’s utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, generating different purchase decisions and optimal prices across...... individuals. When a good’s fixed price is lower than a threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, accounting for previously unexplained field experimental evidence. An increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer’s utility...... and may further lower the purchase rate, resulting in a further increase in purchase price....

  12. EMBL pay settlement will cost millions

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    A labour dispute at EMBL, Heidelberg, was settled last week at a cost of at least DM4 million for the organisation's 16 member states. The lab has asked for clarification on whether the ruling from the IL0 refers simply to a salary adjustment from 1995 or also to a backdated implementation of higher salary scales. This second option would cost considerably more - 8 percent of the budget in back pay and DM3.5 million per annum (1/2 page).

  13. Information Security of Apple Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...

  14. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    this threshold, however, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, in line with previously unexplained evidence from field experiments. Moreover, an increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer's utility and may further lower the purchase rate......Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular in a wide range of industries. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer's utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, which generates different purchase...... decisions and optimal prices across individuals. When a good is sold at a fixed price higher than a threshold value, a price that the individual thinks is fair, the adoption of PWYW increases his utility and hence results in a weakly higher purchase rate. When a good is sold at a fixed price lower than...

  15. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  16. Bank CEO Pay-Performance Relations and the Effects of Deregulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Anthony J; Ezzell, John R; Miles, James A

    1995-01-01

    The authors test the deregulation hypothesis that posits that bank CEO compensation became more sensitive to performance as bank management became less regulated. They observe a significant increase in pay-performance sensitivities from their 1976-81 regulation subsample to their 1982-88 deregulation subsample. These increases in pay sensitivities after deregulation are observed for salary and bonus, stock options, and common stock holdings. The authors observe increases in the pay-performanc...

  17. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  18. Paying you back or paying me forward: understanding rewarded and unrewarded organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, M Audrey; Meglino, Bruce M; Lester, Scott W; Jeong, Sophia S

    2010-03-01

    The definition of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has evolved from one in which the behavior is unrewarded to one in which rewards play a significant role. As a result, little is known about mechanisms that sustain unrewarded OCB. We used the theory of other orientation to examine 2 mechanisms based on the norm of reciprocity: the obligation to reciprocate the benefits already received from another ("paying you back") and the expected reciprocity that one's actions will stimulate future benefits from another ("paying me forward"). We propose that these mechanisms are more or less influential depending on one's motivational orientation. In 3 experiments using both trait and state indicators of other orientation, we found that the prosocial behavior of individuals higher in other orientation was more strongly influenced by the obligation to reciprocate and less affected by the expectation of reciprocity. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Blackaby, David; Booth, Alison L; Frank, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Using a unique data source on academic economist labour market experiences, we explore gender, pay and promotions. In addition to earnings and productivity measures, we have information on outside offers and perceptions of discrimination. In contrast to the existing literature, we find both a gender promotions gap and a within-rank gender pay gap. A driving factor may be the role of outside offers: men receive more outside offers than women of comparable characteristics, and gain higher pay i...

  20. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  1. Residents’ Willingness to Pay for Household Kitchen Waste Separation Services in Haidian and Dongcheng Districts, Beijing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a contingent valuation study on household kitchen waste separation (HKWS services via willingness to pay (WTP conducted in the Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing city in 2013. This study focuses on a real program to understand households’ attitudes toward HKWS and to estimate the value of HKWS services. The results of this study revealed that 41.4% agreed to accept the proposed price of HKWS services, while 42.2% refused to pay, but with a positive attitude toward the HKWS program. In addition, respondents’ WTP for proposed HKWS services is significantly related to the level of bid price and their gender, age and education experience. Attitudinal factors that affect resident WTP were also found. For example, respondents who perceive themselves as having a higher ability to conduct HKWS at the source are more willing to pay for their HKWS services, while respondents who complain of the inconvenience of conducting HKWS show negative WTP. The results also showed that on average each household is willing to pay about US$1.44 per month for HKWS services, which is based on 327 respondents after excluding 64 (16.4% of all sample who indicated complete opposition to the HKWS program.

  2. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH 2 O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH 2 O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  4. The International Instruments on Gender Pay Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cher Weixia

    2008-01-01

    Today in the world women are earning around 78% of what men are earning. Gender pay gap ironically is still one major feature of the modern labor market, despite the fact that the right to equal pay is one of the founding principles recognized by the 1945 ILO constitution amendment. Since 1919 the right to equal pay was discussed during the preparation for the ILO constitution, scholars have been constantly making efforts to explore the potential solutions to gender pay differentials...

  5. Performance pay, sorting and social motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...

  6. Consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay at different levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay at different levels of restaurant attributes: A study from Kenya. ... Research in Hospitality Management ... Findings indicate that food quality is the only attribute to have a positive relationship with both consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay, in high-end as well as limited ...

  7. 5 CFR 531.212 - Superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Superior qualifications and special needs... Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.212 Superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting authority. (a) Agency authority. (1) An agency may use the superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting...

  8. Executive pay and shareholder litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Ailsa Röell

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of executive compensation on private securities litigation. We find that incentive pay in the form of options increases the probability of securities class action litigation, holding constant a wide range of firm characteristics. We further document that there is abnormal upward earnings manipulation during litigation class periods and that insiders exercise more options and sell more shares during class periods, but that this activity is largely driven by pre-ex...

  9. Fisherman expectations and pay-lake profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; John Engelken; John Engelken

    1973-01-01

    Personal interviews with licensed fishermen in Central New York State were used to determine characteristics of fishermen who are willing to pay to fish. Willingness to pay was related to aspects of the fishing experience that most strongly influenced fishing enjoyment. Sixty-two percent of the respondents expressed a willingness to pay for a quality fishing experience...

  10. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtime pay. 0.145 Section 0.145... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal... Attorney General may prescribe, authorize overtime pay (including additional compensation in lieu of...

  11. 20 CFR 218.28 - Sick pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sick pay. 218.28 Section 218.28 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.28 Sick pay. (a) From railroad employer. If the employee is carried on the payroll while sick, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the last day of sick pay. However, sick...

  12. 28 CFR 551.108 - Performance pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance pay. 551.108 Section 551.108 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.108 Performance pay. The Warden may approve a pretrial inmate for performance pay...

  13. 4 CFR 5.3 - Merit pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit pay. 5.3 Section 5.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.3 Merit pay. The Comptroller General may promulgate regulations establishing a merit pay system for such employees of the Government Accountability Office as the...

  14. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  15. Do Consumers Pay More Using Debit Cards than Cash?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    We conduct an incentivized experiment to test whether the willingness to pay is higher for debit cards compared to cash for three consumer products. Our findings support this conjecture also after controlling for cash availability, spending type, price familiarity and consumption habits...

  16. THE GENDER PAY DISCREPANCIES – A GLOBAL ISSUE. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Meral (Ibraim) Kagitci

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the gender pay gap in the Member States of the European Union. The European legislation had a good impact on eliminating the direct discrimination between women and men regarding the pay gap. However, beside all efforts, the statistics show a persisting gender pay gap of 16,4 % on average for the 27 EU Member States in 2010, recording a slight downward trend in recent years, when the figure was around 17% or higher. The causes of the gender pay gap ar...

  17. People's willingness to pay for health insurance in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Curt; Thanh, Nguyen X; Chuc, Nguyen Tk; Emmelin, Anders; Lindholm, Lars

    2008-08-11

    The inequity caused by health financing in Vietnam, which mainly relies on out-of-pocket payments, has put pre-payment reform high on the political agenda. This paper reports on a study of the willingness to pay for health insurance among a rural population in northern Vietnam, exploring whether the Vietnamese are willing to pay enough to sufficiently finance a health insurance system. Using the Epidemiological Field Laboratory for Health Systems Research in the Bavi district (FilaBavi), 2070 households were randomly selected for the study. Existing FilaBavi interviewers were trained especially for this study. The interview questionnaire was developed through a pilot study followed by focus group discussions among interviewers. Determinants of households' willingness to pay were studied through interval regression by which problems such as zero answers, skewness, outliers and the heaping effect may be solved. Households' average willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than their costs for public health care and self-treatment. For 70-80% of the respondents, average WTP is also sufficient to pay the lower range of premiums in existing health insurance programmes. However, the average WTP would only be sufficient to finance about half of total household public, as well as private, health care costs. Variables that reflect income, health care need, age and educational level were significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to willingness to pay. Since WTP is sufficient to cover household costs for public health care, it depends to what extent households would substitute private for public care and increase utilization as to whether WTP would also be sufficient enough to finance health insurance. This study highlights potential for public information schemes that may change the negative attitude towards health insurance, which this study has uncovered. A key task for policy makers is to win the trust of the

  18. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. 550.1409 Section 550.1409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not...

  19. Paying for Mitigation: A Multiple Country Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Krupnick, Alan; Lampi, Elina; Loefgren, Aasa; Ping Qin; Chung, Susie; Sterner, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    Unique survey data from a contingent valuation study conducted in three different countries (China, Sweden, and the United States) were used to investigate the ordinary citizen's willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. We find that a large majority of the respondents in all three countries believe that the mean global temperature has increased over the last 100 years and that humans are responsible for the increase. A smaller share of Americans, however, believes these statements, when compared to the Chinese and Swedes. A larger share of Americans is also pessimistic and believes that nothing can be done to stop climate change. We also find that Sweden has the highest WTP for reductions of CO{sub 2}, while China has the lowest. Thus, even though the Swedes and Chinese are similar to each other in their attitudes toward climate change, they differ considerably in their WTP. When WTP is measured as a share of household income, the willingness to pay is the same for Americans and Chinese, while again higher for the Swedes

  20. Nursing Gender Pay Differentials in the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara L; Butler, Matthew J; Butler, Richard J; Johnson, William G

    2018-01-01

    The gender pay gap in the United States is an ongoing issue, affecting women in nearly all occupations. Jobs traditionally associated with men tend to pay better than traditionally female-dominated jobs, and there is evidence to suggest within-occupation gender pay differences as well. We compared and contrasted gender wage disparities for registered nurses (RNs), relative to gender wage disparities for another female-dominated occupation, teachers, while controlling for sociodemographic factors. Using data in the American Community Survey, we analyzed the largest U.S. random representative sample of self-identified RNs and primary or secondary school teachers from 2000 to 2013 using fixed-effects regression analysis. There is greater disparity between nurse pay by gender than in teacher pay by gender. In addition, the net return in wages for additional education is higher for school teachers (21.7%) than for RNs (4.7%). Findings support preferential wages for men in nursing, more so than for men in teaching. The substantial gender disparities are an indirect measure of the misallocation of resources in effective patient care. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. US Higher Education in a Budgetary Vortex--1992-2007: Tracing the Positioning of Academe in the Context of Growing Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliver, Miguel; Briscoe, Felecia M.

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative statistical data of public investment trends in higher education, the institution of higher education in the US is contemporarily contextualized within the growing milieu of disparity. Specifically, this study focuses on the period from 1992 to 2007 to see if a mitigation of the growing economic disparity projected per the…

  2. Paying your marketers--properly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elizabeth Zink

    2003-09-01

    Home health agencies have more freedom to market their services since the implementation of the prospective payment system. In order to do that, a number of agencies have turned to marketing professionals for help. A common method of compensating marketers in the business world, however, is through payment for referrals--something expressly forbidden by federal statute. Home health agencies need to know what they can and can't do to pay marketers and must train their marketers on the federal anti-kickback regulations to assure their compliance.

  3. Farmers' willingness to pay for less health risks by pesticide use: A case study from the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2015-10-15

    The amount of pesticides used in crop production in Pakistan has increased rapidly in the last decades, whereas farmers in many areas of the country show little knowledge of safe and efficient use of pesticides. The level of willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding health risks by pesticides was studied among 318 randomly selected cotton farmers from two districts of the area of Punjab (i.e., Vehari and Lodhran) in Pakistan, using the contingent valuation method. Most farmers felt that pesticide use is a prerequisite for successful cotton production, whereas at the same time they were well aware of pesticide health risks, which they considered minor. The majority of the farmers (77%) showed varying levels of WTP some fee up to 20% of the current pesticide expenditures for avoiding pesticide health risks, but few were willing to pay a fee over 20%. The mean WTP per farmer was low, reaching 5.8 $US on an annual basis. By contrast, a considerable proportion of the farmers (23%) were not willing to pay any fee for avoiding pesticide health risks. These individuals were mostly poor small-scale farmers with limited or no education. High levels of risk perception about pesticides, past experience of pesticide intoxication, high levels of education, and high income were associated with high farmers' WTP for less health risks by pesticides. Farmers who perceived major health risks by pesticides appeared to be highly willing to pay a premium for safe pesticides. Elderly farmers appeared more likely to pay some premium for safe pesticides as a result of higher farming experience and higher income than young farmers. Well-educated farmers were more likely to pay a high premium for safe pesticides. Large farm size was a significant predictor of positive WTP, which was interpreted as an indicator of farmers' wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Can renewable energy be financed with higher electricity prices? Evidence from a Spanish region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, Azucena; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Pérez y Pérez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the willingness to pay for mix of renewable sources of electric power by means of a discrete choice experiment survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Two main categories of power supply attributes are explored: source of renewable power (wind, solar and biomass) and the origin of such power. The findings suggest that most consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the shares of renewable in their electricity mix. For two of the three renewable sources considered (wind and biomass) an increase of the renewable mix would require a discount. Instead, we record positive willing to pay for increases in the share of both solar power and locally generated power. However, preferences for types of renewable (solar and wind) are found to be heterogeneous. By classifying respondents in two groups according to the implied importance of the share of renewable sources in their power mix we identify a market segment consisting of 20% of respondents that could promote renewable energy in the absence of subsidies. This is because such a segment shows willingness to pay higher than the current feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the WTP for different renewable electricity sources in a Aragon. ► Average positive WTP is found for only some renewable sources. ► Specific market segments are willing to pay for specific renewable sources. ► Geographical origin is more important than renewable source.

  5. Public sector pay in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Jonathan; Emmerson, Carl; Sibieta, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This report looks at trends in public sector pay and compares these with what has been happening in the private sector. We start by analysing the overall levels of public and private sector pay, including how they have evolved over recent years and the differences after accounting for the different composition of the public and private sector workforces. We then examine how the difference between pay in the public and private sector varies across different groups of workers and areas of the c...

  6. Lousy Pay with Lousy Conditions:The Role of Occupational Desegregation in Explaining the UK Gender Pay and Work Intensity Gaps.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindley, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The UK gender pay gap has fallen by around 7 % during the 2000s. This is partly due to occupational desegregation, but largely due to a closing of the within-occupational gender pay gap. The paper finds that men are more likely than women to be employed in jobs that require working to tight deadlines. These jobs are associated with higher pay and the gender difference arises entirely as a consequence of such occupations being over-represented in male dominated industrial sectors. However, the...

  7. The effectiveness of peer mentoring in promoting a positive transition to higher education for first-year undergraduate students: a mixed methods systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Jean; McGaughey, Jennifer

    2016-04-22

    The global transfer of nursing and midwifery education to higher education institutes has led to student nurses and midwives experiencing challenges previously faced by traditional third-level students, including isolation, loneliness, financial difficulties and academic pressure. These challenges can contribute to increased stress and anxiety levels which may be detrimental to the successful transition to higher education, thus leading to an increase in attrition rates. Peer mentoring as an intervention has been suggested to be effective in supporting students in the transition to third-level education through enhancing a sense of belongingness and improving student satisfaction, engagement and retention rates. This proposed systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of peer mentoring in enhancing levels of student engagement, sense of belonging and overall satisfaction of first-year undergraduate students following transition into higher education. MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases will be searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies on the implementation of peer assessment strategies in higher education institutes (HEIs) or universities for full-time, first-year adult students (>17 years). Included studies will be limited to the English language. The quality of included studies will be assessed using a validated Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The findings will be presented as a narrative synthesis or meta-analysis as appropriate following sequential explanatory synthesis. The review will provide clear, non-biased evidence-based guidance to all third-level educators on the effectiveness of peer-mentoring programmes for first-year undergraduates. The review is necessary to help establish which type of peer mentoring is most effective. The evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies drawn from the international literature will be utilised to illustrate the best way

  8. Informal Versus Formal Search : Which Yields a Better Pay?

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Tumen

    2015-01-01

    Estimates on the effect of job contact method – i.e., informal versus formal search – on wage offers vary considerably across studies, with some of them finding a positive correlation between getting help from informal connections and obtaining high-paying jobs, while others finding a negative one. In this paper, I theoretically investigate the sources of discrepancies in these empirical results. Using a formal job search framework, I derive an equilibrium wage distribution which reveals that...

  9. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap: Pay Expectations for Self, Others, and Perceptions of "Fair Pay."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip D.; Jackson, Linda A.

    This study was conducted to investigate the pay expectations of graduating seniors, and specifically, the relationship between gender and pay expectations for one's self and others. The main purpose of the study was to determine if women and men differed in their initial pay expectations. Surveys were received from 447 college seniors, including…

  10. Assessment of willingness to pay for improved air quality using contingent valuation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhtar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and severe air quality deterioration in Pakistan have increased citizens’s concern towards air pollution. This study, conducted in November, 2016, aimed to develop relationship between degraded air quality and resident’s willingness to pay for improved air quality in city of Lahore, Pakistan through contingent valuation method to quantify an individual’s willingness to pay for improved air quality. Hypothetical market was created and 250 respondents, selected through random sampling, were asked to respond to pre tested questionnaire. Results revealed that 92.5% of respondents showed positive willingness to pay and average predicted willingness to pay by each person was $9.86 per month. Respondents were willing to pay $118 per year which was 1.27% of their mean monthly income. Stepwise regression model was used to develop relationship between independent variables and willingness to pay. Most parameters accompanied by econometric analysis elaborated expected results. Results disclosed that annual household income, symptoms of respiratory diseases and self observed air pollution pointedly impact willingness to pay. It is concluded that despite of the fact that Pakistan is among the lower income countries with no rigid budget allocation for improvement in air quality, people of Pakistan are willing to pay to reduce air pollution load. One of the factor which effected the positivity of willingness to pay is that, a quite large number of people were suffering from pollution related respiratory disorders like asthma, chronic bronchitis, wheezing, cough, and chest congestion. Only 7.5% of respondents were not interested to pay for improved air quality which reported unconcerned attitude and lack of environmental awareness.

  11. Willingness to Pay for Home-Based Rehabilitation Service Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Wan, Xia; Pang, Yajuan; Zhou, Lanshu

    2018-06-18

    This study aims to investigate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a home-based rehabilitation service and explore the influencing factors of WTP among older adults in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method was conducted by face-to-face survey over 3 months. Only 242 (44%) participants were willing to pay for a home-based rehabilitation service. The median amount they were willing to pay was RMB 8 (US$1.15) per visit. Older adults who had higher monthly income, had at least one partner who worked, and had medical insurance were willing to pay more for the service. Older adults showed low WTP for a home-based rehabilitation service. Economic status and health condition are the significant influencing factors of WTP. Studies on recipients' precise needs and ability to pay are required before home-based services are implemented.

  12. Willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.

  13. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  14. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  15. Are women positive for the One Step but negative for the Two Step screening tests for gestational diabetes at higher risk for adverse outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissutti, Claudia; Khalifeh, Adeeb; Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if women meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the One Step test as per International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not by other less strict criteria have adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with GDM-negative controls. The primary outcome was the incidence of macrosomia, defined as birthweight > 4000 g. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until May 2017. All studies identifying pregnant women negative at the Two Step test, but positive at the One Step test for IADPSG criteria were included. We excluded studies that randomized women to the One Step vs. the Two Step tests; studies that compared different criteria within the same screening method; randomized studies comparing treatments for GDM; and studies comparing incidence of GDM in women doing the One Step test vs. the Two Step test. Eight retrospective cohort studies, including 29 983 women, were included. Five study groups and four control groups were identified. The heterogeneity between the studies was high. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, as well as in some analyses cesarean delivery, macrosomia and preterm birth, were significantly more frequent, and small for gestational age in some analyses significantly less frequent, in women GDM-positive by the One Step, but not the Two Step. Women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, compared with GDM-negative controls. Based on these findings, and evidence from other studies that treatment decreases these adverse outcomes, we suggest screening for GDM using the One Step IADPSG criteria. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a "team". This ...

  17. Large-scale energy consumers pay less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denneman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl

  18. Expecting Too Much of Performance Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…

  19. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  20. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...

  1. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  2. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 211.4 Section 211.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be...

