Sample records for higher liquid fraction

  1. Thermal decomposition of expanded polystyrene in a pebble bed reactor to get higher liquid fraction yield at low temperatures. (United States)

    Chauhan, R S; Gopinath, S; Razdan, P; Delattre, C; Nirmala, G S; Natarajan, R


    Expanded polystyrene is one of the polymers produced in large quantities due to its versatile application in different fields. This polymer is one of the most intractable components in municipal solid waste. Disposal of polymeric material by pyrolysis or catalytic cracking yields valuable hydrocarbon fuels or monomers. Literature reports different types of reactors and arrangements that have uniform temperatures during pyrolysis and catalytic cracking. The present study focuses on reducing the temperature to maximize the quantity of styrene monomer in the liquid product. A bench scale reactor has been developed to recover the styrene monomer and other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried under partial oxidation and vacuum conditions in the temperature range of 300-500 degrees C. In the pyrolysis optimization studies, the best atmospheric condition was determined to be vacuum, the pyrolysis temperature should be 500 degrees C, yield of liquid product obtained was 91.7% and yield of styrene obtained was 85.5%. In the characterization studies, distillation and IR spectroscopy experiments were carried out. The remaining of the liquid product comprises of benzene, ethyl benzene, and styrene dimers and trimers.

  2. Fractionalized Z_{2} Classical Heisenberg Spin Liquids. (United States)

    Rehn, J; Sen, Arnab; Moessner, R


    Quantum spin systems are by now known to exhibit a large number of different classes of spin liquid phases. By contrast, for classical Heisenberg models, only one kind of fractionalized spin liquid phase, the so-called Coulomb or U(1) spin liquid, has until recently been identified: This exhibits algebraic spin correlations and impurity moments, "orphan spins," whose size is a fraction of that of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. Here, we present two Heisenberg models exhibiting fractionalization in combination with exponentially decaying correlations. These can be thought of as a classical continuous spin version of a Z_{2} spin liquid. Our work suggests a systematic search and classification of classical spin liquids as a worthwhile endeavor.

  3. Higher Order and Fractional Diffusive Equations

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    D. Assante


    Full Text Available We discuss the solution of various generalized forms of the Heat Equation, by means of different tools ranging from the use of Hermite-Kampé de Fériet polynomials of higher and fractional order to operational techniques. We show that these methods are useful to obtain either numerical or analytical solutions.

  4. Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails (United States)

    Kawai, Reiichiro


    We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.

  5. Liquid column fractionation: a method of solvent fractionation of coal liquefaction and petroleum products

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    Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Wooton, D.L.


    A method is described for the solvent fractionation of coal liquefaction and petroleum products which is both reproducible and considerably more rapid than many conventional solvent fractionation techniques. This method involves sequential elution of a sample injected onto an inert liquid chromatographic column. Applications of this method to coal liquefaction and petroleum products are given.

  6. Eigenvalue Problem of Nonlinear Semipositone Higher Order Fractional Differential Equations

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    Jing Wu


    Full Text Available We study the eigenvalue interval for the existence of positive solutions to a semipositone higher order fractional differential equation = =   where ,  , , , satisfying , is the standard Riemann-Liouville derivative, , and is allowed to be changing-sign. By using reducing order method, the eigenvalue interval of existence for positive solutions is obtained.

  7. Nutrient Recovery From the Liquid Fraction of Digestate by Clinoptilolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocatürk, Pelin; Bruun, Sander; Zwart, Kor; Jensen, Lars Stoumann


    The direct application of the liquid fraction of biogas digestate to agricultural fields as a fertilizer may result in practical and environmental problems. Concentrating nutrients onto clinoptilolite and subsequently using clinoptilolite as a fertilizer could be an alternative solution for the

  8. Spin-Liquid-to-Spin-Liquid Transition in Kitaev Magnets Driven by Fractionalization. (United States)

    Nasu, Joji; Kato, Yasuyuki; Yoshitake, Junki; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Motome, Yukitoshi


    While phase transitions between magnetic analogs of the three states of matter-a long-range ordered state, paramagnet, and spin liquid-are extensively studied, the possibility of "liquid-liquid" transitions, namely, between different spin liquids, remains elusive. By introducing the additional Ising coupling into the honeycomb Kitaev model with bond asymmetry, we discover that the Kitaev spin liquid turns into a spin-nematic quantum paramagnet before a magnetic order is established by the Ising coupling. The quantum phase transition between the two liquid states accompanies a topological change driven by fractionalized excitations, the Z_{2} gauge fluxes, and is of first order. At finite temperatures, this yields a persisting first-order transition line that terminates at a critical point located deep inside the regime where quantum spins are fractionalized. It is suggested that similar transitions may occur in other perturbed Kitaev magnets with bond asymmetry.

  9. Fractional Consumption of Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen During the Space Shuttle Program (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.


    The Space Shuttle uses the propellants, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to meet part of the propulsion requirements from ground to orbit. The Kennedy Space Center procured over 25 million kilograms of liquid hydrogen and over 250 million kilograms of liquid oxygen during the 3D-year Space Shuttle Program. Because of the cryogenic nature of the propellants, approximately 55% of the total purchased liquid hydrogen and 30% of the total purchased liquid oxygen were used in the Space Shuttle Main Engines. The balance of the propellants were vaporized during operations for various purposes. This paper dissects the total consumption of liqUid hydrogen and liqUid oxygen and determines the fraction attributable to each of the various processing and launch operations that occurred during the entire Space Shuttle Program at the Kennedy Space Center.

  10. Fractionation of metal stable isotopes by higher plants (United States)

    Von Blanckenburg, F.; Von Wiren, N.; Guelke, M.; Weiss, D.J.; Bullen, T.D.


    Higher plants induce chemical reactions in the rhizosphere, facilitating metal uptake by roots. Fractionation of the isotopes in nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc produces a stable isotope composition in the plants that generally differs from that of the growth medium. Isotope fractionation also occurs during transport of the metals within most plants, but its extent depends on plant species and on the metal, in particular, on the metal's redox state and what ligand it is bound to. The metal stable isotope variations observed in plants create an isotope signature of life at the Earth's surface, contributing substantially to our understanding of metal cycling processes in the environment and in individual organisms.

  11. Real-space imaging of fractional quantum Hall liquids. (United States)

    Hayakawa, Junichiro; Muraki, Koji; Yusa, Go


    Electrons in semiconductors usually behave like a gas--as independent particles. However, when confined to two dimensions under a perpendicular magnetic field at low temperatures, they condense into an incompressible quantum liquid. This phenomenon, known as the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect, is a quantum-mechanical manifestation of the macroscopic behaviour of correlated electrons that arises when the Landau-level filling factor is a rational fraction. However, the diverse microscopic interactions responsible for its emergence have been hidden by its universality and macroscopic nature. Here, we report real-space imaging of FQH liquids, achieved with polarization-sensitive scanning optical microscopy using trions (charged excitons) as a local probe for electron spin polarization. When the FQH ground state is spin-polarized, the triplet/singlet intensity map exhibits a spatial pattern that mirrors the intrinsic disorder potential, which is interpreted as a mapping of compressible and incompressible electron liquids. In contrast, when FQH ground states with different spin polarization coexist, domain structures with spontaneous quasi-long-range order emerge, which can be reproduced remarkably well from the disorder patterns using a two-dimensional random-field Ising model. Our results constitute the first reported real-space observation of quantum liquids in a class of broken symmetry state known as the quantum Hall ferromagnet.

  12. Detecting spin fractionalization in a spinon Fermi surface spin liquid (United States)

    Li, Yao-Dong; Chen, Gang


    Motivated by the recent proposal that several candidate materials such as YbMgGaO4 could be spinon Fermi surface spin liquids, we explore the experimental consequences of the external magnetic fields on this exotic state. Specifically, we focus on the weak field regime where the spin-liquid state is well preserved and the spinon remains to be a good description of the magnetic excitations. From the spin-1/2 nature of the spinon excitation, we predict the unique features of the spinon continuum when the weak magnetic field is applied to the system. Due to the small energy scale of the exchange interactions between the local moments in the spin-liquid candidate like YbMgGaO4, our proposal for the spectral weight shifts and spectral crossing in the magnetic fields can be immediately tested by inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Several other experimental aspects about the spinon Fermi surface and the spinon excitations are discussed and proposed. Our work provides an experimental scheme to examine the fractionalized spinon excitation and the candidate spin-liquid states in YbMgGaO4, the 6H-B phase of Ba3NiSb2O9 , and other relevant materials.

  13. Fractional Quantum Hall Plateau Transitions and Composite Fermi Liquids (United States)

    Cho, Gil Young; Moon, Eun-Gook; Fradkin, Eduardo

    We will investigate relationship between the fractional quantum Hall plateau transition from Laughlin state at ν =1/2 n + 1 to a trivial insulator, and composite Fermi liquid at ν =1/2 (2 n + 1) . We use the recently-developed quantum field theoretic technique, 3d dualities, in combinations with the coupled-wire descriptions for quantum Hall states. We will show that we can also access various other phases, including non-abelian paired states at ν =1/2 (2 n + 1) , from the plateau transition. This work is supported by the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government and KAIST start-up funding (GYC & EGM).

  14. Classification of symmetry fractionalization in gapped $\\mathbb Z_2$ spin liquids


    Qi, Yang; Cheng, Meng


    In quantum spin liquids, fractional spinon excitations carry half-integer spins and other fractional quantum numbers of lattice and time-reversal symmetries. Different patterns of symmetry fractionalization distinguish different spin liquid phases. In this work, we derive a general constraint on the symmetry fractionalization of spinons in a gapped spin liquid, realized in a system with an odd number of spin-$1/2$ per unit cell. In particular, when applied to kagome/triangular lattices, we ob...

  15. Isotope Fractionation by Diffusion in Liquids (Final Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Frank [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    The overall objective of the DOE-funded research by grant DE-FG02-01ER15254 was document and quantify kinetic isotope fractionations during chemical and thermal (i.e., Soret) diffusion in liquids (silicate melts and water) and in the later years to include alloys and major minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. The research involved both laboratory experiments and applications to natural settings. The key idea is that major element zoning on natural geologic materials is common and can arise for either changes in melt composition during cooling and crystallization or from diffusion. The isotope effects associated with diffusion that we have documented are the key for determining whether or not the zoning observed in a natural system was the result of diffusion. Only in those cases were the zoning is demonstrably due to diffusion can use independently measured rates of diffusion to constrain the thermal evolution of the system.

  16. An efficient technique for higher order fractional differential equation. (United States)

    Ali, Ayyaz; Iqbal, Muhammad Asad; Ul-Hassan, Qazi Mahmood; Ahmad, Jamshad; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef


    In this study, we establish exact solutions of fractional Kawahara equation by using the idea of [Formula: see text]-expansion method. The results of different studies show that the method is very effective and can be used as an alternative for finding exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in mathematical physics. The solitary wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic, trigonometric, exponential and rational functions. Graphical representations along with the numerical data reinforce the efficacy of the used procedure. The specified idea is very effective, expedient for fractional PDEs, and could be extended to other physical problems.

  17. A prediction method for entrained liquid fraction in adiabatic gas-liquid flow at high reduced pressure (United States)

    Minko, M. V.; Yagov, V. V.


    A goal of the study is development of an approximate but well-grounded model of entrainment/deposition processes in annular two-phase flow at high reduced pressures (p/pcr>0.45). Nakazatomi and Sekoguchi (1996) have presented the unique experimental data on liquid distribution between the core and the film in air/water two-phase flow at high pressures, up to 20 MPa; at pressures higher 10 MPa the data feature with abnormally high fraction of entrained liquid and manifest very strong deviation from any known empirical correlations, including the recent one by Cioncolini and Thome (2012). In deducing the approximate model of droplets entrainment, we used the experimental observations, according to which a liquid film becomes thin and smooth at high reduced pressures. A plenty of tiny droplets detach from the liquid film surface at the points, which spacing is determined as a length scale in Weber number for gas flow. This spacing and the liquid film thickness are assumed being the parameters controlling a droplet departure diameter. These assumptions allow developing an equation for calculating entrainment intensity at high reduced pressures. A balance between the flows of droplets entrainment and deposition due to turbulent diffusion corresponds to the dynamic equilibrium. The equation based on this balance contains one unknown numerical factor and allows one to calculate liquid distribution in a channel cross section. Comparing the calculation results with the experimental data for the water–air flows at high reduced pressures (more than 0.45) has shown their good agreement at the universal value of the numerical constant.

  18. Sclerosant foam structure and stability is strongly influenced by liquid air fraction. (United States)

    Cameron, E; Chen, T; Connor, D E; Behnia, M; Parsi, K


    To determine the effects of sclerosant foam preparation and composition on foam structure, the time course of liquid drainage, and foam coarsening. Sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS) and polidocanol (POL) foams were investigated in a range of concentrations (0.5-3%) and liquid-plus-air fractions (LAF; 1 + 2 to 1 + 8). Foam was injected into a vein simulation model (polyvinyl chloride tubing, inner diameter 3 mm, constant pressure 5-7 mmHg) filled with saline or blood. Liquid drainage, bubble count, and diameter were measured and documented by serial photography. Liquid drainage was faster in the vertical position than the horizontal one. In all variations, very small bubbles (diameter foams (foams (>250 μm) and by 7.5 minutes macro-foams (>500 μm) were formed. Following injection, the upper regions of foam coarsened faster as liquid drained to the bottom of the vessel. Wet preparations produced significantly smaller bubbles. Low concentration POL foam produced significantly higher bubble counts and coarsened slower than STS. Foam structure is strongly influenced by the LAF. Despite the initial formation of micro-bubbles in the syringe, mini- and macro-bubbles are formed in target vessels with time post-injection. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Pérez-Elvira

    Full Text Available Abstract The fractioning into separate liquid and solid fractions obtained by centrifugation of thickened fresh and thermally pretreated (170 ºC, 50 minutes secondary sludge showed that 30% of the particulate organic matter was released during the pretreatment, correspondingly increasing the methane production of the particulate matter by 30% (from 259 to 329 mL CH4/g VSfed. The responsible of this enhancement was the liquid fraction, as the biodegradability of the solid fraction remained constant after the pretreatment. Mass balances showed that 34% of the VS were released to the liquid fraction, generating nearly 50% of the total methane produced, with much faster kinetics compared to the solid fraction. These results support the hypothesis of a separate liquid-solid digestion of thermally pretreated sludge, which would result in decreasing the digestion volume to half while duplicating the methane productivity per kilogram of sludge fed to digestion.

  20. Lignin Depolymerisation and Lignocellulose Fractionation by Solvated Electrons in Liquid Ammonia. (United States)

    Prinsen, Pepijn; Narani, Anand; Rothenberg, Gadi


    We explored the depolymerisation of several lignins in liquid ammonia at relatively high temperatures and pressures (120 °C and 88 bar). Five different lignins were tested: Indulin AT kraft, Protobind 1000 soda, wheat straw organosolv, poplar organosolv and elephant grass-milled wood lignin (EG MWL). In pure liquid ammonia, all lignins underwent slow incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, resulting in higher molecular weight and polydispersity index. Subsequently, we show a reductive depolymerisation by solvated electrons at room temperature by adding sodium metal to the liquid ammonia without any external hydrogen donor. The netto yields of bio-oil are low for technical lignins (10-23 %), but with higher yields of alkylphenols. In the case of native EG MWL, netto yields of 40 % bio-oil were achieved. Finally, when the room temperature method was applied to poplar wood fibre, we observe improved delignification upon the addition of sodium compared to poplar wood fractionation in pure liquid ammonia. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Biochemical Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation during Lipid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants (United States)

    Kahmen, A.; Gamarra, B.; Cormier, M. A.


    Although hydrogen isotopes (δ2H) of leaf wax lipids are increasingly being applied as (paleo-) hydrological proxies, we still do not understand some of the basic processes that shape the δ2H values of these compounds. In general, it is believed that three variables shape the δ2H values of leaf wax lipids: source water δ2H values, evaporative deuterium (2H) enrichment of leaf water and the biosynthetic fractionation (ɛbio) during the synthesis of organic compounds. While the influences of source water δ2H values and leaf water evaporative 2H enrichment have been well documented, very little is known how ɛbio shapes the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids. I will present the results from recent experiments, where we show that the magnitude of ɛbio, and thus the δ2H value of plant-derived lipids, strongly depends on the carbon (C) metabolism of a plant. Specifically, I will show that plants that rely for their tissue formation on recently assimilated C have δ2H values in their n-alkanes that are up to 60‰ more negative than plants that depend for their tissue formation on stored carbohydrates. Our findings can be explained by the fact that NADPH is the primary source of hydrogen in plant lipids and that the δ2H value of NADPH differs whether NADPH was generated directly in the light reaction of photosynthesis or whether it was generated by processing stored carbohydrates. As such, the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids will directly depend on whether the tissue containing these lipids was synthesized using recent assimilates, e.g. in a C autonomous state or, if it was synthesized from stored or otherwise aquired C sources, e.g. in a not C autonomous state. Given the magnidude of this effect, our results have important implications for interpretation of plant-derived lipid δ2H values when used as (paleo-) hydrological proxies. In addition, our results suggest, that δ2H values of plant-derived lipids could be employed as a new tools to assess the C

  2. Fractional crystallization and zoning in igneous feldspars: ideal water-buffered liquid fractionation lines and feldspar zoning paths (United States)

    Brown, William L.


    Diagrams giving plagioclase and sanidine fractionation paths and liquid fractionation lines under conditions of ideal water-buffered fractional crystallization in the ternary feldspar system were constructed graphically using topological reasoning, and experimental data and calculated phase relationships from the literature. The liquidus lines and solidus or solvus paths are unique at constant P and a H 2O. The composition of a liquid evolves with time and moves along a fractionation line by removal of successive crystal fractions, whereas the compositions of each of the crystal fractions lie on and define a solidus or solvus path. Most but not all such water-buffered lines and paths differ only slightly from those in which water is free to build up during crystallization and a H 2O to increase, as in many rocks. Liquid compositions lying along liquidus fractionation lines are not normally preserved, unless erupted as aphyric lavas. The solidus or solvus paths may be preserved either as overgrowth zones in crystals (zoning paths) or as a series of crystal fractions in layered intrusions. The topologies of the lines and paths depend mainly on the nature of the two-feldspar boundary line separating the plagioclase and sanidine fields which is a function of P H 2O or a H 2O at constant P; increases in either progressively lower the liquidi and solidi and cause larger intersections of the solidi with the solvus. One-feldspar solidus paths at high P and a H 2O are simple, whereas they are complex and may bend back on themselves at low P H 2O or low a H 2O at high P. Two-feldspar paths may be simultaneous (cotectic) or sequential (peritectic). The former are simple and do not meet at high P and a H 2O, the critical solution line lying in the gap; they are complex and may bend back or overlap at low P H 2O or low a H 2O at high P, the position of the critical solution line being hard to determine. Liquids which have simultaneously fractionated two feldspars may

  3. Numerical studies on the separation performance of liquid- liquid Hydrocyclone for higher water-cut wells (United States)

    Osei, H.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Hashim, F. M.


    Liquid-liquid hydrocyclones have nowadays become very useful in the oil industry because of their numerous applications. They can be installed downhole in the case of a well that produces higher water-oil ratios. The design of a liquid-liquid hydrocyclone for such a task is critical and every geometric part of the hydrocyclone has a part to play as far as separation is concerned. This work, through validated numerical technique, investigated the liquid-liquid hydrocyclone performance for the cases of single-inlet and dual-inlets, with different upper cylindrical lengths, specifically, 30mm and 60mm.It was observed that the hydrocyclones with the 30mm upper cylindrical section perform better than the ones with 60 mm upper cylindrical section. It was again noted that, even though higher number of tangential inlets increases the swirl intensity, they have the tendency to break up the oil droplets within the hydrocyclone because of increasing shear and jet flow interaction.

  4. Comprehensive characterization of the liquid fraction of digestates from full-scale anaerobic co-digestion. (United States)

    Akhiar, Afifi; Battimelli, Audrey; Torrijos, Michel; Carrere, Helene


    Waste management by anaerobic digestion generates a final byproduct, the digestate, which is usually separated into solid and liquid fractions to reduce the volume for transportation. The composition of the solid fraction has been recently studied to allow its valorization. However, full composition of liquid fraction of digestate and its size fractionation are less considered in the literature for efficient post treatment and valorization purposes. Therefore, here we characterized in detail liquid fraction of digestate obtained after solid-liquid separation from 11 full-scale co-digestion plants. The liquid fraction has a high concentration in organic matter with Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from 9.2 to 78g/L with 60-96% of COD in suspended particles (>1.2μm), 2-27% in colloids (1.2μm to 1kDa) and 2-18% in dissolved matter (fraction of digestate has poor biodegradability due to presence of humic substances making aerobic treatment inefficient. Only physico-chemical post treatment can be proposed for organic matter removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for Coupled Systems of Higher-Order Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations

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    Ahmad Bashir


    Full Text Available We study an initial value problem for a coupled Caputo type nonlinear fractional differential system of higher order. As a first problem, the nonhomogeneous terms in the coupled fractional differential system depend on the fractional derivatives of lower orders only. Then the nonhomogeneous terms in the fractional differential system are allowed to depend on the unknown functions together with the fractional derivative of lower orders. Our method of analysis is based on the reduction of the given system to an equivalent system of integral equations. Applying the nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder, we prove the existence of solutions of the fractional differential system. The uniqueness of solutions of the fractional differential system is established by using the Banach contraction principle. An illustrative example is also presented.

  6. Determination of the liquid pool surfactant and protein concentration for semi-batch foam fractionation columns

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    P. T. V. Rosa


    Full Text Available A model is derived for the change with time of the concentration of a surface-active component in the liquid pool of a semi-batch foam fractionation process. The transport of surface-active material to the gas-liquid interface was assumed to be limited by the mass transfer rates, and the concentration of the adsorbed material at the interface was assumed to be in equilibrium with the concentration of liquid adjacent to the bubble gas surface. This model was compared to experimental data obtained for semi-batch foam fractionation of aqueous solutions of bovine serum albumin and cetyltrimetylammonium bromide.

  7. Lignin solubilisation and gentle fractionation in liquid ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassberger, Z.; Prinsen, P.; Klis, van der F.; Es, van D.S.; Tanase, S.; Rothenberg, G.


    We present a simple method for solubilising lignin using liquid ammonia. Unlike water, which requires harsh conditions, ammonia can solubilise technical lignins, in particular kraft lignin. A commercial pine wood Kraft lignin (Indulin AT) was solubilized instantaneously at room temperature and 7–11

  8. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

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    Erkinjon Karimov


    Full Text Available In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  9. Structural origin of fractional Stokes-Einstein relation in glass-forming liquids (United States)

    Pan, Shaopeng; Wu, Z. W.; Wang, W. H.; Li, M. Z.; Xu, Limei


    In many glass-forming liquids, fractional Stokes-Einstein relation (SER) is observed above the glass transition temperature. However, the origin of such phenomenon remains elusive. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the break- down of SER and the onset of fractional SER in a model of metallic glass-forming liquid. We find that SER breaks down when the size of the largest cluster consisting of trapped atoms starts to increase sharply at which the largest cluster spans half of the simulations box along one direction, and the fractional SER starts to follows when the largest cluster percolates the entire system and forms 3-dimentional network structures. Further analysis based on the percolation theory also confirms that percolation occurs at the onset of the fractional SER. Our results directly link the breakdown of the SER with structure inhomogeneity and onset of the fraction SER with percolation of largest clusters, thus provide a possible picture for the break- down of SER and onset of fractional SER in glass-forming liquids, which is is important for the understanding of the dynamic properties in glass-forming liquids.

  10. Hard-wall confinement of a fractional quantum Hall liquid (United States)

    Macaluso, E.; Carusotto, I.


    We make use of numerical exact diagonalization calculations to explore the physics of ν =1 /2 bosonic fractional quantum Hall droplets in the presence of experimentally realistic cylindrically symmetric hard-wall potentials. This kind of confinement is found to produce very different many-body spectra compared to a harmonic trap or the so-called extremely steep limit. For a relatively weak confinement, the degeneracies are lifted and the low-lying excited states organize themselves in energy branches that can be explained in terms of their Jack polynomial representation. For a strong confinement, a strong spatial deformation of the droplet is found, with an unexpected depletion of its central density.

  11. Final Report for Fractionation and Separation of Polydisperse Nanoparticles into Distinct Monodisperse Fractions Using CO2 Expanded Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistopher Roberts


    The overall objective of this project was to facilitate efficient fractionation and separation of polydisperse metal nanoparticle populations into distinct monodisperse fractions using the tunable solvent properties of gas expanded liquids. Specifically, the dispersibility of ligand-stabilized nanoparticles in an organic solution was controlled by altering the ligand-solvent interaction (solvation) by the addition of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas as an antisolvent (thereby tailoring the bulk solvent strength) in a custom high pressure apparatus developed in our lab. This was accomplished by adjusting the CO{sub 2} pressure over the liquid dispersion, resulting in a simple means of tuning the nanoparticle precipitation by size. Overall, this work utilized the highly tunable solvent properties of organic/CO{sub 2} solvent mixtures to selectively size-separate dispersions of polydisperse nanoparticles (ranging from 1 to 20 nm in size) into monodisperse fractions ({+-}1nm). Specifically, three primary tasks were performed to meet the overall objective. Task 1 involved the investigation of the effects of various operating parameters (such as temperature, pressure, ligand length and ligand type) on the efficiency of separation and fractionation of Ag nanoparticles. In addition, a thermodynamic interaction energy model was developed to predict the dispersibility of different sized nanoparticles in the gas expanded liquids at various conditions. Task 2 involved the extension of the experimental procedures identified in task 1 to the separation of other metal particles used in catalysis such as Au as well as other materials such as semiconductor particles (e.g. CdSe). Task 3 involved using the optimal conditions identified in tasks 1 and 2 to scale up the process to handle sample sizes of greater than 1 g. An experimental system was designed to allow nanoparticles of increasingly smaller sizes to be precipitated sequentially in a vertical series of high pressure vessels by

  12. Enhancing the biomethane potential of liquid dairy cow manure by addition of solid manure fractions. (United States)

    Díaz, Israel; Figueroa-González, Ivonne; Miguel, José Ángel; Bonilla-Morte, Luis; Quijano, Guillermo


    To assess the effect of adding solid manure fractions on the biomethane potential (BMP) of liquid dairy cow manure and on the biokinetic parameters of the process. The methanogenic potential of liquid dairy cow manure was strongly effected by adding a solid manure fraction. The 90/10 % (w/w) liquid/solid manure fraction mixture was the best substrate for CH 4 production. This substrate mixture improved by 50 % the final CH 4 production per g substrate and decreased the lag time by 220 % relative to the reference BMP test without the addition. Moreover, the addition of 20 % solid manure fraction adversely affected both the final CH 4 production and the maximum methane production rate, while increased the lag time by 400 % compared to the reference BMP test without addition. Liquid dairy cow manure should be supplemented with no more than 10 % of solid manure fraction in order to improve the biomethane potential of this important agro-industrial residue.

  13. Recycling the liquid fraction of alkaline hydrogen peroxide in the pretreatment of corn stover. (United States)

    Alencar, Bárbara Ribeiro Alves; Reis, Alexandre Libanio Silva; de Souza, Raquel de Fatima Rodrigues; Morais, Marcos Antônio; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; Dutra, Emmanuel Damilano


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of recycling the liquid fraction of pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) on the hydrolysis of corn stover. Corn stover was pretreated in the traditional condition with 7.5% v/v H 2 O 2 . After pretreatment, the solids were separated from the liquid fraction and five successive reuse cycles of the liquid fraction were tested. The solid fraction from pretreatment in each recycle was submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis. The number of recycles had a linear negative effect (R 2 =0.98) on biomass delignification efficiency and also affected negatively the enzymatic conversion efficiency. Despite the decrease in efficiency after each recycling step, reuse of the liquid fraction leads to reduction in water, H 2 O 2 and NaOH consumption of up to 57.6%, 59.6% and 57.6%, respectively. These findings point to an efficient recycling technology, which may reduce costs and save water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optically Imaged Striped Domains of Nonequilibrium Electronic and Nuclear Spins in a Fractional Quantum Hall Liquid. (United States)

    Moore, John N; Hayakawa, Junichiro; Mano, Takaaki; Noda, Takeshi; Yusa, Go


    Using photoluminescence microscopy enhanced by magnetic resonance, we visualize in real space both electron and nuclear polarization occurring in nonequilibrium fraction quantum Hall (FQH) liquids. We observe stripelike domain regions comprising FQH excited states which discretely form when the FQH liquid is excited by a source-drain current. These regions are deformable and give rise to bidirectionally polarized nuclear spins as spin-resolved electrons flow across their boundaries.

  15. Fractionalized excitations in the spin-liquid state of a kagome-lattice antiferromagnet. (United States)

    Han, Tian-Heng; Helton, Joel S; Chu, Shaoyan; Nocera, Daniel G; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A; Broholm, Collin; Lee, Young S


    The experimental realization of quantum spin liquids is a long-sought goal in physics, as they represent new states of matter. Quantum spin liquids cannot be described by the broken symmetries associated with conventional ground states. In fact, the interacting magnetic moments in these systems do not order, but are highly entangled with one another over long ranges. Spin liquids have a prominent role in theories describing high-transition-temperature superconductors, and the topological properties of these states may have applications in quantum information. A key feature of spin liquids is that they support exotic spin excitations carrying fractional quantum numbers. However, detailed measurements of these 'fractionalized excitations' have been lacking. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on single-crystal samples of the spin-1/2 kagome-lattice antiferromagnet ZnCu(3)(OD)(6)Cl(2) (also called herbertsmithite), which provide striking evidence for this characteristic feature of spin liquids. At low temperatures, we find that the spin excitations form a continuum, in contrast to the conventional spin waves expected in ordered antiferromagnets. The observation of such a continuum is noteworthy because, so far, this signature of fractional spin excitations has been observed only in one-dimensional systems. The results also serve as a hallmark of the quantum spin-liquid state in herbertsmithite.

  16. Analysis of time-fractional hunter-saxton equation: a model of neumatic liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atangana Abdon


    Full Text Available In this work, a theoretical study of diffusion of neumatic liquid crystals was done using the concept of fractional order derivative. This version of fractional derivative is very easy to handle and obey to almost all the properties satisfied by the conventional Newtonian concept of derivative. The mathematical equation underpinning this physical phenomenon was solved analytically via the so-called homotopy decomposition method. In order to show the accuracy of this iteration method, we constructed a Hilbert space in which we proved its stability for the time-fractional Hunder-Saxton equation.

  17. Experimental study of the viscosity of suspensions: effect of solid fraction, particle size and suspending liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, B.J.; Sanderink, O.B.J.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.


    The behaviour of nearly neutrally-buoyant suspensions has been studied experimentally, using a concentric-cylinder rheometer. The effect on the suspension viscosity of: (i) solid fraction, (ii) diameter of the solid, spherical particles, (iii) viscosity of the suspending liquid, and (iv) shear rate

  18. Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value of Concentrated Liquid Fraction of Separated Pig Slurry Applied to Grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, Van J.C.; Holshof, G.


    Seven grassland experiments on sandy and clay soils were performed during a period of 4 years to estimate the nitrogen (N) fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) of concentrated liquid fractions of separated pig slurry (mineral concentrate: MC). The risk of nitrate leaching when applying MC was

  19. Heavy-Metal Fractions in Solid and Liquid Separates of Swine Slurry Separated using Different Technologies. (United States)

    Olatuyi, S O; Kumaragamage, D; Akinremi, O O; Grieger, L


    Accumulation of metals is a concern with continuous application of swine slurry to agricultural soils. Solid-liquid separation is a promising approach for reducing phosphorus and total metal loadings with swine manure application to farmlands. However, very little work has been performed on the partitioning of different metal fractions in swine slurry to separated solids and liquids. This study examined the distribution of various metal fractions in raw manures (RM), their separated liquids (SL), and separated solids (SS). The three separation techniques used were centrifuge without flocculant (CNF), centrifuge with flocculant (CFL), and rotary press with flocculant (RFL). Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Se in manure and separates were determined by a modified Sposito's sequential chemical fractionation scheme to extract water-soluble, exchangeable, organically bound, carbonate-precipitated, and residual fractions. The greatest concentrations of metals were recovered in the residual fraction, with the organically bound and carbonate-precipitated concentrations much greater than water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. Separation index () (i.e., percentage partitioned to SS) ranged from 13 to 66%, 9 to 87%, 16 to 93%, and 23 to 96% for water-soluble, exchangeable, organically bound, and carbonate-precipitated fractions, respectively. The values in general, were significantly ( < 0.05) greater for flocculant-based separation techniques than for CNF. For organically bound and carbonate-precipitated fractions, the greatest was obtained with the RFL for most metals. Our results suggest that applying the SL from RFL separation would minimize metal loading to farmlands compared with SL from CNF and CFL techniques. However, further validation is required using more sources of manure and different flocculants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. A generalized Lyapunov inequality for a higher-order fractional boundary value problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexiang Ma


    Full Text Available Abstract In the paper, we establish a Lyapunov inequality and two Lyapunov-type inequalities for a higher-order fractional boundary value problem with a controllable nonlinear term. Two applications are discussed. One concerns an eigenvalue problem, the other a Mittag-Leffler function.

  1. Liquid-Vapor Argon Isotope Fractionation from the Triple Point to the Critical Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, J. T.; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Bigeleisen, J.


    The statistical thermodynamic treatment of the equilibrium between a nonideal liquid mixture of isotopes and a vapor phase is extended to include isotope effects on the equation of state of the gas. The result is particularly simple when the isotopic partition functions in a given phase are compa......The statistical thermodynamic treatment of the equilibrium between a nonideal liquid mixture of isotopes and a vapor phase is extended to include isotope effects on the equation of state of the gas. The result is particularly simple when the isotopic partition functions in a given phase...... are compared at the same molar volume. The isotope fractionation factor α for 36Ar∕40Ar between liquid and vapor has been measured from the triple point to the critical temperature. The results are compared with previous vapor pressure data, which cover the range 84–102°K. Although the agreement is within....... The fractionation factor approaches zero at the critical temperature with a nonclassical critical index equal to 0.42±0.02.〈∇2Uc〉/ρc in liquid argon is derived from the experimental fractionation data and calculations of 〈∇2Ug〉/ρg for a number of potential functions for gaseous argon....

  2. Microbial biodiversity of the liquid fraction of rumen content from lactating cows. (United States)

    Sandri, M; Manfrin, C; Pallavicini, A; Stefanon, B


    Host and dietary interactions with the rumen microbiome can affect the efficacy of supplements, and their effect on the composition of the bacterial population is still unknown. A 16S rRNA metagenomic approach and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology were used to investigate the bacterial microbiome composition in the liquid fraction of the rumen content collected via stomach tubing. To investigate biodiversity, samples were taken from three groups of four lactating dairy cows given a supplement of either 50 g of potato protein (Ctrl group), or 50 g of lyophilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LY group) or 50 g of dried S. cerevisiae (DY group) in a potato protein support. Rumen samples were collected after 15 days of dietary treatments and milk production was similar between the three groups. Taxonomic distribution analysis revealed a prevalence of the Firmicutes phylum in all cows (79.76%) and a significantly (P<0.05) higher presence of the genus Bacillus in the DY group. Volatile fatty-acid concentration was not significantly different between groups, possibly because of relatively high inter-animal variability or limited effect of the treatments or both, and the correlation analysis with bacterial taxa showed significant associations, in particular between many Firmicutes genera and butyrate. Limited differences were observed between dietary treatments, but the lack of microbiome data before yeast administration does not allow to draw firm conclusions on the effect of dietary treatments.

  3. Measurement of fractional order model parameters of respiratory mechanical impedance in total liquid ventilation. (United States)

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Bossé, Dominick; Micheau, Philippe; Avoine, Olivier; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Hervé


    This study presents a methodology for applying the forced-oscillation technique in total liquid ventilation. It mainly consists of applying sinusoidal volumetric excitation to the respiratory system, and determining the transfer function between the delivered flow rate and resulting airway pressure. The investigated frequency range was f ∈ [0.05, 4] Hz at a constant flow amplitude of 7.5 mL/s. The five parameters of a fractional order lung model, the existing "5-parameter constant-phase model," were identified based on measured impedance spectra. The identification method was validated in silico on computer-generated datasets and the overall process was validated in vitro on a simplified single-compartment mechanical lung model. In vivo data on ten newborn lambs suggested the appropriateness of a fractional-order compliance term to the mechanical impedance to describe the low-frequency behavior of the lung, but did not demonstrate the relevance of a fractional-order inertance term. Typical respiratory system frequency response is presented together with statistical data of the measured in vivo impedance model parameters. This information will be useful for both the design of a robust pressure controller for total liquid ventilators and the monitoring of the patient's respiratory parameters during total liquid ventilation treatment. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Higher-dimensional bosonization and its application to Fermi liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Hendrik


    The bosonization scheme presented in this thesis allows to map models of interacting fermions onto equivalent models describing collective bosonic excitations. For simple systems that do not require plenty computational power and optimized algorithms, the positivity of the weight function in the bosonic frame has been confirmed - in particular also for those configurations in which the fermionic representation shows the minus-sign problem. The numerical tests are absolutely elementary and based on the simplest possible regularization scheme. The second part of this thesis presented an analytical study about the non-analytic corrections to thermodynamic quantities in a two-dimensional Fermi liquid. The perturbation theory developed for the exact formulation is by no means more convenient than the well-established fermionic diagram technique. The effective low-energy theory for studying the anomalous contributions to the Fermi liquid was derived focussing on the relevant soft modes of the interaction only. The final effective model took the form of a field theory for a bosonic superfield Ψ interacting in quadratic, cubic, and quartic terms in the action. This field theory turned out nontrivial and was shown to lead to logarithmic divergencies in both spin and charge channels. By means of a combined scheme of ladder diagram summations and renormalization group equations, the logarithmic terms were summed up in the first-loop order, thus yielding the renormalized effective coupling constants of the theory at low temperatures. The fully renormalized action then allowed to conveniently compute the low-temperature limit behavior of the non-analytic corrections to the Fermi-liquid thermodynamic response functions such as the low temperature non-analytic correction δc to the specific heat. The explicit formula for δc is the sum of two contributions - one due to the spin singlet and one due to the spin triplet superconducting excitations. Depending on the values of the

  5. Fractional Chern Insulators in Harper-Hofstadter Bands with Higher Chern Number (United States)

    Möller, Gunnar; Cooper, Nigel R.


    The Harper-Hofstadter model provides a fractal spectrum containing topological bands of any integer Chern number C . We study the many-body physics that is realized by interacting particles occupying Harper-Hofstadter bands with |C |>1 . We formulate the predictions of Chern-Simons or composite fermion theory in terms of the filling factor ν , defined as the ratio of particle density to the number of single-particle states per unit area. We show that this theory predicts a series of fractional quantum Hall states with filling factors ν =r /(r |C |+1 ) for bosons, or ν =r /(2 r |C |+1 ) for fermions. This series includes a bosonic integer quantum Hall state in |C |=2 bands. We construct specific cases where a single band of the Harper-Hofstadter model is occupied. For these cases, we provide numerical evidence that several states in this series are realized as incompressible quantum liquids for bosons with contact interactions.

  6. Emergent chiral spin liquid: fractional quantum Hall effect in a kagome Heisenberg model. (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, Wei; Sheng, D N


    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) realized in two-dimensional electron systems under a magnetic field is one of the most remarkable discoveries in condensed matter physics. Interestingly, it has been proposed that FQHE can also emerge in time-reversal invariant spin systems, known as the chiral spin liquid (CSL) characterized by the topological order and the emerging of the fractionalized quasiparticles. A CSL can naturally lead to the exotic superconductivity originating from the condense of anyonic quasiparticles. Although CSL was highly sought after for more than twenty years, it had never been found in a spin isotropic Heisenberg model or related materials. By developing a density-matrix renormalization group based method for adiabatically inserting flux, we discover a FQHE in a spin-½ isotropic kagome Heisenberg model. We identify this FQHE state as the long-sought CSL with a uniform chiral order spontaneously breaking time reversal symmetry, which is uniquely characterized by the half-integer quantized topological Chern number protected by a robust excitation gap. The CSL is found to be at the neighbor of the previously identified Z2 spin liquid, which may lead to an exotic quantum phase transition between two gapped topological spin liquids.

  7. Fractional Viscosity Dependence of Reaction Kinetics in Glass-Forming Liquids (United States)

    Kwon, Seulki; Cho, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June


    The diffusion of molecules in complex systems such as glasses and cell cytoplasm is slow, heterogeneous, and sometimes nonergodic. The effects of such intriguing diffusion on the kinetics of chemical and biological reactions remain elusive. In this Letter, we report that the kinetics of the polymer loop formation reaction in a Kob-Andersen (KA) glass forming liquid is influenced significantly by the dynamic heterogeneity. The diffusion coefficient D of a KA liquid deviates from the Stokes-Einstein relation at low temperatures and D shows a fractional dependence on the solvent viscosity ηs, i.e., D ˜ηs-ξD with ξD=0.85 . The dynamic heterogeneity of a KA liquid affects the rate constant krxn of the loop formation and leads to the identical fractional dependence of krxn on ηs with krxn˜ηs-ξ and ξ =ξD, contrary to reactions in dynamically homogeneous solutions where krxn˜ηs-1.

  8. Solid and liquid fractionation of digestate: Mass balance, chemical characterization, and agronomic and environmental value. (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Orzi, Valentina; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Adani, Fabrizio


    Solid-liquid (S/L) separation of digestate (D) represents a simple technology able to produce two fractions having different composition. The aim of this work was to study the effect of S/L separation on dry matter (DM), nitrogen (TKN), phosphorus (P2O5) and heavy metals (HM) repartition into these two fractions and to characterize them. Therefore, thirteen full-scale digestion plants were studied and D, LF and SF were collected during three seasons of the year. Results obtained indicated that unexpectedly, on a mass balance, the liquid fraction still contains the majority of DM, i.e. 67% of the total of D. LF also contained 87% and 71% of TKN and P2O5 respectively. HM contents were in line with typical NP-organic fertilizers. Chemical characterization suggested that the LF can be used as a substitute for mineral N fertilizers because of its high N content, while SF can be proposed as an NP-organic fertilizer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium isotope fractionation in liquid chromatography with crown ether resin in methanol medium. (United States)

    Nemoto, Shigeki; Nomura, Masao; Oi, Takao


    Breakthrough mode liquid chromatography was employed to investigate calcium (Ca) isotope fractionation in methanol medium. Highly porous silica beads, the inner pores of which were embedded with a benzo-18-crown-6 ether resin, were used as column packing material. Enrichment of heavier isotopes of Ca was observed in the frontal part of the respective Ca chromatograms. The values of the isotope fractionation coefficient (ϵ) were in the order of 10(-3) at 25 °C. Use of methanol as solvent has little advantage over the aqueous system as far as the values of ϵ are concerned. However, a substantial improvement was observed concerning the adsorption capacity of the crown ether resin for Ca ions. Molecular orbital calculations supported the present isotopic results in a qualitative fashion.

  10. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. L.L. Tavlarides; Dr. A.S. Sangan


    The principle objective of the project was to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work accomplished during the first three years of DOE funding was devoted to the development of a rigorous theory for acoustic wave propagation through solid-liquid (S-L) and solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). In the first funding period we developed an acoustic probe for S-G-L suspensions that has resulted in a theory, supported by our experiments, to describe small amplitude acoustic wave propagations in dilute suspensions (Norato, 1999; Spelter al., 1999, 2001: Norato et al. 2002). The theory agrees well with experimental data of sound attenuation over a wide range of particle sizes, frequencies, and weight percent solids. We have also completed theoretical and experimental investigation on the effect of entrained gas bubbles on the attenuation. This analysis permits us to determine the S-L weight percent in the presence of bubbles.

  11. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.


    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  12. Three-step biological process for the treatment of the liquid fraction of cattle manure. (United States)

    Marañón, E; Castrillón, L; García, L; Vázquez, I; Fernández-Nava, Y


    The liquid fraction of cattle manure was subjected to a biological treatment combining anoxic-anaerobic and oxic processes in order to stabilize the organic matter and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus so as to avoid problems of pollution when applying it to the land. The anoxic process was carried out at 30 degrees C in a CSTR reactor, the anaerobic process in a UASB reactor at 37 degrees C and the oxic treatment in another CSTR at 20 degrees C. The following results were obtained when working under optimum conditions (removal efficiencies in brackets): COD was reduced from 42 to 3.8 g/L (>90%); total solids from 41 to 14 (67%); total volatile solids from 22 to 7.0 (68%); total Kjeldahl nitrogen from 2.2 to 0.1 g/L (95%); NH4(-)-N from 1.10 to 0.02 g/L (98%) and Total-Phosphorus from 0.696 to 0.058 g/L (92%). Nitrates, undetected in the liquid fraction of cattle manure, were present in the final effluent as a result of nitrification. To reduce the amount of nitrates, different recirculation rates were tested. The minimum nitrate concentration achieved was 127 mg/L using a recirculation ratio of 4.

  13. Polarity-based fractionation in proteomics: hydrophilic interaction vs reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Jafari, M; Mirzaie, M; Khodabandeh, M; Rezadoost, H; Ghassempour, A; Aboul-Enein, H Y


    During recent decades, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) ahs been introduced to fractionate or purify especially polar solutes such as peptides and proteins while reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is also a common strategy. RPLC is also a common dimension in multidimensional chromatography. In this study, the potential of HILIC vs RPLC chromatography was compared for proteome mapping of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell extract. In HILIC a silica-based stationary phase and for RPLC a C18 column were applied. Then separated proteins were eluted to an ion trap mass spectrometry system. Our results showed that the HILIC leads to more proteins being identified in comparison to RPLC. Among the total 181 identified proteins, 56 and 38 proteins were fractionated specifically by HILIC and RPLC, respectively. In order to demonstrate this, the physicochemical properties of identified proteins such as polarity and hydrophobicity were considered. This analysis indicated that polarity may play a major role in the HILIC separation of proteins vs RPLC. Using gene ontology enrichment analysis, it was also observed that differences in physicochemical properties conform to the cellular compartment and biological features. Finally, this study highlighted the potential of HILIC and the great orthogonality of RPLC in gel-free proteomic studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Extremal points for a higher-order fractional boundary-value problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yang


    Full Text Available The Krein-Rutman theorem is applied to establish the extremal point, $b_0$, for a higher-order Riemann-Liouville fractional equation, $D_{0+}^{\\alpha}y+p(ty = 0$, $0

  15. A Novel Analytical Technique to Obtain Kink Solutions for Higher Order Nonlinear Fractional Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Mahmood Ul Hassan


    Full Text Available We use the fractional derivatives in Caputo’s sense to construct exact solutions to fractional fifth order nonlinear evolution equations. A generalized fractional complex transform is appropriately used to convert this equation to ordinary differential equation which subsequently resulted in a number of exact solutions.

  16. A 10-Year Cloud Fraction Climatology of Liquid Water Clouds over Bern Observed by a Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Cossu


    Full Text Available Cloud fraction (CF is known as the dominant modulator of Earth’s radiative fluxes. Ground-based CF observations are useful to characterize the cloudiness of a specific site and are valuable for comparison with satellite observations and numerical models. We present for the first time CF statistics (relative to liquid clouds only for Bern, Switzerland, derived from the observations of a ground-based microwave radiometer. CF is derived with a new method involving the analysis of the integrated liquid water distribution measured by the radiometer. The 10-year analyzed period (2004–2013 allowed us to compute a CF climatology for Bern, showing a maximum CF of 60.9% in winter and a minimum CF of 42.0% in summer. The CF monthly anomalies are identified with respect to the climatological mean values, and they are confirmed through MeteoSwiss yearly climatological bulletins. The CF monthly mean variations are similar to the observations taken at another Swiss location, Payerne, suggesting a large-scale correlation between different sites on the Swiss Plateau. A CF diurnal cycle is also computed, and large intraseasonal variations are found. The overall mean CF diurnal cycle, however, shows a typical sinusoidal cycle, with higher values in the morning and lower values in the afternoon.

  17. Does the combination of biochar and clinoptilolite enhance nutrient recovery from the liquid fraction of biogas digestate? (United States)

    Kocatürk-Schumacher, Nazlı Pelin; Zwart, Kor; Bruun, Sander; Brussaard, Lijbert; Jensen, Lars Stoumann


    Concentrating nutrients on biochar and clinoptilolite and subsequently using the nutrient-enriched sorbents as a fertiliser could be an alternative way to manage nutrients in digestate. In this study, we investigated the use of biochar and clinoptilolite columns in removing ammonium, potassium, orthophosphate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the liquid fraction of digestate. Our objectives were to investigate the effect of the initial loading ratio between liquid and biochar on nutrient removal, and to investigate the effect of combining biochar with clinoptilolite on nutrient and DOC removal efficiency. Increasing the initial loading ratios increased nutrient concentrations on biochar to 8.61 mg NH4-N g-1, 1.95 mg PO4-P g-1 and 13.01 mg DOC g-1, but resulted in decreasing removal efficiencies. The combination of biochar and clinoptilolite resulted in improved ammonium, potassium and DOC removal efficiencies compared to biochar alone, but did not significantly change PO4-P removal efficiencies. Removal efficiencies with combined sorbents were up to 67% for ammonium, 58% for DOC and 58% for potassium. Clinoptilolite showed higher removal efficiencies compared to biochar alone, and combining clinoptilolite with biochar improved only total P removal efficiency. Concentrating nutrients with clinoptilolite and biochar may be an option when both sorbents are available at low cost.

  18. Anoxic-aerobic treatment of the liquid fraction of cattle manure. (United States)

    Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; García, L; Berrueta, J


    Cattle manure from a dairy farm was treated in order to reduce its pollution potential. The manure came from a farm with 120 cows kept in stables in a free stall barn. As pretreatment, the manure is usually filtered on the farm using a screw press separator with a 0.5 mm mesh. Approximately 70% of the total filtered volume passes through the screen, thus constituting the liquid fraction. This fraction, with a composition of around 64,500 mg COD/l, 5770 mg total-N/l and 800 mg total-P/l, was subjected to centrifugation followed by a two-step biological treatment (anoxic-aerobic) to reduce organic matter (COD), nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Centrifugation led to the following removal efficiencies: 35% total solids, 60% COD, 75% total phosphorus and 20% total nitrogen (mainly organic nitrogen). With the subsequent anoxic-aerobic treatment, average removal efficiencies of 85% for COD, 90% for total phosphorus and 75% for total nitrogen were achieved.

  19. N-Removal from the liquid fraction of Pig slurry in a labscale sequencing batch reactor considering different operational strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, A.; Guivernau, M.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F. X.; Flotats, X.