  3. 20 CFR 211.11 - Miscellaneous pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous pay. 211.11 Section 211.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.11 Miscellaneous pay. Any payment made to an employee by an employer which is...

  4. Households' willingness to pay for public housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of price controls, nonmarket housing allocation mechanisms such as queueing prevent households from revealing their marginal willingness to pay for housing through market prices. We derive the households' marginal willingness to pay using the intuitive idea that the length of the

  5. Performance Pay for Teachers: Determinants and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Heywood, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and evidence on performance-related pay for teaching remain inconclusive. Teachers will respond to rewards, but an appropriate reward structure may not be devised because education is a collaborative endeavor. Here we test three hypotheses: performance-related pay among teachers is more likely to be observed when there are evident…

  6. 20 CFR 404.1805 - Paying benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying benefits. 404.1805 Section 404.1805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Payment Procedures § 404.1805 Paying benefits. (a) As soon as possible after we have made a determination...

  7. Willingness to pay for renewable electricity: A contingent valuation study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiurui; Liu, Haifeng; Mao, Xianqiang; Jin, Jianjun; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2014-01-01

    In China, renewable/green electricity, which can provide significant environmental benefits in addition to meeting energy demand, has more non-use value than use-value for electricity consumers, because its users have no way to actually own this use-value. To assess the value of renewable electricity and obtain information on consumer preferences, this study estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of Beijing residents for renewable electricity by employing the contingent valuation method (CVM) and identified the factors which affect their WTP. The survey randomly selected 700 participants, of which 571 questionnaires were valid. Half of respondents were found to have positive WTP for renewable electricity. The average WTP of Beijing residents for renewable electricity is estimated to be 2.7–3.3 US$ (18.5–22.5CNY) per month. The main factors affecting the WTP of the respondents included income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. Knowledge of and a positive attitude towards renewable energy also resulted in the relatively higher willingness of a respondent to pay for renewable electricity. The proportion of respondents replying “yes” to WTP questions using a mandatory payment vehicle was slightly higher than that for questions using a voluntary vehicle. Lastly, several policy implications of this study are presented. - Highlights: • Most (54%) of respondents in Beijing have positive WTP to renewable electricity. • The average WTP for renewable electricity ranges from 2.7 to 3.3 US$ monthly. • The main factors affecting the WTP include income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. • Deployment of renewable electricity can cause considerable benefit

  8. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Premium Pay § 9901.364 Foreign language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid...

  9. 41 CFR 301-54.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.2 What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is your..., etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay you receive from your agency, e.g., basic pay...

  10. 5 CFR 870.204 - Annual rates of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual rates of pay. 870.204 Section 870... rates of pay. (a) (1) An insured employee's annual pay is his/her annual rate of basic pay as fixed by law or regulation. (2) Annual pay for this purpose includes the following: (i) Interim geographic...

  11. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  12. 33 CFR 52.71 - Authority to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to pay. 52.71 Section... § 52.71 Authority to pay. (a) The Coast Guard is authorized to pay the claims of any person as the... authorized to pay any claim heretofore compensated by Congress through enactment of private law, or to pay...

  13. Pay Equity Act (No. 34 of 1987), 29 June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Ontario, Canada's 1987 Pay Equity Act. The Act seeks to redress systemic gender discrimination in compensation for work performed by employees in "female job classes" and applies to all private sector employers in Ontario with 10 or more employees, all public sector employers, and the employees of applicable employers. The Act continues to apply even if an employer subsequently reduces the number of employees below 10. The Act calls for identification of systemic gender discrimination in compensation through comparisons between female job classes and male job classes in terms of compensation and value of work performed, which is a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility normally required. Pay equity is deemed achieved when the job rate for the female job class is at least equal to the rate for a male job class in the same establishment. If there is no male job class to use for comparison, pay equity is achieved when the female job rate is at least equal to the job rate of a male job class in the same establishment that, at the time of comparison, had a higher job rate while performing work of lower value than the female job class. Differences in compensation between a female and a male job class are allowed if they result from a formal seniority system that does not discriminate on basis of gender, a temporary training or development assignment equally available to males and females, a specified merit compensation plan, actions taken as the result of a gender-neutral reevaluation process, or a skills shortage leading to a temporary inflation in compensation. Pay equity will not be achieved by reducing any employee's compensation. The Act establishes a Pay Equity Commission to oversee implementation.

  14. Willingness To Pay for Social Health Insurance in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Mehrara, Mohsen; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Moeini, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The substantial level of out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by the population causes policy makers to draw particular attention to the proposal of a social health insurance for uninsured members of the community. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness To Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable social health insurance. Method: The study sample included 300 household heads in all Iranian provinces. The double bounded dichotomous choice approach was used to elicit the WTP. Result: The average WTP for social health insurance per person per month was 137 000 Rial (5.5 $US). Household heads with higher levels of education, income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. Conclusions: From a policy point of view, the WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. An important finding of this study is that although households’ Willingness To Pay is not more than the total insurance premium, households are willing to pay more than the premium they ought to pay for health insurance coverage. That is, total insurance premium is 150 000 Rials and households ought to pay approximately half of this sum. This can afford policy makers the ideal opportunity to provide good insurance coverage for medical services according to the need of society. PMID:25168979

  15. Positioning end-of-life care education within the pre-registration therapeutic radiography curriculum: A survey of current practices amongst UK higher education institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: It is essential that all health professionals who come into contact with patients with terminal diagnoses are equipped to effectively and competently provide end of life care. This study aims to investigate the manner in which Higher Education Institutions address this requirement with their programmes of pre-registration therapeutic radiography education. Method: A structured survey was administered electronically to all UK universities with responsibility for therapeutic radiography education. The scope of the survey addressed mode and duration of end of life care education, its location, curricular assessment, identifiable barriers and best practice. Results: All respondents confirmed the presence of dedicated end of life care education within their curriculum. Variation in the duration and location of this education is reported as are approaches to assessment of associated skills and knowledge. Analysis of respondent commentary has identified three themes-preparedness for the clinical role, dissonance between technology and care, and holistic approaches to course design. Conclusion: Respondents have highlighted the importance of end of life care instruction with their programmes of study and identified aspects of the mode and duration of its delivery. Inclusion of this aspect of study may be problematic in the face of competing demands arising from the volume and complexity of the curriculum. Practical experience of end of life care predominantly occurs within the radiotherapy department, although there is scope to explore opportunities within the hospice and community care setting. - Highlights: • Effective end of life care training within radiotherapy radiography programmes is necessary. • Universities confirm the inclusion of end of life care training in their curriculum. • Variations in contact time and mode of delivery are reported. • The majority of end of life care practice experience is gained within the radiotherapy department. • Wider

  16. Podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblast recruitment within cancer stroma is associated with a higher number of single nucleotide variants in cancer cells in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Shoko; Mimaki, Sachiyo; Ichikawa, Tomohiro; Aokage, Keiju; Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Masato; Kojima, Motohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Ishii, Genichiro

    2018-05-01

    Podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an essential role in tumor progression. However, it is still unclear whether specific genomic alterations of cancer cells are required to recruit podoplanin-positive CAFs. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the mutation status of lung adenocarcinoma cells and the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs. Ninety-seven lung adenocarcinomas for which whole exome sequencing data were available were enrolled. First, we analyzed the clinicopathological features of the cases, and then, evaluated the relationship between genetic features of cancer cells (major driver mutations and the number of single nucleotide variants, SNVs) and the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs. The presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs was associated with smoking history, solid predominant subtype, and lymph node metastasis. We could not find any significant correlations between major genetic mutations (EGFR, KRAS, TP53, MET, ERBB2, BRAF, and PIC3CA) in cancer cells and the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs. However, cases with podoplanin-positive CAFs had a significantly higher number of SNVs in cancer cells than the podoplanin-negative CAFs cases (median 84 vs 37, respectively; p = 0.001). This was also detected in a non-smoker subgroup (p = 0.037). Multivariate analyses revealed that the number of SNVs in cancer cells was the only statistically significant independent predictor for the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs (p = 0.044). In lung adenocarcinoma, the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs was associated with higher numbers of SNVs in cancer cells, suggesting a relationship between accumulations of SNVs in cancer cells and the generation of a tumor-promoting microenvironment.

  17. Hospital staffing and local pay: an investigation into the impact of local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay on the staffing of hospitals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Delattre, Eric; Elliott, Bob; Skåtun, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Spatial wage theory suggests that employers in different regions may offer different pay rates to reflect local amenities and cost of living. Higher wages may be required to compensate for a less pleasant environment or a higher cost of living. If wages in a competing sector within an area are less flexible and therefore less competitive this may lead to an inability to employ staff. This paper considers the market for nursing staff in France where there is general regulation of wages and public hospitals compete for staff with the private hospital and non-hospital sectors. We consider two types of nursing staff, registered and assistant nurses and first establish the degree of spatial variation in the competitiveness of pay of nurses in public hospitals. We then consider whether these spatial variations are associated with variation in the employment of nursing staff. We find that despite regulation of pay in the public and private sector, there are substantial local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay. We find evidence that the spatial variations in the competitiveness of pay are associated with relative numbers of assistant nurses but not registered nurses. While we find the influence of the competitiveness of pay is small, it suggests that nonpay conditions may be an important factor in adjusting the labour market as might be expected in such a regulated market.

  18. An Examination of Pay Facets and Referent Groups for Assessing Pay Satisfaction of Male Elementary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Young, Karen Holsey; Okhremtchouk, Irina; Castaneda, Jose Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Pay satisfaction was assessed according to different facets (pay level, benefits, pay structure, and pay raises) and potential referent groups (teachers and elementary school principals) for a random sample of male elementary school principals. A structural model approach was used that considers facets of the pay process, potential others as…

  19. Choosing an Oronasal Mask to Deliver Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Cause More Upper Airway Obstruction or Lead to Higher Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Requirements than a Nasal Mask in Some Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Justin R; Aiyappan, Vinod; Mercer, Jeremy; Catcheside, Peter G; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick

    2016-09-15

    The choice of mask interface used with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can affect the control of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe a case series of four patients with paradoxical worsening of UAO with an oronasal mask and the effect of changing to a nasal mask. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of 4 patients and recorded patient demographics, in-laboratory and ambulatory CPAP titration data, CPAP therapy data, type of mask interface used and potential confounding factors. The 4 cases (mean ± SD: age = 59 ± 16 y; BMI = 30.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) had a high residual apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) (43 ± 14.2 events/h) and high CPAP pressure requirements (14.9 ± 6.6 cmH2O) with an oronasal mask. Changing to a nasal mask allowed adequate control of UAO with a significant reduction in the average residual AHI (3.1 ± 1.5 events/h). In two of the four cases, it was demonstrated that control of UAO was obtained at a much lower CPAP pressure compared to the oronasal mask (Case one = 17.5 cmH2O vs 12cmH2O; Case two = 17.9 cmH2O vs 7.8 cmH2O). Other potential confounding factors were unchanged. There are various physiological observations that may explain these findings but it is uncertain which individuals are susceptible to these mechanisms. If patients have OSA incompletely controlled by CPAP with evidence of residual UAO and/or are requiring surprisingly high CPAP pressure to control OSA with an oronasal mask, the choice of mask should be reviewed and consideration be given to a trial of a nasal mask. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. The New Urban Success: How Culture Pays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Hristova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban economists have put forward the idea that cities that are culturally interesting tend to attract “the creative class” and, as a result, end up being economically successful. Yet it is still unclear how economic and cultural dynamics mutually influence each other. By contrast, that has been extensively studied in the case of individuals. Over decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed that people's success and their positions in society mainly depend on how much they can spend (their economic capital and what their interests are (their cultural capital. For the first time, we adapt Bourdieu's framework to the city context. We operationalize a neighborhood's cultural capital in terms of the cultural interests that pictures geo-referenced in the neighborhood tend to express. This is made possible by the mining of what users of the photo-sharing site of Flickr have posted in the cities of London and New York over 5 years. In so doing, we are able to show that economic capital alone does not explain urban development. The combination of cultural capital and economic capital, instead, is more indicative of neighborhood growth in terms of house prices and improvements of socio-economic conditions. Culture pays, but only up to a point as it comes with one of the most vexing urban challenges: that of gentrification.

  1. The New Urban Success: How Culture Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Desislava; Aiello, Luca M.; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-04-01

    Urban economists have put forward the idea that cities that are culturally interesting tend to attract `the creative class' and, as a result, end up being economically successful. Yet it is still unclear how economic and cultural dynamics mutually influence each other. By contrast, that has been extensively studied in the case of individuals. Over decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed that people's success and their positions in society mainly depend on how much they can spend (their economic capital) and what their interests are (their cultural capital). For the first time, we adapt Bourdieu's framework to the city context. We operationalize a neighborhood's cultural capital in terms of the cultural interests that pictures geo-referenced in the neighborhood tend to express. This is made possible by the mining of what users of the photo-sharing site of Flickr have posted in the cities of London and New York City over five years. In so doing, we are able to show that cultural capital rather than economic capital is more indicative of neighborhood growth in terms of house prices and improvements of socio-economic conditions. Culture pays, but only up to a point. Cultural capital also comes with one of the most vexing urban challenges: that of gentrification.

  2. Consumers’ willingness to pay for health benefits in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona

    2018-01-01

    . Hypothetical methods significantly positively affect MWTP. The most popular product category “dairy” negatively influences MWTP. The popular health claim of “lowering cholesterol” has a significantly positive influence on MWTP. In addition, our review highlights that existing studies significantly differ......This article analyzes the existing literature on consumers’ marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for health benefits in food products. Results indicate that the presence of a health claim does not only increase MWTP for health benefits in foods but also reduces heterogeneity among MWTP estimates...

  3. Public sector pay gap in Serbia during large-scale privatisation, by educational qualification

    OpenAIRE

    Laušev Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effect of large-scale privatization of public sector activities on public-private sector pay differential, for groups of workers according to educational qualification on average and across the pay distribution in Serbia, from 2004 until 2008. The paper finds that both unskilled and skilled men and women in the public sector saw significant improvements in their financial position relative to their private sector counterparts with the progress of the economic tran...

  4. Tackling the take-or-pay problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Kim.

    1997-01-01

    Centrica, the gas sales, trading and services company previously part of British Gas plc, has renegotiated a number of its take-or-pay contracts with North Sea gas producers since the end of 1996. The contracts - a legacy of the British Gas monopoly era - had placed an increasing financial burden on the company as it was effectively forced to pay above-market prices for gas which it did not always want to take, while trying to remain competitive in a market where an ever growing number of independent gas suppliers were offering low-cost supplies. The author looks at how Centrica has tackled its take-or-pay problem. (author)

  5. Bridging the gender pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-31

    Nursing may be a largely female profession, but men are vastly overrepresented in senior positions. Experts say the NHS has to take action to correct the huge gender imbalance - and female nurses need to learn how to help themselves.

  6. Pay Equal, But Not Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Liz

    1978-01-01

    Women librarians in Great Britain are struggling to eliminate the historical bias against married women continuing to work. Also, while the number of women working in libraries has increased, the number in top positions has decreased. (JAB)

  7. Social Attitudes on Gender Equality and Firms' Discriminatory Pay-Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Simon; Tuor Sartore, Simone N.; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between social attitudes on gender equality and firms' pay-setting behavior by combining information about regional votes relative to gender equality laws with a large data set of multi-branch firms and workers. The results show that multi-branch firms pay more discriminatory wages in branches located in regions with a higher social acceptance of gender inequality than in branches located in regions with a lower acceptance. The results are similar for different sub...

  8. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  9. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  10. Performance Related Pay and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; van Ours, Jan C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  11. The Impact of "Tuition-Paying" Policy on Retention and Graduation Rates at the University of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Francis

    2013-01-01

    African universities over the past decade have developed new modes of financial mobilization in search for fiscal solutions to the declining public support for higher education. The creation of the "tuition-paying" ("dual track" or "fee-paying") admission track policy, a variant of cost sharing, is one of such…

  12. Person-based differences in pay reactions: A compensation-activation theory and integrative conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Ingrid Smithey; Shaw, Jason D

    2018-06-07

    Compensation research has focused traditionally on how pay design characteristics (e.g., pay level, individual or group incentives) relate to average employee outcomes and, in toto, on how these outcomes affect organizational performance. Recently, scholars have begun to pay more attention to how individuals vary in the strength of their reactions to pay. Empirical research in several disciplines examines how the interplay of pay systems and person-based characteristics (psychological individual differences, demographics, and relative performance or position in a group) relate to important work-related outcomes. We develop a compensation-activation theory that frames compensation design characteristics as workplace "situations" providing cues that activate individuals' corresponding fundamental social motives made salient due to chronic or transient person-based characteristics. Where activation occurs, stronger-than-average responses to the compensation "situation" are expected. Using the theory as a lens, we synthesize and reinterpret existing research on person-based reactions to pay characteristics, including sorting, incentive/motivational effects, and effects on collective pay system reactions and unit/organizational outcomes. We conclude with a research agenda aimed at refining compensation-activation theory and advancing the study of compensation as it affects individual and organizational outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Wrohlich, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male dominated professions. This is one of the reasons for the gender pay gap. However, there are also large differences in earnings between men and women within occupations. These profession-specific gender pay gaps are smaller in professions with a high proportion of employees in the public sector. This finding indicat...

  14. Do discriminatory pay regimes unleash antisocial behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how pay-regime procedures affect antisocial behavior at the workplace. In a real-effort experiment we vary two determinants of pay regimes: discrimination and justification of payments by performance. In our Discrimination treatment half of the workforce is randomly selected and promoted and participate in a tournament (high-income workers) whereas the other half receives no payment (lowincome workers). Afterwards, antisocial behavior is measured by a Joy-of-Destruct...

  15. Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    works (Barr, 2007d). Employees are rated on performance measures such as “fair and equitable treatment of taxpayers” and “customer satisfaction ... Performance Act of 2007, Senate bill 1046, Washington, D.C., 2007b. 38 Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance Vroom , Victor H...AND SUBTITLE Modernizing the federal government paying for performance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  16. Wage compression and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2015-01-01

    There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...

  17. Ability and Willingness to Pay Premium in the Framework of National Health Insurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Abdillah Ramadhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Health Insurance is one of the government’s efforts to improve community access to health services. The government has fixed the premiums to be paid by community, except for underprivileged community. The aim of the study was to identify Ability to Pay (ATP and Willingness to Pay (WTP of the national health insurance premium. Methods: A descriptive study which involved 210 housewives who were chosen by rapid survey method was conducted from September to November 2013 in Cipacing village, Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java. Data collection was using questionnaire to obtain level of ability and willingness to pay the health insurance premium. The results were compared to the required premium by the government (Rp 22,000,-. Results: Most of the respondents were only housewives, but there were still respondents who were private workers. Most of them were 20–39 years old. About 57.6% of the respondents were able to pay for the required premium, but Only 17.4% of the them were willing to pay according to the required premium. Conclusions: The ATP of the respondents are higher compared to the WTP, meaning that most of the respondents are able to pay the requires premium but are not willing to pay it.

  18. Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Using Super Twisting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafiq Mufti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent problem of chattering in traditional sliding mode control is harmful for practical application of control system. This paper pays a considerable attention to a chattering-free control method, that is, higher-order sliding mode (super twisting algorithm. The design of a position controller for switched reluctance motor is presented and its stability is assured using Lyapunov stability theorem. In order to highlight the advantages of higher-order sliding mode controller (HOSMC, a classical first-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC is also applied to the same system and compared. The simulation results reflect the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  19. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  20. Cost sharing and hereditary cancer risk: predictors of willingness-to-pay for genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matro, Jennifer M; Ruth, Karen J; Wong, Yu-Ning; McCully, Katen C; Rybak, Christina M; Meropol, Neal J; Hall, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Increasing use of predictive genetic testing to gauge hereditary cancer risk has been paralleled by rising cost-sharing practices. Little is known about how demographic and psychosocial factors may influence individuals' willingness-to-pay for genetic testing. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Risk Assessment Program Registry includes individuals presenting for genetic risk assessment based on personal/family cancer history. Participants complete a baseline survey assessing cancer history and psychosocial items. Willingness-to-pay items include intention for: genetic testing only if paid by insurance; testing with self-pay; and amount willing-to-pay ($25-$2,000). Multivariable models examined predictors of willingness-to-pay out-of-pocket (versus only if paid by insurance) and willingness-to-pay a smaller versus larger sum (≤$200 vs. ≥$500). All statistical tests are two-sided (α = 0.05). Of 385 evaluable participants, a minority (42%) had a personal cancer history, while 56% had ≥1 first-degree relative with colorectal cancer. Overall, 21.3% were willing to have testing only if paid by insurance, and 78.7% were willing-to-pay. Predictors of willingness-to-pay were: 1) concern for positive result; 2) confidence to control cancer risk; 3) fewer perceived barriers to colorectal cancer screening; 4) benefit of testing to guide screening (all p testing (all p testing, and anticipate benefits to reducing cancer risk. Identifying factors associated with willingness-to-pay for genetic services is increasingly important as testing is integrated into routine cancer care.

  1. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.; Jones, R.M.

    2012-08-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  2. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  3. Academic Pay in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.

    2012-01-01

    In its recent (2011) communication “Supporting Growth and Jobs—an agenda for the Modernisation of Europe’s Higher Education Systems,” the European Commission has once again urged Europe’s universities to reform their human-resources policies—to increase the autonomy of the universities in this

  4. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  5. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372 Creating initial pay ranges. (a) DHS must, after coordination with OPM, set the initial band rate ranges for the...

  6. 5 CFR 304.104 - Determining rate of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining rate of pay. 304.104 Section... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and... appropriate rate of basic pay on an hourly or daily basis, subject to the limitations described in section 304...

  7. 28 CFR 545.25 - Eligibility for performance pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for performance pay. 545.25... WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.25 Eligibility for performance pay. (a) An inmate may receive performance pay for accomplishments in one or more of the following areas...

  8. 75 FR 81817 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Order 13561 of December 22, 2010 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as..., it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Continuing... ``Continuing Appropriations Act''), the rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined...

  9. 41 CFR 301-76.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is the part of the employee's compensation remaining after the... deductions such as savings bonds, charitable contributions, etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay...

  10. 78 FR 80451 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... of Pay By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S...

  11. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers for FPI may also receive Inmate Performance Pay for participation in programs where this award is made...

  12. Performance Pay and Teacher Motivation: Separating Myth from Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on research from outside of education to evaluate some common myths about performance pay and to consider future directions for designing and evaluating performance pay systems in K-12 education. The five common myths surrounding performance pay include: (1) Performance pay systems improve performance; (2) Performance pay…

  13. 5 CFR 532.507 - Pay for holiday work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid the...

  14. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such adjustments take effect on the 1st day of the first pay period... basic pay that equals or exceeds the applicant's highest previous Federal rate of basic pay, not to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930...

  15. Gender Pay Gaps and the Restructuring of Graduate Labour Markets in Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Hugo; Rocha, Vera; Biscaia, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate whether education-job mismatches and growing occupational diversity are important explanatory factors of gender pay gaps amongst university graduates in Southern Europe (namely in Portugal, Spain, and Italy). We use standard decomposition techniques and test...... that occupational assignment and selection into employment shape gender pay gaps amongst the highly skilled provides a more pessimistic view on the ability of educational expansion or equal pay legislation to significantly reduce gender pay inequality. Southern European economies are also particularly interesting...... to look at since there may be a greater degree of mismatch between the pace of higher education expansion and the changes in the job structure, making women particularly vulnerable to over-education....

  16. An experimental study in consumers' willingness-to-pay for an irradiated meat product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giamalva, J.N.; Bailey, W.C.; Redfern, M.

    1997-01-01

    In a nonhypothetical laboratory experiment, participants were willing to pay an average of $0.71 for the right to exchange a typical meat sandwich for a sandwich irradiated to eliminate the potential risk of foodborne bacteria. Forty-one of sixty participants (68.3%) were willing to pay some positive amount. Tobit analysis was used in order to allow for the fact that Willingness To Pay (WTP) was censored at zero. WTP was interpreted as the demand for irradiation to control foodborne disease. A positive WTP was interpreted as acceptance of irradiation. The aggregated WTP greatly exceeds the estimated direct costs of foodborne disease, and the estimated costs of irradiation for many food products. There was a positive relationship between WTP and the perceived risk of foodborne disease, and a negative relationship between WTP and years of education

  17. Shareholder voice on executive pay : A decade of Dutch say on pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, Christoph; Lafarre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands adopted shareholders’ say on pay over a decade ago. The general meeting of shareholders must approve the remuneration policy and any amendments to it. This Dutch approach offers fruitful insights into how say on pay works in practice. In the light of the recent European proposal to

  18. Who pays for job training?

    OpenAIRE

    Anurag N Banerjee; Parantap Basu

    2011-01-01

    An optimal education subsidy formula is derived using an overlapping generations model with parental altruism. The model predicts that public education subsidy is greater in economies with lesser parental altruism because a benevolent government has to compensate for the shortfall in private education spending of less altruistic parents with a finite life. On the other hand, growth is higher in economies with greater parental altruism. Cross-country regressions using the World Values Survey f...

  19. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M.; Parsons, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic 'green energy' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources

  20. Antecedents of willingness to pay for green products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, S. I.; Pratomo, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine whether there is a positive influence of pro-environmental behavior and environmental locus of control toward the willingness to pay for green products. The data obtained by distributing online and offline questionnaires, reaching 419 respondents of 18 to ≥55 years old that have the knowledge and already bought a green product. The purposive sampling was used as the sampling technique, and the data were tested by Statistical Equation Modeling (SEM).The results show that environmental locus of control does not positively affect pro-environmental behavior. However, the environmental locus of control and pro-environmental behavior do have a positive influence on the willingness to pay. Based on the findings, it is essential for green product companies to improve customers’ pro-environmental behavior and environmental locus of control. To do so, the marketer of green products should increase consumers’ concern, awareness, and behavior of conserving nature through activities such as campaigns and demonstrations.

  1. 5 CFR 9901.305 - Rate of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rate of pay. 9901.305 Section 9901.305... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration General § 9901.305 Rate of pay. (a) The term “rate of pay” in 5 U.S.C... overtime and other premium pay rates (including compensatory time off); and (2) The rates comprising the...

  2. Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work

    OpenAIRE

    Rubery, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...

  3. Lung recruitability is better estimated according to the Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome at standard 5 cm H2O rather than higher positive end-expiratory pressure: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caironi, Pietro; Carlesso, Eleonora; Cressoni, Massimo; Chiumello, Davide; Moerer, Onner; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Brioni, Matteo; Bottino, Nicola; Lazzerini, Marco; Bugedo, Guillermo; Quintel, Michael; Ranieri, V Marco; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome has introduced three classes of severity according to PaO2/FIO2 thresholds. The level of positive end-expiratory pressure applied may greatly affect PaO2/FIO2, thereby masking acute respiratory distress syndrome severity, which should reflect the underlying lung injury (lung edema and recruitability). We hypothesized that the assessment of acute respiratory distress syndrome severity at standardized low positive end-expiratory pressure may improve the association between the underlying lung injury, as detected by CT, and PaO2/FIO2-derived severity. Retrospective analysis. Four university hospitals (Italy, Germany, and Chile). One hundred forty-eight patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference criteria. Patients underwent a three-step ventilator protocol (at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure). Whole-lung CT scans were obtained at 5 and 45 cm H2O airway pressure. Nine patients did not fulfill acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria of the novel Berlin definition. Patients were then classified according to PaO2/FIO2 assessed at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure. At clinical positive end-expiratory pressure (11±3 cm H2O), patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome had a greater lung tissue weight and recruitability than patients with mild or moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (pBerlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome assessed at 5 cm H2O allows a better evaluation of lung recruitability and edema than at higher positive end-expiratory pressure clinically set.

  4. Laos. Un pays en mutation, Vatthana Pholsena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Bouté

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec un regard neuf et une approche originale que Vatthana Pholsena a relevé le défi d’écrire l’ouvrage Laos. Un pays en mutation, le dernier-né de la collection « Asie Plurielle » (Belin qui a déjà proposé une longue série d’ouvrages de présentation générale des pays d’Asie. Cet ouvrage vient combler un grand manque dans la littérature sur le Laos. Aucun ouvrage généraliste en langue française n’existant jusque-là sur ce petit pays d’Asie du Sud-Est, le lecteur curieux devait se référ...

  5. Measuring the willingness to pay to avoid guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e., consistent with the choice...... distribution) with models estimated using stated beliefs which relax the equilibrium requirement. We estimate WTP in the latter case by allowing stated beliefs to be correlated with guilt aversion, thus controlling for a possible source of a consensus effect. All models are estimated using data from...

  6. Measuring the Willingness to Pay to Avoid Guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemare, Charles; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Strobel, Martin

    We estimate structural models of guilt aversion to measure the population level of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid feeling guilt by letting down another player. We compare estimates of WTP under the assumption that higher-order beliefs are in equilibrium (i.e. consistent with the choice...... distribution) with models estimated using stated beliefs which relax the equilibrium requirement. We estimate WTP in the later case by allowing stated beliefs to be correlated with guilt aversion, thus controlling for a possible source of a consensus effect. All models are estimated using data from...

  7. Social patterns of pay systems and their associations with psychosocial job characteristics and burnout among paid employees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wan-Yu; Cheng, Yawen; Chen, Chiou-Jung

    2009-04-01

    Today, performance-based pay systems, also known as variable pay systems, are commonly implemented in workplaces as a business strategy to improve workers' performance and reduce labor costs. However, their impact on workers' job stress and stress-related health outcomes has rarely been investigated. By utilizing data from a nationally representative sample of paid employees in Taiwan, we examined the distribution of variable pay systems across socio-demographic categories and employment sectors. We also examined the associations of pay systems with psychosocial job characteristics (assessed by Karasek's Demand-Control model) and self-reported burnout status (measured by the Chinese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory). A total of 8906 men and 6382 women aged 25-65 years were studied, and pay systems were classified into three categories, i.e., fixed salary, performance-based pay (with a basic salary), and piece-rated or time-based pay (without a basic salary). Results indicated that in men, 57% of employees were given a fixed salary, 24% were given a performance-based pay, and 19% were remunerated through a piece-rated or time-based pay. In women, the distributions of the 3 pay systems were 64%, 20% and 15%, respectively. Among the three pay systems, employees earning through a performance-based pay were found to have the longest working hours, highest level of job control, and highest percentage of workers who perceived high stress at work. Those remunerated through a piece-rated/time-based pay were found to have the lowest job control, shortest working hours, highest job insecurity, lowest potential for career growth, and lowest job satisfaction. The results of multivariate regression analyses showed that employees earning through performance-based and piece-rated pay systems showed higher scores for personal burnout and work-related burnout, as compared to those who were given fixed salaries, after adjusting for age, education, marital status

  8. The gender pay gap in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Leaker

    2008-01-01

    Measuring differences between mens' and womens' earnings, presents estimates from ASHE, the LFS and the NES panel data setThe gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the earnings of men and women. This article presents estimates of the gender pay gap from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, the Labour Force Survey and the New Earnings Survey panel data set. It examines how different personal and labour market characteristics influence the earnings of men and women.The resul...

  9. Java Card for PayTv Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Pallab

    2013-01-01

    Smart cards are widely used along with PayTV receivers to store secret user keys and to perform security functions to prevent any unauthorized viewing of PayTV channels. Java Card technology enables programs written in the Java programming language to run on smart cards. Smart cards represent one of the smallest computing platforms in use today. The memory configuration of a smart card are of the order of 4K of RAM, 72K of EEPROM, and 24K of ROM. Using Java card provides advantages to the ind...

  10. Pay inequality in 25 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses disparity in women’s pay across 25 European countries using EU-SILC 2005. First, the gender pay gap is examined. Next, the impact of parenthood is analysed. We show that women suffer a wage disadvantage compared with men all over Europe, except for Poland. Motherhood usually reinforces the gender gap but most discrimination is sex-related so that it concerns all women as potential mothers. There is no uniform relationship between the parenthood and the gender wage gap.

  11. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten I.

    We estimate the maximum amount that Danish households are willing to pay for three different types of insurance: auto, home and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from the largest private insurance company in Denmark, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates...... possible states of nature, where all uncertainty is realized in the initial period and any loss incurred by an accident is subtracted from initial wealth. The estimated willingness to pay is based on annual claims and should thus be considered as an annual premium. Since there is some uncertainty about...... of the insurance claims....

  12. CONSUMERS' WILLINGNESS TO PAY MORE FOR ORGANIC FOOD IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration growing concerns about conventional agricultural practices, food safety, human health, animal welfare and the environment, the main goal of this paper is to identify the predictors of consumers' willingness to buy organic food and to pay a premium price for it. The research was conducted on a representative sample of respondents in the Republic of Croatia, a growing organic food market, using a highly structured questionnaire. Research results indicate that respondents in Croatia perceive organic food as more expensive, healthier and tastier than conventional food; also, they believe that the origin of organic food is strictly controlled. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicate that higher monthly household income predicts a greater willingness to pay (WTP a higher price for organic food compared to conventional food. Also, perception of organic food as healthier and tastier than conventional food predicts a greater WTP a higher price for organic food compared to conventional products. It is expected that research results will be useful for food retailers in their market communication strategies towards further development and overall growth of the organic food market in Croatia. This research is one of its kind as it captures WTP a premium price for organic food and identifies the main factors influencing WTP a premium price for organic food on the growing Croatian market.

  13. CLS to higher education administrator: the price they paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzanne; LaCost, Barbara Y

    2010-01-01

    To identify the barriers and/or obstacles these women experienced during their career paths as women clinical laboratory scientists who transitioned to higher education administration. To identify how being a woman influenced their careers as higher education administrators. A multi-site case study design was selected for this qualitative research involving a purposive sample of eight research participants. Data collection was guided by ten open-ended questions in seven face-to-face and one telephone semi-formal interviews. The purposive sample included women clinical laboratory scientists who held a current higher education administrative position at the dean's level, including associate and assistant dean positions, in a university setting. The participants were located in eight higher education institutions in Nebraska, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee, Missouri, and Texas. The price women pay, gender considerations, a need for balance, existence/absence of the glass ceiling for women in higher education administration. Making personal sacrifices, struggling with gender stereotypes, being a woman, knowing you are okay, and possessing the ability to separate the personal from the professional were identified by this group of women as challenging experiences as they obtained and maintained a position as a higher education administrator. Additionally, they described the need for balance, a support system, and how they successfully managed their marriage, family, and career. The participants presented conflicting statements concerning

  14. Willingness to pay for opioid agonist treatment among opioid dependent people who inject drugs in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Iuliia; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Madden, Lynn; Filippovich, Sergii; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-07-01

    In the context of decreasing external and limited Ukrainian governmental funding for opioid agonist treatments (OAT) for opioid dependent people who inject drugs in Ukraine, information on sustainable financial models is needed. Data on 855 opioid dependent people who inject drugs (PWID) were drawn from a cross-sectional nationwide survey of 1613 PWID. They comprised 434 participants who were receiving OAT and 421 who were on OAT in the past or have never been on OAT and were interested in receiving the treatment. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with willingness-to-pay (WTP) for OAT, stratified by OAT experience. Variation in the price which respondents were willing to pay for OAT and its effect on their monthly income among PWID with different OAT experience were assessed as a continuous variable using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test. Overall, 378 (44%) expressed WTP for OAT. Factors independently associated with WTP differed by OAT experience. Among those using OAT, independent predictors of WTP included: city (Dnipro - aOR=1.9; 95%CI=1.1-4.8 and Lviv - (aOR=2.2; 95%CI=1.1-4.8) compared to those elsewhere in Ukraine), higher income (aOR=1.8; 95%CI=1.2-2.7) and receiving psychosocial counseling (aOR=1.8; 95%CI=1.2-2.7). Among those who had previously been on OAT, positive attitude towards OAT (aOR=1.3; 95%CI=1.1-1.6) and family support of OAT (aOR=2.5; 95%CI=1.1-5.7) were independently associated with WTP. Among PWID who had never been on OAT, being male (aOR=2.2; 95%CI=1.1-4.2), younger age (aOR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2-3.2), higher income (aOR=2.0; 95%CI=1.2-3.4) and previous unsuccessful attempts to enter OAT (aOR=2.3; 95%CI=1.1-4.7) were independently associated with WTP. PWID were willing to commit a large percentage of their monthly income for OAT, which, however, varied significantly based on OAT experience: current OAT: 37% of monthly income, previous OAT: 53%, and never OAT: 60% (p-value=0.0009). WTP for OAT was

  15. Willingness to pay for footwear, and associated factors related to podoconiosis in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegay, Girmay; Tamiru, Abreham; Amberbir, Tsige; Davey, Gail; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-09-01

    In Northern Ethiopia, use of footwear by the rural community is limited, and non-governmental organizations provide footwear for school children as a means of preventing podoconiosis. However, this is not a sustainable strategy. This study assessed willingness to pay for footwear among people with and without podoconiosis. A comparative cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in Mecha and Gozamen woredas among randomly selected people with and without podoconiosis. Trained health extension workers collected data using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The data were entered into EPI-Data and exported to SPSS version 16.0 statistical software package for analysis. The willingness to pay for footwear among people with and without podoconiosis was 72.3% and 76.7% respectively (p=0.30). People with podoconiosis in the lower quintiles of economic status were less likely to be willing to pay for footwear than those in the higher quintiles. There is substantial willingness to pay for footwear. The expressed willingness to pay indicates demand for footwear in the community, suggesting an opportunity for shoe companies. There are still a substantial proportion of individuals not willing to pay for footwear. This requires intensified public education and social transformation to bring about change in behavior towards footwear use if elimination of podoconiosis within our generation is to be achieved. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Are you paying too much for that acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G; Lanes, K L; Wilson, T C

    1999-01-01

    Despite 30 years of evidence demonstrating that most acquisitions don't create value for the acquiring company, executives continue to make more deals, and bigger deals, every year. There are plenty of reasons why value isn't created, but many times it's simply because the acquiring company paid too much. It's not, however, that acquirers pay too high a price in an absolute sense. Rather, they pay more than the acquisition is worth to them. What is that optimum price? The authors present a systematic way to arrive at it, involving several distinct concepts of value. In today's market, the purchase price of an acquisition will nearly always be higher than the intrinsic value of the company--the price of its stock before any acquisition intentions are announced. The key is to determine how much of that difference is "synergy value"--the value that will result from improvements made when the companies are combined. This value will accrue to the acquirer's shareholders rather than to the target's shareholders. The more synergy value a particular acquisition can generate, the higher the maximum price an acquirer is justified in paying. Just as important as correctly calculating the synergy value is having the discipline to walk away from a deal when the numbers don't add up. If returns to shareholders from acquisitions are no better in the next ten years than they've been in the past 30, the authors warn, it will be because companies have failed to create systematic corporate governance processes that put their simple lessons into practice.

  17. It pays to be green. A premature conclusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, K.

    2006-01-01

    It has been claimed that good environmental performance can improve firms' economic performance. However, because of e.g. data limitations, the methods applied in most previous quantitative empirical studies on effects of environmental performance on economic performance of firms suffer from several shortcomings. We discuss these shortcomings and conclude that previously applied methods are unsatisfactory as support for a conclusion that it pays for firms to be green. Then we illustrate the consequences of these shortcomings by performing several regression analyses of the effect of environmental performance on economic performance using a panel data set of Norwegian plants. A pooled regression where observable firm characteristics like e.g. size or industry are controlled for, confirms a positive effect of environmental performance on economic performance. However, the estimated positive effect could be due to omitted unobserved variables like management or technology. When the regression model controls for unobserved plant heterogeneity, the effect is generally no longer statistically significant. Hence, although greener plants tend to perform economically better, the analysis provides little support for the claim that it is because they are greener. These empirical findings further indicate that a conclusion that it pays to be green is premature

  18. Can Benford's Law explain CEO pay?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, Shibashish

    2018-01-01

    Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Issue: This study applies the statistical properties of Benford’s Law to CEO pay. Benford’s ‘Law’ states that in an unbiased dataset, the first digit values are usually unequally allocated when considering the logical expectations of equal distribution. In this

  19. The Pays de Gex on the Menu

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Did you know that you can swing from tree to tree like Tarzan (or Jane!) in the brand new forest adventure centre at the Col de la Faucille? And that, in addition to Crozet-Lélex, Mijoux-La Faucille and La Vattay, the Pays de Gex boasts a fourth ski resort at Menthières above Bellegarde-sur-Valserine? All these attractions, and hundreds of others that the Pays de Gex has to offer, were presented at a special exhibition stand in CERN's Restaurant No. 1 last week. For the tenth year running, the Pays de Gex-La Faucille Tourist Office and Geneva's fourteen Coop restaurants had organised a special week devoted to promoting the Pays de Gex-Monts Jura region. Thousands of information leaflets were handed out and visitors had the opportunity to take part in a big raffle with no fewer than 145 prizes to be won: ski passes, Juraventure entrance tickets, meal vouchers courtesy of local hotels and restaurants, and subscriptions to the Val Vital fitness centre in Divonne-les-Bains. The Coop restaur...