    Nitrogen is one of the main limiting factors to be considered when treatment of livestock manure is required. Biological N-removal is an alternative applicable in those situations in which arable lands availability, or transportation cots, do not enable recycling manure as fertilizer. Specifically, when dealing with slurries processing, an initial solid-liquid separation allows obtaining a liquid fraction which could be subsequently treated through nitrification-denitrification (NDN). (Author)

  20. An Expansion Formula with Higher-Order Derivatives for Fractional Operators of Variable Order (United States)

    Almeida, Ricardo


    We obtain approximation formulas for fractional integrals and derivatives of Riemann-Liouville and Marchaud types with a variable fractional order. The approximations involve integer-order derivatives only. An estimation for the error is given. The efficiency of the approximation method is illustrated with examples. As applications, we show how the obtained results are useful to solve differential equations, and problems of the calculus of variations that depend on fractional derivatives of Marchaud type. PMID:24319382

  1. Antihepatoma Activity of Artocarpus communis Is Higher in Fractions with High Artocarpin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Tzeng


    Full Text Available Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  2. Satellite retrieval of the liquid water fraction in tropical clouds between −20 and −38 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Mitchell


    Full Text Available This study describes a satellite remote sensing method for directly retrieving the liquid water fraction in mixed phase clouds, and appears unique in this respect. The method uses MODIS split-window channels for retrieving the liquid fraction from cold clouds where the liquid water fraction is less than 50% of the total condensate. This makes use of the observation that clouds only containing ice exhibit effective 12-to-11 μm absorption optical thickness ratios (βeff that are quasi-constant with retrieved cloud temperature T. This observation was made possible by using two CO2 channels to retrieve T and then using the 12 and 11 μm channels to retrieve emissivities and βeff. Thus for T < −40 °C, βeff is constant, but for T > −40 °C, βeff slowly increases due to the presence of liquid water, revealing mean liquid fractions of ~ 10% around −22 °C from tropical clouds identified as cirrus by the cloud mask. However, the uncertainties for these retrievals are large, and extensive in situ measurements are needed to refine and validate these retrievals. Such liquid levels are shown to reduce the cloud effective diameter De such that cloud optical thickness will increase by more than 50% for a given water path, relative to De corresponding to pure ice clouds. Such retrieval information is needed for validation of the cloud microphysics in climate models. Since low levels of liquid water can dominate cloud optical properties, tropical clouds between −25 and −20 °C may be susceptible to the first aerosol indirect effect.

  3. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Li


    Full Text Available Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA. Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers’ works.

  4. Promoting anaerobic biogasification of corn stover through biological pretreatment by liquid fraction of digestate (LFD). (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Pang, Yunzhi; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Chufo, Wachemo Akiber; Jaffar, Muhammad; Li, Xiujin


    A new biological pretreatment method by using liquid fraction of digestate (LFD) was advanced for promoting anaerobic biogasification efficiency of corn stover. 17.6% TS content and ambient temperature was appropriate for pretreatment. The results showed that C/N ratio decreased to about 30, while total lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose (LCH) contents were reduced by 8.1-19.4% after pretreatment. 3-days pretreatment was considered to be optimal, resulting in 70.4% more biogas production, 66.3% more biomethane yield and 41.7% shorter technical digestion time compared with the untreated stover. The reductions on VS, cellulose, and hemicellulose were increased by 22.1-35.9%, 22.3-35.4%, and 19.8-27.2% for LFD-treated stovers. The promoted anaerobic biogasification efficiency was mainly attributed to the improved biodegradability due to the pre-decomposition role of the bacteria in LFD. The method proved to be an efficient and low cost approach for producing bioenergy from corn stover, meanwhile, reducing LFD discharge and minimizing its potential pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Higher order concentration moments collapse in the expected mass fraction (EMF) based risk assessment (United States)

    Srzic, Veljko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko


    In this work Langrangian framework is used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D extremely heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the work gives answers to concentration scalar features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns correlated; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned parameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolution. A remarkable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments [Yee, 2009] leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the moment deriving function(MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. An inspection of the Beta distribution leads to the conclusion that the two-parametric distribution can be used for concentration fluctuation characterization even in cases of high aquifer heterogeneity and/or for different log-conductivity structures, independent of the sampling volume used. Furthermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) [Heagy & Sullivan, 1996] concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes

  6. A higher order numerical method for time fractional partial differential equations with nonsmooth data (United States)

    Xing, Yanyuan; Yan, Yubin


    Gao et al. [11] (2014) introduced a numerical scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative with the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation is sufficiently smooth, Lv and Xu [20] (2016) proved by using energy method that the corresponding numerical method for solving time fractional partial differential equation has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation has low regularity and in this case the numerical method fails to have the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 quadratic interpolation polynomials. Based on this scheme, we introduce a time discretization scheme to approximate the time fractional partial differential equation and show by using Laplace transform methods that the time discretization scheme has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 0 for smooth and nonsmooth data in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. Numerical examples are given to show that the theoretical results are consistent with the numerical results.

  7. Fractional Spin Fluctuations as a Precursor of Quantum Spin Liquids: Majorana Dynamical Mean-Field Study for the Kitaev Model. (United States)

    Yoshitake, Junki; Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi


    Experimental identification of quantum spin liquids remains a challenge, as the pristine nature is to be seen in asymptotically low temperatures. We here theoretically show that the precursor of quantum spin liquids appears in the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic state over a wide temperature range. Using the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method, which are newly developed in the Majorana fermion representation, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor, relaxation rate in nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic susceptibility for the honeycomb Kitaev model whose ground state is a canonical example of the quantum spin liquid. We find that dynamical spin correlations show peculiar temperature and frequency dependence even below the temperature where static correlations saturate. The results provide the experimentally accessible symptoms of the fluctuating fractionalized spins evincing the quantum spin liquids.

  8. Fractional Spin Fluctuations as a Precursor of Quantum Spin Liquids: Majorana Dynamical Mean-Field Study for the Kitaev Model (United States)

    Yoshitake, Junki; Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi


    Experimental identification of quantum spin liquids remains a challenge, as the pristine nature is to be seen in asymptotically low temperatures. We here theoretically show that the precursor of quantum spin liquids appears in the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic state over a wide temperature range. Using the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method, which are newly developed in the Majorana fermion representation, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor, relaxation rate in nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic susceptibility for the honeycomb Kitaev model whose ground state is a canonical example of the quantum spin liquid. We find that dynamical spin correlations show peculiar temperature and frequency dependence even below the temperature where static correlations saturate. The results provide the experimentally accessible symptoms of the fluctuating fractionalized spins evincing the quantum spin liquids.

  9. The Effect of Rice Fermented (Tape Ketan Hitam Liquid Fraction Concentrations and Incubation Times on pH, Viscosity and Organoleptic Quality of Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Iqrimah


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine of interaction and the best of percentage rice fermented liquid fraction addition and incubation times on pH, viscosity and organoleptic quality. The experimental method was designed by factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD which three times replicated. The treatment consists of rice fermented liquid fraction concentrations by 5 %, 15 %, 25 % and 35 % (v/v  and incubation times by 0 (without incubation , 8,16 and 24 hours. The results showed that the different concentration of rice fermented liquid fraction showed a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, colour, smell, taste and textur, while  in incubation times gave a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, smell, taste and textur but not give a significant effect on colour. The best combination obtained from addition of rice fermented liquid fraction 25 % and 24 hours of incubation times. Key words: goat milk, rice fermented liquid fraction, incubation times

  10. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure in pilot plant for biogas production: residual methane yield of digestate. (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Rico, José Luis; Tejero, Iñaki; Muñoz, Noelia; Gómez, Beatriz


    The performance of the only dairy manure biogas plant in Cantabria (Northern coast of Spain) was evaluated in terms of liquid-solid separation and anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction. Screened liquid fraction was satisfactorily treated in a CSTR digester at HRTs from 20 to 10 days with organic loading rates ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 kg VS/(m(3)d). Stable biogas productions from 0.66 to 1.47 m(3)/(m(3)d) were achieved. Four anaerobic effluents collected from the digester at different HRTs were analyzed to measure their residual methane potentials, which ranged from 12.7 to 102.4 L/gVS. These methane potentials were highly influenced by the feed quality and HRT of the previous CSTR anaerobic digestion process. Biomethanization of the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure from intensive farming has the potential to provide up to 2% of total electrical power in the region of Cantabria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulations of ice pellets and freezing rain using an explicit parameterization of the bulk liquid fraction of ice particles (United States)

    Cholette, Melissa; Thériault, Julie M.; Milbrandt, Jason A.; Morrison, Hugh


    During the cold season, storms can often be associated with the favorable vertical temperature structure for the formation of several winter precipitation types, such as snow, wet snow, freezing rain, ice pellets and rain. The types of precipitation reaching the surface depend on the degree of melting and re-freezing of particles as they fall through the atmosphere. For example, when a warm layer is overlaying a refreezing layer, ice particles can melt partially or completely in the warm layer to produce either ice pellets, freezing rain or a combination of the two at the surface. In this study, an explicit prognostic liquid fraction is implemented in a bulk microphysical scheme to predict freezing rain and ice pellets, and to evaluate their interactions with the environmental conditions. The approach is to modify the Predicted Particle Properties (P3) microphysics scheme by adding a prognostic variable for the liquid water mass-mixing ratio of the solid precipitation category in order to predict its bulk liquid fraction. This predicted liquid fraction is the key variable to differentiate the surface precipitation type occurring when temperatures are near 0°C. First, using a one-dimensional cloud model, it will be shown that the explicit simulation of mixed-phase particles improves the representation of the surface precipitation types with respect to the original scheme. Second, the impact of the partial melting of ice will be studied by simulating the 1998 Ice Storm over eastern North America using a full 3D mesoscale model. Overall, the prediction of the bulk liquid fraction allows a more accurate differentiation of surface winter precipitation types, which contributes to improve their forecasts.

  12. Does the combination of biochar and clinoptilolite enhance nutrient recovery from the liquid fraction of biogas digestate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin; Zwart, Kor; Bruun, Sander


    Concentrating nutrients on biochar and clinoptilolite and subsequently using the nutrient-enriched sorbents as a fertiliser could be an alternative way to manage nutrients in digestate. In this study, we investigated the use of biochar and clinoptilolite columns in removing ammonium, potassium......, orthophosphate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the liquid fraction of digestate. Our objectives were to investigate the effect of the initial loading ratio between liquid and biochar on nutrient removal, and to investigate the effect of combining biochar with clinoptilolite on nutrient and DOC removal...

  13. Higher?order oligomerization promotes localization of SPOP to liquid nuclear speckles


    Marzahn, Melissa R.; Marada, Suresh; Lee, Jihun; Nourse, Amanda; Kenrick, Sophia; Zhao, Huaying; Ben?Nissan, Gili; Kolaitis, Regina?Maria; Peters, Jennifer L.; Pounds, Stanley; Errington, Wesley J; Priv?, Gilbert G; Taylor, J Paul; Sharon, Michal; Schuck, Peter


    Abstract Membrane?less organelles in cells are large, dynamic protein/protein or protein/RNA assemblies that have been reported in some cases to have liquid droplet properties. However, the molecular interactions underlying the recruitment of components are not well understood. Herein, we study how the ability to form higher?order assemblies influences the recruitment of the speckle?type POZ protein (SPOP) to nuclear speckles. SPOP, a cullin?3?RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) substrate adaptor, s...

  14. An assessment of Salmonella survival in pig manure and its separated solid and liquid fractions during storage. (United States)

    McCarthy, Gemma; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gutierrez, Montserrat; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Anne; Zhan, Xinmin; Gardiner, Gillian E


    The objective of this study was to examine Salmonella survival in pig manure and its separated fractions during storage. Salmonella declined, but significant reductions were not observed in the manure and liquid until day 56, whereas counts in the solids were lower by day 7. The Salmonella inoculum initially impacted counts but not after days 28-56. By day 112 Salmonella was undetectable in the manure and liquid but was recovered from the solids. There was no clear dominance of particular serotypes and antibiotic resistance transfer was not found. Storage duration and pH impacted Salmonella counts in all samples, with duration having the greatest effect. Of the nutrients, nitrate had the greatest impact in the manure and, together with phosphate, it also affected counts in the liquid fraction. This study demonstrates that if pig manure or its separated fractions are stored under controlled conditions at 10.5°C for 84-112 days Salmonella is reduced or eliminated, irrespective of the initial load.

  15. Synthesis, fractionation, and thin film processing of nanoparticles using the tunable solvent properties of carbon dioxide gas expanded liquids (United States)

    Anand, Madhu

    Nanoparticles have received significant attention because of their unusual characteristics including high surface area to volume ratios. Materials built from nanoparticles possess unique chemical, physical, mechanical and optical properties. Due to these properties, they hold potential in application areas such as catalysts, sensors, semiconductors and optics. At the same time, CO 2 in the form of supercritical fluid or CO2 gas-expanded liquid mixtures has gained significant attention in the area of processing nanostructures. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and processing of nanoparticles using CO2 tunable solvent systems. Nanoparticle properties depend heavily on their size and, as such, the ability to finely control the size and uniformity of nanoparticles is of utmost importance. Solution based nanoparticle formation techniques are attractive due to their simplicity, but they often result in the synthesis of particles with a wide size range. To address this limitation, a post-synthesis technique has been developed in this dissertation to fractionate polydisperse nanoparticles ( s . = 30%) into monodisperse fractions ( s . = 8%) using tunable physicochemical properties of CO 2 expanded liquids, where CO2 is employed as an antisolvent. This work demonstrates that by controlling the addition of CO2 (pressurization) to an organic dispersion of nanoparticles, the ligand stabilized nanoparticles can be size selectively precipitated within a novel high pressure apparatus that confines the particle precipitation to a specified location on a surface. Unlike current techniques, this CO2 expanded liquid approach provides faster and more efficient particle size separation, reduction in organic solvent usage, and pressure tunable size selection in a single process. To improve our fundamental understanding and to further refine the size separation process, a detailed study has been performed to identify the key parameters enabling size separation of various

  16. Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR (United States)

    Tokarz, R.D.


    This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

  17. Fertilizer performance of liquid fraction of digestate as synthetic nitrogen substitute in silage maize cultivation for three consecutive years. (United States)

    Sigurnjak, I; Vaneeckhaute, C; Michels, E; Ryckaert, B; Ghekiere, G; Tack, F M G; Meers, E


    Following changes over recent years in fertilizer legislative framework throughout Europe, phosphorus (P) is taking over the role of being the limiting factor in fertilizer application rate of animal manure. This results in less placement area for spreading animal manure. As a consequence, more expensive and energy demanding synthetic fertilizers are required to meet crop nutrient requirements despite existing manure surpluses. Anaerobic digestion followed by mechanical separation of raw digestate, results in liquid fraction (LF) of digestate, a product poor in P but rich in nitrogen (N) and potassium (K). A 3-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of using the LF of digestate as a (partial) substitute for synthetic N fertilizer. Two different fertilization strategies, the LF of digestate in combination with respectively animal manure and digestate, were compared to the conventional fertilization regime of raw animal manure with synthetic fertilizers. Results from the 3-year trial indicate that the LF of digestate may substitute synthetic N fertilizers without crop yield losses. Through fertilizer use efficiency assessment it was observed that under-fertilization of soils with a high P status could reduce P availability and consequently the potential for P leaching. Under conditions of lower K application, more sodium was taken up by the crop. In arid regions, this effect might reduce the potential risk of salt accumulation that is associated with organic fertilizer application. Finally, economic and ecological benefits were found to be higher when LF of digestate was used as a synthetic N substitute. Future perspectives indicate that nutrient variability in bio-based fertilizers will be one of the greatest challenges to address in the future utilization of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An ionic liquid treatment and fractionation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch. (United States)

    Mohtar, Safia Syazana; Tengku Malim Busu, Tengku Nur Zulaikha; Md Noor, Ahmad Mujahid; Shaari, Norsalliana; Mat, Hanapi


    This work reports on a complete isolation and characterization of lignocellulosic compounds from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by ionic liquid (IL) treatment and alkaline treatment processes. The fractionated lignocellulosic compounds were confirmed by FTIR and CP/MAS 13 CNMR analyses. The yield of the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin fractions was 52.72±1.50% wt., 27.17±1.68% wt. and 16.82±1.15% wt. with molecular weight of 1869g/mol, 1736g/mol and 2695g/mol, and degradation temperature of 325.65°C, 236.25°C, and 201.40°C, respectively. The SEM image illustrates the bundle-like fiber of cellulose fraction and smaller particle size of hemicellulose and lignin fractions with inconsistent shape. The XRD patterns depict the crystalline cellulose, amorphous lignin and partially amorphous hemicellulose fractions property. The IL could be recovered and reused with an overall recovery of 48% wt. after the fourth cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation during biosynthesis in higher plants reflects carbon metabolism of the plant (United States)

    Cormier, Marc-André; Kahmen, Ansgar


    Compound-specific isotope analyses of plant material are frequently applied to understand the response of plants to the environmental changes. As it is generally assume that the main factors controlling δ2H values in plants are the plant's source water and evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water, hydrogen isotope analyses of plant material are mainly applied regarding hydrological conditions at different time scales. However, only few studies have directly addressed the variability of the biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation occurring during biosynthesis of organic compounds (ɛbio), accounting also for a large part in the δ2H values of plants but generally assumed to be constant. Here we present the results from a climate-controlled growth chambers experiment where tested the sensitivity of ɛbio to different light treatments. The different light treatments were applied to induce different metabolic status (autotrophic vs. heterotrophic) in 9 different plant species that we grew from large storage organs (e.g. tubers or roots). The results show a systematic ɛbio shift (up to 80 ) between the different light treatments for different compounds (i.e. long chain n-alkanes and cellulose). We suggest that this shift is due to the different NADPH pools used by the plants to build up the compounds from stored carbohydrates in heterotrophic or autotrophic conditions. Our results have important implications for the calibration and interpretation of sedimentary and tree rings records in geological studies. In addition, as the δ2H values reflect also strongly the carbon metabolism of the plant, our findings support the idea of δ2H values as an interesting proxy for plant physiological studies.

  20. Partition coefficients for Ni, Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide liquid and the formation of compositionally zoned Ni-Cu sulfide bodies by fractional crystallization of sulfide liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, S.J.; Makovicky, E.; Makovicky, M.


    to be concentrated in the Fe-rich ore. The origin of this zonation could be due to crystal fractionation of Fe-rich monosulfide solid solution from a sulfide liquid. The crystal fractionation would produce an Fe-rich cumulate enriched in Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh and a fractionated liquid enriched in Cu, Pt, Pd, and Au...... (Alexo, Abitibi Greenstone Belt) and a zoned tholeiite-related ore (Oktyabr'sky, Noril'sk region, Siberia). In both cases, the experimental partition coefficients numerically model the composition zones of the actual ores. This supports the model of fractional crystallization of a monosulfide solid...

  1. Evaluation of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT). 2. Liquid-liquid equilibria and prediction of monomer fraction in hydrogen bonding systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Grenner, Andreas; Economou, Ioannis


    Two statistical thermodynamic models, the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory, which is a compressible lattice model, and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT), which is based on Wertheim's perturbation theory, were used to model liquid-liquid equilib...... for the treatment of hydrogen bonding, yielded similar predictions for the fraction of non-hydrogen bonded molecules (monomer fraction) in pure 1-alkanols and in 1-alkanol-n-hexane mixtures....

  2. Isotope Fractionation in Methane Reactions Studied by Gas Chromatography and Liquid Scintillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bertel Lohmann; Bidoglio, G.; Leip, A.


    Determination of C-14-marked methane by gas chromatography and liquid scintillation counting is shown to be useful in studies of isotope effects. Data on the specific activity is used to separate the contributions of (CH4)-C-14, and (CH4)-C-12 to the gas-chromatographic peak area. As an application...

  3. Prediction of gas volume fraction in fully-developed gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, A.S.M.A.; Adoo, N.A.; Bergstrom, D.J., E-mail: [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wang, D.F. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)


    An Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model has been implemented for the prediction of the gas volume fraction profile in turbulent upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe. The two-fluid transport equations are discretized using the finite volume method and a low Reynolds number κ-ε turbulence model is used to predict the turbulence field for the liquid phase. The contribution to the effective turbulence by the gas phase is modeled by a bubble induced turbulent viscosity. For the fully-developed flow being considered, the gas volume fraction profile is calculated using the radial momentum balance for the bubble phase. The model potentially includes the effect of bubble size on the interphase forces and turbulence model. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data from the literature. The one-dimensional formulation being developed allows for the efficient assessment and further development of both turbulence and two-fluid models for multiphase flow applications in the nuclear industry. (author)

  4. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of pressed biowaste for high energy yields recovery. (United States)

    Micolucci, Federico; Gottardo, Marco; Cavinato, Cristina; Pavan, Paolo; Bolzonella, David


    Deep separate collection of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste generates streams with relatively low content of inert material and high biodegradability. This material can be conveniently treated to recovery both energy and material by means of simplified technologies like screw-press and extruder: in this study, the liquid fraction generated from pressed biowaste from kerbside and door-to-door collection was anaerobically digested in both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions while for the solid fraction composting is suggested. Continuous operation results obtained both in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions indicated that the anaerobic digestion of pressed biowaste was viable at all operating conditions tested, with the greatest specific gas production of 0.92m(3)/kgVSfed at an organic loading rate of 4.7kgVS/m(3)d in thermophilic conditions. Based on calculations the authors found that the expected energy recovery is highly positive. The contents of heavy metals and pathogens of fed substrate and effluent digestates were analyzed, and results showed low levels (below End-of-Waste 2014 criteria limits) for both the parameters thus indicating the good quality of digestate and its possible use for agronomic purposes. Therefore, both energy and material were effectively recovered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil (United States)

    Sunarno, Rochmadi, Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief


    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  6. Measuring space-group symmetry fractionalization in Z2 spin liquids (United States)

    Zaletel, Michael P.; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Vishwanath, Ashvin


    The interplay of symmetry and topological order leads to a variety of distinct phases of matter, the symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. Here we discuss physical observables that distinguish different SETs in the context of Z2 quantum spin liquids with SU(2) spin rotation invariance. We focus on the cylinder geometry, and show that ground-state quantum numbers for different topological sectors are robust invariants which can be used to identify the SET phase. More generally, these invariants are related to 1D symmetry protected topological phases when viewing the cylinder geometry as a 1D spin chain. In particular, we show that the kagome spin liquid SET can be determined by measurements on one ground state, by wrapping the kagome in a few different ways on the cylinder. In addition to guiding numerical studies, this approach provides a transparent way to connect bosonic and fermionic mean-field theories of spin liquids. When fusing quasiparticles, it correctly predicts nontrivial phase factors for combining their space group quantum numbers.

  7. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunarno [Chemical Engineering Department, Riau University, Kampus Binawidya KM 12,5 Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Budiman, Arief, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281(Indonesia); Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K1A, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)


    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  8. Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation on Gas-Liquid Separation Performance at High Gas Void Fraction of Helically Coiled Tube Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxue Zhang


    Full Text Available The industrial removal process of the light hydrocarbon and water from wet natural gas can be simulated in laboratory with the independently designed helically coiled tube gas-liquid separator. Experiment and numerical simulation are combined to analyze the influences of various inlet velocities and gas void fractions on the gas-liquid separation efficiency and pressure-drop between the inlet and outlet of the helically coiled tube. The results show that, at the inlet velocity of 4 m/s to 18 m/s and the gas void fraction of 88% to 97% for the gas-liquid mixture, the gas-liquid separation efficiency increases at the beginning and then decreases with increasing inlet velocity. Afterwards there is another increasing trend again. The gradient of pressure-drop increases slowly and then fast with the increasing inlet velocity. On the other hand, the gas-liquid separation efficiency first increases with the gas void fraction and then shows a decreasing trend while the pressure-drop keeps falling down with the gas void fraction increasing. Above all the optimal operating parameters of the helically coiled tube separator are inlet velocity of 13 m/s and gas void fraction of 93%, and the separation efficiency and pressure-drop are 95.2% and 0.3 MPa, respectively.

  9. Quantum Entanglement as a Diagnostic of Phase Transitions in Disordered Fractional Quantum Hall Liquids. (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Bhatt, R N


    We investigate the disorder-driven phase transition from a fractional quantum Hall state to an Anderson insulator using quantum entanglement methods. We find that the transition is signaled by a sharp increase in the sensitivity of a suitably averaged entanglement entropy with respect to disorder-the magnitude of its disorder derivative appears to diverge in the thermodynamic limit. We also study the level statistics of the entanglement spectrum as a function of disorder. However, unlike the dramatic phase-transition signal in the entanglement entropy derivative, we find a gradual reduction of level repulsion only deep in the Anderson insulating phase.

  10. Higher-order singular value decomposition-based discrete fractional random transform for simultaneous compression and encryption of video images (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhu, Yihai


    Existing image compression and encryption methods have several shortcomings: they have low reconstruction accuracy and are unsuitable for three-dimensional (3D) images. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes a tensor-based approach adopting tensor compressive sensing and tensor discrete fractional random transform (TDFRT). The source video images are measured by three key-controlled sensing matrices. Subsequently, the resulting tensor image is further encrypted using 3D cat map and the proposed TDFRT, which is based on higher-order singular value decomposition. A multiway projection algorithm is designed to reconstruct the video images. The proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the data volume and improve the efficiency of the data transmission and key distribution. The simulation results validate the good compression performance, efficiency, and security of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Enhanced efficiency in the excitation of higher modes for atomic force microscopy and mechanical sensors operated in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penedo, M., E-mail:; Hormeño, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Raman, A. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47904 (United States)


    Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.