  20. Pay for performance in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to an explanation of why pay for performance (PFP) in the public sector has difficulties in functioning properly and why, despite the difficulties, its use is continued. To do so, the paper draws on insights from behavioural economics. The explanation focuses on cognitive...

  1. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  2. 77 FR 11599 - January 2012 Pay Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... definitions can be found at http://www.opm.gov/oca/12tables/locdef.asp . The 2012 locality pay percentages... increased in 2012. The memo is available at http://www.opm.gov/flsa/oca/11tables/Extend_2012.pdf . On.... (See http://www.opm.gov/oca/compmemo/index.asp .) The memorandum transmitted Executive Order 13594 and...

  3. Job Evaluation: Pay Equity Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecham, Robert C.

    It has been hypothesized that current methods of determining pay rates value the characteristics of jobs held primarily by men differently than the characteristics of jobs held primarily by women, resulting in lower earnings for women. A policy capturing approach using numerically rated job characteristics (PAQ data) was applied separately to the…

  4. How to pay in LicenseScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Chong, C.N.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Current DRM systems do not provide flexible payment methods, requiring the user to handle the payment by hand. For instance, when the user needs to pay for watching a movie, she needs to decide which available payment method is the most optimal and suitable. This is a rather cumbersome process for

  5. The Trouble with Pay for Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Structured interviews with 575 administrators and supervisors in 6 school districts finds 8 impediments to school board implementation of an effective merit pay system for these employees: Lack of knowledge, teacher heritage, supervisor's ability, supervisor's motivation, managerial prerogatives, amount of rewards, and type of rewards. Offers…

  6. The case of the unpopular pay plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, T; Coil, M; Berwick, D; Nyberg, T; Beer, M

    1992-01-01

    Three years after launching the team-based Quality For All program, Top Chemical Company CEO Sam Verde was searching for a team-based compensation system that would reflect his company's new philosophy. With a committee gathered to discuss the issue, Verde confronts the fact that changing pay plans is an issue few people can agree on. "Very simply," explains vice president for compensation Gilbert Porterfield, "the plan is designed to give employees working on teams real incentives for constant improvement and overall excellence. The variable aspect of the system pays employees for the performance of their group." This doesn't sit well with the others. "It's going to punish teams like mine for the failings of others instead of rewarding us for the work we do and have already done," says packaging team representative Ruth Gibson. Another committee member feels that team-based anything is a "motivational happy land that doesn't square with how people really work." While Verde likes the proposed pay plan, he has doubts over whether his employees will accept the risk. Upper management has no problem basing 60% of its pay on TopChem's performance. But getting line employees to risk part of their salaries--even as little as 4%--on the ups and downs of the chemical industry may be more trouble than it's worth. Four experts on compensation reveal where Top Chemical went wrong in its plan and how Sam Verde might bring about change successfully.

  7. 32 CFR 728.14 - Pay patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Members of the Uniformed Services on Active Duty § 728.14 Pay patients. Care is provided on a reimbursable basis to: Coast Guard active duty officers...

  8. Teacher-Pay Experiments Mounting Amid Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The debate over linking teacher pay to student test scores that ignited on Capitol Hill recently underscores the growing momentum--and continued controversy--behind tying what teachers earn to what students learn. Both the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers came out swinging against language in a draft bill for…

  9. Willingness to pay for quality of life technologies to enhance independent functioning among baby boomers and the elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R; Matthews, Judith T; Courtney, Karen; Devito Dabbs, Annette; Person Mecca, Laurel; Sankey, Steadman Scott

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of a study designed to assess whether and how much potential individual end users are willing to pay for Quality of Life Technologies (QoLTs) designed to enhance functioning and independence. We carried out a web survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. baby boomers (aged 45-64; N = 416) and older adults (aged 65 and greater, N = 114). Respondents were first instructed to assume that they needed help with kitchen activities/personal care and that technology was available to help with things like meal preparation/dressing, and then they were asked the most they would be willing to pay each month out of pocket for these technologies. We modeled willingness to pay some (72% of respondents) versus none (28%), and the most people were willing to pay. Those willing to pay something were on average willing to pay a maximum of $40.30 and $45.00 per month for kitchen and personal care technology assistance, respectively. Respondents concerned about privacy or who were currently using assistive technology were less willing to pay. Respondents with higher incomes, who were Hispanic, or who perceived a higher likelihood of needing help in the future were more willing to pay. Consumers' willingness to pay out of pocket for technologies to improve their well-being and independence is limited. In order to be widely adopted, QoLTs will have to be highly cost effective so that third party payers such as Medicare and private insurance companies are willing to pay for them.

  10. Willingness to Pay for Complementary Health Care Insurance in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari Sari, Ali; Moradi, Najme

    2017-09-01

    Complementary health insurance is increasingly used to remedy the limitations and shortcomings of the basic health insurance benefit packages. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable complementary health insurance. The study sample consisted of 300 household heads all over provinces of Iran in 2013. The method applied was double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question approach of contingent valuation. The average WTP for complementary health insurance per person per month by double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question method respectively was 199000 and 115300 Rials (8 and 4.6 USD, respectively). Household's heads with higher levels of income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. The WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. As an important finding, the study indicated that the households were willing to pay higher premiums than currently collected for the complementary health insurance coverage in Iran. This offers the policy makers the opportunity to increase the premium and provide good benefits package for insured people of country then better risk pooling.

  11. "I like the sound of that!" Wine descriptions influence consumers' expectations, liking, emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Johnson, Trent E; Ristic, Renata; Meiselman, Herbert L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated how information, typically presented on wine back-labels or wine company websites, influences consumers' expected liking, informed liking, wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay for Australian white wines. Regular white wine consumers (n=126) evaluated the same set of three commercially available white wines (mono-varietal Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc) under three information levels. Session 1, blind tasting (no information provided) and Session 2, informed tasting (held at least 1week later) with both basic (sensory description of the wines) and elaborate (sensory plus high wine quality and favourable winery information) descriptions followed by liking, wine-evoked emotions (measured with the Australian Wine Evoked Emotions Lexicon (AWEEL)) and willingness to pay evaluations. Before tasting the wine in session 2, consumers also rated expected liking. Results showed that information level had a significant effect on all investigated variables. The elaborate information level evoked higher expectations before tasting the wines, plus resulted in higher liking ratings, elicitation of more intense positive (e.g. contented, happy and warm-hearted) and less intense negative emotions (e.g. embarrassed and unfulfilled), and a substantial increase in willingness to pay after tasting the wines compared to the blind condition, with the basic condition ranging in-between. These results were consistent across the three wine samples. Furthermore, if the liking rating after tasting the wines matched the expected liking or exceeded the expectations by 1 point on a 9-point hedonic scale, participants felt the most intense positive emotions and the least intense negative emotions. Whereas, if the expectations were not met or the actual liking exceeded the expectations by >2 points, participants felt less intense positive and more intense negative emotions. This highlights not only the importance of well written and accurate wine descriptions

  12. Power and pay: The union and equal pay at B.C. Electric/Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creese, G.

    1993-01-01

    The struggle for equal pay for women in one large office union, the Office and Technical Employees' Union (OTEU), at British Columbia Electric/Hydro is analyzed. The analysis concentrates on the second phase of the equal pay movement that preoccupied the union for over 30 years starting in 1949. Equal pay for equal job-evaluation was finally achieved in 1981, yet this struggle did not produce a subsequent questioning of gender bias within the job evaluation process or the structure of the existing hierarchy of jobs. The study illustrates some of the ways that gender hierarchies and inequities are defined and reinforced by employers seeking to maintain profits by keeping labor costs down, as BC Electric/Hydro resisted eliminating the differential in male and female pay, systematically restructured unequal pay, and continually resorted to lower community standards even when the company's own job evaluation system suggested equal comparators with male jobs. Gendered jobs are also shaped by union practices, as evidenced by the OTEU's role in restructuring the postwar gender division of labor in the late 1940s, as well as their early and persistent challenges to the female differential but, at the same time, the continued marginalization of equal pay as a women's issue rather than a general union issue. 66 refs

  13. Power and pay: The union and equal pay at B. C. Electric/Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, G

    The struggle for equal pay for women in one large office union, the Office and Technical Employees' Union (OTEU), at British Columbia Electric/Hydro is analyzed. The analysis concentrates on the second phase of the equal pay movement that preoccupied the union for over 30 years starting in 1949. Equal pay for equal job-evaluation was finally achieved in 1981, yet this struggle did not produce a subsequent questioning of gender bias within the job evaluation process or the structure of the existing hierarchy of jobs. The study illustrates some of the ways that gender hierarchies and inequities are defined and reinforced by employers seeking to maintain profits by keeping labor costs down, as BC Electric/Hydro resisted eliminating the differential in male and female pay, systematically restructured unequal pay, and continually resorted to lower community standards even when the company's own job evaluation system suggested equal comparators with male jobs. Gendered jobs are also shaped by union practices, as evidenced by the OTEU's role in restructuring the postwar gender division of labor in the late 1940s, as well as their early and persistent challenges to the female differential but, at the same time, the continued marginalization of equal pay as a women's issue rather than a general union issue. 66 refs.

  14. Does social trust increase willingness to pay taxes to improve public healthcare? Cross-sectional cross-country instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim; Cheung, Alex; Auchynnikava, Alena

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of social trust on the willingness to pay more taxes to improve public healthcare in post-communist countries. The well-documented association between higher levels of social trust and better health has traditionally been assumed to reflect the notion that social trust is positively associated with support for public healthcare system through its encouragement of cooperative behaviour, social cohesion, social solidarity, and collective action. Hence, in this paper, we have explicitly tested the notion that social trust contributes to an increase in willingness to financially support public healthcare. We use micro data from the 2010 Life-in-Transition survey (N = 29,526). Classic binomial probit and instrumental variables ivprobit regressions are estimated to model the relationship between social trust and paying more taxes to improve public healthcare. We found that an increase in social trust is associated with a greater willingness to pay more taxes to improve public healthcare. From the perspective of policy-making, healthcare administrators, policy-makers, and international donors should be aware that social trust is an important factor in determining the willingness of the population to provide much-needed financial resources to supporting public healthcare. From a theoretical perspective, we found that estimating the effect of trust on support for healthcare without taking confounding and measurement error problems into consideration will likely lead to an underestimation of the true effect of trust. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The economical efficiency of private investments in higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maksyutina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the economical efficiency of investments in higher education in modern conditions of Russia. The beginning of the article includes a characteristic of the existing empiric research concerning the efficiency of investments in human capital assets. Further the author of the article introduces the results of pay off calculation of private investments in higher education. The result of the research was that in modern conditions of Russia investments in higher education are exceedingly advantageous. High norms of higher education feedback and short period of pay off of these investments explain the reasons of continuously growing demand for it on the part of the population, especially young people. The article proves that the level of population education in Russia is quite high, however accumulated human capital asset is used insufficiently effective. Many people with higher education are forced to take jobs not requiring higher education.  Sharp shift in educational behavior of Russian people raises new demands to labor market. Graduates of higher educational institutions, appearing on a labor market, form qualitatively different demands towards it. But tempo of Russian economics development today can not provide job positions for all graduates of higher educational institutions. That is why structural change of economics is needed.

  16. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.355 - Setting pay upon movement to a different occupational cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occupational cluster. 9701.355 Section 9701.355 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN....355 Setting pay upon movement to a different occupational cluster. DHS will issue implementing... position in a different occupational cluster, including rules for determining whether such a movement is to...

  18. Psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansla, Andre; Gamble, Amelie; Juliusson, Asgeir; Gaerling, Tommy [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 500, SE-40530 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcendent value types. (author)

  19. The Impact of Merit Pay on Teaching and Research Outcomes of Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. This study uses data from a survey of the 852 accounting programs in the United States to empirically examine the influence of merit-based salary plans. Findings indicate a strong positive association between…

  20. Psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansla, Andre; Gamble, Amelie; Juliusson, Asgeir; Gaerling, Tommy

    2008-01-01

    The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcedent value types

  1. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  2. The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward Strategy for ... over automatic pay increase (formal and transparent reward systems linked to ... of reward and compensation, and low level of motivation and performance.

  3. 49 CFR 92.21 - Deduction from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salary offset may be made, the chief of the accounting or finance office of the paying DOT operating... accounting or finance office of the paying DOT operating element before collection of the indebtedness by...

  4. Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Waldfogel

    1998-01-01

    As the gender gap in pay between women and men has been narrowing, the 'family gap' in pay between mothers and nonmothers has been widening. One reason may be the institutional structure in the United States, which has emphasized equal pay and opportunity policies but not family policies, in contrast to other countries that have implemented both. The authors now have evidence on the links between one such family policy and women's pay. Recent research suggests that maternity leave coverage, b...

  5. 27 CFR 70.103 - Failure to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 70.103... § 70.103 Failure to pay tax. Whoever fails to pay any tax imposed by Part I of Subchapter A of Chapter... penalty of 5 percent of the tax due but unpaid. For additional penalties for failure to pay tax, see 27...

  6. Relative pay and job satisfaction: some new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anh; Taylor, Jim; Bradley, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The determinants of interest include actual pay, relative pay, hours of work, job autonomy and several personal characteristics. We also investigate the determinants of satisfaction with pay conditional on a worker's satisfaction with other domains of job satisfaction, such as satisfaction with job security. We find that relative pay is statistically significant but that i...

  7. Employee perspectives on individualized pay : Attitudes and fairness perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Stråberg, Teresia

    2010-01-01

    The use of various types of individualized pay setting has increased dramatically in Sweden. In order for individualized pay to work as an incentive, the pay system has to be perceived as fair. This thesis focuses on the various subjective perceptions that arise in relation to individualized pay setting, since such perceptions may have consequences for employee attitudes and behavior. Using survey data from Swedish human service workers (Study I and II) as well as other public employees (Stud...

  8. Incentive pay and gender gaps in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Westling, Tatu

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of incentive pay on gender pay gaps in Finland, Norway and Sweden among professionals and managers within MNCs. Mercer 2009 Total Remuneration Survey data is utilised. Uniform job ladder, occupation, industry and wage definitions enable consistent cross-country comparisons. In addition to the between-country variation, the within-country variation of gender gap with respect to incentive pay is analysed. The results indicate that gender pay gaps differ among the ...

  9. Factors influencing source separation intention and willingness to pay for improving waste management in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitra Vassanadumrongdee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Source separation for recycling has been recognized as a way to achieve sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW management. However, most developing countries including Thailand have been facing with lack of recycling facilities and low level of source separation practice. By employing questionnaire surveys, this study investigated Bangkok residents' source separation intention and willingness to pay (WTP for improving MSW service and recycling facilities (n = 1076. This research extended the theory of planned behavior to explore the effects of both internal and external factors. The survey highlighted perceived inconvenience and mistrust on MSW collection being major barriers to carrying out source separation in Bangkok. Promoting source separation at workplace may possibly create spill-over effect to people's intention to recycle their waste at home. Both subjective norms and knowledge on MSW situation were found to be a positive correlation with Bangkok residents' source separation intention and WTP (p < 0.001. Besides, the average WTP values are higher than the existing rate of waste collection service, which shows that Bangkok residents have preference for recycling programs. However, the WTP figures are still much lower than the average MSW management cost. These findings suggest that Bangkok Metropolitan Administration targets improving people knowledge on waste problems that could have adverse impact on the economy and well-being of Bangkok residents and improve its MSW collection service as these factors have positive influence on residents' WTP.

  10. Assessing Medicare beneficiaries' willingness-to-pay for medication therapy management services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph A; Carr-Lopez, Sian M; Delos Santos, Melanie; Bui, Ann; Patel, Rajul A; Walberg, Mark P; Galal, Suzanne M

    2014-02-01

    To assess Medicare beneficiaries' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for medication therapy management (MTM) services and determine sociodemographic and clinical characteristics influencing this payment amount. A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was adopted to elicit Medicare beneficiaries' WTP for MTM. Nine outreach events in cities across Central/Northern California during Medicare's 2011 open-enrollment period. A total of 277 Medicare beneficiaries participated in the study. Comprehensive MTM was offered to each beneficiary. Pharmacy students conducted the MTM session under the supervision of licensed pharmacists. At the end of each MTM session, beneficiaries were asked to indicate their WTP for the service. Medication, self-reported chronic conditions, and beneficiary demographic data were collected and recorded via a survey during the session. The mean WTP for MTM was $33.15 for the 277 beneficiaries receiving the service and answering the WTP question. WTP by low-income subsidy recipients (mean ± standard deviation; $12.80 ± $24.10) was significantly lower than for nonsubsidy recipients ($41.13 ± $88.79). WTP was significantly (positively) correlated with number of medications regularly taken and annual out-of-pocket drug costs. The mean WTP for MTM was $33.15. WTP for MTM significantly varied by race, subsidy status, and number of prescription medications taken. WTP was significantly higher for nonsubsidy recipients than subsidy recipients, and significantly positively correlated with the number of medications regularly taken and the beneficiary rating of the delivered services.

  11. Tabanidae (Diptera) des pays-bas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, M.

    1967-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cette mise au point des Tabanides des Pays-Bas a été rendue possible grâce à la collaboration de M. V. S. van der Goot, département d'Entomologie, Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, que nous remercions pour son amabilité. Nous avons pu étudier aussi les collections du Rijksmuseum van

  12. The consumer pays the energy bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulmeester, P.; Haffner, R.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    The liberalization of the energy market for small-scale consumers in the Netherlands coincides with a period in which consumers have to pay high energy bills. However, the cause of this is not the liberalization, but the high oil prices and raised taxes. In this article an overview is given of the total energy bill n the Netherlands, its components and the first effects of the liberalization process [nl

  13. How to pay in LicenseScript

    OpenAIRE

    Corin, R.J.; Chong, C.N.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2003-01-01

    Current DRM systems do not provide flexible payment methods, requiring the user to handle the payment by hand. For instance, when the user needs to pay for watching a movie, she needs to decide which available payment method is the most optimal and suitable. This is a rather cumbersome process for the user that can be avoided by the specification of payment policies. A payment policy automates the payment process of each content usage, choosing the best alternative among the possible payment ...

  14. Gendering, courtship and pay equality: developing attraction theory to understand work-life balance and entrepreneurial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley-Duff, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines one of the most intractable problems of the last 40 years: the difficulty in closing the pay inequality gap. Current wisdom is that the pay gap exists because of men's power to control the workplace, and men's dominant position in society generally. This paper examines an emergent literature on matriarchal power structures and proposes Attraction Theory as a holistic framework. Prior Work: This paper acknowledges a range of feminist literature that examines the...

  15. Volume 10 No. 11 November 2010 4364 WILLINGNESS TO PAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... to pay a premium, to buy an organic vegetable instead of a conventional one. The amount is a percentage ... the attitude, motives and willingness to pay for a range of organic products. The author laid ... organic products, buying preferences and willingness to pay premiums for selected organic vegetables.

  16. Some Thoughts on the Equal Pay Act and Coaching Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Phyllis

    This paper discusses the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it applies to women athletic coaches and physical education teachers. The following points are considered: (1) application of the Equal Pay Act; (2) advantage of voluntary compliance with the Equal Pay Act; (3) factors used to measure "equal work"; (4)…

  17. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A..., three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act regardless of whether he or she...

  18. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section... Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A complainant is authorized under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards..., if the violation is willful, three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act...

  19. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable rate of basic pay upon promotion following the rules in this section, consistent with 5 U.S.C. 5334(b...

  20. 29 CFR 1614.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Pay Act. 1614.202 Section 1614.202 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices on...

  1. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement pay by the Department of Veterans Affairs under Pub. L. 87-875 (sec. 11(b), Pub. L. 85-857) from date...

  2. 76 FR 80191 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Order 13594 of December 19, 2011 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as... Appropriations and Surface Transportation Extensions Act, 2011 (Public Law 111-322), which freezes certain pay... full applicable locality pay rates in non-foreign areas pursuant to the Non-Foreign Area Retirement...

  3. 29 CFR 70.42 - Consent to Pay Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent to Pay Fees. 70.42 Section 70.42 Labor Office of the....42 Consent to Pay Fees. (a) The filing of a request under this subpart will be deemed to constitute an agreement by the requester to pay all applicable fees charged under this part up to and including...

  4. 22 CFR 512.22 - Deduction from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction from pay. 512.22 Section 512.22... 1982 Salary Offset § 512.22 Deduction from pay. (a) Deduction by salary offset, from an employee's disposable current pay, shall be subject to the following circumstances: (1) When funds are available, the...

  5. 36 CFR 1202.52 - How do I pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I pay? 1202.52 Section... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Individual Access to Records § 1202.52 How do I pay? You must pay by check or money order. Make your check or money order payable to the National Archives and...

  6. 12 CFR 268.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Pay Act. 268.202 Section 268.202 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 268.202 Equal Pay Act. Complaints alleging violations of the Equal Pay Act shall be processed under this part. ...

  7. 29 CFR 778.409 - Provision for overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision for overtime pay. 778.409 Section 778.409 Labor... Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.409 Provision for overtime pay. The section 7(f) contract must provide for compensation at not less than one and one-half...

  8. 77 FR 70381 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: On behalf of the President's Pay Agent, the Office of Personnel Management is issuing proposed regulations to tie the metropolitan area portion of locality pay...

  9. 44 CFR 353.7 - Failure to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 353.7 Section... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.7 Failure to pay. In any case where there is a dispute over the FEMA bill or where FEMA finds that a licensee has failed to pay a prescribed fee required...

  10. 27 CFR 70.97 - Failure to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 70.97... § 70.97 Failure to pay tax. (a) Negligence—(1) General. If any part of any underpayment (as defined in... section 6651 of the Internal Revenue Code (relating to failure to file such return or pay tax) shall be...

  11. 38 CFR 3.654 - Active service pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Active service pay. 3.654..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.654 Active service pay. (a) General. Pension, compensation, or retirement pay will be discontinued under the circumstances...

  12. 44 CFR 354.7 - Failure to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 354.7 Section 354.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... PROGRAM § 354.7 Failure to pay. Where a licensee fails to pay a prescribed fee required under this part...

  13. 5 CFR 531.603 - Locality pay areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Locality pay areas. 531.603 Section 531.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Locality-Based Comparability Payments § 531.603 Locality pay areas. (a) Locality rates of...

  14. 40 CFR 66.61 - Duty to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty to pay. 66.61 Section 66.61... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Payment § 66.61 Duty to pay. (a) Except where the owner or... who submits a petition pursuant to § 66.52 shall pay the penalty amount calculated by the owner or...

  15. 78 FR 21503 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Order 13641 of April 5, 2013 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as... Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (Public Law 113-6), which requires certain pay... follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Consolidated and Further Continuing...

  16. 78 FR 649 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... certain pay schedules for civilian Federal employees may take effect on the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning after the date specified in section 106(3) of Public Law 112-175, it is...

  17. 29 CFR 1450.23 - Deduction from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deduction from pay. 1450.23 Section 1450.23 Labor... OWED THE UNITED STATES Salary Offset § 1450.23 Deduction from pay. (a) Deduction by salary offset, from an employee's current disposable pay, shall be subject to the following conditions: (1) Ordinarily...

  18. Equal pay legislation and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.

  19. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  20. 75 FR 21155 - National Equal Pay Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ..., helps women achieve wage fairness. This law brings us closer to ending pay disparities based on gender... Enforcement Task Force to bolster enforcement of pay discrimination laws, making sure women get equal pay for... America A Proclamation Throughout our Nation's history, extraordinary women have broken barriers to...

  1. 78 FR 21811 - National Equal Pay Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ..., 2013 National Equal Pay Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Over... of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 9, 2013, as National Equal Pay Day. I call upon all... Vol. 78 Thursday, No. 70 April 11, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 8955--National Equal Pay...

  2. 75 FR 9544 - Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... inmate may receive performance pay only for that portion of the month that the inmate was working... Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule... work and performance pay by removing redundant language and provisions that relate solely to staff...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... increases, the Secretary or designee must take into account the average value of within-grade and quality... pay pool controls to allocate pay increases based on performance points that are directly linked to... function of the amount of money in the performance pay pool, the relative point value placed on ratings...

  4. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, George E; Bloom, Paul

    2014-03-11

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person's immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people's expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions.

  5. Opinion leadership and willingness to pay for residential photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    According to diffusion theory, opinion leaders play an important role in the diffusion of new technologies through interpersonal communication with potential adopters. This study investigates the role and utility of opinion leadership in photovoltaic (PV) system diffusion. Specifically, the study proposes, examines, and considers the implications of the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between willingness to pay (WTP) for a PV system and opinion leadership on PV-system adoption. The investigation employed an internet-based questionnaire to assess the use of interpersonal communication in decision-making on adoption, to identify opinion leaders on adoption, and to characterize their WTP. The response pool consisted of 488 individuals who lived in a detached house, owned a residential PV system, and were responsible for making the decision to adopt the system. The results support the hypothesis. Considering that subsidization preferentially incentivizes households with greater WTP to adopt PV systems, this suggests that subsidization is more effective than purchases of PV power under feed-in tariffs in promoting the diffusion of residential PV systems through interpersonal communication. -- Highlights: •Interpersonal communication about the adoption of PV systems is analyzed. •A questionnaire survey is conducted. •Opinion leaders on PV-system adoption are identified. •A relationship is confirmed between willingness to pay and opinion leadership. •Subsidization is more essential than feed-in tariffs from this point of view

  6. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, George E.; Bloom, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person’s immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people’s expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions. PMID:24567388

  7. Evaluating the impact of a new pay system on nurses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James; Ball, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of implementing a new pay system (Agenda for Change) on nursing staff in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. This new pay system covered approximately 400,000 nursing staff. Its objectives were to improve the delivery of patient care as well as staff recruitment, retention and motivation. The new system aimed to provide a simplified approach to pay determination, with a more systematic use of agreed job descriptions and job evaluation to 'price' individual jobs, linked to a new career development framework. Secondary analysis of survey data. Analysis of results of large-scale surveys of members of the Royal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom (RCN) to assess the response of nurses to questions about the implementation process itself and their attitude to pay levels. The results demonstrated that there was some positive change after implementation of Agenda for Change in 2006, mainly some time after implementation, and that the process of implementation itself raised expectations that were not fully met for all nurses. There were clear indications of differential impact and reported experiences, with some categories of nurse being less satisfied with the process of implementation. The overall message is that a national pay system has strengths and weaknesses compared to the local systems used in other countries and that these benefits can only be maximised by effective communication, adequate funding and consistent management of the system. How nurses' pay is determined and delivered can be a major satisfier and incentive to nurses if the process is well managed and can be a factor in supporting clinical practice, performance and innovation. This study highlights that a large-scale national exercise to reform the pay system for nurses is a major undertaking, carries risk and will take significant time to implement effectively. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  9. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  10. The Roles of Higher Education in Economic Development: Challenges and Prospects of Nigerian Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Chimezie; Anyanwu, Jerome; Kaegon, Lies Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper was on the roles of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) especially universities in economic development, paying particular attention to the challenges and prospects of the Nigerian Universities. The role of higher education as a major driver of economic development is well established, and this role will increase as…

  11. Use of Provider-Level Dashboards and Pay-for-Performance in Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michtalik, Henry J.; Carolan, Howard T.; Haut, Elliott R.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Streiff, Michael B.; Finkelstein, Joseph; Pronovost, Peter J.; Durkin, Nowella; Brotman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite safe and cost-effective venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention measures, VTE prophylaxis rates are often suboptimal. Healthcare reform efforts emphasize transparency through programs to report performance, and payment incentives through programs to pay-for-performance. Objective To sequentially examine an individualized physician dashboard and pay-for-performance program to improve VTE prophylaxis rates amongst hospitalists. Design Retrospective analysis of 3144 inpatient admissions. After a baseline observation period, VTE prophylaxis compliance was compared during both interventions. Setting 1060-bed tertiary care medical center. Participants 38 part- and full-time academic hospitalists. Interventions A Web-based hospitalist dashboard provided VTE prophylaxis feedback. After 6 months of feedback only, a pay-for-performance program was incorporated, with graduated payouts for compliance rates of 80-100%. Measurements Prescription of American College of Chest Physicians guideline-compliant VTE prophylaxis and subsequent pay-for-performance payments. Results Monthly VTE prophylaxis compliance rates were 86% (95% CI: 85, 88), 90% (95% CI: 88, 93), and 94% (95% CI: 93, 96) during the baseline, dashboard, and combined dashboard/pay-for-performance periods, respectively. Compliance significantly improved with the use of the dashboard (p=0.01) and addition of the pay-for-performance program (p=0.01). The highest rate of improvement occurred with the dashboard (1.58%/month; p=0.01). Annual individual physician performance payments ranged from $53 to $1244 (mean $633; SD ±350). Conclusions Direct feedback using dashboards was associated with significantly improved compliance, with further improvement after incorporating an individual physician pay-for-performance program. Real-time dashboards and physician-level incentives may assist hospitals in achieving higher safety and quality benchmarks. PMID:25545690

  12. Tourists’ perceptions and willingness to pay for the control of Opuntia stricta invasion in protected areas: A case study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nikodinoska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants have a long history of establishment in the national parks of South Africa.In particular, Opuntia stricta (sour prickly pear has invaded several protected areas in thecountry, threatening the biodiversity conservation mandate of these conservation areas. Thisarticle focuses on the economic estimation of O. stricta’s negative impacts in protected areas byusing Contingent Valuation surveys conducted amongst a sample of tourists in the PilanesbergNational Park (North West Parks and Tourism Board, South Africa. Tourists’ familiarity andawareness of selected invasive alien plants and their willingness to pay for the implementationof a control programme for O. stricta were assessed. The results show that many tourists arefamiliar with invasive alien plants and their (positive and negative impacts and, in particular,perceived the presence of O. stricta to be negative, due to the impacts on aesthetics and recreation.Socio-demographic characteristics, as well as individual attitudes and biocentric beliefs, have aninfluence on the willingness to contribute financially to a control programme for O. stricta. Theindividual willingness to pay assessment found that the majority of respondents (78% werewilling to pay a higher entrance fee (an additional R57.30 or $7.00 per day for a hypotheticalprogramme to control the invasion of O. stricta in the Pilanesberg National Park. Conservation implications: The willingness of tourists to pay for O. stricta managementprovides useful insights in the decision-making process of park management. The resultsare encouraging, since, in general, tourists are aware of the problem and are in support ofproviding additional economic input for preventing future alien plant invasions.

  13. Does obfuscating excessive CEO pay work? The influence of remuneration report readability on say-on-pay votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, Reggy; Kuang, Yu Flora; Qin, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses whether reducing ‘readability’ is an effective obfuscation strategy for influencing the level of shareholder say-on-pay voting dissent in firms with excessive CEO pay. Based on a sample of UK-listed firms, our results indicate that in cases of excessive CEO pay, a less readable

  14. Higher Education Provision in a Crowded Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Cathy; Cotton, Debby; Gresty, Karen; Kneale, Pauline; Winter, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    Current changes to policy around higher education in the United Kingdom are leading to an increasingly marketised system. As funding is transferred from the United Kingdom government to the individual student, universities will be required to pay more attention to marketing. This paper draws on the literature relating to marketing of services to…

  15. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of corruption that has become common in higher education in developing countries around the world. Cases of educational corruption include, among others, paying bribes for grades, buying diplomas, and admissions to universities. An available body of literature on educational corruption does not provide…

  16. A Second Look at the Process of Occupational Feminization and Pay Reduction in Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas

    2018-04-01

    Using the IPUMS-USA data for the years 1960-2015, this study examines trends in the effect of occupational feminization on occupational pay in the U.S. labor market and explores some of the mechanisms underlying these trends. The findings show that the (negative) association between occupational feminization and occupational pay level has declined, becoming insignificent in 2015. This trend, however, is reversed after education is controlled for at the individual as well as the occupational level. The two opposite trends are discussed in light of the twofold effect of education: (1) the entry of women into occupations requiring high education, and (2) the growing returns to education and to occupations with higher educational requirements. These two processes have concealed the deterioration in occupational pay following feminization. The findings underscore the significance of structural forms of gender inequality in general, and occupational devaluation in particular.

  17. Willingness to pay for physician services at a primary contact in Ukraine: results of a contingent valuation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyliv, Andriy; Pavlova, Milena; Gryga, Irena; Groot, Wim

    2013-06-08

    The existence of quasi-formal and informal payments in the Ukrainian health care system jeopardizes equity and creates barriers to access to proper care. Patient payment policies that better match patient preferences are necessary. We analyze the potential and feasibility of official patient charges for public health care services in Ukraine by studying the patterns of fee acceptability, ability and willingness to pay (WTP) for public health care among population groups. We use contingent valuation data collected from 303 respondents representative of the adult Ukrainian population. Three decision points were separated: objection to pay, inability to pay, and level of positive non-zero WTP. These decisions were studied for relations with quality profiles of the services, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and their households. The likelihood to object to pay is mostly determined by the quality characteristics of the services. Objection to pay is not related to corresponding behavior in real life. The likelihood of being unable to pay is associated with older age, lower income, and a larger share of household members with no income. The level of positive WTP is positively related to income (+7% per 1000 UAH increase in income) and is lower for people who visited a doctor but did not pay (-22%). Rather substantial WTP levels (between 0.9% and 1.9% of household income) for one visit to physician indicate a potential for official patient charges in Ukraine. User fees may cover a substantial share of personnel cost in the out-patient sector. The patterns of inability to pay support well designed exemption criteria based on age, income, and other aspects of economic status. The WTP patterns highlight the necessity for payments that are proportional to income. Other methodological and policy implications are discussed.

  18. Using sensory experiments to determine consumers willingness to pay for traditional apple varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinis, I.; Simoes, O.; Moreira, J.

    2011-07-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an increasing enthusiasm of consumers for products with specific characteristics, whether related to origin or production technology. Several studies show that consumers are willing to pay price premium for organic products and we may expect that the same happens with other attributes, such as origin and tradition. The aim of this study, based on surveys conducted in the context of a taste panel, is to establish the price premium that consumers are willing to pay for the feature traditional variety, using Portuguese traditional varieties of apples as a case study. Using contingent valuation to determine the willingness to pay and panel data techniques for estimation, a hedonic price model is developed to explain how the price that consumers declare to be willing to pay is related, besides variety, to different attributes of apples, such as appearance and taste, production method and threat of extinction. The results suggest that consumers, regardless of their socio-economic characteristics, are willing to pay a higher price not only for apples with better taste, appearance and smell, but also for Portuguese traditional varieties. (Author) 48 refs.

  19. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  20. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  1. Credence quality coordination and consumers' willingness-to-pay for certified halal labelled meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Rutsaert, Pieter; Bonne, Karijn; Vermeir, Iris

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on halal credence quality coordination and Muslim consumers' willingness to buy and pay for certified halal labelled meat at the supermarket and the Islamic butcher. Cross-sectional data were collected through a survey with 202 Muslim consumers in Belgium. Findings indicate that more acculturated and female consumers are more in favour of purchasing certified halal labelled meat in a supermarket. Important conditions are that supermarkets can provide a guarantee of separating halal from non-halal meat and of the organisation of adequate verification and control. Results further show that more Muslim consumers are willing to pay a price premium (of 13% on average) for halal labelled meat at the Islamic butcher shop than at the supermarket. The higher the importance attached to a certified halal label and the more distrust in the actual halal meat status, the higher the likelihood that a Muslim consumer is willing to pay a higher price for certified halal labelled meat at the Islamic butcher shop. Gender and generation determine the actual premium Muslim consumers are willing to pay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the WTP. Two surveys were carried out in Denmark; one large-scale Internet based survey and one survey at a workplace that introduced CTA. The results from the large-scal...

  3. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    research addressing the need to better understand how interdependencies arise among management control system elements and how they affect organisational effectiveness. Based on an in-depth case study on the implementation of a new incentive system in a manufacturing firm, we seek to provide more research...... and insight into how incentive pay features in complementary and substitutional relationships in an individual organisational setting. Greater insight can help illustrate how complementary and substitutional relationships unfold in even more complex ways than current research indicates, as well as how...

  4. A fair day's wage? Perceptions of public sector pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Stieger, Stefan; Haubner, Tanja; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2009-12-01

    There is a scarcity of evidence pertaining to the general public's perception of public sector pay. Hence, in the present study, 161 women and 149 men were asked to estimate the wages 35 public sector professions should receive annually in the fictitious nation of Maldoria, based on a comparison value of an annual income of T10,000 for general practitioners. Analysis showed that only pilots were given a higher annual income than general practitioners; miners and local government workers were also provided with relatively high annual incomes. By contrast, newscasters were provided with the lowest annual income. Participants' sex did not affect these evaluations, and other demographic variables and public sector-related information of the participants were poor predictors of their evaluations. The implications of this research on public attitudes toward wage determination are discussed, and avenues for further research highlighted.

  5. User Fees in General Practice: Willingness to Pay and Potential Substitution Patterns-Results from a Danish GP Patient Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, Christian; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Fournaise, Anders; Kronborg, Christel Nøhr

    2017-10-01

    Increases in public expenditures to general practitioner (GP) services and specialist care have spurred debate over whether to implement user fees for healthcare services such as GP consultations in Denmark. The objective of this study was to examine Danish patients' attitudes towards user fees and their willingness to pay (WTP) for a consultation, and to investigate how user charges may impact patients' behaviour. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a GP clinic. A total of 343 individual persons answered the questionnaire. One hundred and seventy (50%) persons were not willing to pay for a consultation. Among patients reporting positive WTP values, the mean WTP was 137 (standard deviation 140) Danish kroner (DKK). Patients who were 65 years old or older were more likely to be willing to pay for a GP consultation than patients under the age of 65 years. Furthermore, patients with a personal annual income of more than 200,000 DKK were more likely to be willing to pay for a consultation than other income groups. With respect to patients with a positive WTP value, their own assessment of the seriousness of the consultation and their self-assessed health influenced the amount they would be willing to pay. Finally, we observed a stated willingness to substitute GP consultations with alternatives that are free of charge. About half of the patients with an appointment for a GP consultation are willing to pay for the consultation. User charges may potentially influence the patients' behaviour. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784731.

  6. Willingness to pay for adverse drug event regulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvy, Jacoline; Weemers, Just; Schellekens, Huub; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory requirements for the pharmaceutical industry have become increasingly demanding with respect to the safety and effectiveness of drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the willingness to pay (WTP), of both the Dutch general public and dialysis patients, for regulatory requirements related to reducing the risk of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) associated with epoetin alpha use. A survey was carried out in April 2009. The Dutch general public (n = 422) was approached through a survey sampling agency. Patients (n = 112) were included through several Dutch dialysis clinics because they are often treated with epoetin alpha and therefore were expected to have a higher WTP than the general public. The survey aimed to determine the WTP for reducing the risk of PRCA in epoetin alpha users from 4.5 to 0 per 10 000 patients per year, based on regulatory actions that have been taken by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). WTP was determined via a payment scale and an open-ended follow-up question. Patients were asked how much extra per year they would be willing to pay for their basic healthcare insurance. We used two censored regression models to test the association between WTP and a set of independent variables: a Tobit model with the stated WTP as the dependent variable and an interval regression model with the interval between the lower and upper bounds of the payment scale as the dependent variable. The patients' mean WTP was significantly higher (€46.52) than that of the general public (€24.40). The Tobit model showed significant associations (α = 0.05) with WTP for dialysis patients, risk perception and respondents' opinions on costs of healthcare. The interval regression model showed significant associations with WTP for the same variables as the Tobit model and for one additional variable (risk aversion). Income did not significantly affect WTP. A scenario with a 10-fold larger risk reduction did not increase WTP significantly

  7. 5 CFR 550.172 - Relation to overtime, night, and holiday pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law Enforcement...

  8. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  9. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  10. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing. PMID:29662432

  11. Refusal to pay electricity bill is illegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de

  12. The antecedents of satisfaction with pay in teams: do performance-based compensation and autonomy keep team-members satisfied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Godeanu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effects performance-based compensation and autonomy on satisfaction with pay in the context of team working. I develop a complex perspective that considers the influence of different monetary and non-monetary rewards on satisfaction with pay. Drawing from the agency theory, equity theory and theory of cooperation I predict that both piece rates and team-based rewards are associated with higher pay satisfaction. Moreover, I claim that both individual and team-based autonomy contribute to increased satisfaction with pay. Using a cross-sectional dataset of randomly selected European employees who are asked about specific working and living conditions, results confirm that both productivity-based rewards and autonomy are important for employee satisfaction. Managers should know when to introduce rewards based only on individual merits and when to give to use autonomy as a buffer to compensate for the potential lack of fairness in the payment system.