  12. Diversity, abundance and novel 16S rRNA gene sequences of methanogens in rumen liquid, solid and epithelium fractions of Jinnan cattle. (United States)

    Pei, Cai-Xia; Mao, Sheng-Yong; Cheng, Yan-Fen; Zhu, Wei-Yun


    Three methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from liquid (LM), solid (SM) and epithelium (EM) fractions taken from the rumen of Jinnan cattle in China. After the amplification by PCR using methanogen-specific primers Met86F and Met1340R, equal quantities of PCR products from the same fractions from each of the four cattle were mixed together and used to construct the three libraries. Sequence analysis showed that the 268 LM clones were divided into 35 phylotypes with 18 sequences of phylotypes affiliated with the genus Methanobrevibacter (84.3% of clones). The 135 SM clones were divided into 19 phylotypes with 11 phylotypes affiliated with the genus Methanobrevibacter (77.8%). The 267 EM clones were divided into 33 phylotypes with 15 phylotypes affiliated with the genus Methanobrevibacter (77.2%). Clones closely related to Methanomicrobium mobile and Methanobrevibacter wolinii were only found in the LM library, and those to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii only in the SM library. LM library comprised 12.4% unidentified euryarchaeal clones, SM library 23.7% and EM library 25.5%, respectively. Five phylotypes (accession number: EF055528 and EF055531-EF055534) did not belong to the Euryarchaeota sequences we had known. One possible new genus (represented by phylotype E17, accession number EF055528) belonging to Methanobacteriaceae was identified from EM library. Quantitative real-time PCR for the first time revealed that epithelium fraction had significantly higher density of methanogens, with methanogenic mcrA gene copies (9.95 log 10 (copies per gram of wet weight)) than solid (9.26, P libraries also appeared different in Shannon index (EM library 2.12, LM library 2.05 and SM library 1.73). Our results showed that there were apparent differences in the methanogenic diversity and abundance in the three different fractions within the rumen of Jinnan cattle, with Methanobrevibacter species predominant in all the

  13. Phytochemical composition of fractions isolated from ten Salvia species by supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid extraction methods. (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas


    Ten Salvia species, S. amplexicaulis, S. austriaca, S. forsskaolii S. glutinosa, S. nemorosa, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea, S. stepposa and S. verticillata were fractionated using supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid (ethanol and water) extractions. Fifteen phytochemicals were identified using commercial standards (some other compounds were identified tentatively), 11 of them were quantified by ultra high pressure chromatography (UPLC) with quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF, TQ-S). Lipophilic CO 2 extracts were rich in tocopherols (2.36-10.07mg/g), while rosmarinic acid was dominating compound (up to 30mg/g) in ethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide, caffeic and carnosic acids were quantitatively important phytochemicals in the majority other Salvia spp. Antioxidatively active constituents were determined by using on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (HPLC-DPPH). Development of high pressure isolation process and comprehensive characterisation of phytochemicals in Salvia spp. may serve for their wider applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurements of the ion fraction and mobility of alpha and beta decay products in liquid xenon using EXO-200

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J B; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Jiang, X S; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Nelson, R; O'Sullivan, K; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Robinson, A; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wright, J D; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya


    Alpha decays in the EXO-200 detector are used to measure the fraction of charged $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}$ daughters created from alpha and beta decays, respectively. $^{222}\\mathrm{Rn}$ alpha decays in liquid xenon (LXe) are found to produce $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions $50.3 \\pm 3.0\\%$ of the time, while the remainder of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ atoms are neutral. The fraction of $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}^{+}$ from $^{214}\\mathrm{Pb}$ beta decays in LXe is found to be $76.4 \\pm 5.7\\%$, inferred from the relative rates of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Po}$ alpha decays in the LXe. The average velocity of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ ions is observed to decrease for longer drift times. Initially the ions have a mobility of $0.390 \\pm 0.006~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$, and at long drift times the mobility is $0.219 \\pm 0.004~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$. Time constants associated with the change in mobility during drift of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions are found to be propor...

  15. Improved Diastolic Function Is Associated With Higher Cardiac Output in Patients With Heart Failure Irrespective of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction. (United States)

    Tobushi, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Masatsugu; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Koga, Hidenobu; Yamada, Akira


    Little is known regarding the impact of diastolic function on cardiac output (CO) in patients with heart failure, particularly in patients with lower ejection fraction. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR) on CO and end-diastolic pressure (EDP). We retrospectively analyzed 1840 consecutive patients who underwent heart catheterization. We divided patients into 8 groups according to ejection fraction (EF) (35-45%, 46-55%, 56-65%, and 66-75%) and EDP (>16 or ≤16 mm Hg). We estimated EDPVR from single measurements in the catheterization data set. Then, we replaced EDPVRs of high-EDP groups with those of normal-EDP groups and compared CO before and after EDPVR replacement. Normalized EDPVR significantly increased CO at EDP=10 mm Hg regardless of EF (EF 35-45%, from 4.5±1.6 to 4.9±1.0; EF 46-55%, 4.6±1.3 to 5.1±1.1; EF 56-65%, 4.9±1.5 to 5.2±1.0; EF 66-75%, 4.9±1.5 to 5.2±1.1). Changes in CO were similar across EF groups. Diastolic function normalization was associated with higher CO irrespective of EF. Diastolic dysfunction plays an important role in determining CO irrespective of EF in heart failure patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Volatile Compounds Detected in Coconut Shell Liquid Smoke through Pyrolysis at a Fractioning Temperature of 350-420 C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslin Hadanu


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the volatile components of liquid smoke from coconut shells obtained through the pyrolysis process at fraction 350-420 °C. The volatile compounds of liquid smoke from a coconut shell were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nineteen peaks were detected by GC-MS in the coconut shell liquid smoke, and 19 compounds also were identified. The volatile compounds were identified as follows based on their function group’s composition percentage: phenol (90.75%, carbonyl (3.71%, alcohol (1.81%, and benzene (3.73%, respectively. The liquid smoke contains a high ratio of phenol derivatives (90.75% in volatile profile. The phenol derivatives were the major volatile compounds found in the coconut shell liquid smoke.

  17. Higher mass-independent isotope fractionation of methylmercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Baikal (Russia). (United States)

    Perrot, Vincent; Pastukhov, Mikhail V; Epov, Vladimir N; Husted, Søren; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David


    Mercury undergoes several transformations that influence its stable isotope composition during a number of environmental and biological processes. Measurements of Hg isotopic mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) in food webs may therefore help to identify major sources and processes leading to significant bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg). In this work, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, concentration of Hg species (MeHg, inorganic Hg), and stable isotopic composition of Hg were determined at different trophic levels of the remote and pristine Lake Baikal ecosystem. Muscle of seals and different fish as well as amphipods, zooplankton, and phytoplankton were specifically investigated. MDF during trophic transfer of MeHg leading to enrichment of heavier isotopes in the predators was clearly established by δ(202)Hg measurements in the pelagic prey-predator system (carnivorous sculpins and top-predator seals). Despite the low concentrations of Hg in the ecosystem, the pelagic food web reveals very high MIF Δ(199)Hg (3.15-6.65‰) in comparison to coastal fish (0.26-1.65‰) and most previous studies in aquatic organisms. Trophic transfer does not influence MIF signature since similar Δ(199)Hg was observed in sculpins (4.59 ± 0.55‰) and seal muscles (4.62 ± 0.60‰). The MIF is suggested to be mainly controlled by specific physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the water column. The higher level of MIF in pelagic fish of Lake Baikal is mainly due to the bioaccumulation of residual MeHg that is efficiently turned over and photodemethylated in deep oligotrophic and stationary (i.e., long residence time) freshwater columns.

  18. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid micro-extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography for a higher sensitivity methyl methacrylate determination in biological matrices. (United States)

    Sousa, Tiago F A; Aniceto, Marta C; Amorim, Célia G; Souto-Lopes, Mariana; Pérez-Mongiovi, Daniel; Montenegro, Maria C B S M; Araújo, Alberto N


    A vortex-assisted liquid-liquid micro-extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, with UV-vis, is proposed to pre-concentrate methyl methacrylate and to improve separation in biological matrices. The use of 1-octanol as extracting phase, its volume, the need for a dispersant agent, the agitation conditions and the cooling time before phase separation were evaluated. In optimum conditions, enrichment factors of 20 (±0.5) and enrichment recovery of 99% were obtained. The straightforward association of this extraction process with the HPLC method, previously regulated by the International Organization for Standardization, afforded a detection limit of 122 ng/mL and a quantification limit of 370 ng/mL. The within-batch precision, relative standard deviation, was 3% for a sample with 1.49 µg/mL and 4% for a sample with 13.4 µg/mL. The results showed a between batch-precision of 21% for experiments performed on five different days, for a sample with a concentration of 1.10 µg/mL in methyl methacrylate. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Characterization of Coconut Oil Fractions Obtained from Solvent Fractionation Using Acetone. (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Rungprasertphol, Poonyawee; Nantipipat, Nantinee; Tungvongcharoan, Satinee; Laiyangkoon, Nantikan


    This work was aimed to study the solvent fraction of coconut oil (CNO). The fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, solid fat content (SFC) and the crystallization properties of CNO and its solid and liquid fractions obtained from fractionation at different conditions were investigated using various techniques. CNO was dissolved in acetone (1:1 w/v) and left to crystallize isothermally at 10°C for 0.5, 1 and 2 h and at 12°C for 2, 3 and 6 h. The solid fractions contained significantly lower contents of saturated fatty acids of ≤ 10 carbon atoms but considerably higher contents of saturated fatty acids with > 12 carbon atoms with respect to those of CNO and the liquid fractions. They also contained higher contents of high-melting triacylglycerol species with carbon number ≥ 38. Because of this, the DSC crystallization onset temperatures and the crystallization peak temperatures of the solid fractions were higher than CNO and the liquid fractions. The SFC values of the solid fractions were significantly higher than CNO at all measuring temperatures before reaching 0% just below the body temperature with the fraction obtained at 12°C for 2 h exhibiting the highest SFC. On the contrary, the SFC values of the liquid fractions were lower than CNO. The crystallization duration exhibited strong influence on the solid fractions. There was no effect on the crystal polymorphic structure possibly because CNO has β'-2 as a stable polymorph. The enhanced SFC of the solid fractions would allow them to find use in food applications where a specific melting temperature is desired such as sophisticated confectionery fats, and the decreased SFC of the liquid fractions would provide them with a higher cold stability which would be useful during extended storage time.

  20. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions (United States)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus


    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  1. Is the boundary layer of an ionic liquid equally lubricating at higher temperature? (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas; Atkin, Rob; Rutland, Mark W


    Atomic force microscopy has been used to study the effect of temperature on normal forces and friction for the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), confined between mica and a silica colloid probe at 25 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C. Force curves revealed a strong fluid dynamic influence at room temperature, which was greatly reduced at elevated temperatures due to the reduced liquid viscosity. A fluid dynamic analysis reveals that bulk viscosity is manifested at large separation but that EAN displays a nonzero slip, indicating a region of different viscosity near the surface. At high temperatures, the reduction in fluid dynamic force reveals step-like force curves, similar to those found at room temperature using much lower scan rates. The ionic liquid boundary layer remains adsorbed to the solid surface even at high temperature, which provides a mechanism for lubrication when fluid dynamic lubrication is strongly reduced. The friction data reveals a decrease in absolute friction force with increasing temperature, which is associated with increased thermal motion and reduced viscosity of the near surface layers but, consistent with the normal force data, boundary layer lubrication was unaffected. The implications for ILs as lubricants are discussed in terms of the behaviour of this well characterised system.

  2. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization. [Spinacia oleracea L. ; Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M. (Botanisches Institut der Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (West Germany))


    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by {sup 14}C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from ({sup 14}C)glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored.

  3. Higher fraction of inspired oxygen in anesthesia induction does not affect functional residual capacity reduction after intubation: a comparative study of higher and lower oxygen concentration. (United States)

    Kanaya, Akihiro; Satoh, Daizoh; Kurosawa, Shin


    Low fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) reduces the atelectasis area during anesthesia induction. However, atelectasis may occur during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation because lungs can collapse within a fraction of a second. We assessed the effects of ventilation with 100 and 40 % oxygen on functional residual capacity (FRC) in patients undergoing general anesthesia. Twenty patients scheduled for elective open abdominal surgery were randomized into 40 % oxygen (GI, n = 10) and 100 % oxygen (GII, n = 10) groups and FRC was measured. Preoxygenation and mask ventilation with 40 and 100 % oxygen were used in GI and GII, respectively. In both groups, 40 % oxygen was used for anesthesia maintenance after intubation. Bilateral lung ventilation was performed with volume guarantee and low tidal volume (7 ml/kg predicted body weight) using bilevel airway pressure. We measured FRC and blood gas in all patients during preoxygenation, after intubation, and during surgery. FRC decreased from during preoxygenation (GI 2380 ml, GII 2313 ml) to after intubation (GI 1569 ml, GII 1586 ml) and significantly decreased during surgery (GI 1338 ml, GII 1417 ml) (P elevation at anesthesia induction.

  4. Higher-order baryon number susceptibilities: Interplay between the chiral and the nuclear liquid-gas transitions (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Steinheimer, J.; Schramm, S.


    We use an improved version of the SU(3) flavor parity-doublet quark-hadron model to investigate the higher-order baryon number susceptibilities near the chiral and the nuclear liquid-gas transitions. The parity-doublet model has been improved by adding higher-order interaction terms of the scalar fields in the effective mean field Lagrangian, resulting in a much-improved description of nuclear ground-state properties, in particular the nuclear compressibility. The resulting phase diagram of the model agrees qualitatively with expectations from lattice QCD, i.e., it shows a crossover at zero net baryochemical potential and a critical point at finite density. Using this model, we investigate the dependence of the higher-order baryon number susceptibilities as a function of temperature and chemical potential. We observe a strong interplay between the chiral and liquid-gas transition at intermediate baryochemical potentials. Due to this interplay between the chiral and the nuclear liquid-gas transitions, the experimentally measured cumulants of the net baryon number may show very different beam energy dependence, subject to the actual freeze-out temperature.

  5. Analysis of electrophoretic soil humic acids fractions by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Trubetskoj, Oleg A; Richard, Claire; Guyot, Ghislain; Voyard, Guillaume; Trubetskaya, Olga E


    A combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection was used for analysis of chernozem soil humic acids (HAs) and their fractions A, B and C+D with different electrophoretic mobility (EM) and molecular size (MS). Samples were injected onto the column at the identical volume and absorbance. All chromatograms exhibit the resolution of seven peaks. The estimation of relative recovery of HAs and fractions from the reverse-phase column has been done. High MS fraction A, which possesses the low EM, is essentially more hydrophobic (73% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column) and aliphatic than medium MS and EM fraction B (33% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column). The most hydrophilic and aromatic properties belong to low MS fraction C+D, which possess the highest EM and practically was not adsorbed on the column. The hydrophobicity of the bulk HAs lies within the range of fractions hydrophobicity. The absorption spectra of bulk HAs, electrophoretic fractions A, B, C+D and corresponding RP HPLC peaks were featureless but had differences in the values of absorbance ratio at 300 and 400 nm (A3/A4). For fractions A and B this ratio gradually decreased from peak 1 to 7 (from 3.05 to 2.80 and 3.00 to 2.40, respectively). This trend was less pronounced in HAs and practically absent in fraction C+D, where ratio A3/A4 varied within a small range. The strong relationship between fluorescence properties, EM, MS, polarity and aliphaticity/aromaticity of HAs fractions was found. Humic and protein-like fluorescence had different polarity nature. The protein-like fluorescence is located in humic material which irreversibly adsorbed on the reverse-phase column and not subjected to RP HPLC characterization. The humic-like fluorescence at Ex/Em 270/450 nm is mostly located in the hydrophilic peak of low MS fraction C+D. Taking into account that high MS fraction A consisted

  6. Proteins in Soy Might Have a Higher Role in Cancer Prevention than Previously Expected: Soybean Protein Fractions Are More Effective MMP-9 Inhibitors Than Non-Protein Fractions, Even in Cooked Seeds. (United States)

    Lima, Ana; Oliveira, Jennifer; Saúde, Filipe; Mota, Joana; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida


    The search for anticancer MMP-9 inhibitors (MMPIs) in food products has become a major goal for research. MMPIs in soy have been related only to saponins and isoflavones, but recently, low specific protein fractions in soybeans were shown to reduce MMP-9 activity as well. The present work aimed at comparing the MMPI potential of protein fractions (P) and non-protein fractions (NP) isolated from soybean seeds, before and after soaking and cooking, mimicking dietary exposures. Reverse and substrate zymography, as well as a fluoregenic DQ gelatin assay were used to evaluate MMP-9 activities. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation was also tested in HT29 cells. Regarding MMP-9 inhibition, proteins in soy presented IC50 values 100 times lower than non-protein extracts, and remained active after cooking, suggesting that proteins may be more effective MMP-9 inhibitors than non-protein compounds. Using the determined IC50 concentrations, NP fractions were able to induce higher inhibitions of HT29 cell migration and proliferation, but not through MMP-9 inhibition, whilst protein fractions were shown to specifically inhibit MMP-9 activity. Overall, our results show that protein fractions in soybeans might have a higher role in soy-related cancer prevention as MMPIs than previously expected. Being nontoxic and active at lower concentrations, the discovery of these heat-resistant specific MMPI proteins in soy can be of significant importance for cancer preventive diets, particularly considering the increasing use of soy proteins in food products and the controversy around isoflavones amongst consumers.

  7. Proteins in Soy Might Have a Higher Role in Cancer Prevention than Previously Expected: Soybean Protein Fractions Are More Effective MMP-9 Inhibitors Than Non-Protein Fractions, Even in Cooked Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lima


    Full Text Available The search for anticancer MMP-9 inhibitors (MMPIs in food products has become a major goal for research. MMPIs in soy have been related only to saponins and isoflavones, but recently, low specific protein fractions in soybeans were shown to reduce MMP-9 activity as well. The present work aimed at comparing the MMPI potential of protein fractions (P and non-protein fractions (NP isolated from soybean seeds, before and after soaking and cooking, mimicking dietary exposures. Reverse and substrate zymography, as well as a fluoregenic DQ gelatin assay were used to evaluate MMP-9 activities. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation was also tested in HT29 cells. Regarding MMP-9 inhibition, proteins in soy presented IC50 values 100 times lower than non-protein extracts, and remained active after cooking, suggesting that proteins may be more effective MMP-9 inhibitors than non-protein compounds. Using the determined IC50 concentrations, NP fractions were able to induce higher inhibitions of HT29 cell migration and proliferation, but not through MMP-9 inhibition, whilst protein fractions were shown to specifically inhibit MMP-9 activity. Overall, our results show that protein fractions in soybeans might have a higher role in soy-related cancer prevention as MMPIs than previously expected. Being nontoxic and active at lower concentrations, the discovery of these heat-resistant specific MMPI proteins in soy can be of significant importance for cancer preventive diets, particularly considering the increasing use of soy proteins in food products and the controversy around isoflavones amongst consumers.

  8. Stable Chlorine Isotope Fractionation (United States)

    Sharp, Z.


    Chlorine isotope partitioning between different phases is not well understood. Pore fluids can have δ37Cl values as low as -8‰, with neoform sediments having strongly positive values. Most strikingly, volcanic gases have δ37Cl values that cover a range in excess of 14‰ (Barnes et al., this meeting). The large range is difficult to explain in terms of equilibrium fractionation, which, although calculated to be very large for Cl in different oxidation states, should be less than 2‰ between chloride species (Schauble et al., 2003, GCA). To address the discrepancy between Nature and theory, we have measured Cl isotope fractionation for selected equilibrium and disequilibrium experiments in order to identify mechanisms that might lead to large fractionations. 1) NaCl (s,l) NaCl (v): NaCl was sealed in an evacuated silica tube and heated at one end, causing vaporization and reprecipitation of NaCl (v) at the cool end of the tube. The fractionation is 0.2‰ at 700°C (halite-vapor) and 0.7‰ at 800°C (liquid-vapor), respectively. The larger fractionation at higher temperature may be related to equilibrium fractionation between liquid and gas vs. `stripping' of the solid in the lower T experiments. 2) Sodalite NaCl(l): Nepheline and excess NaCl were sealed in a Pt crucible at 825°C for 48 hrs producing sodalite. The measured newly-formed sodalite-NaCl fractionation is -0.2‰. 3) Volatilization of HCl: Dry inert gas was bubbled through HCl solutions and the vapor was collected in a downstream water trap. There was no fractionation for 12.4M HCl (HCl fuming) vapor at 25°C. For a 1 M boiling HCl solution, the HCl-vapor fractionation was ~9‰. The difference is probably related to the degree of dissociation in the acid, with HCl dissolved in water for the highly acidic solutions, and dissociated H3O+ and Cl- for lower concentrations. The HCl volatilization experiments are in contrast to earlier vapor-liquid experiments in NaCl-H2O system, where fractionation was

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao


    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Implementing the Liquid Curriculum: The Impact of Virtual World Learning on Higher Education (United States)

    Steils, Nicole; Tombs, Gemma; Mawer, Matt; Savin-Baden, Maggi; Wimpenny, Katherine


    This paper presents findings from a large-scale study which explored the socio-political impact of teaching and learning in virtual worlds on UK higher education. Three key themes emerged with regard to constructing curricula for virtual world teaching and learning, namely designing courses, framing practice and locating specific student needs.…

  11. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Herrera


    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW, are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid.

  12. Inhibitory effect on in vitro LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity of the liquid-liquid partitioned fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (lion's mane mushroom). (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza


    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.

  13. Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Persoon (Lion’s Mane Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizur Rahman


    Full Text Available Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM, hexane (HEX, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EA, and aqueous residue (AQ. The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins for the formation of conjugated diene (CD at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91% the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.

  14. Incorporation of T4 phage DNA into a specific DNA fraction from the higher plant Matthiola incana. (United States)

    Gradmann-Rebel, W; Hemleben, V


    Isolated T4 phage DNA (sigma=1.694 g/ml) is applied to seedlings of the crucifer Matthiola incana (DNA density sigma=1.698 g/ml). The phage DNA can partly be reextracted from the plants in a specific DNA fraction, which is predominantly characterized by its unusual high density (high density complex=HDC; sigma=1.724 g/ml). DNA:DNA hybridization studies show that phage specific DNA sequences are preserved in the HDC. Results of BrdUrd labeling of the plant DNA before and during incubation with T4DNA suggest that the HDC is composed of T4DNA and a plant DNA component of high density. The analysis of ultrasonicated HDC confirms this suggestion. The ability of plant cells to recognize and handle T4 DNA specifically is discussed.

  15. Stable isotopes of Cu and Zn in higher plants: evidence for Cu reduction at the root surface and two conceptual models for isotopic fractionation processes. (United States)

    Jouvin, D; Weiss, D J; Mason, T F M; Bravin, M N; Louvat, P; Zhao, F; Ferec, F; Hinsinger, P; Benedetti, M F


    Recent reports suggest that significant fractionation of stable metal isotopes occurs during biogeochemical cycling and that the uptake into higher plants is an important process. To test isotopic fractionation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) during plant uptake and constrain its controls, we grew lettuce, tomato, rice and durum wheat under controlled conditions in nutrient solutions with variable metal speciation and iron (Fe) supply. The results show that the fractionation patterns of these two micronutrients are decoupled during the transport from nutrient solution to root. In roots, we found an enrichment of the heavier isotopes for Zn, in agreement with previous studies, but an enrichment of isotopically light Cu, suggesting a reduction of Cu(II) possibly at the surfaces of the root cell plasma membranes. This observation holds for both graminaceous and nongraminaceaous species and confirms that reduction is a predominant and ubiquitous mechanism for the acquisition of Cu into plants similar to the mechanism for the acquisition of iron (Fe) by the strategy I plant species. We propose two preliminary models of isotope fractionation processes of Cu and Zn in plants with different uptake strategies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study aimed to produce biogas using liquid from OFMSW fermentation. In this study the physic-chemical parameters of liquid from OFMSW were determined. Anaerobic digestion using liquid from OFMSW and 2 % (w/v of OFMSW as substrate load was carried out both in batch anaerobic digesters during 25 days. The pH, ammonium nitrogen and gas (CO2, CH4 and H2S were followed during anaerobic digestion. The concentration of ammonium nitrogen ranged respectively 3 g NH4-N·L-1 to 6 g NH4-N·L-1 and 5 g NH4-N·L-1 to 9 g NH4-N·L-1 in anaerobic digestion from liquid from OFMSW and 2 % of OFMSW. This technology has permit to obtain good quality of biogas (57 % CH4, 3 % CO2 and 20 ppm H2S in a short time of 20 days.

  17. Quantum non-Abelian hydrodynamics: Anyonic or spin-orbital entangled liquids, nonunitarity of scattering matrix and charge fractionalization (United States)

    Pareek, Tribhuvan Prasad


    In this article, we develop an exact (nonadiabatic, nonperturbative) density matrix scattering theory for a two component quantum liquid which interacts or scatters off from a generic spin-dependent quantum potential. The generic spin dependent quantum potential [Eq. (1)] is a matrix potential, hence, adiabaticity criterion is ill-defined. Therefore the full matrix potential should be treated nonadiabatically. We succeed in doing so using the notion of vectorial matrices which allows us to obtain an exact analytical expression for the scattered density matrix (SDM), ϱsc [Eq. (30)]. We find that the number or charge density in scattered fluid, Tr(ϱsc), expressions in Eqs. (32) depends on nontrivial quantum interference coefficients, Qα β 0ijk, which arises due to quantum interference between spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering amplitudes and among spin-dependent scattering amplitudes. Further it is shown that Tr(ϱsc) can be expressed in a compact form [Eq. (39)] where the effect of quantum interference coefficients can be included using a vector Qαβ, which allows us to define a vector order parameterQ. Since the number density is obtained using an exact scattered density matrix, therefore, we do not need to prove that Q is non-zero. However, for sake of completeness, we make detailed mathematical analysis for the conditions under which the vector order parameterQ would be zero or nonzero. We find that in presence of spin-dependent interaction the vector order parameterQ is necessarily nonzero and is related to the commutator and anti-commutator of scattering matrix S with its dagger S† [Eq. (78)]. It is further shown that Q≠0, implies four physically equivalent conditions,i.e., spin-orbital entanglement is nonzero, non-Abelian scattering phase, i.e., matrices, scattering matrix is nonunitary and the broken time reversal symmetry for SDM. This also implies that quasi particle excitation are anyonic in nature, hence, charge fractionalization is a

  18. Modeling and simulation of a pseudo-two-phase gas-liquid column reactor for thermal hydrocracking of petroleum heavy fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Matos


    Full Text Available This work presents a model to predict the behavior of velocity, gas holdup and local concentration fields in a pseudo-two-phase gas-liquid column reactor applied for thermal hydrocracking of petroleum heavy fractions. The model is based on the momentum and mass balances for the system, using an Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Using the k-epsilon model,fluid dynamics accounts for both laminar and turbulent flows, with discrete small bubbles (hydrogen flowing in a continuous pseudohomogeneous liquid phase (oil and catalyst particles. The petroleum is assumed to be a mixture of pseudocomponents, grouped by similar chemical structural properties, and the thermal hydrocracking is taken into account using a kinetic network based on these pseudocomponents.