  13. Gender Differences in Pay Histories and Views on Pay Entitlement among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Serge; Curtis, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether gender differences in recent pay experience influence entitlement views by providing different standards for female and male students' judgments of their entitlements. Responses from 309 undergraduate students reveal that income gaps in the full-time working world extended to their own recent work experiences and that these past…

  14. Willingness to pay for emergency referral transport in a developing setting: a geographically randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sourav K; Bream, Kent D W; Barg, Frances K; Band, Roger A

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to identify the correlates of willingness to pay for ambulance transports from a rural city to a regional hospital in Guatemala. An innovative methodology that utilizes a novel randomization technique and satellite imagery was used to select a sample of homes in Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. The respondents were surveyed at these homes about their willingness to pay for ambulance transport to a regional hospital. A price ladder was used to elicit respondents' willingness to pay for ambulance transport, depending on the level of severity of three types of emergencies: life-threatening emergencies, disability-causing emergencies, and simple emergencies. Simple and multiple linear regression modeling was used to identify the social and economic correlates of respondents' willingness to pay for ambulance transport and to predict demand for ambulance transport at a variety of price levels. Beta coefficients (β) expressed as percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The authors surveyed 134 respondents (response rate=3.3%). In the multivariable regression models, three variables correlated with willingness to pay: household income, location of residence (rural district vs. urban district), and respondents' education levels. Correlates for ambulance transport in life-threatening emergencies included greater household daily income (β=1.32%, 95% CI=0.63% to 2.56%), rural location of residence (β=-37.3%, 95% CI=-51.1% to -137.5%), and higher educational levels (β=4.41%, 95% CI=1.00% to 6.36%). Correlates of willingness to pay in disability-causing emergencies included greater household daily income (β=1.59%, 95% CI=0.81% to 3.19%) and rural location of residence (β=-19.4%, 95% CI=-35.7% to -89.4%). Correlates of willingness to pay in simple emergencies included rural location of residence (β=59.4%, 95% CI=37.9% to 133.7%) and higher educational levels (β=7.96%, 95% CI=1.96% to 11.8%). At all price levels, more individuals were

  15. Mind the gap: financial London and the regional class pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The hidden barriers, or 'gender pay gap', preventing women from earning equivalent incomes to men is well documented. Yet recent research has uncovered that, in Britain, there is also a comparable class-origin pay gap in higher professional and managerial occupations. So far this analysis has only been conducted at the national level and it is not known whether there are regional differences within the UK. This paper uses pooled data from the 2014 and 2015 Labour Force Survey (N = 7,534) to stage a more spatially sensitive analysis that examines regional variation in the class pay gap. We find that this 'class ceiling' is not evenly spatially distributed. Instead it is particularly marked in Central London, where those in high-status occupations who are from working-class backgrounds earn, on average, £10,660 less per year than those whose parents were in higher professional and managerial employment. Finally, we inspect the Capital further to reveal that the class pay gap is largest within Central London's banking and finance sector. Challenging policy conceptions of London as the 'engine room' of social mobility, these findings suggest that class disadvantage within high-status occupations is particularly acute in the Capital. The findings also underline the value of investigating regional differences in social mobility, and demonstrate how such analysis can unravel important and previously unrecognized spatial dimensions of class inequality. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  16. Understanding patient preferences and willingness to pay for hemophilia therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaugule SS

    2015-11-01

    from thrice-weekly to once-weekly prophylaxis therapy.Conclusion: Improvements in treatment effectiveness and dosing frequency, treatment side effects, and out-of-pocket costs per month were the greatest determinants of hemophilia treatment choice and WTP. The positive preferences and WTP for longer acting prophylactic therapies suggest that the uptake is likely to increase adherence, improving treatment outcomes. These preferences should also inform the Food and Drug Administration’s assessment of new longer acting hemophilia therapies. Keywords: hemophilia, patient, preferences, willingness to pay

  17. Why study higher education and capacity building in Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    innovative approach to higher education and capacity building, namely by studying this through ‘geographies of knowledge’. This is an interdisciplinary field that pays attention to the ways scientific knowledge is produced and consumed with a special focus on geography. By using a geographical approach...... for exploring the current and future development of teaching and knowledge production in Africa, we want to explore how scientific knowledge is negotiated and contested in parallel to societal changes in general and capacity building in particular, and thus how scientific knowledge becomes local. Then we...... position the book and its authors before the structure of the book is presented together with a short presentation of the case-based chapters, organised in three parts. These are Part I: Capacity building of African universities – asymmetrical power relations? Part II: Researching and teaching climate...

  18. Impact of 'stretch' targets for cardiovascular disease management within a local pay-for-performance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Utz J; Huckvale, Kit; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Pay-for-performance programs are often aimed to improve the management of chronic diseases. We evaluate the impact of a local pay for performance programme (QOF+), which rewarded financially more ambitious quality targets ('stretch targets') than those used nationally in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). We focus on targets for intermediate outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. A difference-in-difference approach is used to compare practice level achievements before and after the introduction of the local pay for performance program. In addition, we analysed patient-level data on exception reporting and intermediate outcomes utilizing an interrupted time series analysis. The local pay for performance program led to significantly higher target achievements (hypertension: p-value <0.001, coronary heart disease: p-values <0.001, diabetes: p-values <0.061, stroke: p-values <0.003). However, the increase was driven by higher rates of exception reporting (hypertension: p-value <0.001, coronary heart disease: p-values <0.03, diabetes: p-values <0.05) in patients with all conditions except for stroke. Exception reporting allows practitioners to exclude patients from target calculations if certain criteria are met, e.g. informed dissent of the patient for treatment. There were no statistically significant improvements in mean blood pressure, cholesterol or HbA1c levels. Thus, achievement of higher payment thresholds in the local pay for performance scheme was mainly attributed to increased exception reporting by practices with no discernable improvements in overall clinical quality. Hence, active monitoring of exception reporting should be considered when setting more ambitious quality targets. More generally, the study suggests a trade-off between additional incentive for better care and monitoring costs.

  19. Executive compensation, financial performance and say on pay votes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 was passed as a response to the late-2000s recession. A shareholder opt-in executive pay vote was introduced as a solution to the managerial power problem. We examine the results of this recommended solution and prove its viability. We find that there is a stronger association between high CEO pay and low say-on-pay vote support for firms with negative financial performance. We also find the market-to-book ratio is significantly lower for companies that failed say-on-pay votes. Furthermore, regulated industries such as financial services are more likely receive unfavourable say-on-pay votes. We document an increase in the sensitivity of CEO pay to poor performance. Overall, these finds are consistent with calls for less “rewards for failure” that led to the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

  20. Cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay as affected by information about organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Fabio; Braghieri, Ada; Piasentier, Edi; Favotto, Saida; Naspetti, Simona; Zanoli, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of information about organic production on Pecorino cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay. Mean scores of perceived liking were similar for organic cheese (OC) and conventional cheese (CC). Expected liking scores were higher for OC than for CC (Pexpected liking was significantly higher (Pexpected liking was significantly lower (Pexpectations, as the difference actual vs. perceived liking was significant (Pexpected liking was significant (Ppay OC (mean+/-se=4.20+/-0.13 euro/100 g) higher than the local retail price for conventional (1.90 euro/100 g) and even organic cheese (3.00 euro/100 g). We conclude that the information about organic farming can be a major determinant of cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay, thus providing a potential tool for product differentiation, particularly for small scale and traditional farms.

  1. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... payments consist of a specified number of hours' pay at the applicable straight time or overtime rates...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6653-1 - Failure to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 301.6653-1 Section 301.6653... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6653-1 Failure to pay tax. (a) Negligence or intentional... paragraph (b)(2) of this section. (e) Failure to pay stamp tax. Any person (as defined in section 6671(b...

  3. Education Pays 2016: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer; Pender, Matea; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    This report documents differences in the earnings and employment patterns of U.S. adults with different levels of education. It also compares health-related behaviors, reliance on public assistance programs, civic participation, and indicators of the well-being of the next generation. In addition to reporting median earnings by education level,…

  4. Education Pays, 2013: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer; Payea, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This report documents differences in the earnings and employment patterns of U.S. adults with different levels of education. It also compares health-related behaviors, reliance on public assistance programs, civic participation, and indicators of the well-being of the next generation. Financial benefits are easier to document than nonpecuniary…

  5. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON PRE-PAY MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Madalina MEGHISAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to identify the preferences of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services young users from Romania. Approach/ methodology: The analysis of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services was made using statistical functions: descriptive statistics, t test, correlation and factor analysis. Results: According to the analysis made, we could underline the habits of usage from the part of pre-pay mobile telecommunications services consumers. Originality: The paper drew an objective analysis on the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services from the perspective of young consumers.

  6. Nuclear opponents sentenced to pay electricity rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In its decison of March 19, 1980 the Local Court of Hamburg sentenced a nuclear opponent to pay the sum withheld to the electricity supply utility. He had remitted 10 per cent of the rate on a blocked account. A right to refuse payment cannot be founded on Art. 4 of the Basic Law, since the freedom of conscience is not unilimited but may be restricted by the legal system or by obligations undertaken by oneself. Nor does the defendant have a right to withhold, since he is not entitled to a counter-claim from the power supply contract. Against the right to refuse payment in good faith speaks the fact that the plaintiff operates the nuclear power plant legally persuant to a licence. Even if the licence was withdrawn by an administrative court, this would not abolish with retroactive effect the existing reasonability of payment. (HSCH) [de

  7. The Pays de Gex celebrates science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    From 18 to 23 October, the Fête de la Science will be celebrated at various venues in the Pays de Gex and at CERN.   Physiscope will perform awe-inspiring demonstrations in the Globe. The Physiscope team will give demonstrations for schools and the general public in the Globe, performing awe-inspiring experiments to answer questions like "Can you drive a nail in with a banana?" or "Is it possible to survive a 100,000 volt shock?" The Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains will host a Café des Sciences and performances by the children of the Lycée International in Ferney-Voltaire. The Physiscope is an educational venture of the Physics section of the University of Geneva and the research programme MaNEP. The programme of the Fête de la Science can be consulted here.      

  8. The Willingness-to-Pay for General Practitioners in Contractual Service and Influencing Factors among Empty Nesters in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2012, a pilot health policy of contractual service relations between general practitioners and patients was implemented in China. Due to the decline in body and cognitive function, as well as the lack of family care and narrow social support networks, the demand of health services among the elderly is much higher than that among the general population. This study aims to probe into the empty nesters’ willingness-to-pay for general practitioners using a contractual service policy, investigating empty nesters’ payment levels for the service, and analyze the main factors affecting the willingness of empty-nesters’ general practitioners using contractual service supply cost. Methods: This cross-sectional study adopted a multistage stratified sampling method to survey 865, city empty nesters (six communities in three districts of one city aged 60–85 years. A condition value method was used to infer the distribution of the willingness-to-pay; Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of willingness-to-pay. Results: More than seventy percent (76.6% of the empty nesters in this city were willing to pay general practitioners using contract service in Chongqing. The level of willingness-to-pay for the surveyed empty nesters was 34.1 yuan per year. The median value was 22.1 yuan per year, which was below the Chongqing urban and rural cooperative medical insurance individual funding level (60 yuan per year in 2013. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model analysis showed that the higher the education level was, the worse the self-reported health status would be, accompanied by higher family per capita income, higher satisfaction of community health service, and higher willingness-to-pay empty nesters using a contract service. Women had a higher willingness-to-pay than men. Conclusions: The willingness-to-pay for general practitioners by contractual service is high among city empty

  9. The Willingness-to-Pay for General Practitioners in Contractual Service and Influencing Factors among Empty Nesters in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Xiang-Long; Yang, Zhan; Tan, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Liang

    2015-08-10

    In 2012, a pilot health policy of contractual service relations between general practitioners and patients was implemented in China. Due to the decline in body and cognitive function, as well as the lack of family care and narrow social support networks, the demand of health services among the elderly is much higher than that among the general population. This study aims to probe into the empty nesters' willingness-to-pay for general practitioners using a contractual service policy, investigating empty nesters' payment levels for the service, and analyze the main factors affecting the willingness of empty-nesters' general practitioners using contractual service supply cost. This cross-sectional study adopted a multistage stratified sampling method to survey 865, city empty nesters (six communities in three districts of one city) aged 60-85 years. A condition value method was used to infer the distribution of the willingness-to-pay; Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of willingness-to-pay. More than seventy percent (76.6%) of the empty nesters in this city were willing to pay general practitioners using contract service in Chongqing. The level of willingness-to-pay for the surveyed empty nesters was 34.1 yuan per year. The median value was 22.1 yuan per year, which was below the Chongqing urban and rural cooperative medical insurance individual funding level (60 yuan per year) in 2013. Cox's proportional hazards regression model analysis showed that the higher the education level was, the worse the self-reported health status would be, accompanied by higher family per capita income, higher satisfaction of community health service, and higher willingness-to-pay empty nesters using a contract service. Women had a higher willingness-to-pay than men. The willingness-to-pay for general practitioners by contractual service is high among city empty nesters in Chongqing, thus, individual financing is feasible. However

  10. Pay, working conditions, and teacher quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A; Rivkin, Steven G

    2007-01-01

    Eric Hanushek and Steven Rivkin examine how salary and working conditions affect the quality of instruction in the classroom. The wages of teachers relative to those of other college graduates have fallen steadily since 1940. Today, average wages differ little, however, between urban and suburban districts. In some metropolitan areas urban districts pay more, while in others, suburban districts pay more. But working conditions in urban and suburban districts differ substantially, with urban teachers reporting far less administrator and parental support, worse materials, and greater student problems. Difficult working conditions may drive much of the difference in turnover of teachers and the transfer of teachers across schools. Using rich data from Texas public schools, the authors describe in detail what happens when teachers move from school to school. They examine how salaries and student characteristics change when teachers move and also whether turnover affects teacher quality and student achievement. They note that both wages and student characteristics affect teachers' choices and result in a sorting of teachers across schools, but they find little evidence that teacher transitions are detrimental to student learning. The extent to which variations in salaries and working conditions translate into differences in the quality of instruction depends importantly on the effectiveness of school personnel policies in hiring and retaining the most effective teachers and on constraints on both entry into the profession and the firing of low performers. The authors conclude that overall salary increases for teachers would be both expensive and ineffective. The best way to improve the quality of instruction would be to lower barriers to becoming a teacher, such as certification, and to link compensation and career advancement more closely with teachers' ability to raise student performance.

  11. Who will pay the ecological debts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ecological ignorance of the past has to be addressed. The question is who will pay the ecological debts. State officials know exactly who should pay. According to them the main part of the burden should be carried by companies - the successors of the former socialist factories and companies that inherited the ecological debts. The companies object to this idea. And their reason is obvious - the estimated cost of the disposal of all high risk tips, old chemical stores and contaminated soil amounts to a prohibitive 100 billions Slovak crowns (2.63 billion EUR). The Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic has been working on legislation that would address the ecological debt in a comprehensive way for two years. But the final effect is minimal. The draft legislation presented in 2004 did not pass the commenting process and after pressure from the commercial sector the Ministry finally withdrew its draft. The Ministry then formed a working group with representatives of industries that was supposed to find a solution acceptable for both environmentalists and industries. But no progress has been made so far. 'The original bill was superficial and not supported by expert studies. And was presented too early,' explained Jozef Mikulec, a representative of the Industry Association of Slovakia, and argued that not even the European Union has yet issued a dedicated directive addressing the environmental burden. In his opinion the existing legislation - the Act on Water - is sufficient: and the closed and liquidated petrol stations provide a good enough example. At some old petrol stations the distribution pipes were leaking. The Ministry of Environment wants a new act. In its opinion the Act on Water only addresses the ecological debts on an ad hoc basis but does not offer a comprehensive solution. Enforceability measures are missing. 'We cannot even investigate the locations of ecological burdens as without new legislation we do not have access to production plants

  12. Equal pay by gender and by nationality: a comparative analysis of Switzerland's unequal equal pay policy regimes across time

    OpenAIRE

    Erne, Roland; Imboden, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    What explains the adoption of two different policies on equal pay by gender (EPG) and by nationality (EPN) in Switzerland? And why is the liberal, litigation-based, equal pay policy regime set up by the Gender Equality Act of 1996 much less effective than the neocorporatist ‘accompanying measures’ to the Bilateral European Union–Switzerland Agreement on Free Movement of Persons adopted in 1999 to ensure equal pay for workers of different national origins? The formation of two different policy...

  13. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology.

  14. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing poorly performing clinicians: health care providers' willingness to pay for independent help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Verity; Sussex, Jon; Ryan, Mandy; Tetteh, Ebenezer

    2012-03-01

    To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) of senior managers in the UK National Health Service (NHS) for services to help manage performance concerns with doctors, dentists and pharmacists. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit senior managers' preferences for a support service to help manage clinical performance concerns. The DCE was based on: a literature review; interviews with support service providers and clinical professional bodies; and discussion groups with managers. From the DCE responses, we estimate marginal WTP for aspects of support services. 451 NHS managers completed the DCE questionnaire. NHS managers are willing to pay for: advice, 'facilitation', and behavioural, health, clinical and organisational assessments. Telephone advice with written confirmation was valued most highly. NHS managers were willing to pay £161.56 (CI: £160.81-£162.32) per year per whole time equivalent doctor, dentist or pharmacist, for support to help manage clinical performance concerns. Marginal WTP varied across respondent subgroups but was always positive. Health care managers valued help in managing the clinicians' performance, and were willing to pay for it from their organisations' limited funds. Their WTP exceeds the current cost of a UK body providing similar support. Establishing a central body to provide such services across a health care system, with the associated economies of scale including cumulative experience, is an option that policy makers should consider seriously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Willingness to join and pay for the newly proposed social health insurance among teachers in Wolaita Sodo Town, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agago, Tesfamichael Alaro; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Ololo, Shimeles

    2014-07-01

    Cost-sharing between beneficiaries and governments is critical to achieve universal health care coverage. To address this, Ethiopia is currently introducing Social Health Insurance. However, there has been limited evidence on willingness to join the newly proposed insurance scheme in the country. The purpose of this study is to assess willingness to join and pay for the scheme among teachers in Wolaita Sodo Town government educational institutions, South Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 5 to March 10, 2012 on 335 teachers. Stratified simple random sampling technique was used and data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the crude and adjusted odds ratios for willingness to pay. Three hundred twenty-eight teachers participated in the study with response rate of 98%. About 55% of the teachers had never heard of any type of health insurance scheme. However, 74.4% of them were willing to pay for the suggested insurance scheme. About 47% of those who were willing to pay agreed to contribute greater than or equal to 4% of their monthly salaries. Willingness to pay was more likely among those who had heard about health insurance, had previous history of inability to pay for medical bills and achieved higher educational status. The majority of the teachers were willing to join social health insurance; however, adequate awareness creation and discussion should be made with all employees at various levels for the successful implementation of the scheme.

  17. A comparative study of gender pay gaps in nordic countries and eastern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Linling

    2007-01-01

    Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...

  18. Contributions of Consumer-perceived Creativity and Beauty to Willingness-to-pay for Design Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Thomas; Kristensen, Tore; Reber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    experiments using designer lamps and wrist watches as stimuli, the present study shows how creativity and beauty both positively influence consumer willingness-to-pay (WtP) for the designed product, but each explains different parts of the variance. The results show that it is essential to develop separate...... models of creativity and beauty evaluations in consumer psychology, in that they seem to be distinct factors, explaining different parts of the variance in their consequences on WtP....

  19. Gender inequality, gender pay gap, and pay inequity: Perceptions and reactions in Finnish society and workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Khoreva, Violetta

    2012-01-01

    A growing awareness of gender inequality as well as a conviction that it should be eliminated has produced a number of studies aiming at uncovering its reasons. Much less attention has been given to the subjective dimension of how individuals perceive gender inequality. One of the main elements of gender inequality, the gender pay gap, has also received considerable attention by scholars all around the world. However, several researchers documented that their respondents did not perceive the...

  20. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  1. Who pays the most cigarette tax in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Zeynep; Yürekli, Ayda A

    2016-01-01

    Although higher taxation of tobacco products is considered the most cost-effective tobacco control policy, its negative impact on low-income groups is one of the arguments used against it. To investigate the impact of current excise taxes and the increases of excise taxes on tobacco and household expenditures by expenditure tertiles, and examine who pays excise taxes in general. Impacts of excise taxes on cigarettes are examined with a budgetary approach. We first estimate the price elasticity of cigarettes by expenditure tertiles using data from the 2003 Turkish Household Expenditure Survey, the most recent data set covering detailed tobacco product information relevant to our analysis. We then conduct a number of simulation analyses by increasing the excise taxes per pack of cigarettes and examine the impacts of these increases on household expenditures. Finally, as excise tax increases, we predict the total excise tax paid by households in different expenditure tertiles and compare the concentration curve of excise tax spending with the Lorenz curve showing the cumulative share of total household expenditures by expenditure tertiles. We estimate the progressivity coefficient that measures the area between the Lorenz and concentration curves. The low-income group is found to be the most sensitive to tax and price increases. It spends a relatively higher share of the household expenditure on cigarettes compared with higher income groups. However, the results suggest a different outcome as excise tax increases; the share of household expenditures spent on cigarettes declines for all household tertiles but a significant reduction occurs on the lowest expenditure tertile, suggesting that increases in excise taxes are progressive. Furthermore, the highest expenditure tertile pays the highest excise tax among expenditure tertiles, and their share in total excise revenue increases as the excise tax per pack of cigarettes increases. The poor smoking households benefit

  2. Physician Perception of Pay Fairness and its Association with Work Satisfaction, Intent to Leave Practice, and Personal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Audiey C; Jager, Andrew J; Koenig, Barbara A; Moller, Arlen C; Tutty, Michael A; Williams, Geoffrey C; Wright, Scott M

    2018-06-01

    Primary care physicians generally earn less than specialists. Studies of other occupations have identified perception of pay fairness as a predictor of work- and life-related outcomes. We evaluated whether physicians' pay fairness perceptions were associated with their work satisfaction, turnover intention, and personal health. Three thousand five hundred eighty-nine physicians were surveyed. Agreement with "my total compensation is fair" was used to assess pay fairness perceptions. Total compensation was self-reported, and we used validated measures of work satisfaction, likelihood of leaving current practice, and health status. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between pay fairness perceptions and work/life-related outcomes. A total of 2263 physicians completed surveys. Fifty-seven percent believed their compensation was fair; there was no difference between physicians in internal medicine and non-primary care specialties (P = 0.58). Eighty-three percent were satisfied at work, 70% reported low likelihood of leaving their practice, and 77% rated their health as very good or excellent. Higher compensation levels were associated with greater work satisfaction and lower turnover intention, but most associations became statistically non-significant after adjusting for pay fairness perceptions. Perceived pay fairness was associated with greater work satisfaction (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 3.94-6.08; P pay was fair reported greater work satisfaction, lower likelihood of leaving their practice, and better overall health. Addressing pay fairness perceptions may be important for sustaining a satisfied and healthy physician workforce, which is necessary to deliver high-quality care.

  3. Intergenerational care: an exploration of consumer preferences and willingness to pay for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, N; Radford, K; Fitzgerald, J A; Comans, T; Harris, P; Harris, N

    2017-05-25

    To identify feasible models of intergenerational care programmes, that is, care of children and older people in a shared setting, to determine consumer preferences and willingness to pay. Feasible models were constructed in extensive consultations with a panel of experts using a Delphi technique (n = 23) and were considered based on their practical implementation within an Australian setting. This informed a survey tool that captured the preferences and willingness to pay for these models by potential consumers, when compared to the status quo. Information collected from the surveys (n = 816) was analysed using regression analysis to identify fundamental drivers of preferences and the prices consumers were willing to pay for intergenerational care programmes. The shared campus and visiting models were identified as feasible intergenerational care models. Key attributes of these models included respite day care; a common educational pedagogy across generations; screening; monitoring; and evaluation of participant outcomes. Although parents were more likely to take up intergenerational care compared to the status quo, adult carers reported a higher willingness to pay for these services. Educational attainment also influenced the likely uptake of intergenerational care. The results of this study show that there is demand for the shared campus and the visiting campus models among the Australian community. The findings support moves towards consumer-centric models of care, in line with national and international best practice. This consumer-centric approach is encapsulated in the intergenerational care model and enables greater choice of care to match different consumer demands.

  4. 77 FR 23595 - National Equal Pay Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... President, empowers women to recover wages lost to discrimination by extending the time period in which an...--regardless of the innovator's gender. On National Equal Pay Day, let us resolve to become a Nation that... injustice of wage discrimination, and join efforts to achieve equal pay. [[Page 23596

  5. Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in selected business organisations in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... The study was an attempt at investigating the relatedness of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria.

  6. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement micro data, this paper estimates…

  7. 40 CFR 57.109 - Maintenance of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of pay. 57.109 Section 57.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.109 Maintenance of pay. The Administrator will not approve...

  8. Shortchanged: The Hidden Costs of Lockstep Teacher Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Nobody goes into teaching to get rich, but that's no excuse not to pay teachers as professionals. Compensation is one of the most important factors in determining who enters the teaching profession and how long they stay--yet 90 percent of all U.S. school districts pay teachers without any regard for their actual performance with students,…

  9. Teacher Merit Pay: Is It a Good Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    President Obama's education agenda, which unhappily seems to be George W. Bush's program squared, contains two major features that will impact teacher pay and working conditions. The first is that charter schools are to be promoted aggressively. The second is an insistence on teacher merit pay. In this article, the author talks about teacher merit…

  10. 5 CFR 831.1003 - Deductions from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deductions from pay. 831.1003 Section 831.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1003 Deductions from pay. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this...

  11. Merit Pay and Music Education: A Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit and retain…

  12. Be vigilant, this government is coming after your pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Mike

    2016-02-10

    When chancellor George Osborne accepted what might have been a couple of luncheon vouchers from Google in payment of ten years' unpaid UK tax, the Department of Health submitted its evidence to the Pay Review Body in favour of extending 'plain time working' and introducing performance-related incremental pay progression.

  13. 22 CFR 214.42 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 214.42 Section 214.42... Advisory Committees § 214.42 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) A.I.D. follows OMB/CSC guidelines in section 11 of... experts, their compensation shall be fixed in accordance with CSC guidelines and regulations, and the...

  14. 50 CFR 510.9 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 510.9 Section 510... ACT § 510.9 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Compensation of members and staff of, and consultants to the... accordance with guidelines established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to...

  15. 44 CFR 12.18 - Uniform pay guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to the...

  16. The university workers' willingness to pay for commuting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, G.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Rietveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using a dynamic approach, employing data on job mobility, we demonstrate that university workers' marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting distance is about €0. 25 per kilometre travelled. This corresponds to a marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting time of about 75 % of the

  17. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  18. Equal pay for women in science is achievable

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... introduced a bill, the SECURE Water Act, that would expand the survey's groundwater and stream-flow monitoring programmes. Equal pay for women in science is achievable. Aggressive academic management can correct pay disparities between male and female scientists, say researchers. Their study.

  19. Pollution tax heuristics: An empirical study of willingness to pay higher gasoline taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.-L.; Walters, Joshua; Purgas, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Economists widely agree that in concept, pollution taxes are the most cost-effective means of reducing pollution. With the advent of monitoring and enforcement technologies, the case for pollution taxation is generally getting stronger on the merits. Despite widespread agreement among economists, however, pollution taxes remain unpopular, especially in North America. Some oppose pollution taxes because of a suspicion that government would misspend the tax proceeds, while others oppose pollution taxes because they would impose economic hardships upon certain individuals, groups, or industries. And there is no pollution tax more pathologically hated as the gasoline tax. This is unfortunate from an economic perspective, as a gasoline tax is easy to implement, and is a reasonable Pigouvian tax, scaling proportionately with the harms of consumption. Surprisingly, there is a dearth of theory explaining this cleave between economists and virtually everybody else. Drawing on behavioralist literatures, this paper introduces several theories as to why people and governments so vehemently oppose pollution taxes. Using the example of gasoline taxes, we provide some empirical evidence for these theories. We also show that 'revenue recycling,' the use of tax proceeds to reduce other taxes, is an effective means of reducing opposition to gasoline taxes

  20. The Future Train Wreck: Paying for Medical Costs for Higher Education's Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Trustees and administrators today confront one of two problems with post-retirement medical care. First, if institutions provide no support for their retirees' medical care, they implicitly offer a powerful incentive for senior faculty to stay on. The compensation and opportunity costs of this effect are obviously very high. But, second, if they…

  1. Ethical Issues in Corpus Linguistics And Annotation: Pay Per Hit Does Not Affect Effective Hourly Rate For Linguistic Resource Development On Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Fort, Karën; Adda, Gilles; Zhou, Sophia; Farri, Dimeji

    2016-05-01

    Ethical issues reported with paid crowdsourcing include unfairly low wages. It is assumed that such issues are under the control of the task requester. Can one control the amount that a worker earns by controlling the amount that one pays? 412 linguistic data development tasks were submitted to Amazon Mechanical Turk. The pay per HIT was manipulated through a range of values. We examined the relationship between the pay that is offered per HIT and the effective pay rate. There is no such relationship. Paying more per HIT does not cause workers to earn more: the higher the pay per HIT, the more time workers spend on them ( R = 0.92). So, the effective hourly rate stays roughly the same. The finding has clear implications for language resource builders who want to behave ethically: other means must be found in order to compensate workers fairly. The findings of this paper should not be taken as an endorsement of unfairly low pay rates for crowdsourcing workers. Rather, the intention is to point out that additional measures, such as pre-calculating and communicating to the workers an average hourly, rather than per-task, rate must be found in order to ensure an ethical rate of pay.

  2. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Diane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33, which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI levy (part of VAT is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and

  3. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazili, James; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Diane

    2011-06-27

    Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National

  4. Relative Importance of Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Perceived Risk on Willingness to Pay More

    OpenAIRE

    Demirgüneş, Banu Külter

    2015-01-01

    The consumer perceived value construct is a very important component in the consumer value literature and it has been identified as one of the most important measures for gaining a competitive advantage. All its consequences can be combined in a construct, defined as consumer behavior. The present article sustains the idea that consumer’s perceived value can been associated with satisfaction, which leads a behavioral intention such as willingness to pay a higher price. In the case of potentia...

  5. 5 CFR 550.131 - Authorization of pay for holiday work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work is...

  6. 20 CFR 10.216 - How is the pay rate for COP calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for COP purposes is equal to the employee's regular “weekly” pay (the average of the weekly pay over... occurred during the 45-day period are to be reflected in the weekly pay determination. (b) The weekly pay... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10...

  7. 5 CFR 534.406 - Conversion to the SES pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the SES pay system. (a) On the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after... rate of basic pay that is equal to the employee's rate of basic pay, plus any applicable locality-based... first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 2004. If an SES member's...

  8. LHCb: full-steam strategy pays off

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    LHCb looks at LHC proton collisions from a special angle. The experiment studies rare decays of the B particle to look into the physical processes that might hide new physics. Designed to operate at moderate luminosity, LHCb has been more daring for the last year and is running at conditions tougher than the nominal. The new strategy is paying off, as important physics results have just started to emerge…   Event display presented at the EPS-HEP 2011 conference showing a B0s meson decaying into a μ+ and μ- pair.  The LHCb detector was originally designed to run at moderate luminosity and low interaction pile-up. In other words, unlike the CMS and ATLAS experiments, the whole LHCb experimental set-up and data-taking infrastructure was designed to process just one proton interaction for each bunch crossing. For the last year, however, this has all been old news. A change in LHCb strategy was made possible when it became clear that the LHC was going to first i...

  9. INDUSTRIAL BRANDING – DOES IT PAY OFF?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a world characterized by the growth of global competition, a key question raised by business-to-business marketers is if brands in industrial markets really pay off, that is in which contexts and for what type of customers branding efforts are important and can bring competitive advantages for the companies owning those brands. The particularities and importance of branding in business has become a major field of scientific debate in the last years, but there are still questions unanswered and aspects unclear and under researched. Traditionally, B2B managers have been more skeptical about the benefits of branding, arguing that the organizational buying process is rational and focused on functional characteristics of the products and not based on the emotional values used in the B2C context. In this paper, we review the literature on brand equity in industrial markets and propose a synthetic conceptual model, with the purpose to shed more light on the issue of industrial branding.

  10. How to Pay for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E; Kaplan, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The United States stands at a crossroads in how to pay for health care. Fee for service, the dominant payment model in the U.S. and many other countries, is now widely recognized as perhaps the single biggest obstacle to improving health care delivery. A battle is currently raging, outside of the public eye, between the advocates of two radically different payment approaches: capitation and bundled payments. The stakes are high, and the outcome will define the shape of the health care system for many years to come, for better or for worse. In this article, the authors argue that although capitation may deliver modest savings in the short run, it brings significant risks and will fail to fundamentally change the trajectory of a broken system. The bundled payment model, in contrast, triggers competition between providers to create value where it matters--at the individual patient level--and puts health care on the right path. The authors provide robust proof-of-concept examples of bundled payment initiatives in the U.S. and abroad, address the challenges of transitioning to bundled payments, and respond to critics' concerns about obstacles to implementation.

  11. The effects of pay and job satisfaction on the labour supply of hospital consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony

    2007-12-01

    There is little evidence about the responsiveness of doctors' labour supply to changes in pay. Given substantial increases in NHS expenditure, new national contracts for hospital doctors and general practitioners that involve increases in pay, and the gradual imposition of a ceiling on hours worked through the European Working Time Directive, knowledge of the size of labour supply elasticities is crucial in examining the effects of these major changes. This paper estimates a modified labour supply model for hospital consultants, using data from a survey of consultants in Scotland. Rigidities in wage setting within the NHS mean that the usual specification of the labour supply model is extended by the inclusion of job quality (job satisfaction) in the equation explaining the optimal number of hours worked. Generalised Method of Moments estimation is used to account for the endogeneity of both earnings and job quality. Our results confirm the importance of pay and non-pay factors on the supply of labour by consultants. The results are sensitive to the exclusion of job quality and show a slight underestimation of the uncompensated earnings elasticity (of 0.09) without controlling for the effect of job quality, and 0.12 when we controlled for job quality. Pay increases in the new contract for consultants will only result in small increases in hours worked. Small and non-significant elasticity estimates at higher quantiles in the distribution of hours suggest that any increases in hours worked are more likely for consultants who work part time. Those currently working above the median number of hours are much less responsive to changes in earnings. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Overview: 2017 Professionals in Higher Education Salary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; McChesney, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The "Faculty in Higher Education Survey" collects data from approximately 700 higher education institutions on nearly 250,000 full-time faculty (tenure track and non-tenure track), as well as academic department heads and adjunct (pay-per-course) faculty. Data collected for full-time faculty include: salary, supplemental salary and…

  13. Utah System of Higher Education 2015-16 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah System of Higher Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This annual report describes Utah System of Higher Education's progress in the 2015-2016 academic year in the following areas: (1) Strategic plan; (2) Enrollment and completion; (3) Paying for college; (4) Funding higher education; (5) College preparation; (6) Concurrent enrollment and math; (7) Outreach and access; and (8) Industry and the…

  14. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  15. Circulating levels of dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin are higher in old compared with young men and women and positively associated with whole-body bone mineral density in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulson, J.; Bagley, L.; Barnouin, Y.; Bradburn, S.; Butler-Browne, G.; Gapeyeva, H.; Hogrel, J. Y.; Maden-Wilkinson, T.; Maier, A. B.; Meskers, C.; Murgatroyd, C.; Narici, M.; Pääsuke, M.; Sassano, L.; Sipilä, S.; Al-Shanti, N.; Stenroth, L.; Jones, D. A.; McPhee, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Bone mineral density declines with increasing older age. We examined the levels of circulating factors known to regulate bone metabolism in healthy young and older adults. The circulating levels of dickkopf-1, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin were positively associated with

  16. Consumers' willingness to pay for nutritional claims fighting the obesity epidemic: the case of reduced-fat and low salt cheese in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Magistris, T; Lopéz-Galán, B

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for cheeses bearing reduced-fat and low salt claims in Spain. An experiment with 219 cheese consumers was conducted in the period March-May 2015. We used different versions of cheese bearing reduced-fat and low salt claims. A choice experiment was used to estimate WTP for reduced-fat and/or low salt cheeses. Participants faced eight choice sets, each consisting of two packages of cheese with different combinations of two claims. Individuals chose one of the two packages of cheese in each choice set, or decided not to choose either. Moreover, to consider possible heterogeneity in WTP across consumers, a random parameters logit model (RPL), a Chi-squared test, and analysis of variance tests were used. Spanish cheese consumers were willing to pay a positive premium for packages of cheese with reduced-fat claims (€0.538/100 g), and for cheese with reduced-fat and low salt claims (€1.15/100 g). Conversely, consumers valued low-salt content claims negatively. They preferred to pay €0.38/100 g for a conventional cheese rather than one low in salt content. As there was heterogeneity in consumers' WTP, two different consumer segments were identified. Segment 1 consisted of normal weight and younger consumers with higher incomes and levels of education, who valued low salt cheese more negatively than those individuals in Segment 2, predominantly comprising overweight and older consumers with low income and educational level. This means that individuals in Segment 1 would pay more for conventional cheese (€1/100 g) than those in Segment 2 (€0.50/100 g). However, no difference between the two segments was found in WTP for reduced-fat cheese. The findings suggest that consumers are willing to pay a price premium for a package of cheese with a reduced-fat claim or cheese with reduced-fat and low salt claims appearing together; however, they are not willing to pay for a package of cheese

  17. Non-performance of the Severance Pay Program in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vodopivec

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining information from the Firm Survey of Labor Costs with the information about claims filed with the Guarantee Fund by workers whose employers defaulted on their severance pay obligations, the paper analyzes the so-called non-performance problem of severance pay – the fact that coverage, and thus legal entitlement, does not guarantee the actual receipt of the benefit – as experienced in Slovenia in 2000. The findings are threefold: (i one-third of total obligations incurred by firms failed to be honored and only a small portion of defaulted severance pay claims was reimbursed by the Guarantee Fund; (ii while both men and women seem to be equally affected, workers older than 40 were disproportionally represented among those whose severance pay claims failed to be honored; and, (iii among firms that incurred severance pay liabilities, larger and more productive firms were more likely to observe their fiduciary obligations and pay them out. These findings corroborate the weaknesses of severance pay as an income protection program, pointing to the large scale of the non-performance problem and the inequities created by it.

  18. Take-or-Pay under Japanese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namikawa, Ryoichi

    2003-01-01

    Japan has tried to increase the import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) because of the nation's fragile energy supply structure. In Japan, almost all LNG is imported under long-term contracts with a Take-or-Pay clause, although buyers assume considerable risk under such a clause. This paper tries to determine why the Take-or-Pay clause has been retained in LNG import contracts in Japan, focusing on the relation between Take-or-Pay and energy security policy. It is found that the government has not pursued a consistent, consecutive policy on Take-or-Pay under the changing energy situation after oil crises. On the one hand, the government has accepted Take-or-Pay because it secures a stable supply of LNG, but on the other hand, it has tried to scrap Take-or-Pay in order to reduce buyers' risk. Furthermore, it was not until the middle/late 1990s that the government implemented deregulation. It is concluded that the government's energy security policy has played an important role in keeping Take-or-Pay in Japan

  19. Who Pays for Dates? Following Versus Challenging Gender Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lever

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chivalry dictates that on a “date,” the man pays, whereas egalitarian ideals suggest that gender should not determine who pays. We examined the extent to which people embrace or reject these competing notions. Unmarried heterosexual participants (N = 17,607 reported their behaviors and attitudes regarding who does and who should pay for dates on a survey posted on NBCNews.com. Although most men (74% and women (83% report that both members of the couple contribute to dating expenses after dating for 6 months, most men (84% and women (58% reported that men still pay more expenses. Many women (39% wished men would reject their offers to pay and 44% of women were bothered when men expected women to help pay. Many women, however, were bothered when men won’t accept their money (40%. Nearly two thirds of men (64% believed that women should contribute and nearly half of men (44% said they would stop dating a woman who never pays. Nevertheless, the majority of men said they feel guilty when accepting women’s money (76%. These data illustrate how many people are resisting or conforming to traditional gender norms in one telling aspect of dating that historically was related to the male’s displaying benevolent sexism, dominance, and ability to fulfill breadwinner role during courtship.

  20. Pricing of on-line advertising: pay-per-view or pay-per-click?

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the choice of pay-per-view (PPV) and price-per-click (PPC) when a web publisher is a price taker in the market for advertising banners, and the number of visits is decreasing in advertising. The main result is that the web publisher should always choose either PPV or PPC. If the click-through rate is exogenous, then the optimal amount of advertising is the same for both pricing metholds and the choice of pricing method is given by the click-through rate. If the click-through rate i...