  19. Empirical Correlations and CFD Simulations of Vertical Two-Phase Gas-Liquid (Newtonian and Non-Newtonian) Slug Flow Compared Against Experimental Data of Void Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Majumder, S.K.; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby


    agreement was found between the experimental measurements, the CFD results and the empirical relationships. In terms of void fraction for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids, the empirical correlations perform much worse than the CFD simulations, errors of 48 and 25%, respectively, against the experimental...... (CFD) and comparing this directly with experimental measurements and empirical relationships found in literature. A vertical tube of 3.4 m with an internal diameter of 0.1905 m was used. The two-phase CFD model was implemented in Star CCM+ using the volume of fluid (VOF) model. A relatively good...... data. This shows that CFD can be used to predict void fraction relatively well for comparison against empirical correlations and they can be used for design and scale-up processes....

  20. Properties of plant nutrient: Comparison of two nutrient recovery techniques using liquid fraction of digestate from anaerobic digester treating pig manure. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Guo, Jianbin; Dong, Renjie; Ahring, Birgitte K; Zhang, Wanqin


    Anaerobic digestate has valuable potential as organic fertilizer or soil amendment, given that it typically contains high amounts of plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphate and plant hormones. In this study, ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation were tested to compare their technical feasibilities and their effects on plant nutrient properties in the liquid fraction of digestate. Results of the batch experiments showed that the nutrient characteristics of liquid digestate, including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), soluble P, gibberellic acid (GA), indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), were strongly dependent on the initial pH in both ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation processes. A low plant nutrient concentration (TAN 137 mg · L(-1), soluble P 1.5 mg · L(-1), GA3/ABA 0.04) in the liquid digestate was achieved in the ammonia stripping process with Ca(OH)2 addition of 12 g · L(-1), whereas a high nutrient concentration (TAN 2998 mg · L(-1), soluble P 178.3 mg · L(-1), IAA 60.9 mg · L(-1) and GA3/ABA 0.4) was achieved in vacuum evaporation at a pH level of 6. According to the results, both ammonia stripping and vacuum evaporation can be used as an alternative of nutrient recovery techniques, which should be chosen based on the potential different applications of liquid digestate (e.g., soaking seed, increasing plant tolerance, and nutrients transportation). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds In Extract and Fraction of Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. Leaves Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto


    Full Text Available Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L. is potential as raw material for medicine, native in tropic areas, including Indonesia. According to other study report, starfruit leaves containing flavonoids apigenin and quercetin as potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. The raw material for the drug in Indonesia mostly obtained through imports from other countries. In order to support the independence of traditional medicine raw materials, it is important to standardize the quality of traditional medicine raw materials, in this case is star fruit leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The sample used is star fruit leaves extract obtained from maceration process using ethanol 70%; water fraction, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions obtained from fractionation process of the ethanolic extract. Physical parameters analyzed in sample include appearance, color, odor, taste, extract yield, water content, loss of drying, total ash content, residual solvent. Chemical parameters analyzed include apigenin and quercetin contents. The results shows that star fruit leaves used in this study meet the standards of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia with highest apigenin and quercetin content are in ethyl acetate fraction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti


    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrocracking of waste lubricant oil into liquid fuel fraction using ZnO, Nb2O5, activated natural zeolite (ZAAH and their modification has been investigated. The zeolite was produced in Wonosari, Yogyakarta. Activation of the zeolite was carried out by refluxing with HCl 3M for 30 min, produced the activated natural zeolite (ZAAH. The ZnO/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by impregnation of Zn onto the ZAAH by ion exchange method using salt precursor of Zn(NO32.4H2O. The Nb2O5/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by mixing the ZAAH sample with Nb2O5 and oxalic acid solution until the paste was formed. The impregnation of Zn onto Nb2O5/ZAAH was carried out using the same method to that of the ZnO/ZAAH catalyst resulted ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst. Characterization of catalyst includes determination of Zn metal by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, acidity by gravimetric method and catalyst porosity by Surface Area Analyzer (NOVA-1000. Catalytic hydrocracking was carried out in a semi-batch reactor system using ZnO, ZAAH, ZnO/ZAAH and ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalysts at 450 oC under the H2 flow rate of 15 mL/min. and the ratio of catalyst/feed = 1/5. The composition of liquid products was analyzed by Gas Chromatograpy (GC.The results showed that impregnation of ZnO and/or Nb2O5 on the ZAAH increased the acidity and specific surface area of catalyst. The products of the hydrocracking process were liquid, coke and gas. Conversion of liquid products was increased by the increase of catalyst acidity. The highest liquid product was produced by ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst, 52.97 wt-%, consist of gasoline, 38.87 wt-% and diesel, 14.10 wt-%.   Keywords: hydrocracking, waste lubricant oil, liquid fuel fraction

  3. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueeli D. Vaidya


    Full Text Available DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF and fibrous content (FC fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100, 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33, 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67, or 100% MS (MS100. An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 and fraction (p < 0.001. The 260/280 ratio was not affected by extraction (p = 0.08 but was affected by fraction (p = 0.03. On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 but not affected by fraction (p = 0.8. However, all four extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction (p = 0.012, and that PBB (p = 0.012 and FDSS (p = 0.024 also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In

  4. Measurement of the film thickness, film velocity and entrainment fraction in a liquid-air annular flow using a conductance flowmeter


    Al-Yarubi, Qahtan; Lucas, Gary


    In certain older oil wells in the Middle East, the produced fluid is predominantly natural gas which flows at very high rates (e.g. 50,000). Smaller quantities of crude oil (e.g. 50) and water (950) are also produced. Given the relatively much higher flow rate of the gas the flow regime is annular with most of the liquid flowing in a thin film on the pipe wall. The annular flow regime makes measurement of the total liquid flow rate difficult. It is even more difficult to measure the individua...

  5. Measurement of the Film Thickness, Film Velocity and Entrainment Fraction in a Liquid-Air Annular Flow\\ud Using a Conductance Flowmeter


    A-Yarubi, Qahtan; Lucas, Gary


    In certain older oil wells in the Middle East, the produced fluid is predominantly natural gas which flows at very high rates (e.g.\\ud 50,000 m3 / day ). Smaller quantities of crude oil (e.g. 50m3 / day ) and water (950m3 / day ) are also produced. Given the relatively much higher flow rate of the gas the flow regime is annular with most of the liquid flowing in a thin film on the pipe wall. The annular flow regime makes measurement of the total liquid flow rate difficult. It is even more dif...

  6. Evaluation of sample fractionation using micro-scale liquid-phase isoelectric focusing on mass spectrometric identification and quantitation of proteins in a SILAC experiment. (United States)

    Thorsell, Annika; Portelius, Erik; Blennow, Kaj; Westman-Brinkmalm, Ann


    Mass spectrometric methods based on stable isotopes have shown great promise for identification and quantitation of complex mixtures. Stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a straightforward and accurate procedure for quantitation of proteins from cell lines, that are cultured in media containing the natural amino acid or its isotopically labelled analogue, giving rise to either 'light' or 'heavy' proteins. The two cell populations are pooled and treated as a single sample, which allows the use of various protein purification methods without introducing errors into the quantitative analysis. The quantitation of the proteins is based on the intensities of the light and heavy peptides. The increased number of peptides in a quantitative experiment arising from peptide pairs implies that prefractionation is critical prior to liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) analysis to minimise signal suppression effects and errors in measurements of the intensity ratios. In this study, the effect of a prefractionation step on identification and quantitation of proteins in a SILAC experiment was evaluated. We show that micro-scale liquid-phase isoelectric focusing in the Micro Rotofor separates proteins into well-defined fractions and reduces the sample complexity. Furthermore, the fractionation enhanced the number of identified proteins and improved their quantitation. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Quantum quench spectroscopy of a Luttinger liquid: Ultrarelativistic density wave dynamics due to fractionalization in an XXZ chain


    Foster, Matthew S.; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Reichman, David R.; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.


    We compute the dynamics of localized excitations produced by a quantum quench in the spin 1/2 XXZ chain. Using numerics combining the density matrix renormalization group and exact time evolution, as well as analytical arguments, we show that fractionalization due to interactions in the pre-quench state gives rise to "ultrarelativistic" density waves that travel at the maximum band velocity. The system is initially prepared in the ground state of the chain within the gapless XY phase, which a...

  8. Top-down and bottom-up lipidomic analysis of rabbit lipoproteins under different metabolic conditions using flow field-flow fractionation, nanoflow liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Ju Yong; Chung, Bong Chul; Seo, Hong Seog; Moon, Myeong Hee


    This study demonstrated the performances of top-down and bottom-up approaches in lipidomic analysis of lipoproteins from rabbits raised under different metabolic conditions: healthy controls, carrageenan-induced inflammation, dehydration, high cholesterol (HC) diet, and highest cholesterol diet with inflammation (HCI). In the bottom-up approach, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the low density lipoproteins (LDL) were size-sorted and collected on a semi-preparative scale using a multiplexed hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (MxHF5), followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-ESI-MS/MS (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis of the lipids extracted from each lipoprotein fraction. In the top-down method, size-fractionated lipoproteins were directly infused to MS for quantitative analysis of targeted lipids using chip-type asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (cAF4-ESI-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The comprehensive bottom-up analysis yielded 122 and 104 lipids from HDL and LDL, respectively. Rabbits within the HC and HCI groups had lipid patterns that contrasted most substantially from those of controls, suggesting that HC diet significantly alters the lipid composition of lipoproteins. Among the identified lipids, 20 lipid species that exhibited large differences (>10-fold) were selected as targets for the top-down quantitative analysis in order to compare the results with those from the bottom-up method. Statistical comparison of the results from the two methods revealed that the results were not significantly different for most of the selected species, except for those species with only small differences in concentration between groups. The current study demonstrated that top-down lipid analysis using cAF4-ESI-MS/MS is a powerful high-speed analytical platform for targeted lipidomic analysis that does not require the extraction of lipids from blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  9. Generation and spectroscopic signatures of a fractional quantum Hall liquid of photons in an incoherently pumped optical cavity (United States)

    Umucalılar, R. O.; Carusotto, I.


    We investigate theoretically a driven dissipative model of strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear optical cavity in the presence of a synthetic magnetic field. We show the possibility of using a frequency-dependent incoherent pump to create a strongly correlated ν =1 /2 bosonic Laughlin state of light: Due to the incompressibility of the Laughlin state, fluctuations in the total particle number and excitation of edge modes can be tamed by imposing a suitable external potential profile for photons. We further propose angular-momentum-selective spectroscopy of the emitted light as a tool to obtain unambiguous signatures of the microscopic physics of the quantum Hall liquid of light.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A general systematic approach is described for the chemometric modelling of liquid-liquid extraction data of drugs from biological fluids. Extraction solvents were selected from Snyder's solvent selectivity triangle: methyl tert.-butyl ether, methylene chloride and chloroform. The composition of a

  11. Treatment of liquid fraction of pig slurry by sequencing batch reactor; Tratamiento de la fraccion liquida de purines de cerdo mediante un reactor discontinuo secuencial (SBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, A. [Universidad de Lleida (Spain)


    A laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for the treatment of the liquid fraction of pig slurry (FLPC). Alternating aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions were used for the biological removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. Although the low COD/TKN ratio of the FLPC, around 7, removal as high as 89% TS 98% COD, 98% N and 89% P were reached. The obtained effluent didn't reach Spanish water quality limits for discharge on natural watercourses. Therefore, improvements on cycle design and/or further tertiary treatment would be needed. However, results show that the SBR system is a promising technology for full scale implementation. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. Application of fractionized sampling and stacking for construction of an interface for online heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Ji, Baocheng; Xia, Bing; Liu, Jie; Gao, Yuanji; Ding, Lisheng; Zhou, Yan


    In this study, an efficient interface, based on a fractionized sampling and stacking (FSS) strategy, was developed for online heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D LC). This interface consisted of a two-position 4-port valve, a two-position 6-port valve and a two-position 10-port valve equipped with two 450-μL stainless steel loops. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP LC) were used in the first and second dimensions, respectively. The peak compression efficiency of this interface was investigated by analysis of ten standards. Good peak shapes of the ten standards were observed when the dilution ratio was over five and the co-eluate plug volume was less than 10μL. The 2D LC system was further applied to analysis of a crude extract of Panax ginseng leaves. Seventeen major constituents in the extract were monitored, which could not be well separated by one-dimensional (1D) HILIC or RP LC method in a long separation gradient. The FSS interface successfully achieved the efficient combination of HILIC and RP LC, and the 17 constituents in ginseng extract got well separated under the optimized conditions. The FSS interface has shown great potential for 2D LC analysis of complex natural product samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Abnormal Transient Liquid Phase Bondability of High-Volume Fraction SiC Particle-Reinforced A356 Composite for Cu Interlayer and the Interlayer Improvement Routes (United States)

    Zhang, Guifeng; Wei, Zhongxin; Chen, Biqiang; Chen, Bo


    Features of transient liquid phase (TLP) bondability of high-volume fraction (70 vol.%) SiC particle-reinforced A356 composite for popular Cu interlayer were investigated. Although Cu foil was melted, molten Cu was completely expulsed, indicating that the numerous SiC particles significantly deteriorated wettability not only at particle/braze metal (P/M) interface, but also at the matrix/braze metal (M/M) interface. For the reason of poor wettability at P/M interface, a model showing there is a "window period" for actual wetting reaction (allowing liquid phase to be in contact with surficial SiC particles) much shorter than nominal isothermal solidification time during TLP bonding of the composite containing sintered ceramic preform was proposed. For the poor wettability at M/M interface, both size effect of too small matrix unit (2 20 μm) and restraint effect of the rigid porous ceramic preform on suppressing oxide film crack on the small matrix unit surface were proposed. Thus, chemical route to disrupt oxide film on the small matrix unit surface should be preferred in braze composition design. For example, Al-27Cu-5Si-2Mg-1Ti braze was developed by co-addition of Mg and Ti to improve wettability and to in situ reinforce bond seam, respectively; Ti also could remedy Mg loss for improving wettability.

  14. Speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in casein phosphopeptide fractions from toddler milk-based formula by anion exchange and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame atomic-absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, Esther; Alegria, Amparo; Barbera, Reyes; Farre, Rosaura [University of Valencia, Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)


    Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are phosphorylated casein-derived peptides that can be released by in-vitro or in-vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of {alpha}{sub s1}-casein, {alpha}{sub s2}-casein, and {beta}-casein (CN). Many of these peptides contain a highly polar acidic sequence of three phosphoseryl groups followed by two glutamic acid residues. These domains are binding sites for minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc and play an important role in mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was speciation analysis of calcium, iron, and zinc in CPP fractions from the soluble fraction of a toddler milk-based formula. Methods for CPP separation by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) were combined with CPP identification by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and determination of the calcium, iron, zinc, and phosphorus content of the fractions obtained by AE-HPLC. Calcium and phosphorus were detected in all the analyzed AE-HPLC fractions. Calcium and zinc could be bound to CPP derived from {alpha}{sub s1}-CN and {alpha}{sub s2}-CN in fraction 3. Iron could be bound to CPP in fraction 4 in which {beta}-CN(15-34)4P was present with the cluster sequence S(P)S(P)S(P)EE. The results obtained prove the different distribution of calcium, iron, and zinc in heterogeneous CPP fractions. (orig.)

  15. Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yong; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee


    Oxidized phospholipids (Ox-PLs) are oxidatively modified PLs that are produced during the oxidation of lipoproteins; oxidation of low density lipoproteins especially is known to be associated with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, different lipoprotein classes (high density, low density, and very low density lipoproteins) from pooled plasma of CAD patients and pooled plasma from healthy controls were size-sorted on a semipreparative scale by multiplexed hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (MxHF5), and Ox-PLs that were extracted from each lipoprotein fraction were quantified by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). The present study showed that oxidation of lipoproteins occurred throughout all classes of lipoproteins with more Ox-PLs identified from CAD patient lipoproteins: molecular structures of 283 unique PL species (including 123 Ox-PLs) from controls and 315 (including 169 Ox-PLs) from patients were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation experiments. It was shown that oxidation of PLs occurred primarily with hydroxylation of PL; in particular, a saturated acyl chain such as 16:0, 18:0, or even 18:1 at the sn-1 location of the glycerol backbone along with sn-2 acyl chains with at least two double bonds were identified. The acyl chain combinations commonly found for hydroxylated Ox-PLs in the lipoproteins of CAD patients were 16:0/18:2, 16:0/20:4, 18:0/18:2, and 18:0/20:4.

  16. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [COMSATS, Chakshahzad (Pakistan)


    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  17. Progressive decrease in amplitude of intracardiac ventricular electrogram and higher left ventricular ejection fraction are associated with conductors' externalization in Riata leads. (United States)

    Kubala, Maciej; Traullé, Sarah; Leborgne, Laurent; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain


    Increased rates of structural abnormalities including externalized conductors have been reported in the Riata family of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads (St Jude Medical). Little is known about their reliability and the time lag for emergence of functional or structural abnormalities. Thirty-six patients who received small-caliber leads of the Riata family and who completed face-profile flouroscopies, repeated at every 6 months were included. We assessed the prevalence of conductors' externalization and its relation to abnormal electrical parameters or adverse events. Thirty-six patients, mean age = 64 ± 10 years, with at least 7-month completed fluoroscopy follow-up were included in the analysis. Externalized conductors were identified in 12 (33%) patients after a 53-month (13-114) mean delay. A higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): 47 ± 13 vs. 33 ± 12%, P = 0.04, and a progressive decrease (≥30% of the initial value) in amplitude of ventricular electrogram 9/12 (75%) vs. 4/24 (17%), P = 0.03 were independently associated with the fluoroscopic failures. Detection of the conductors' externalization was preceded by an electrical lead abnormality in 10 (83%) patients. Repeated face-profile fluoroscopies allowed detection of conductors' externalization in 33% of patients implanted with Riata leads. Better LVEF and a progressive decrease in amplitude of intracardiac ventricular electrogram were independently associated with externalized conductors. The structural abnormality was preceded by an electrical lead dysfunction 83% of patients.

  18. Empirical Correlations and CFD Simulations of Vertical Two-Phase Gas-Liquid (Newtonian and Non-Newtonian) Flow Compared Against Experimental Data of Void Fraction and Pressure Drop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Majumder, S.K.


    measurements, the CFD results and the empirical relationships. In terms of void fraction, for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids, the empirical correlations perform much worse than the CFD simulations, error of 48 and 25 %, respectively, against the experimental data. In terms of pressure drop, for Newtonian...... and non-Newtonian liquids, the empirical correlations perform much worse than the CFD simulations, error of 29 and 19 %, respectively, against the experiment data. This shows that CFD can be used to predict relatively well void fraction and pressure drop compared against empirical correlations...... pressure drop using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and compared directly with experimental measurements and empirical relationships found in literature. A vertical tube of 3.4 m with an internal diameter of 0.1905 m was used. Superficial liquid and gas velocities ranged from 0.32 to 2.34 and from 0...

  19. Use of affinity-directed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to map the epitopes of a factor VIII inhibitor antibody fraction. (United States)

    Griffiths, A E; Wang, W; Hagen, F K; Fay, P J


    Neutralizing factor (F) VIII antibodies develop in approximately 30% of individuals with hemophilia A and show specificity to multiple sites in the FVIII protein. Reactive epitopes to an immobilized IgG fraction prepared from a high-titer, FVIII inhibitor plasma were determined after immuno-precipitation (IP) of tryptic and chymotryptic peptides derived from digests of the A1 and A2 subunits of FVIIIa and FVIII light chain. Peptides were detected and identified using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Coverage maps of the A1 subunit, A2 subunit and light chain represented 79%, 69% and 90%, respectively, of the protein sequences. Dot blots indicated that the inhibitor IgG reacted with epitopes contained within each subunit of FVIIIa. IP coupled with LC-MS identified 19 peptides representing epitopes from all FVIII A and C domains. The majority of peptides (10) were derived from the A2 domain. Three peptides mapped to the C2 domain, while two mapped to the A1 and A3 domains, and single peptides mapped to the a1 segment and C1 domain. Epitopes were typically defined by peptide sequences of < 12 residues. IP coupled with LC-MS identified extensive antibody reactivity at high resolution over the entire functional FVIII molecule and yielded sequence lengths of < 15 residues. A number of the peptides identified mapped to known sequences involved in functionally important protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of the two higher fullerites C70 and C96 along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve (United States)

    Khedr, M. Bahaa; Osman, S. M.


    A brief review is presented for the pre-history and discovery of fullerenes. Single-site potentials with parameters proposed by Girifalco was used to describe the interactions of the fullerene molecules C70 and C96. We present theoretical model for calculating the thermodynamic properties of liquid for both C70 and C96 by means of an improved equation of state (EOS), in which the particles are interacting via pair wise interaction composed of suitable linear combination of three Yukawa functions (3YK). The proposed equation of state provides a powerful mathematical formalism for the Helmholtz free energy and the pressure within the series mean-spherical approximation (SMSA) which are the basic ingredients to compute the liquid-vapour coexistence curve of C70 and C96 as well as the other thermodynamic properties for the bulk liquid and the vapour phases. The comparisons with Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulations and the self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) were carried out. The estimated critical parameters for both C70 and C96 are TC = 2176 K, ρC = 0.44 nm-3, PC = 51.64 bars and TC = 2477 K, ρC = 0.32 nm-3, PC = 44.28 bars respectively. It is to be noted that the obtained results of the thermodynamic properties along the binodal curves of C70 and C96 are exhibit interesting features.

  1. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota). (United States)

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru


    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  2. Fractionation and analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides by zwitterionic-type hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Bobko, Ewelina; Gozdziewicz, Tomasz K; Maciejewska, Anna; Jachymek, Wojciech; Lugowski, Czeslaw; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta


    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a main surface antigen and virulence factor of Gram-negative bacteria. Regardless of the source of LPS, this molecule, isolated from the smooth forms of bacteria, is characterised by a general structural layout encompassing three regions: (i) an O-specific polysaccharide (O-PS) - a polymer of repeating oligosaccharide units, (ii) core oligosaccharide (OS), and (iii) the lipid A anchoring LPS in the outer membrane of the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Structural analysis usually requires degradation of LPS and further efficient separation of various poly- and oligosaccharide glycoforms. The hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was shown as an efficient technique for separation of labelled or native neutral and acidic glycans, glycopeptides, sialylated glycans, glycosylated and nonglycosylated peptides. Herein we adopted ZIC(®) (zwitterionic stationary phase covalently attached to porous silica)-HILIC technology in combination with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry to separate different LPS-derived oligosaccharides. As a result three effective procedures have been developed: (i) to separate different core oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli R1 LOS, (ii) to separate RU-[Hep]-Kdo oligosaccharides from core OS glycoforms of Hafnia alvei PCM 1200 LPS, and (iii) to separate Hep and Kdo-containing mono, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides of H. alvei PCM 1200 LPS. Moreover, some of developed analytical procedures were scaled to semi-preparative protocols and used to obtain highly-purified fractions of the interest in larger quantities required for future evaluation, analysis, and biological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Why is the electroanalytical performance of carbon paste electrodes involving an ionic liquid binder higher than paraffinic binders? A simulation investigation. (United States)

    Ghatee, M H; Namvar, S; Zolghadr, A R; Moosavi, F


    Recently, carbon paste electrodes (CPE) fabricated using an ionic liquid (IL) binder have shown enhanced electroanalytical performance over conventional paraffinic binders. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of graphite mixed with ionic liquid and with paraffin binder can unravel the potential atomistic factors responsible for such enhancement. Based on an experimentally optimized binder/graphite mass ratio, which has been reported to be crucial for such a performance, comprehensive simulations (at 323 K) are performed with the ensembles involving an ionic liquid binder (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim]PF6) and a paraffin binder (n-C20H42) mixed with graphite comprising large-size hexagonal-shaped double graphene plates. Structural analysis indicates both binders form only a monolayer on the graphite surface, covering the surface locally by IL but all-encompassing by paraffin. With charged and uncharged graphite, the IL monolayer tends to cover mainly the graphite center without approaching the edge planes. On the contrary, a monolayer of the paraffin binder covers uniformly the center, near the center, and the edge planes. Cations and anions of the IL form well-defined two dimensional pentagonal matrixes with characteristic high adsorption energy, almost 2.4 times higher than paraffin adsorption. The cation and anion coordination ability of the IL is responsible for such a local distribution. The simulation of these phenomena under experimental conditions unravels strong two-dimensional coordination properties inherent to the ionic liquid when distributed over the graphite surface. This direct MD simulation comparison of the IL properties with an organic liquid counterpart, made for the first time, can be used to explain the high electroanalytical performance (electron transfer) of CPEs involving an IL binder over paraffin binders.

  4. Numerical approximation of higher-order time-fractional telegraph equation by using a combination of a geometric approach and method of line (United States)

    Hashemi, M. S.; Baleanu, D.


    We propose a simple and accurate numerical scheme for solving the time fractional telegraph (TFT) equation within Caputo type fractional derivative. A fictitious coordinate ϑ is imposed onto the problem in order to transform the dependent variable u (x , t) into a new variable with an extra dimension. In the new space with the added fictitious dimension, a combination of method of line and group preserving scheme (GPS) is proposed to find the approximate solutions. This method preserves the geometric structure of the problem. Power and accuracy of this method has been illustrated through some examples of TFT equation.