  1. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  2. Trends in Gender Equality in the UK, 1968 to 2012: Four Barriers to ¡®Equal Pay¡¯ for Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Tattam; John Simister

    2014-01-01

    This paper disaggregates the pay gap between men and women into four possible ¡®barriers¡¯: access to paid work; part-time versus full-time jobs; entrance into higher-paid jobs; and similar pay for equivalent work. UK data from 1968 to 2012 are analyzed, to investigate these possible barriers. All four barriers have persisted for decades, and all four ¡®barriers¡¯ tend to work in favour of men. There is evidence of progress in gender equality since 1968 ¨C for example, the 1970 ¡®Equal Pay Ac...

  3. Assessing the Impact of Wage Bargaining and Worker Preferences on the Gender Pay Gap in Ireland Using the National Employment Survey 2003

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, Seamus; Kelly, Elish; O'Connell, Philip J.; Callan, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude and nature of the gender pay gap in Ireland using the National Employment Survey 2003, an employeremployee matched dataset. The results suggest that while a wage bargaining system centred around social partnership was of benefit to females irrespective of their employment status, the minimum wage mechanism appears to improve the relative position of part-time females only. Trade union membership was associated with a widening gender pay gap in the full-time l...

  4. Why not “just for the money”? An experimental vignette study of the cognitive price effects and crowding effects of performance-related pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jensen, Lars Engelbrecht

    2017-01-01

    whether the mechanism is motivational as expected. This study finds support for these expectations using a vignette survey experimental setup of 1,152 responses (from 384 respondents). The results indicate that PRP positively affects organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), but that this effect......-controlling, the importance of intrinsic motivation can actually increase. The implications of this study are that PRP is not necessarily harmful, and that managers should pay close attention to how their employees perceive performance-based pay systems....

  5. Willingness to pay for E85 from corn, switchgrass, and wood residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Kimberly L.; Clark, Christopher D.; English, Burton C.; Menard, R. Jamey; Skahan, Denise K.; Marra, Adrienne C.

    2010-01-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for E85 (automotive fuel blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) was estimated from a contingent choice exercise contained in a national survey of consumers. The choice exercise included E85 blends from three different feedstock sources (corn grain, switchgrass, and wood wastes) and an E10 blend (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline) with corn grain as the ethanol feedstock. Results from the study indicate willingness to pay a premium for E85 from switchgrass compared with E10 from corn. Concerns about land use for ''food versus fuel'' had a negative impact on WTP for E85 from corn grain, while greater concerns about fuel security relative to the environment had a positive impact. (author)

  6. Willingness to pay for E85 from corn, switchgrass, and wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kimberly L.; Clark, Christopher D.; English, Burton C.; Menard, R. Jamey; Skahan, Denise K.; Marra, Adrienne C. [Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Tennessee, 302 Morgan Hall, Knoxville, TN, 37996 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for E85 (automotive fuel blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) was estimated from a contingent choice exercise contained in a national survey of consumers. The choice exercise included E85 blends from three different feedstock sources (corn grain, switchgrass, and wood wastes) and an E10 blend (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline) with corn grain as the ethanol feedstock. Results from the study indicate willingness to pay a premium for E85 from switchgrass compared with E10 from corn. Concerns about land use for ''food versus fuel'' had a negative impact on WTP for E85 from corn grain, while greater concerns about fuel security relative to the environment had a positive impact. (author)

  7. Paying for obesity: a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lisa A; Cooper, Julie

    2009-06-01

    Coverage for obesity related services is highly variable. Despite this, health plans, purchasers, and states have mounted numerous recent initiatives. To identify the range of approaches being used to address coverage and reimbursement for childhood obesity services. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured protocol to identify the types of activities they or their organization were engaged in to address childhood obesity, to learn about private payer policies and procedures, to identify best practices, potential resources and/or other key informants. Domains addressed in the protocol included scope of the respondent's organization's activities, the rationale for supporting obesity activities, the degree to which obesity services were a covered benefit and what if any barriers or challenges were encountered in implementation, the policy climate within which the organization operates (e.g. state legislation, initiatives or task forces), and any assessment of the impact and/or cost of implementing their initiatives. The individuals interviewed represented respondents from each of the following categories: employer, health plan, and state insurance programs and conducted by phone between November 2007 and March 2008. In addition to the information gathered by the key informant interviews we conducted a search of the relevant peer review and grey literature between 2005 and 2008 and input from a national expert advisory group. Significant variation, as well as recent changes, were identified in both the private and public sector. Approaches included new benefits and incentives for parents and providers. Only anecdotal evidence of impact of the recent changes was available. There is important forward movement in how public and private players are addressing paying for obesity related services. Medicaid and SCHIP programs have an opportunity to provide additional leadership. Substantial investments in evaluation and research are needed to learn

  8. Household willingness to pay for green electricity in urban and peri-urban Tigray, northern Ethiopia: Determinants and welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arega, Tiruwork; Tadesse, Tewodros

    2017-01-01

    This paper set out to estimate household willingness to pay for green electric services and welfare gains attributed to such schemes. For this purpose, contingent valuation survey was conducted on 300 urban and peri-urban households in northern Ethiopia. A bivariate probit model was used to elicit willingness to pay and analyze determinants of household willingness to pay. On the other hand, welfare gains were analyzed using consumer and producer surpluses. The mean willingness to pay was estimated to be Birr 12.5 (0.66 USD) per month per household for five years on top of monthly electricity bill. Among others, income played positive role on willingness to pay while difference in willingness to pay behavior was observed between male and female-headed households. In addition, distance to wood and charcoal (alternative energy) markets played encouraging role for willingness to pay. Results from the welfare analysis show that there is significant societal gain to be made both in terms of surplus for households and producers (government) if the previously ‘untapped’ green electricity service was implemented. The revenue (producer surplus) for the state would be instrumental in contributing to the state's endeavor to generate a much-needed capital for investment in and expansion of renewable energy. - Highlights: • Thin markets in alternative energy encourage WTP for green electricity services. • Households can significantly contribute to cost-sharing for green electricity. • Significant surpluses can be gained through improving green electricity services. • Welfare gains could be useful to support the state's effort to improve electricity.

  9. Performance Pay and Ethnic Wage Differences in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Colin P. Green; John S. Heywood; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos

    2012-01-01

    In the first study using British data, we show that the average wage advantage of holding a performance pay job is greater for minorities than that for Whites. This generates a smaller ethnic wage gap among performance pay jobs than among time rate jobs. Yet, this pattern is driven by those receiving bonuses not those receiving performance related pay and it is evident only for Asians and for those in managerial jobs. Moreover, it is partially driven by sorting in which the more able take bon...

  10. The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alan; Petrongolo, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Women in Britain who work part-time have, on average, hourly earnings about 25% less than that of women working full-time. This gap has widened greatly over the past 30 years. This paper tries to explain this part-time pay penalty. It shows that a sizeable part of the penalty can be explained by the differing characteristics pf FT and PT women. Inclusion of standard demographics halves the estimate of the pay penalty. But inclusion of occupation makes the pay penalty very small, suggesting th...

  11. The gender pay gap in informal employment in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rokicka, Magdalena; Ruzik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the gender pay gap in the formal and informal labour markets in Poland. The authors verify the hypothesis of the existence of a gender pay gap in informal work and compare this gap with the one observed in the formal (registered) labour market. Various analyses of available data show that size and characteristics of gender pay gap differ depending on the level of earnings. The inequality of earnings among unregistered women and men is more pronounced at the b...

  12. Professional and Social Media Sites (SMSs): Motives and Positive Values of Accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in Teaching Practices according to Indonesian Professional Educators: A Case Study in Two Indonesian Higher Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, J. Y.; Billy, Y. L.

    2017-09-01

    In millennium era, the proliferating Social Media Sites (SMSs) has not only brought increasing demands for all humans, but also creates positive values, specifically for the professional educators or lecturers in any ages. This study envisages the positive values of accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in teaching practices according to the professional educators. Thirty professional educators, i.e. the lecturers, from two universities (i.e. Multimedia Nusantara University and Bina Nusantara University) has participated in this study. The data was collected from the survey by means of questionnaires, analysed using percentages, and exposed the results descriptively. The findings reflected that the positive values of accommodating Social Media Sites in teaching practices were to develop social skills and improve academic skills. However among the two values, the latter was highly influencing the professional educators because of the four reasons: enabling to do tutorial lessons, providing online discussion space with experts or guest lecturers, assisting in doing peer-review and peer-editing, and enhancing the receptive skills, the productive skills, and also the critical thinking skills of the users in SMSs, especially the professional educators or lecturers. Thus, accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in teaching practices is essential for professional educators in Indonesia.

  13. Shifted Baselines Reduce Willingness to Pay for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren McClenachan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A loss of memory of past environmental degradation has resulted in shifted baselines, which may result in conservation and restoration goals that are less ambitious than if stakeholders had a full knowledge of ecosystem potential. However, the link between perception of baseline states and support for conservation planning has not been tested empirically. Here, we investigate how perceptions of change in coral reef ecosystems affect stakeholders' willingness to pay (WTP for the establishment of protected areas. Coral reefs are experiencing rapid, global change that is observable by the public, and therefore provide an ideal ecosystem to test links between beliefs about baseline states and willingness to support conservation. Our survey respondents perceived change to coral reef communities across six variables: coral abundance, fish abundance, fish diversity, fish size, sedimentation, and water pollution. Respondants who accurately perceived declines in reef health had significantly higher WTP for protected areas (US $256.80 vs. $102.50 per year, suggesting that shifted baselines may reduce engagement with conservation efforts. If WTP translates to engagement, this suggests that goals for restoration and recovery are likely to be more ambitious if the public is aware of long term change. Therefore, communicating the scope and depth of environmental problems is essential in engaging the public in conservation.

  14. 18 CFR 2.103 - Statement of policy respecting take or pay provisions in gas purchase contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of policy respecting take or pay provisions in gas purchase contracts. 2.103 Section 2.103 Conservation of Power and... the prices of deregulated and other higher cost gas from market constraints, the Commission sets forth...

  15. Households' willingness to pay for overhead-to-underground conversion of electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNair, Ben J., E-mail: Ben.McNair@anu.edu.a [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Hensher, David A.; Rose, John M. [Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, The Business School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    Underground low-voltage electricity networks have several advantages over overhead networks including reliability of supply, safety and improved visual amenity. The economic viability of replacing existing overhead networks with new underground networks depends on the value of these benefits to households, but no complete value estimates are available in the literature. This paper represents a contribution towards addressing this research gap. A stated choice survey is used to estimate willingness to pay for undergrounding in established residential areas in Canberra, Australia. Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household and there is significant variation in preferences over the population. The results suggest that benefits would be highest in areas with higher household income and older residents where visual amenity, safety, tree trimming, or restrictions on the use of yard space are of concern. - Research highlights: {yields} A choice experiment is used to estimate values for undergrounding electricity wires. {yields} Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household in Canberra, Australia. {yields} Preferences vary considerably over the population. {yields} Benefits would be highest in areas with higher income and older residents.

  16. Ability to Pay for Future National Health Financing Scheme among Malaysian Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizuddin, Azimatun Noor; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    Malaysia is no exception to the challenging health care financing phenomenon of globalization. The objective of the present study was to assess the ability to pay among Malaysian households as preparation for a future national health financing scheme. This was a cross-sectional study involving representative samples of 774 households in Peninsular Malaysia. A majority of households were found to have the ability to pay for their health care. Household expenditure on health care per month was between MYR1 and MYR2000 with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 73.54 (142.66), or in a percentage of per-month income between 0.05% and 50% with mean (SD) 2.74 (5.20). The final analysis indicated that ability to pay was significantly higher among younger and higher-income households. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic statuses are important eligibility factors to be considered in planning the proposed national health care financing scheme to shield the needed group from catastrophic health expenditures. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parents willingness to pay for a human papillomavirus vaccine to protect their adolescent daughters. Maule Region, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio A Cerda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the willingness to pay of parents of teenage daughters for a vaccine against human papillomavirus in the Maule Region, Chile. Materials and methods. A sample of 386 parents with daughters between 12 and 18 years old, representing the five largest cities of the Region of Maule, socioeconomically stratified. WTP was obtained using the contingent valuation method in double bounded format. Results. Parents are willing to pay an average of US$ 252.71 to vaccinate their daughters against virus, where the price and number of daughters negatively affects the probability of willingness to pay, and family income positively affects the probability. Conclusion. There is a possibility of using shared funding between the government and the parents of potential daughter to be affected by the human papillomavirus to reduce cervical cancer events.

  18. A celebration of science in the Pays de Gex and at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antoine Cappelle

    The “Fête de la science” runs from 16 to 22 November tis year and CERN will once again be taking part, in partnership with the Euroscience Léman Association. Throughout the week, science will be placed in the spotlight in the Pays de Gex, through a variety of presentations, exhibitions, lectures and workshops.     Every autumn, the French Ministry for Higher Education and Research organises the Fête de la Science. Events are organised across the country to bring science closer to the general public. The festivities on offer in the Pays de Gex have been devised by the Euroscience Léman Association in partnership with CERN. The Globe of Science and Innovation will play host to a theatrical presentation, lectures and the Accelerating Science exhibition. Other events will be held in Divonne-les-Bains, including workshops, film shows and a Science Café. The whole thing kicks off at the Globe where events will be organ...

  19. Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...) examined the attributes of a subset of the government's civilian workforce: the roughly 1.4 million salaried workers not including employees of the Postal Service who fill full-time permanent positions in the executive branch...

  20. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro

    2016-01-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals...... that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m3. This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce....

  1. 76 FR 32859 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... and the strong racial, ethnic, and cultural ties which bind together the residents of those places and... cultural ties. 5 U.S.C. 5304. Comment 9 ``The locality pay system is not intended to allow the Government...

  2. Who's Gonna Pay the Piper for Free Online Databases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacso, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Discusses new pricing models for some online services and considers the possibilities for the traditional online database market. Topics include multimedia music databases, including copyright implications; other retail-oriented databases; and paying for free databases with advertising. (LRW)

  3. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...... level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive....

  4. Stated Preference Survey Estimating the Willingness to Pay ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national stated preference survey designed to elicit household willingness to pay for reductions in impinged and entrained fish at cooling water intake structures. To improve estimation of environmental benefits estimation

  5. Factors Influencing the Willingness to Pay User Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, George W.

    2012-01-01

    In this Note I explore the factors which influence the demand side of program participation, or the willingness to pay (WTP). The WTP estimates can help you determine how many people will participate in an event at each fee level.

  6. Health financing: Who pays for equitable health systems? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... Countries rich and poor face difficult choices in funding quality health care for ... while 31 member states of the World Health Organization pay less than ... on how poor families are benefiting from services – or being excluded.

  7. Drivers willingness to pay progressive rate for street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study finds willingness to pay and price elasticity for on-street parking demand using stated : preference data obtained from 238 respondents. Descriptive, statistical and economic analyses including : regression, generalized linear model, and f...

  8. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  9. Value orientation and framing as determinants of stated willingness to pay for eco-labeled electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansla, A. [Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 500, 40530 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    In the context of a survey, an experiment examined how egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric framing of consequences influence stated willingness to pay (SWTP) for eco-labeled electricity. The results for a random sample of 476 Swedish residents showed that SWTP decreases linearly with size of the surcharge for eco-labeled electricity, that SWPT is higher for biospheric framing than for altruistic and egoistic framing, and that SWPT does not differ for altruistic and egoistic framing. A higher SWPT is also observed for individuals with a self-transcendence value orientation than for individuals with a self-enhancement value orientation.

  10. Willingness-to-pay for schistosomiasis-related health outcomes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, J M; Sambo, L G; Kainyu, L H

    2000-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) provides a framework for identifying, quantifying, and valuing in monetary terms all the important costs and consequences to society of competing disease interventions. Thus, CBA requires that impacts of schistosomiasis interventions on beneficiaries'health be valued in monetary terms Economic theory requires the use of the willingness to pay (WTP) approach in valuation of changes in health as a result of intervention. It is the only approach which is consistent with the potential Pareto improvement principle, and hence, consistent with CBA. The present study developed a health outcome measure and tested its operational feasibility. Contingent valuation for certain return to normal health from various health states, and for remaining in one's current health state were elicited through direct interview of randomly selected rice farmers, teachers, and health personnel in Kenya. The WTP to avoid risk of advancing to the next more severe state, seemed to be higher than WTP for a return to normal health. Generally, there was a significant difference between the average WTP values of farmers, teachers and health personnel populations. The gender and occupation variable coefficients were positive and highly significant in all regressions. The coefficients of the other explanatory variables were generally not statistically significant, indicating that medical expenses, anxiety cost, loss of earnings, and loss of work time, implied in various health states descriptions did not have significant effect on respondents expressed WTP values. The latter finding shows that there is need for more research to identify the other (besides gender and occupation) determinants of expressed WTP values in Africa. This study has demonstrated that it is possible to elicit coherent WTP values from economically under-developed countries. Further empirical work is clearly needed to at least address the validity and reliability of the contingent valuation approach and

  11. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Dror, David Mark

    2016-01-01

    Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature. We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP. 16 studies (21 articles) from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP. The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources.

  12. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Nosratnejad

    Full Text Available Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature.We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP.16 studies (21 articles from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP.The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources.

  13. Podoconiosis patients’ willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n = 393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085

  14. Women's Status and World-System Position: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard York

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim here is to strengthen the links between the world-systems perspective and research ongender inequality. Grounding our analysis in theories assessing the connections between genderrelationships and world-system processes, we empirically explore (] the extent to whichwomen's status in nations overlaps with the world-system position of those nations and (2 theinfluence of women's status within nations on a variety of national characteristics. We find thatwomen's status has a moderately strong association with world-system position, which suggeststhat macro-comparative research may confound the respective effects on a variety of socialcharacteristics of women's status and world-system position if indicators of both factors are notincluded in analyses. We also find that, controlling for world-system position, GDP per capita,and urbanization, in nations where women have higher status (variously measured, total fertilityrates, infant mortality rates, military expenditures, and inflows of foreign direct investinent arelower, and public health care expenditures and per capita meat consumption are higher. Theseresults suggest that women's status likely has social effects that can be seen on the macro-level,and that world-systems analysts should pay more attention to theories of gender in their research.

  15. Nursing home administrator compensation: pay equity and determinants of salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Douglas A

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the issue of gender-based pay inequality. Male NHAs earn 7 percent more than female NHAs, but factors such as education, experience, tenure, facility size, ownership, location, competition, and emphasis on private pay census account for the difference. The findings, however, indicate that racial inequalities and gender differences among married NHAs may be present, requiring further investigation. Key implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Performance-related pay and gender wage differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...

  17. Equal Pay: A Thirty-Five Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ida L.

    Issued on the 35th anniversary of the signing of the Equal Pay Act (1963), this report is a historical analysis of the economic trends affecting women workers from the years leading up to passage of the act through the present. It is divided into three time periods to highlight important developments: Part I--The Early Impact of the Equal Pay Act,…

  18. Merit pay as a motivator in the federal sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 required the implementation of the Merit Pay System for a portion of the Federal civilian workforce as a means of increasing productivity through the use of monetary incentives. To test the validity of this concept, several theories of worker motivation are reviewed and their relation to money motivation and pay-for-performance is established. These relationships are compared to the results of dat...

  19. Willingness to pay for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael P; Chiang-Colvin, Alexis S; Bosco, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of ACL reconstructions in terms of patient satisfaction and function are well known. Most orthopaedic surgeons feel that Medicare and other payors do not reimburse enough for this surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine how much patients are willing to pay for this surgery and compare it to reimbursement rates. We constructed a survey which described the function and limitations of an ACL deficient knee and the expected function of that knee after an ACL reconstruction. We then asked the volunteers how much they would be willing to pay for an ACL reconstruction if it were their knee. We also gathered data on the yearly earnings and Tegner activity level of the volunteers. In all, 143 volunteers completed the survey. We computed correlation coefficients between willingness to pay and both yearly earnings and Tegner activity level. The average amount that the volunteers were willing to pay for an ACL reconstruction was $4,867.00. There was no correlation between yearly earnings and willingness to pay. The correlation coefficient was 0.34. There was a weak correlation between Tegner activity level and willingness to pay. This correlation coefficient was 0.81. The Medicare allowable rate for ACL reconstruction (CPT 29888) in the geographic area of the study was $1,132.00. The data demonstrates that patients are willing to pay much more than traditional payors for ACL reconstruction. These payors undervalue the benefit of this surgery to the patient. There is increasing pressure on orthopaedic surgeons to not participate in insurance plans that reimburse poorly. This places an increasing financial burden on the patient. This study suggests that patients may be willing to pay more for their surgery than their insurance plan and accept more of this burden.

  20. Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market institutions are responsible for an important portion of international differences in wage inequality, the inverse relationship between ...