  5. Amphetamines analysis in wastewaters - method performance of solid phase extraction - higher performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry techniques (SPE-HPLC MS/MS) (United States)

    Mustapha, Aliru Olajide; Ajao, Usman L


    Recently, many articles have reported different levels and distribution of amphetamine hitherto detected in biological fluids now appreciably found in aquatic environment at ng/L levels. Identification and measurement of amphetamine and its metabolites in surface and sewage waters using higher performance liquid chromatographic methodologies in the literatures now on current trend have provided information that are of scientific interest and effectively replaced immunological methods which only suggest the presence of these substances. Active research on both distribution and impacts of this important drug of abuse and related metabolites in the wastewaters are on-going. PMID:27857670

  6. Separation of Asphaltenes by Polarity using Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar


    In order to investigate the nature of petroleum asphaltenes in terms of polarity a process was developed using initial liquid-liquid extraction of the oil phase followed by precipitation of the asphaltenes using n-heptane. The liquid-liquid extraction was performed using toluene-methanol mixtures...... with increasing content of toluene. Although large fractions of the crude oil (Alaska ´93) was extracted in the higher polarity solvents (high concentration of methanol), the asphaltene content of the dissolved material was low. As the toluene content increased more asphaltenes were transferred to the solvent...... of the maltene phase also increase while H/C decreases. The content of heteroatoms in the asphaltenes are relatively higher and apparently increase with the polarity of the solvent. It is concluded that these asphaltenes are indeed dominated by high molecular weight substances that cannot be extracted...

  7. Methods to control phase inversions and enhance mass transfer in liquid-liquid dispersions (United States)

    Tsouris, Constantinos; Dong, Junhang


    The present invention is directed to the effects of applied electric fields on liquid-liquid dispersions. In general, the present invention is directed to the control of phase inversions in liquid-liquid dispersions. Because of polarization and deformation effects, coalescence of aqueous drops is facilitated by the application of electric fields. As a result, with an increase in the applied voltage, the ambivalence region is narrowed and shifted toward higher volume fractions of the dispersed phase. This permits the invention to be used to ensure that the aqueous phase remains continuous, even at a high volume fraction of the organic phase. Additionally, the volume fraction of the organic phase may be increased without causing phase inversion, and may be used to correct a phase inversion which has already occurred. Finally, the invention may be used to enhance mass transfer rates from one phase to another through the use of phase inversions.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate. (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis


    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive and Holistic Analysis of HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor-Bearing Nude Mouse Model: Interactions Among Fractions Derived From the Chinese Medicine Formula Tian Xian Liquid in Effects on Human Colorectal Carcinoma. (United States)

    Leigh, Annballaw Bridget; Cheung, Ho Pan; Lin, Li-Zhu; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lao, Lixing; Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing


    The Chinese medicine formula Tian Xian Liquid (TXL) has been used clinically for cancer therapy in China for more than 25 years. However, the comprehensive and holistic effects of its bioactive fractions for various antitumor therapeutic effects have not been unraveled. This is the first study to scientifically elucidate the holistic effect of Chinese medicine formula for treating colon cancer, hence allowing a better understanding of the essence of Chinese medicine formula, through the comparison of the actions of TXL and its functional constituent fractions, including ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU), and aqueous (WA) fractions. Tissue-specific proliferative/antiproliferative effects of these fractions on human colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells and splenocytes were studied by using the MTT assay. Their modulations on the expression of markers of antiproliferation, antimetastasis, reversion of multidrug resistance in treated HT-29 cells were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and their modulations in a xenografted nude mouse model were examined by Western blot analysis. Results revealed that EA fraction slightly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, but tissue-specifically exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on splenocytes. On the contrary, only TXL and BU fraction tissue-specifically contributed to the proliferation of splenocytes, but inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells. WA fraction exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on HT-29 cells and also the strongest inhibitory action on tumor size in the nude mouse model in our previous study. In the HT-29 model, TXL and WA fraction exerted the most pronounced effect on upregulation of p21 mRNA and protein; TXL, and EA and WA fractions exerted the effect on downregulation of G1 phase cell cycle protein, cyclin D1 mRNA and protein; EA and BU fractions exerted the most prominent anti-invasive effect on anti-invasion via downregulation of MMP-1 m

  10. Anti-Gastric Ulcer Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction Isolated from Mycelium Culture of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes). (United States)

    Wang, Mingxing; Konishi, Tetsuya; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Gao, Qipin


    Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that is used in traditional medicine, in folk medicine, and as medicinal cuisine in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. H. erinaceus exhibits various pharmacological properties, such as anti-cancer, immunomodulation, anti-dementia, and anti-gastric ulcer effects. The extracts of the fruiting body of H. erinaceus demonstrate anti-gastritis activity. However, the active principle in the extract, as well as the mechanism to treat gastric ulcers, remains uncertain. The current study aims to identify the active component, with anti-gastric ulcer function, from the extracts of the H. erinaceus mycelium culture. In the experiment, anti-gastric ulcer activity was evaluated using an ethanol-induced ulcer model in mice and with an 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using MC cell lines. The results suggest that the polysaccharide fraction can significantly decrease the ulcerated area compared with the control group and the effect is fairly dose dependent, irrespective of animal or cell experiments. These results indicate that the polysaccharide fraction is the active component of the H. erinaceus mycelium culture, which protects against gastric ulcers.

  11. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M


    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state

  12. Nonparaxial fractional Bessel and Bessel-Gauss auto-focusing light-sheet pincers and their higher-order spatial derivatives (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.


    Nonparaxial fractional electromagnetic Bessel and Bessel-Gauss auto-focusing light-sheet solutions and their spatial derivatives are synthesized stemming from the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. The propagation characteristics of these transverse electric-polarized light-sheets are analyzed by computing the radiated component of the incident electric field. Tight bending of the beam along curved trajectories and slit openings are observed, which could offer unique features and potential applications in the development of improved methods and devices in light-sheet tweezers for particle manipulation applications and dynamics in opto-fluidics, particle sizing and imaging to name a few examples. Moreover, computations of the scattering, radiation force and torque, and particle dynamics also benefit from the developed beam solutions.

  13. Fractional correlation. (United States)

    Mendlovic, D; Ozaktas, H M; Lohmann, A W


    Recently, optical interpretations of the fractional-Fourier-transform operator have been introduced. On the basis of this operator the fractional correlation operator is defined in two different ways that are both consistent with the definition of conventional correlation. Fractional correlation is not always a shift-invariant operation. This property leads to some new applications for fractional correlation as shift-variant image detection. A bulk-optics implementation of fractional correlation is suggested and demonstrated with computer simulations.

  14. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Case, Sean; Jensen, Lars Stoumann


    The combined effects of pig slurry acidification, subsequent separation techniques and biochar production from the solid fraction on N mineralisation and N2O and CO2 emissions in soil were investigated in an incubation experiment. Acidification of pig slurry increased N availability from the sepa...

  15. Higher toxicity with 42 Gy in 10 fractions as a total dose for 3D-conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation: results from a dose escalation phase II trial. (United States)

    Bourgier, Celine; Acevedo-Henao, Catalina; Dunant, Ariane; Rossier, Christine; Levy, Antonin; El Nemr, Mohamed; Dumas, Isabelle; Delaloge, Suzette; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Garbay, Jean-Remi; Taghian, Alphonse; Marsiglia, Hugo


    Recent recommendations regarding indications of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) have been put forward for selected breast cancer (BC) patients. However, some treatment planning parameters, such as total dose, are not yet well defined. The Institut Gustave Roussy has initiated a dose escalation trial at the 40 Gy/10 fractions/5 days and at a further step of total dose (TD) of 42 Gy/10 fractions/ 5 days. Here, we report early results of the latest step compared with the 40 Gy dose level. From October 2007 to March 2010, a total of 48 pT1N0 BC patients were enrolled within this clinical trial: 17 patients at a TD of 42 Gy/10f/5d and 31 at a TD of 40 Gy/10f/5d. Median follow-up was 19 months (min-max, 12-26). All the patients were treated by APBI using a technique with 2 minitangents and an "enface" electrons delivering 20% of the total dose. Toxicities were systematically assessed at 1; 2; 6 months and then every 6 months. Patients' recruitment of 42 Gy step was ended owing to persistent grade 3 toxicity 6 months after APBI completion (n = 1). Early toxicities were statistically higher after a total dose of 42 Gy regarding grade ≥2 dry (p = 0.01) and moist (p = 0.05) skin desquamation. Breast pain was also statistically higher in the 42 Gy step compared to 40 Gy step (p = 0.02). Other late toxicities (grade ≥2 fibrosis and telangectasia) were not statistically different between 42 Gy and 40 Gy. Early toxicities were more severe and higher rates of late toxicities were observed after 42 Gy/10 fractions/5 days when compared to 40 Gy/10 fractions/5 days. This data suggest that 40 Gy/10 fractions/ 5 days could potentially be the maximum tolerance for PBI although longer follow-up is warranted to better assess late toxicities.

  16. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D


    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy


    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  18. Inhibition of breathing after surfactant depletion is achieved at a higher arterial PCO2 during ventilation with liquid than with gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindelar Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanical ventilation under different lung conditions, inhibition of PNA can provide a physiological setting at which ventilatory parameters can be compared and related to arterial blood gases and pH. Objective To study lung mechanics and gas exchange at inhibition of PNA during controlled gas ventilation (GV and during partial liquid ventilation (PLV before and after lung lavage. Methods Nine anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated young cats (age 3.8 ± 0.5 months, weight 2.3 ± 0.1 kg (mean ± SD were studied with stepwise increases in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP until total inhibition of PNA was attained before lavage (with GV and after lavage (GV and PLV. Tidal volume (Vt, PIP, oesophageal pressure and arterial blood gases were measured at inhibition of PNA. One way repeated measures analysis of variance and Student Newman Keuls-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results During GV, inhibition of PNA occurred at lower PIP, transpulmonary pressure (Ptp and Vt before than after lung lavage. After lavage, inhibition of inspiratory activity was achieved at the same PIP, Ptp and Vt during GV and PLV, but occurred at a higher PaCO2 during PLV. After lavage compliance at inhibition was almost the same during GV and PLV and resistance was lower during GV than during PLV. Conclusion Inhibition of inspiratory activity occurs at a higher PaCO2 during PLV than during GV in cats with surfactant-depleted lungs. This could indicate that PLV induces better recruitment of mechanoreceptors than GV.

  19. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  20. Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (Lion's Mane Mushroom)


    Mohammad Azizur Rahman; Noorlidah Abdullah; Norhaniza Aminudin


    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-...

  1. Implications of liquid-liquid distribution coefficients to mineral-liquid partitioning (United States)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Hess, P. C.


    In order to evaluate the influence of a silicate liquid structure on mineral-liquid partitioning, element partitioning data is obtained for coexisting anhydrous immiscible granitic and ferrobasaltic magmas. It is found that: (1) mineral-liquid distribution coefficients indicate the competition of crystal and liquid for cation incorporation, (2) increased polymerization of the residual liquid during crystal-liquid fractionation increases the mineral-liquid distribution coefficients for high-charge-density cations, (3) incompatible element ratios of low- and high-charge-density cations may vary during crystal-liquid fractionation because of changes in the melt composition and structure, (4) relative solubilities of REE's in melts do not vary with melt polymerization, (5) the changes of Sm/Eu ratios during crystal-liquid fractionation depend on the melt composition, and (6) minor components and volatiles can significantly influence the silicate melt structure and the mineral-liquid distribution coefficients.

  2. One input-class and two input-class classifications for differentiating olive oil from other edible vegetable oils by use of the normal-phase liquid chromatography fingerprint of the methyl-transesterified fraction. (United States)

    Jiménez-Carvelo, Ana M; Pérez-Castaño, Estefanía; González-Casado, Antonio; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis


    A new method for differentiation of olive oil (independently of the quality category) from other vegetable oils (canola, safflower, corn, peanut, seeds, grapeseed, palm, linseed, sesame and soybean) has been developed. The analytical procedure for chromatographic fingerprinting of the methyl-transesterified fraction of each vegetable oil, using normal-phase liquid chromatography, is described and the chemometric strategies applied and discussed. Some chemometric methods, such as k-nearest neighbours (kNN), partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine classification analysis (SVM-C), and soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA), were applied to build classification models. Performance of the classification was evaluated and ranked using several classification quality metrics. The discriminant analysis, based on the use of one input-class, (plus a dummy class) was applied for the first time in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cod (Gadus morhua) muscle proteome cataloging using 1D-PAGE protein separation, nano-liquid chromatography peptide fractionation, and linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Gebriel, Mohammed; Uleberg, Kai-Erik; Larssen, Eivind; Bjørnstad, Anne Hjelle; Sivertsvik, Morten; Møller, Simon Geir


    Because Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has high economic value and its protein-rich muscle tissue is a food source, an increased understanding of the effects and consequences of environmental, nutritional, biological, and industrial factors on meat quality is necessary. To gain insight into cod muscle tissue protein composition, a large-scale proteomics approach has been used. One-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, nanoflow liquid chromatography peptide separation, and linear trap quadrupole mass spectrometry were used to identify 4804 peptides, which retrieved 9113 cod expressed sequence tags (ESTs), which in turn were mapped to 446 unique proteins. The same data set identified 3924 proteins from the zebrafish protein database, which highlights the complementary value of the two approaches. The generated data sets will act as a foundation for studies related to physiological status assessment of cod under different environmental conditions, screening for diseases, and biomarker identification for assessment of fish quality during industrial processing and preservation.

  4. Partitioning of platinum-group elements and Au between sulfide liquid and basalt and the origins of mantle-crust fractionation of the chalcophile elements (United States)

    Mungall, James E.; Brenan, James M.


    The partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au between sulfide melt and silicate melt (i.e., DPGEsul) exerts a critical control on the PGE composition of the Earth’s crust and mantle, but previous estimates have been plagued by experimental uncertainties and vary through several orders of magnitude. Here we present direct experimental measurements of DPGEsul, based on in situ microanalysis of the sulfide and silicate melt, with values ranging from ∼4 × 105 (Ru) to ∼2-3 × 106 (Ir, Pt). Our measurements of DPGEsul are >100 times larger than previous results but smaller than anticipated based on comparison of alloy solubilities in sulfide melts and S-free silicate melts. The presence of S in the silicate melt greatly increases alloy solubility. We use our new set of partition coefficients to develop a fully constrained model of PGE behavior during melting which accurately predicts the abundances of PGE in mantle-derived magmas and their restites, including mid-ocean ridge basalts, continental picrites, and the parental magmas of the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. Our model constrains mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to be the products of pooled low and high degree fractional melts. Within-plate picrites are pooled products of larger degrees of fractional melting in columnar melting regimes. A significant control on PGE fractionation in mantle-derived magmas is exerted by residual alloy or platinum group minerals in their source. At low pressures (e.g., MORB genesis) the mantle residual to partial melting retains primitive mantle inter-element ratios and abundances of PGE until sulfide has been completely dissolved but then evolves to extremely high Pt/Pd and low Pd/Ir because Pt and Ir alloys form in the restite. During melting at high pressure to form picrites or komatiites Ir alloy appears as a restite phase but Pt alloy is not stable due to the large effect of pressure on fS2, and of temperature on fO2 along an internal

  5. Analyzing the vibrational response of an AFM cantilever in liquid with the consideration of tip mass by comparing the hydrodynamic and contact repulsive force models in higher modes (United States)

    Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad; Nahavandi, Amir


    This paper investigates the vibration of a tapping-mode Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilever covered with two whole piezoelectric layers in a liquid medium. The authors of this article have already modeled the vibration of a cantilever immersed in liquid over rough surfaces. Five new ideas have been considered for improving the results of the previous work. Mass and damping of a cantilever probe tip have been considered. Since the probe tip of an AFM cantilever has a mass, which can itself affect the natural frequency of vibration, the significance of this mass has been explored. Also, two hydrodynamic force models for analyzing the mass and damping added to a cantilever in liquid medium have been evaluated. In modeling the vibration of a cantilever in liquid, simplifications are made to the theoretical equations used in the modeling, which may make the obtained results different from those in the real case. So, two hydrodynamic force models are introduced and compared with each other. In addition to the already introduced DMT model, the JKR model has been proposed. The forces acting on a probe tip have attractive and repulsive effects. The attractive Van der Waals force can vary depending on the surface smoothness or roughness, and the repulsive contact force, which is independent of the type of surface roughness and usually varies with the hardness or softness of a surface. When the first mode is used in the vibration of an AFM cantilever, the changes of the existing physical parameters in the simulation do not usually produce a significant difference in the response. Thus, three cantilever vibration modes have been investigated. Finally, an analytical approach for obtaining the response of equations is presented which solves the resulting motion equation by the Laplace method and, thus, a time function is obtained for cantilever deflection is determined. Also, using the COMSOL software to model a cantilever in a liquid medium, the computed natural

  6. Liquid crystalline perylene diimide outperforming nonliquid crystalline counterpart: higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells and higher electron mobility in space charge limited current (SCLC) devices. (United States)

    Zhang, Youdi; Wang, Helin; Xiao, Yi; Wang, Ligang; Shi, Dequan; Cheng, Chuanhui


    In this work, we propose the application of liquid crystalline acceptors as a potential means to improve the performances of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. LC-1, a structurally-simple perylene diimide (PDI), has been adopted as a model for thorough investigation. It exhibits a broad temperature range of liquid crystalline (LC) phase from 41 °C to 158 °C, and its LC properties have been characterized by differental scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarization optical microscopy (POM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The BHJ devices, using P3HT:LC-1 (1:2) as an organic photovoltaic active layer undergoing thermal annealing at 120 °C, shows an optimized efficiency of 0.94 %. By contrast, the devices based on PDI-1, a nonliquid crystalline PDI counterpart, only obtain a much lower efficiency of 0.22%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirm that the active layers composed of P3HT:LC-1 have smooth and ordered morphology. In space charge limited current (SCLC) devices fabricated via a spin-coating technique, LC-1 shows the intrinsic electron mobility of 2.85 × 10(-4) cm(2)/(V s) (at 0.3 MV/cm) which is almost 5 times that of PDI-1 (5.83 × 10(-5) cm(2)/(V s)) under the same conditions for thermal annealing at 120 °C.

  7. Mystery Fractions (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max


    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  8. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S


    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  9. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions (United States)

    Carley, Holly


    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  10. Structure of liquid tricalcium aluminate (United States)

    Drewitt, James W. E.; Barnes, Adrian C.; Jahn, Sandro; Kohn, Simon C.; Walter, Michael J.; Novikov, Alexey N.; Neuville, Daniel R.; Fischer, Henry E.; Hennet, Louis


    The atomic-scale structure of aerodynamically levitated and laser-heated liquid tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6 ) was measured at 2073(30) K by using the method of neutron diffraction with Ca isotope substitution (NDIS). The results enable the detailed resolution of the local coordination environment around calcium and aluminum atoms, including the direct determination of the liquid partial structure factor, SCaCa(Q ) , and partial pair distribution function, gCaCa(r ) . Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) refinement methods were employed to obtain a detailed atomistic model of the liquid structure. The composition Ca3Al2O6 lies at the CaO-rich limit of the CaO:Al2O3 glass-forming system. Our results show that, although significantly depolymerized, liquid Ca3Al2O6 is largely composed of AlO4 tetrahedra forming an infinite network with a slightly higher fraction of bridging oxygen atoms than expected for the composition. Calcium-centered polyhedra exhibit a wide distribution of four- to sevenfold coordinated sites, with higher coordinated calcium preferentially bonding to bridging oxygens. Analysis of the MD configuration reveals the presence of ˜10 % unconnected AlO4 monomers and Al2O7 dimers in the liquid. As the CaO concentration increases, the number of these isolated units increases, such that the upper value for the glass-forming composition of CaO:Al2O3 liquids could be described in terms of a percolation threshold at which the glass can no longer support the formation of an infinitely connected AlO4 network.

  11. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Chromatographic Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Methods: Vacuum liquid/column chromatography (VLC/ CC) were used to obtain three fractions (L,S and Y) of Stereospermum kunthianum stem ... The extract (80 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VCC) over silica gel ... light and dark cycles , temperature (28 ± 1. oC), and free access to standard chow.

  12. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Chromatographic Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of three chromatographic fractions (L, S and Y) of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark in mice. Methods: Vacuum liquid/column chromatography (VLC/ CC) were used to obtain three fractions (L,S and Y) of Stereospermum ...

  13. Fractional Derivative as Fractional Power of Derivative


    Tarasov, Vasily E.


    Definitions of fractional derivatives as fractional powers of derivative operators are suggested. The Taylor series and Fourier series are used to define fractional power of self-adjoint derivative operator. The Fourier integrals and Weyl quantization procedure are applied to derive the definition of fractional derivative operator. Fractional generalization of concept of stability is considered.

  14. Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Medium for Production of Inonotus sanghuang (Higher Basidiomycetes) Mycelia and Evaluation of their Mycochemical Contents and Antioxidant Activities. (United States)

    Tian, Xue-Mei; Dai, Yu-Cheng; Song, Ai-Rong; Xu, Kun; Ng, Lean Teik


    Inonotus sanghuang, an authentic "Sanghuang" mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine, is known to possess important pharmacological activities. In this study, we aimed to optimize the liquid fermentation medium for I. sanghuang mycelial production and to determine the effects of two-stage cultivation (shake and static) on the yield of total flavonoids, total phenolics, and polysaccharides, as well as the antioxidant activities of I. sanghuang mycelial extracts (ISME). Under an optimized medium composition (38.96 g/L of corn flour, 4.15 g/L of yeast extract, 20.55 g/L of bran and pH 6.39), the predicted and experimental optimal mycelial biomasses were 17.60 g/L and 18.33±0.86 g/L, respectively. The results of two-stage cultivation showed that contents of total flavonoids and total phenolics in mycelia increased by 37.92% and 77.27%, respectively. However, irregular polysaccharide contents were noted throughout the experimental period. Antioxidant assays showed that ISME possessed good free-radical scavenging activity, which is mainly contributed by polyphenolic-type metabolites.

  15. Wet fractionation of the succulent halophyte Salicornia sinus-persica, with the aim of low input (water saving) biorefining into bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alassali, Ayah; Cybulska, Iwona; Galvan, Alejandro Ríos


    yields of ~70% were achieved. A pretreatment study was carried out for the pulp fraction applying mild hydrothermal pretreatment. Cellulose convertibility was found to be significantly higher for severity factors above 2.00, and the highest ethanol yield (76.91 ± 3.03%) was found at process severity of 3......-persica was collected and split into two fractions by wet fractionation; liquid (juice) and solid (pulp). Sugar contents were found to be 1.0–1.5% for the juice fraction and 50% (w/w) for the fresh pulp. Direct fermentation of the juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no salt inhibition of the yeast and ethanol...

  16. Fractional complex transform for fractional differential equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lİ, Zheng Biao; HE, Ji Huan


    Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily...

  17. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony


    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  18. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.; Pollard, Anthony


    The present invention relates to a method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also disclosed are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  19. Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.


    We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.

  20. Meadow based Fraction Theory


    Bergstra, Jan A.


    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  1. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant characteristics of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) peel fractions. (United States)

    Sadek, Engy Samih; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis


    The polyphenolic composition of two Fortunella margarita (Nagami kumquat) specimens from Greece and Egypt was investigated employing fractionation by solvent partition and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main groups of phenolics identified in the different fractions generated were C-glycosylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavones, C-glycosylated flavanones, O-glycosylated flavanones, flavonols, chalcones, phenolic acids and derivatives thereof. The antioxidant potency of the fractions was assessed using two representative in vitro tests, including antiradical activity and hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity. It was revealed that the ethyl acetate fractions from both specimens contained the higher polyphenol content and exhibited the better antioxidant characteristics. The results indicated that F. margarita peels may be regarded as a rich source of potentially bioactive polyphenols.

  2. 19 CFR 159.3 - Rounding of fractions. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rounding of fractions. 159.3 Section 159.3 Customs... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.3 Rounding of fractions. (a) Value. In the... cents or more, the lower fractions shall be dropped, and if it is necessary to take up as whole dollars...

  3. The impact of pCO2 and climate on D/H and 13C/12C fractionation of higher-plant biomarkers: Implications for paleoclimate and paleoelevation reconstruction during global warm periods (United States)

    Hren, M. T.; Tipple, B. J.; Pagani, M.


    Stable hydrogen isotope compositions (D/H) of plant biomarkers record the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf water at the time of plant growth. However, the magnitude of the apparent hydrogen isotope fractionation between biomarkers and precipitation can vary due to soil- or leaf-water evaporation or differing water-use strategies. As a result, climate-induced changes in soil- or leaf-water evaporation rates and/or changes in plant assemblages during periods of global warming and high atmospheric CO2 could impact apparent carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionations. We measured hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of long-carbon chain n-alkanes from modern and ~50 million year old fossil leaves preserved in paleo-Sierra Nevada riverine sediments to determine how climate and ecosystem differences during a period of extremely high pCO2 impact the magnitude and variability of D/H and 13C/12C ratios of leaf-waxes across a topographic gradient. δDalkanes (nC27 to nC31) of individual fossil and modern leaves decrease systematically across the topographic gradient and follow the change in the D/H of precipitation due to orographic lifting and continuous rainout. Using estimated values of Eocene δDprecip at the Pacific margin (-43 to -61‰), apparent fractionations (ɛalkane - precip) for Eocene angiosperm trees are similar to that seen for modern, humid environments (~ -106 to -124‰ ±10‰ 1σ), and more negative than observed in modern sun-exposed leaves in the Sierra Nevada (-96 to -102‰) or soils (-87 to -92‰). Single site variability in leaf-wax δD from individual fossil angiosperms can exceed 20‰, but is considerably smaller than observed for modern, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm forests of the seasonally dry Sierra Nevada range. δ13Calkane values show little or no systematic variation across the range. However, carbon isotope discrimination in ancient and modern leaves is similar, suggesting strong climatic and weak pCO2 controls on D/H and 13C/12C

  4. Second Study of Hyper-Fractionated Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jacob


    Full Text Available Purpose and Method. Hyper-fractionated radiotherapy for treatment of soft tissue sarcomas is designed to deliver a higher total dose of radiation without an increase in late normal tissue damage. In a previous study at the Royal Marsden Hospital, a total dose of 75 Gy using twice daily 1.25 Gy fractions resulted in a higher incidence of late damage than conventional radiotherapy using 2 Gy daily fractions treating to a total of 60 Gy. The current trial therefore used a lower dose per fraction of 1.2 Gy and lower total dose of 72 Gy, with 60 fractions given over a period of 6 weeks.

  5. Weyl spin liquids. (United States)

    Hermanns, M; O'Brien, K; Trebst, S


    The fractionalization of quantum numbers in interacting quantum many-body systems is a central motif in condensed-matter physics with prominent examples including the fractionalization of the electron in quantum Hall liquids or the emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin-ice materials. Here, we discuss the fractionalization of magnetic moments in three-dimensional Kitaev models into Majorana fermions (and a Z_{2} gauge field) and their emergent collective behavior. We analytically demonstrate that the Majorana fermions form a Weyl superconductor for the Kitaev model on the recently synthesized hyperhoneycomb structure of β-Li_{2}IrO_{3} when applying a magnetic field. We characterize the topologically protected bulk and surface features of this state, which we dub a Weyl spin liquid, including thermodynamic and transport signatures.

  6. Stock Liquidity and Investment Efficiency




    This PhD study investigates the implications of stock liquidity on firm investments efficiency. The study finds that high stock liquidity has a positive impact on investment efficiency and shows that the beneficial effect of stock liquidity on investment efficiency is stronger among firms with higher information asymmetry and higher monitoring institutional investors. These findings suggest that high stock liquidity plays important informational and governance roles in mitigating information ...

  7. Random fractional Fourier transform. (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian


    We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

  8. Fractionation of Mastic Gum in Relation to Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sharif Sharifi


    Full Text Available Mastic gum is a viscous light-green liquid obtained from the bark of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. which belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The gum has been fractionated to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the whole gum and its fractions against various strains of Helicobacter pylori. The polymeric gum fraction was separated from the essential oil and the resin (trunk exudates without essential oil to assess and compare the anti-H. pylori activity of the polymer fraction against lower molecular weight fractions, the gum itself and masticated gum. The polymer fraction was also oxidized and assessed for antimicrobial activity.

  9. Initialized Fractional Calculus (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.


    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  10. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation of Aqueous C60 Nanoparticles with Size Determination by Dynamic Light Scattering and Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Atmospheric Pressure Photo-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    A size separation method was developed for aqueous C60 fullerene aggregates (aqu/C60) using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a dynamic light scattering detector in flow through mode. Surfactants, which are commonly used in AF4, were avoided as they may al...

  11. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)


    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  12. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System (United States)

    Hoogerstraete, Tom Vander; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen


    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  13. Liquid fuel cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L


    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety...

  14. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and. L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquid-.

  15. Production of ethanol from hemicellulose fraction of cocksfoot grass using pichia stipitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Iversen, Jens Asmus; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer


    ...) pretreatment for accessing the bioethanol potential of the hemicellulose fraction. Utilization of the hemicellulose liquid hydrolysate to ethanol is essential for economically feasible cellulosic ethanol processes...

  16. Topological bootstrap: Fractionalization from Kondo coupling. (United States)

    Hsieh, Timothy H; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Ludwig, Andreas W W


    Topologically ordered phases of matter can host fractionalized excitations known as "anyons," which obey neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Despite forming the basis for topological quantum computation, experimental access to these exotic phases has been very limited. We present a new route toward realizing fractionalized topological phases by literally building on unfractionalized phases, which are much more easily realized experimentally. Our approach involves a Kondo lattice model in which a gapped electronic system of noninteracting fermions is coupled to local moments via the exchange interaction. Using general entanglement-based arguments and explicit lattice models, we show that gapped spin liquids can be induced in the spin system, and we demonstrate the power of this "topological bootstrap" by realizing chiral and Z2 spin liquids. This technique enables the realization of many long sought-after fractionalized phases of matter.

  17. Topological bootstrap: Fractionalization from Kondo coupling (United States)

    Hsieh, Timothy H.; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Ludwig, Andreas W. W.


    Topologically ordered phases of matter can host fractionalized excitations known as “anyons,” which obey neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Despite forming the basis for topological quantum computation, experimental access to these exotic phases has been very limited. We present a new route toward realizing fractionalized topological phases by literally building on unfractionalized phases, which are much more easily realized experimentally. Our approach involves a Kondo lattice model in which a gapped electronic system of noninteracting fermions is coupled to local moments via the exchange interaction. Using general entanglement-based arguments and explicit lattice models, we show that gapped spin liquids can be induced in the spin system, and we demonstrate the power of this “topological bootstrap” by realizing chiral and Z2 spin liquids. This technique enables the realization of many long sought-after fractionalized phases of matter. PMID:28989961




    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690


    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Chen, Jinghua


    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.


    Marinov, Toma M; Ramirez, Nelson; Santamaria, Fidel


    The problems formulated in the fractional calculus framework often require numerical fractional integration/differentiation of large data sets. Several existing fractional control toolboxes are capable of performing fractional calculus operations, however, none of them can efficiently perform numerical integration on multiple large data sequences. We developed a Fractional Integration Toolbox (FIT), which efficiently performs fractional numerical integration/differentiation of the Riemann-Liouville type on large data sequences. The toolbox allows parallelization and is designed to be deployed on both CPU and GPU platforms.

  1. Higher education


    Wolter, Andrä


    During the last five years higher education research in Germany seems to be in a significant upturn. This is a side effect partly of the obvious boom of empirical educational research in general and partly of the reform movement that has affected the German higher education system since middle of the 1990s. The demand for data in the field of higher education will increase considerably in future. The available data infrastructure for higher education research in Germany consists of two comple...

  2. Fermi liquids and Luttinger liquids


    Schulz, H. J.; Cuniberti, G.; Pieri, P.


    In these lecture notes, the basic physics of Fermi liquids and Luttinger liquids is presented. Fermi liquids are discussed both from a phenomenological viewpoint, in relation to microscopic approaches, and as renormalization group fixed points. Luttinger liquids are introduced using the bosonization formalism, and their essential differences with Fermi liquids are pointed out. Applications to transport effects, the effect of disorder, quantum spin chains, and spin ladders, both insulating and...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts


    During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following conditions: Temperature--375 C; Total Pressure--6.8 MPa (1000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr, and; H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--1.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for eight days of continuous operation. Although the experimental data once again did not exhibit the desired degree of consistency, the data did show that methanol was the primary reaction product. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during the continuous 8-day experiment. There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of various fractions of ''spent'' THQ was carried out. The fractions were prepared by silica gel liquid chromatography (LC). Chemical formuli and probable structures for each major compound were obtained. However, a higher degree of purification will be necessary to allow nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to be used for definitive compound identification. A new Maxpro gas booster (DLE 15-75) was purchased because the existing Haskel gas booster once again developed a severe leak of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and was judged to be unworthy of repair.

  4. Improved fast fractional-Fourier-transform algorithm. (United States)

    Yang, Xingpeng; Tan, Qiaofeng; Wei, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Yong; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan


    Through the optimization of the main interval of the fractional order, an improved fast algorithm for numerical calculation of the fractional Fourier transforms is proposed. With this improved algorithm, the fractional Fourier transforms of a rectangular function and a Gaussian function are calculated. Its calculation errors are compared with those calculated with the previously published algorithm, and the results show that the calculation accuracy of the improved algorithm is much higher.

  5. Meaning of Fractions (United States)

    Dewi, D. A. K.; Suryadi, D.; Suratno, T.; Mulyana, E.; Kurniawan, H.


    Introducing fractions is identical to divide an object. Suppose we divide the apple into two parts. One divided into two parts, the question arises whether one part can be called a half or not. Based on this activity, how can students give meaning to fractions. This study aims at designing a different fractions lesson by applying Didactical Design Research. In doing so, we undertook several research phases: 1) thinking what is fractions and why students should learn this concept; 2) designing didactical situation based on identified learning obstacles; and 3) reflecting retrospectively on the lesson design and its implementation as to redesign the fractions lesson. Our analysis revealed that most students held epistemological obstacles in giving meaning of fractions because they only know fractions as numbers that have numerator and denominator. By positioning ourselves as students, we discuss the ideal design to help students in constructing the meaning of fractions.

  6. Fractional Multidimensional System


    Zhu, Xiaogang; Lu, Junguo


    The multidimensional ($n$-D) systems described by Roesser model are presented in this paper. These $n$-D systems consist of discrete systems and continuous fractional order systems with fractional order $\





    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly obs...

  8. Stability of fractional quantum Hall states in disordered photonic systems (United States)

    DeGottardi, Wade; Hafezi, Mohammad


    The possibility of realizing fractional quantum Hall liquids in photonic systems has attracted a great deal of interest of late. Unlike electronic systems, interactions in photonic systems must be engineered from nonlinear elements and are thus subject to positional disorder. The stability of the topological liquid relies on repulsive interactions. In this paper we investigate the stability of fractional quantum Hall liquids to impurities which host attractive interactions. Employing the Bose–Hubbard model with a magnetic field, we find that for sufficiently strong attractive interactions these impurities can destroy the topological liquid. However, we find that the liquid is quite robust to these defects, a fact which bodes well for the realization of topological quantum Hall liquids in photonic systems.

  9. Capacitive Sensing Of Gaseous Fraction In Two-Phase Flow (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Sahm, Michael K.


    Instrument makes nonintrusive, real-time capacitive measurements to determine volume fraction of vapor or other gas in flowing, electrically nonconductive liquid/gas mixture. Works even with liquids having relatively low permittivities. Useful for measuring proportions of vapor in boiling, condensing, and flowing heat-transfer fluids and in cryogenic fluids.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of chromatographic fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of the vacuum liquid (A, B and C) and column (L, S and Y) chromatographic fractions of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark. The fractions at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats. The control rats ...

  11. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica


    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in

  12. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear fractional equation; nonlinear fractional relaxation; -expansion. Abstract. We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and ...

  13. Unfolding Fraction Multiplication (United States)

    Wyberg, Terry; Whitney, Stephanie R.; Cramer, Kathleen A.; Monson, Debra S.; Leavitt, Seth


    Students often have difficulty understanding fractions, in general, and understanding how to multiply fractions, in particular. To move past this potential problem area, students need to develop a deeper understanding of multiplication and connect the ideas to fractions. In this article, the authors share their insights into teaching fraction…

  14. Off-line coupling of new generation centrifugal partition chromatography device with preparative high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry triggering fraction collection applied to the recovery of secoiridoid glycosides from Centaurium erythraea Rafn. (Gentianaceae). (United States)

    Mandova, Tsvetelina; Audo, Grégoire; Michel, Sylvie; Grougnet, Raphaël


    A purification sequence including a Gilson CPC 250 PRO device coupled to PrepHPLC hyphenated with a MS triggering fraction collector was applied to isolate secoiridoid glycosides from a complex methanolic extract of Centaurium erythraea. This species is widely used for ethnomedicinal purposes around the Mediterranean Sea. The solvent system ethyle acetate/ethanol/water 7.5/3/5 was determined using shake-flask method targeting swertiamarin, the major secoiridoid of the extract. Optimization of CPC experimental parameters enabled the injection of 4g of extract with a flow rate of 40mL/min at 3000rpm to provide a secoiridoid glycosides enriched fraction. 130mg of this latter was submitted to a second step of purification by preparative HPLC (gradient water/formic acid (19:1) (A) and methanol (B) as follows: 0min, 85% A; 8min, 60% A; 12min, 55% A; 35min, 55% A; 40min, 10% A; 50min, 10% A; 52min, 85% A; 55min, 85% A) to give swertiamarin (36mg, yield 27.7%, purity 98.2%). Other secoiridoid glycosides (sweroside, gentiopicroside, secologanol, secoxyloganin) were also isolated in minor amounts. As these monoterpene derivatives are responsible for several biological activities, their quick recovery with high yield and purity may serve as a model for further scale-up and industrial development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhao


    Full Text Available An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powerful mathematical tool for solving fractional differential equations.

  16. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif


    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert


    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  18. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke


    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  19. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry. (United States)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders


    Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.

  20. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique (United States)

    Lewis, Robert


    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  1. Gas to liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Pat


    Sasol, a South African company, along with the Canadian company Talisman, are looking at gas to liquid process opportunities in North America. Sasol decided to launch a study into the feasibility of gas to liquid (GTL) operation in western Canada, and according to previous studies GTL would need a crude barrel price of $85 or higher combined with a gas price of $4 or less to be economical. Sasol is already operating a GTL plant in Qatar.

  2. Enrichment of higher molecular weight fractions in inulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, F.T.; Leeuwen, van M.B.; Delcour, J.A.


    Inulin (general formulas GF(n) and F-m with G = anhydroglucose and F = anhydrofructose) naturally occurs as a homologous series of oligo- and polysaccharides with different chain lengths. For reasons of growing interest in the food and pet food industries, the short chain inulins have to be

  3. Characterization of upgraded fast pyrolysis oak oil distillate fractions from sulfided and non-sulfided catalytic hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olarte, Mariefel V.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Ferrell, Jack R.; Christensen, Earl D.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lucke, Richard B.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Swita, Marie S.; Fioroni, Gina; Elliott, Douglas C.; Drennan, Corinne


    Catalytic hydroprocessing of pyrolysis oils from biomass produces hydrocarbons that can be considered for liquid fuel production. This process requires removal of oxygen and cracking of the heavier molecular weight bio-oil constituents into smaller fragments at high temperatures and pressures under hydrogen. A comprehensive understanding of product oils is useful to optimize cost versus degree of deoxygenation. Additionally, a better understanding of the chemical composition of the distillate fractions can open up other uses of upgraded oils for potentially higher-value chemical streams. We present in this paper the characterization data for five well-defined distillate fractions of two hydroprocessed oils with different oxygen levels: a low oxygen content (LOC, 1.8% O, wet basis) oil and a medium oxygen content (MOC, 6.4% O, wet basis) oil. Elemental analysis and 13C NMR results suggest that the distillate fractions become more aromatic/unsaturated as they become heavier. Our results also show that the use of sulfided catalysts directly affects the S content of the lightest distillate fraction. Carbonyl and carboxylic groups were found in the MOC light fractions, while phenols were present in the heavier fractions for both MOC and LOC. PIONA analysis of the light LOC fraction shows a predominance of paraffins with a minor amount of olefins. These results can be used to direct future research on refinery integration and production of value-added product from specific upgraded oil streams.


    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla


    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change.

  5. Higher Education. (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reviews litigation in higher education for 1986. The first section discusses the relationship between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies, in which litigation covers questions on the authority of boards, access to information through sunshine laws, questions of tax exempt status, and issues of accreditation.…

  6. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic


    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  7. Antioxidant Enriched Fractions from Zingiber Officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Rahath Kubra


    Full Text Available Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe has many diverse properties and medicinal values such as antioxidant potential combined with the properties of a spice. Dried ginger (DG were extracted with aqueous ethanol and freeze-dried. The extract was evaluated for antioxidant potential, using 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging, antioxidant capacity and reducing power assays. DG extract was further fractionated into methanol (Mfr and water-soluble (Wfr fractions. The Mfr exhibited higher antioxidant capacity when compared to DG extract. Higher antioxidant potential of the methanol fraction may be due to the presence higher polyphenols and [6]-gingerol content. This suggests that alcoholic soluble fraction possess enormous scope to enhance the antioxidant potential when used as a supplement in various food as well as pharmaceutical formulations / products.

  8. Anti-fibrotic potential of aMatthiola arabicaisothiocyanates rich fraction: impact on oxidative stress, inflammatory and fibrosis markers. (United States)

    Mohammed, E D; El-Naga, R N; Lotfy, R A; Al-Gendy, A A; El-Demerdash, E


    The present study is the first one to investigate the glucosinolates (GLS) profile and anti-fibrotic effect of isothiocyanates (ITCs) rich fraction of Matthiola arabica (Brassicaceae) using an experimental model of liver fibrosis in rats. Five GLS (ethyl glucosinolate, gluconapin, glucodehydroerucin, glucoerucin and glucoraphanin) were identified by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (GLC-MS) analysis of their hydrolysis products, produced by the natural autolysis and exogenous myrosinase hydrolysis using one and two units of the enzyme. Spectrophotometric determination of the total intact GLS revealed that content in the fresh sample was 1.8 times higher than in the dry one. ITCs rich fraction was prepared by natural autolysis of the fresh aerial part. Male albino rats were given carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (0.5 ml/kg, twice a week) and/or ITCs -rich fraction (30 mg/ kg, three times a week) for six weeks. Liver function, different oxidative stress, inflammatory and fibrosis markers were investigated. Treatment of animals with ITCs rich fraction significantly counteracted the changes in liver function induced by CCl4. Histopathological examination under both light and electron microscope showed the anti-fibrotic effect of ITCs rich fraction. This finding was confirmed with the markedly improved liver fibrosis markers with ITCs rich fraction co-treatment. In elucidation of anti-fibrotic mechanisms of ITCs rich fraction, the significant glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation caused by CCl4 intoxication was restored by ITCs rich fraction co-treatment. Besides, ITCs rich fraction showed an anti-inflammatory effect through its ability to counteract the significant increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in liver tissue that caused by CCl4 intoxication. These findings indicate that ITCs-rich fraction of M. arabica possesses a promising anti

  9. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas


    Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  10. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions? (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie


    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  11. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzano, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32616443X; Calcagni, M.; Oriti, D.; Scalisi, M.


    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale

  12. Ionic liquids in tribology. (United States)

    Minami, Ichiro


    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  13. Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation. (United States)

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon


    Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (ppolyphenols from both dried and frozen apple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase equilibrium at high pressure of heavy oil fraction in propane and n-butane; Equilibrio de fases em alta pressao de fracoes pesadas do petroleo em propano e n-butano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canziani, Daniel B.; Ndiaye, Papa M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose V. de; Corazza, Marcos L. [Universidade Regional Integrada, Erechim, RS (Brazil)


    One of the biggest challenge of the oil industry is the preparation and adequacy of existing refineries for processing of heavy oil in large quantities. Specifically aims of this work is to measure phase equilibria date at high-pressure with systems involving GOP (Heavy Gasoil), RAT (Atmospheric Residue) and Marlim (crude oil) in n-butane and propane, using the static-synthetic method. The influence of the addition of methanol on the transition pressure is also investigated. With regard to tests made with the use of methanol as a co-solvent, those with higher levels of methanol (5% in mass fraction) had presented transition pressures a little higher than systems with 1% of methanol and systems without methanol. The systems without methanol showed similar pressures. All systems are PT diagrams of the type Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST). Among the solvents used the n-butane shown to be the most soluble for all solutes, in particular for the RAT. With the n-butane were observed only liquid-vapour equilibria, and with propane the liquid-liquid, liquid-liquid-vapour and liquid-liquid-fluid equilibria could be observed. The system Propane-5%Methanol-GOP presented liquid-liquid-vapour transitions, indicates be a diagram of the type V (according to the classification of van Konynenburg and Scott). (author)

  15. Simplified fractional Fourier transforms. (United States)

    Pei, S C; Ding, J J


    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) has been used for many years, and it is useful in many applications. Most applications of the FRFT are based on the design of fractional filters (such as removal of chirp noise and the fractional Hilbert transform) or on fractional correlation (such as scaled space-variant pattern recognition). In this study we introduce several types of simplified fractional Fourier transform (SFRFT). Such transforms are all special cases of a linear canonical transform (an affine Fourier transform or an ABCD transform). They have the same capabilities as the original FRFT for design of fractional filters or for fractional correlation. But they are simpler than the original FRFT in terms of digital computation, optical implementation, implementation of gradient-index media, and implementation of radar systems. Our goal is to search for the simplest transform that has the same capabilities as the original FRFT. Thus we discuss not only the formulas and properties of the SFRFT's but also their implementation. Although these SFRFT's usually have no additivity properties, they are useful for the practical applications. They have great potential for replacing the original FRFT's in many applications.

  16. Fractional calculus in bioengineering. (United States)

    Magin, Richard L


    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Alberto Reyes


    ôde ser responsável pelo endurecimento observado nos asfaltos, que apresentaram uma consistência dura e quebradiça, o que está de acordo com a obtenção de índices coloidais elevados. O método empregado permitiu estabelecer correlações entre a composição química do asfalto e suas propriedades mecânicas.In this paper, we present a method based on liquid chromatography column to quantify the chemical composition of asphalt cements manufactured in Colombia, under the environment by determining the SARA fractions. The method was applied to thin layers of asphalt 60/70 and 80/100 to determine changes in the chemical composition of the material after exposure for 12 months in the weather conditions in the city of Bogotá; SARA tests were performed to the original asphalt, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months aged respectively. SARA trials showed that aging caused a decrease in the fraction of aromatics and asphaltenes increased compared to non-aged asphalt. The reduction of aromatics and resins could be responsible for the hardening observed in the asphalt, which had a stiff and brittle consistency; that leads to obtaining higher colloidal index. The performed method established possible correlations between the chemical composition of asphalt and its mechanical properties.

  18. Redox-active Crosslinkable Poly(ionic liquid)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sui, Xiaofeng; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    The synthesis of a new class of cross-linkable redox-responsive poly(ferrocenylsilane)-based poly(ionic liquid)s (PFS-PILs) is reported. PFS-PILs self-cross-link at low concentrations into nanogels or form macroscopic hydrogel networks at higher concentrations. PFS-PILs proved to be efficient

  19. Activity of strontium in Al-Sr liquid dilute solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korc, B. (Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science (Poland)); Panek, Z.; Fitzner, K. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Metals Research, Cracow (Poland))


    The emf method employing concentration cells with liquid electrolyte and with liquid electrodes was used for the determination of strontium activity in liquid dilute Sr-Al solutions. Experiments were carried out on alloys of three different strontium mole fractions: X{sub Sr} = 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05, in the temperature range 973 to 1123 K. (orig.).

  20. Fractional finite Fourier transform. (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas


    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  1. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian


    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  2. Preservative property of Aframomum danielli fractions in stored grains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of Aframomoum danielli was explored in the preservation of stored grains; soybean, cowpea and maize. Preservation property of A. danielli increased with increase in concentration of fractions used. The ethanolic fractions showed higher activity in reducing fungal infestation ...

  3. Haar Wavelet Operational Matrix Method for Fractional Oscillation Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Saeed


    Full Text Available We utilized the Haar wavelet operational matrix method for fractional order nonlinear oscillation equations and find the solutions of fractional order force-free and forced Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator and higher order fractional Duffing equation on large intervals. The results are compared with the results obtained by the other technique and with exact solution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić


    Full Text Available Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers. Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered, which are essentially related to visualizing operations with fractions.

  6. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher


    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  7. Fractional market dynamics (United States)

    Laskin, Nick


    A new extension of a fractality concept in financial mathematics has been developed. We have introduced a new fractional Langevin-type stochastic differential equation that differs from the standard Langevin equation: (i) by replacing the first-order derivative with respect to time by the fractional derivative of order μ; and (ii) by replacing “white noise” Gaussian stochastic force by the generalized “shot noise”, each pulse of which has a random amplitude with the α-stable Lévy distribution. As an application of the developed fractional non-Gaussian dynamical approach the expression for the probability distribution function (pdf) of the returns has been established. It is shown that the obtained fractional pdf fits well the central part and the tails of the empirical distribution of S&P 500 returns.

  8. Generalized Fractional Statistics


    Kaniadakis, G.; A. Lavagno(Politecnico di Torino and INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino Italy); Quarati, P.


    We link, by means of a semiclassical approach, the fractional statistics of particles obeying the Haldane exclusion principle to the Tsallis statistics and derive a generalized quantum entropy and its associated statistics.

  9. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian


    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de-)centraliza......Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  10. Fractional Volterra hierarchy (United States)

    Liu, Si-Qi; Zhang, Youjin; Zhou, Chunhui


    The generating function of cubic Hodge integrals satisfying the local Calabi-Yau condition is conjectured to be a tau function of a new integrable system which can be regarded as a fractional generalization of the Volterra lattice hierarchy, so we name it the fractional Volterra hierarchy. In this paper, we give the definition of this integrable hierarchy in terms of Lax pair and Hamiltonian formalisms, construct its tau functions, and present its multi-soliton solutions.

  11. Observational constraints on mixed-phase clouds imply higher climate sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, I.; Storelvmo, T.; Zelinka, M. D.


    Global climate model (GCM) estimates of the equilibrium global mean surface temperature response to a doubling of atmospheric CO2, measured by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), range from 2.0° to 4.6°C. Clouds are among the leading causes of this uncertainty. Here we show that the ECS can be up to 1.3°C higher in simulations where mixed-phase clouds consisting of ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets are constrained by global satellite observations. The higher ECS estimates are directly linked to a weakened cloud-phase feedback arising from a decreased cloud glaciation rate in a warmer climate. We point out the need for realistic representations of the supercooled liquid fraction in mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, given the sensitivity of the ECS to the cloud-phase feedback.

  12. A discrete fractional random transform


    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian


    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  13. New Fractional Complex Transform for Conformable Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çenesiz Y.


    Full Text Available Conformable fractional complex transform is introduced in this paper for converting fractional partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Hence analytical methods in advanced calculus can be used to solve these equations. Conformable fractional complex transform is implemented to fractional partial differential equations such as space fractional advection diffusion equation and space fractional telegraph equation to obtain the exact solutions of these equations.

  14. Magnesium isotope fractionation during carbonatite magmatism at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania (United States)

    Li, Wang-Ye; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Halama, Ralf; Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis


    To investigate the behaviour of Mg isotopes during carbonatite magmatism, we analyzed Mg isotopic compositions of natrocarbonatites and peralkaline silicate rocks from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. The olivine melilitites from the vicinity of Oldoinyo Lengai have homogeneous and mantle-like Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg of -0.30 to -0.26‰), indicating limited Mg isotope fractionation during mantle melting. The highly evolved peralkaline silicate rocks not related to silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, including phonolites from the unit Lengai I, combeite-wollastonite nephelinites (CWNs) from the unit Lengai II A and carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinites (carbCWMNs), have δ26Mg values (from -0.25 to -0.10‰) clustered around the mantle value. By contrast, the CWNs from the unit Lengai II B, which evolved from the silicate melts that were presumably generated by silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, have heavier Mg isotopes (δ26Mg of -0.06 to +0.09‰). Such a difference suggests Mg isotope fractionation during liquid immiscibility and implies, based on mass-balance calculations, that the original carbonatite melts at Lengai were isotopically light. The variable and positive δ26Mg values of natrocarbonatites (from +0.13 to +0.37‰) hence require a change of their Mg isotopic compositions subsequent to liquid immiscibility. The negative correlations between δ26Mg values and contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals of natrocarbonatites suggest Mg isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, with heavy Mg isotopes enriched in the residual melts relative to fractionated carbonate minerals. Collectively, significant Mg isotope fractionation may occur during both silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, making Mg isotopes a potentially useful tracer of these processes relevant to carbonatite petrogenesis.

  15. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping


    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  16. Experimental constraints on depths of fractionation of mildly alkalic basalts and associated felsic rocks: Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily (United States)

    Mahood, Gail A.; Baker, Don R.


    Pantelleria, Italy, is a continental rift volcano consisting of alkalic basalt, trachyte, and pantellerite. At 1 atm along the FMQ buffer, the least-evolved basalt (Mg #= 58.5% norm ne) yields olivine on the liquidus at ˜1,180° C, followed by plagioclase, then by clinopyroxene, and by titanomagnetite and ilmenite at ˜ 1,075°. After ˜70% crystallization, the residual liquid at ˜1,025° is still basaltic and also contains apatite and possibly kaersutite. A less alkalic basalt shows the same order of phase appearance. Glass compositions define an Fe-enrichment trend and a density maximum for anhydrous liquids that coincides with a minimum in Mg#. During the initial stages of crystallization at 1 atm, liquids remain near the critical plane of silica-undersaturation until, at lower temperatures, Fe-Ti oxide precipitation drives the composition toward silica saturation. Thus the qtz-normative trachytes and pantellerites typically associated with mildly ne-normative basalts in continental rifts could be produced by low-pressure fractional crystallization or by shallow-level partial melting of alkali gabbro. At 8 kbar, clinopyroxene is the liquidus phase at ˜1,170° C, followed by both olivine and plagioclase at ˜1,135°. Because clinopyroxene dominates the crystallizing assemblage and plagioclase is more albitic than at 1 atm, liquids at 8 kbar are driven toward increasingly ne-normative compositions, suggesting that higher-pressure fractionation favors production of phonolitic derivatives. Natural basaltic samples at Pantelleria are aphyric or contain 1 10% phenocrysts of plag≥ ol≥cpx or ol>cpx, with groundmass Fe-Ti oxides and apatite. The lack of phenocrystic plagioclase in two of the lavas suggests that crystallization at slightly higher PH2O may have destabilized plagioclase relative to the 1-atm results, but there is no preserved evidence for significant fractionation at mantle depths as clinopyroxene is the least abundant phenocryst phase in all samples

  17. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.


    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  18. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António


    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  19. Topological Order in Spin Liquids with Chirality


    Scharfenberger, Burkhard


    We use the Kalmeyer-Laughlin Chiral Spin Liquid as building block to construct a hierarchy of higher-spin spin liquids and determine numerically their topological properties. We compute the entanglement spectra of some of these liquids as well as of ground states of critically frustrated quantum magnets. From the comparison, we find preliminary evidence for a topological phase transition in these systems.

  20. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... and in simulations we observe that the bootstrap-based hypothesis test provides considerable finite-sample improvements over an existing test that is based on a central limit theorem. This is important when studying the roughness properties of time series data; we illustrate this by applying the bootstrap method...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono


    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  2. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  3. Liquid Crystals (United States)


    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  4. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies. (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens


    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transformations of Liquid Metals in Ionic Liquid


    Liu, Fujun; Yu, Yongze; Liu, Jing


    Experimental studies were carried out on the motions and transformations of liquid metal in ionic liquid under applied electric field. The induced vortex rings and flows of ionic liquid were determined via the photographs taken sequentially over the experiments. The polarization of electric double layer of liquid metals was employed to explain the flow of ionic liquid with the presence of liquid metal. Unlike former observation of liquid metal machine in conventional solution, no gas bubble w...

  6. Continued Fractions for e

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 1. Continued Fractions for e. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2000 pp 14-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  7. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.


    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  8. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed


    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  9. Sweet Work with Fractions (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry


    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  10. Energetic efficiency of mass transfer accompanied by chemical reactions in liquid-liquid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasińska Magdalena


    Full Text Available Energetic efficiency depicting the fraction of energy dissipation rate used to perform processes of drop breakup and mass transfer in two-phase, liquid-liquid systems is considered. Results of experiments carried out earlier in two types of high-shear mixers: an in-line rotor-stator mixer and a batch rotor-stator mixer, have been applied to identify and compare the efficiency of drop breakage and mass transfer in both types of mixers. The applied method is based on experimental determination of both: the product distribution of chemical test reactions and the drop size distributions. Experimental data are interpreted using a multifractal model of turbulence for drop breakage and the model by Favelukis and Lavrenteva for mass transfer. Results show that the energetic efficiency of the in-line mixer is higher than that of the batch mixer; two stator geometries were considered in the case of the batch mixer and the energetic efficiency of the device equipped with a standard emulsor screen (SES was higher than the efficiency of the mixer equipped with a general purpose disintegrating head (GPDH for drop breakup but smaller for mass transfer.

  11. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. XXVIII: Liquid-liquid equilibria for 2-phenoxyethanol + selected alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Victor; Garcia, Mario [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia De La Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)


    Highlights: {yields} LLE coexistence curves were determined for mixtures of 2PhEE with alkanes. {yields} UCST values are higher for n-alkane systems than for solutions with cyclic alkanes. {yields} For the latter mixtures, UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached. {yields} Alkoxyethanol-alkoxyethanol interactions are enhanced by aromatic group in cellosolve. - Abstract: The coexistence curves of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for systems of 2-phenoxyethanol (2PhEE) with heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane or ethylcyclohexane have been determined by the method of the critical opalescence using a laser scattering technique. All the curves show an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), have a rather horizontal top and their symmetry depends on the relative size of the mixture compounds. UCST values are higher for systems with linear alkanes than for solutions including cyclic alkanes. For these mixtures, the UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached to the cyclic part of the molecule. It is shown that interactions between alkoxyethanol molecules are stronger when the hydroxyether contains an aromatic group. Data are used to determine the critical exponent for the order parameter mole fraction. Values obtained are consistent with those provided by the Ising model or by the renormalization group theory.

  12. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H.W.; Hoberg, H.; Hirsch, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde


    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  13. Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties. (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A


    Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.

  14. Simple and Reproducible Two-Stage Agitation Speed Control Strategy for Enhanced Triterpene Production by Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum ACCC G0119 (Higher Basidiomycetes) Based on Submerged Liquid Fermentation. (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Feng, Na; Yang, Yan; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Jingsong; Jia, Wei; Lin, Chi-Chung


    Triterpenes are important anticancer agents produced by batch submerged liquid fermentation, with the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum ACCC G0119, which was investigated under various dissolved oxygen levels by varying agitation speeds. Three kinetic parameters were analyzed: specific mycelial growth rate (μsmg), specific glucose consumption rate (qsgc), and specific triterpene production rate (qstp). High concentration, yield, and productivity of triterpenes were achieved by developing a simple and reproducible two-stage agitation speed control strategy. At the first 40 h, agitation speed was controlled at 150 rpm to obtain the quickest peak qstp for triterpene production, subsequently agitation speed was controlled at 100 rpm to maintain high qstp for high triterpene accumulation. The maximum concentration of triterpenes reached 0.086 g/l with the yield of 6.072 g/kg and the productivity of 6.532 × 10-4 g/(l·h), which were 39.61%, 36.48%, and 49.22%, respectively, better than the best results controlled by fixed agitation speeds. Conceivably, such a triterpene fermentation production strategy would be useful for industrial large-scale production of triterpenes with G. lucidum.

  15. Jet-mixing of initially-stratified liquid-liquid pipe flows: experiments and numerical simulations (United States)

    Wright, Stuart; Ibarra-Hernandes, Roberto; Xie, Zhihua; Markides, Christos; Matar, Omar


    Low pipeline velocities lead to stratification and so-called 'phase slip' in horizontal liquid-liquid flows due to differences in liquid densities and viscosities. Stratified flows have no suitable single point for sampling, from which average phase properties (e.g. fractions) can be established. Inline mixing, achieved by static mixers or jets in cross-flow (JICF), is often used to overcome liquid-liquid stratification by establishing unstable two-phase dispersions for sampling. Achieving dispersions in liquid-liquid pipeline flows using JICF is the subject of this experimental and modelling work. The experimental facility involves a matched refractive index liquid-liquid-solid system, featuring an ETFE test section, and experimental liquids which are silicone oil and a 51-wt% glycerol solution. The matching then allows the dispersed fluid phase fractions and velocity fields to be established through advanced optical techniques, namely PLIF (for phase) and PTV or PIV (for velocity fields). CFD codes using the volume of a fluid (VOF) method are then used to demonstrate JICF breakup and dispersion in stratified pipeline flows. A number of simple jet configurations are described and their dispersion effectiveness is compared with the experimental results. Funding from Cameron for Ph.D. studentship (SW) gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Statistics of Fractionalized Excitations through Threshold Spectroscopy (United States)

    Morampudi, Siddhardh C.; Turner, Ari M.; Pollmann, Frank; Wilczek, Frank


    We show that neutral anyonic excitations have a signature in spectroscopic measurements of materials: The low-energy onset of spectral functions near the threshold follows universal power laws with an exponent that depends only on the statistics of the anyons. This provides a route, using experimental techniques such as neutron scattering and tunneling spectroscopy, for detecting anyonic statistics in topologically ordered states such as gapped quantum spin liquids and hypothesized fractional Chern insulators. Our calculations also explain some recent theoretical results in spin systems.

  17. Arbitrage with fractional Gaussian processes (United States)

    Zhang, Xili; Xiao, Weilin


    While the arbitrage opportunity in the Black-Scholes model driven by fractional Brownian motion has a long history, the arbitrage strategy in the Black-Scholes model driven by general fractional Gaussian processes is in its infancy. The development of stochastic calculus with respect to fractional Gaussian processes allowed us to study such models. In this paper, following the idea of Shiryaev (1998), an arbitrage strategy is constructed for the Black-Scholes model driven by fractional Gaussian processes, when the stochastic integral is interpreted in the Riemann-Stieltjes sense. Arbitrage opportunities in some fractional Gaussian processes, including fractional Brownian motion, sub-fractional Brownian motion, bi-fractional Brownian motion, weighted-fractional Brownian motion and tempered fractional Brownian motion, are also investigated.

  18. On the Contribution of Crystal Fractionation to Axial Depth Along the East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Durant, D. T.; Toomey, D. R.; Wallace, P. J.


    Segment-scale axial depth variations along fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges like the East Pacific Rise (EPR) have traditionally been associated with magma supply and/or mantle temperature, yet geophysical observations along the northern EPR preclude these hypotheses. Recent studies show instead that increasing axial depth along the EPR between the Clipperton and Siqueiros transforms correlates with an increase in both crustal density and offset of mantle upwelling with respect to the ridge axis. The observed increase in axial depth can be explained by an ~0.1 g/cc increase in bulk crustal density. Here we report on how variations in the depth of crystal fractionation affect crustal density. We use thermodynamic modeling (MELTS) to show that a two-stage fractionation model can account for the ~0.1 g/cc increase in crustal density, as opposed to single-stage fractionation that occurs solely within an upper-crustal, axial magma chamber (AMC). In the two-stage model, first-stage fractionation occurs at Moho depth (~6 km), where only 11% crystallization is required for clinopyroxene to join the predominately olivine and plagioclase cumulates. The early addition of clinopyroxene increases overall cumulate density by ~0.06 g/cc compared to cumulates originating within the AMC at 20% crystallization. Second-stage fractionation occurs within the AMC, where a more evolved parent melt continues to precipitate higher density cumulates (by ~ 0.04 g/cc with at least 20% crystallization) than single-stage fractionation. The combined effect of two-stage fractionation produces an average crustal density that is ~0.1 g/cc greater than AMC fractionation alone. Major element compositions of residual liquids in the two-stage crystallization model match the compositions of seafloor glasses. Because higher crustal density also correlates with regions of off-axis mantle upwelling, we suggest that lateral transport of melt to the rise axis, by up to 20 km or more, generates flow conditions

  19. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  20. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem


    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  1. Fractional cointegration rank estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating the parame......We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating...... to control for stochastic trend estimation effects from the first step. The critical values of the tests proposed depend only on the number of common trends under the null, p - r, and on the interval of the cointegration degrees b allowed, but not on the true cointegration degree b0. Hence, no additional...

  2. Alternatives for plasma fractionation. (United States)

    Schneider, W; Wolter, D; McCarty, L J


    At the present time there is an enormously increasing demand for albumin. The most common procedure for the isolation of this plasma component is the cold ethanol technique developed by Cohn. Because this process necessarily isolates other blood components for which there is less demand in relation to albumin, albumin production is expensive. Therefore, we have developed a two-step fractionation for the isolation of albumin. It is basically a heat precipitation method with the albumin yield being about 90% of the original plasma albumin. In comparison to cold ethanol methods, it is considerably less expensive. Other blood components, e.g., clotting factors, immunoglobulins, may also be isolated. A nonmodified gamma-globulin for intravenous use is obtained by removing anti-complementary activity with hydroxyethyl starch. Additional fractionation steps are required to isolate these other components, but unlike in established methods, these are not necessary for the isolation of solely albumin.

  3. Spin liquids in frustrated magnets. (United States)

    Balents, Leon


    Frustrated magnets are materials in which localized magnetic moments, or spins, interact through competing exchange interactions that cannot be simultaneously satisfied, giving rise to a large degeneracy of the system ground state. Under certain conditions, this can lead to the formation of fluid-like states of matter, so-called spin liquids, in which the constituent spins are highly correlated but still fluctuate strongly down to a temperature of absolute zero. The fluctuations of the spins in a spin liquid can be classical or quantum and show remarkable collective phenomena such as emergent gauge fields and fractional particle excitations. This exotic behaviour is now being uncovered in the laboratory, providing insight into the properties of spin liquids and challenges to the theoretical description of these materials.

  4. Fractional Galilean symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseiny


    Full Text Available We generalize the differential representation of the operators of the Galilean algebras to include fractional derivatives. As a result a whole new class of scale invariant Galilean algebras are obtained. The first member of this class has dynamical index z=2 similar to the Schrödinger algebra. The second member of the class has dynamical index z=3/2, which happens to be the dynamical index Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation.

  5. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh


    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  6. Fractional Airy beams. (United States)

    Khonina, S N; Ustinov, A V


    Airy beams possess a number of properties that ensure their multifunction and high relevance in many applications. This fact stimulates scientists to search for new modifications and generalizations of classical Airy beams. Several generalizations of the Airy functions are known, on the basis of both the modification of the differential equation and the variations in the integral representation. In this paper we propose and investigate a new type of Airy beams-fractional Airy beams (FrAiB). They are based on the generalization of the integral representation and are close to the Olver functions, but we are considering a wider range of the power-law dependence of the argument, including non-integer (fractional) values of the power. A theoretical and numerical analysis of the FrAiBs, as well as their symmetrized variants, was performed. The properties of FrAiBs, such as being non-diffracting and autofocusing, were numerically investigated by means of the fractional Fourier transform, describing the beam transformations by paraxial optical systems. We believe that new beams can be useful for laser manipulation techniques and lensless laser patterning.

  7. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik


    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  8. Liquid fuel cells (United States)


    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  9. Methane to liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, B.E.; Shock, R.N.; Taylor, R.T.


    We are investigating the structure/activity relationships of the bacterial enzyme methane monooxygenase, which catalyzes the the specific oxidation of methane to methanol. We then utilize this information to design and synthesize inorganic coordination complexes that mimic the function of the native enzyme but more robust and have higher catalytic site density. We envision these catalysts to be useful in process catalytic reactors in the conversion of methane in natural gas to liquid methanol.

  10. Liquid fuel cells. (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L


    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  11. Aqueous speciation is likely to control the stable isotopic fractionation of cerium at varying pH (United States)

    Nakada, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Masato; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio


    Cerium (Ce) can be used as a plaeoredox proxy as shown by a recent study of stable isotopic fractionation of Ce during adsorption and precipitation. However, the experiments in that study were performed at pH conditions lower than that of natural seawater. In the current study, adsorption and precipitation experiments were performed at pH 6.80, 8.20, and 11.00 with 2.25 mM dissolved carbonate to simulate Ce isotopic fractionation in the natural environment and examine the relationship between isotopic fractionation and Ce speciation in the liquid phase. Mean isotopic fractionation factors between liquid and solid phases (αLq-So) of Ce adsorbed on ferrihydrite did not depend on pH conditions or dissolved Ce species. In the Ce/δ-MnO2 system,αLq-So values decreased from 1.000411 (±0.000079) to 1.000194 (±0.000067) with increasing pH or number of carbonate ions, from Ce3+ to Ce(CO3)2-. In the Ce/precipitation system at pH 8.20 and 11.00 where Ce(CO3)2- is present in solution, the αLq-So values were 0.999821 (±0.000071) and 0.999589 (±0.000074), respectively, meaning that lighter isotope enrichment was observed in the liquid phase, which is the contrary to those of the other systems. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses were also performed to investigate the coordination structure of the adsorbed or precipitated Ce species that control the isotopic fractionation during adsorption. Even at higher pH, where Ce(CO3)+ or Ce(CO3)2- are the dominant dissolved species, the first coordination sphere of Ce in the solid phase in the Ce/ferrihydrite and Ce/precipitation systems was similar to that observed at pH 5.00 where Ce3+ was the main species in solution. A slight elongation in the Cesbnd O bond length in the solid phase at pH 11.00, where negatively charged dissolved species are dominant in the liquid phase, may cause a decrease in isotopic fractionation in the Ce/δ-MnO2 system. The coordination environment of Ce may not change significantly

  12. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin. (United States)

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K


    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Quantum spin liquid states (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Kanoda, Kazushi; Ng, Tai-Kai


    This is an introductory review of the physics of quantum spin liquid states. Quantum magnetism is a rapidly evolving field, and recent developments reveal that the ground states and low-energy physics of frustrated spin systems may develop many exotic behaviors once we leave the regime of semiclassical approaches. The purpose of this article is to introduce these developments. The article begins by explaining how semiclassical approaches fail once quantum mechanics become important and then describe the alternative approaches for addressing the problem. Mainly spin-1 /2 systems are discussed, and most of the time is spent in this article on one particular set of plausible spin liquid states in which spins are represented by fermions. These states are spin-singlet states and may be viewed as an extension of Fermi liquid states to Mott insulators, and they are usually classified in the category of so-called S U (2 ), U (1 ), or Z2 spin liquid states. A review is given of the basic theory regarding these states and the extensions of these states to include the effect of spin-orbit coupling and to higher spin (S >1 /2 ) systems. Two other important approaches with strong influences on the understanding of spin liquid states are also introduced: (i) matrix product states and projected entangled pair states and (ii) the Kitaev honeycomb model. Experimental progress concerning spin liquid states in realistic materials, including anisotropic triangular-lattice systems [κ -(ET )2Cu2(CN )3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd (dmit )2]2 ], kagome-lattice system [ZnCu3(OH )6Cl2 ], and hyperkagome lattice system (Na4 Ir3 O8 ), is reviewed and compared against the corresponding theories.

  14. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger (United States)

    Miller, C. G.


    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  15. Apolar Bioactive Fraction Of Melipona Scutellaris Geopropolis On Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm.


    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Franchin, Marcelo; Galvão, Lívia Câmara de Carvalho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF) possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop a...

  16. Reversed interfacial fractionation of carbonate and bicarbonate evidenced by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (United States)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Karslıoǧlu, Osman; Bluhm, Hendrik; Saykally, Richard J.


    The fractionation of ions at liquid interfaces and its effects on the interfacial structure are of vital importance in many scientific fields. Of particular interest is the aqueous carbonate system, which governs both the terrestrial carbon cycle and physiological respiration systems. We have investigated the relative fractionation of carbonate, bicarbonate, and carbonic acid at the liquid/vapor interface finding that both carbonate (CO32-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) are present in higher concentrations than bicarbonate (HCO3-) in the interfacial region. While the interfacial enhancement of a neutral acid relative to a charged ion is expected, the enhancement of doubly charged, strongly hydrated carbonate anion over the singly charged, less strongly hydrated bicarbonate ion is surprising. As vibrational sum frequency generation experiments have concluded that both carbonate and bicarbonate anions are largely excluded from the air/water interface, the present results suggest that there exists a significant accumulation of carbonate below the depletion region outside of the area probed by sum frequency generation.

  17. Density fractionation of forest soils: methodological questions and interpretation of incubation results and turnover time in an ecosystem context (United States)

    Susan E. Crow; Christopher W. Swanston; Kate Lajtha; J. Renee Brooks; Heath Keirstead


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is often separated by physical means to simplify a complex matrix into discrete fractions. A frequent approach to isolating two or more fractions is based on differing particle densities and uses a high density liquid such as sodium polytungstate (SPT). Soil density fractions are often interpreted as organic matter pools with different carbon...

  18. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R


    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  19. The Extended Fractional Subequation Method for Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations


    Zhao, Jianping; Tang, Bo; Kumar, Sunil; Hou, Yanren


    An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powe...

  20. Fractional Langevin equation and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. (United States)

    Sau Fa, Kwok


    In this present work we consider a fractional Langevin equation with Riemann-Liouville fractional time derivative which modifies the classical Newtonian force, nonlocal dissipative force, and long-time correlation. We investigate the first two moments, variances and position and velocity correlation functions of this system. We also compare them with the results obtained from the same fractional Langevin equation which uses the Caputo fractional derivative.

  1. Cosmological Models with Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Action Functional


    Shchigolev, V. K.


    Cosmological models of a scalar field with dynamical equations containing fractional derivatives or derived from the Einstein-Hilbert action of fractional order, are constructed. A number of exact solutions to those equations of fractional cosmological models in both cases is given.

  2. Boundary value problemfor multidimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasambiev Mokhammad Vakhaevich


    Full Text Available In recent time there is a very great interest in the study of differential equations of fractional order, in which the unknown function is under the symbol of fractional derivative. It is due to the development of the theory of fractional integro-differential theory and application of it in different fields.The fractional integrals and derivatives of fractional integro-differential equations are widely used in modern investigations of theoretical physics, mechanics, and applied mathematics. The fractional calculus is a very powerful tool for describing physical systems, which have a memory and are non-local. Many processes in complex systems have nonlocality and long-time memory. Fractional integral operators and fractional differential operators allow describing some of these properties. The use of the fractional calculus will be helpful for obtaining the dynamical models, in which integro-differential operators describe power long-time memory by time and coordinates, and three-dimensional nonlocality for complex medium and processes.Differential equations of fractional order appear when we use fractal conception in physics of the condensed medium. The transfer, described by the operator with fractional derivatives at a long distance from the sources, leads to other behavior of relatively small concentrations as compared with classic diffusion. This fact redefines the existing ideas about safety, based on the ideas on exponential velocity of damping. Fractional calculus in the fractal theory and the systems with memory have the same importance as the classic analysis in mechanics of continuous medium.In recent years, the application of fractional derivatives for describing and studying the physical processes of stochastic transfer is very popular too. Many problems of filtration of liquids in fractal (high porous medium lead to the need to study boundary value problems for partial differential equations in fractional order.In this paper the

  3. Molybdenum isotope fractionation in the mantle (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Hsuan; Halliday, Alex N.; Siebert, Chris; Fitton, J. Godfrey; Burton, Kevin W.; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Harvey, Jason


    concentrations of all the ultramafic xenoliths of 40-400 ppb, similar to or, significantly higher than, current estimates for the BSE (39 ppb). On this basis a revised best estimate of the Mo content in the BSE based on these concentrations would be in the range 113-180 ppb, significantly higher than previously assumed. These values are similar to the levels of depletion in the other refractory moderately siderophile elements W, Ni and Co. A simpler explanation may be that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has been selectively enriched in Mo leading to the higher concentrations observed. Cryptic melt metasomatism would be difficult to reconcile with the high Mo/Ce of the most LREE depleted xenoliths. Ancient Mo-enriched subducted components would be expected to have heavy δ98/95Mo, which is not observed. The Mo isotope composition of the BSE, cannot be reliably resolved from that of chondrites at this time despite experimental evidence for metal-silicate fractionation. An identical isotopic composition might result from core-mantle differentiation under very high temperatures such as were associated with the Moon-forming Giant Impact, or from the BSE inventory reflecting addition of moderately siderophile elements from an oxidised Moon-forming impactor (O'Neill, 1991). However, the latter would be inconsistent with the non-chondritic radiogenic W isotopic composition of the BSE. Based on mantle fertility arguments, Mo in the BSE could even be lighter (lower 98/95Mo) than that in chondrites, which might be explained by loss of S rich liquids from the BSE during core formation (Wade et al., 2012). Such a late removal model is no longer required to explain the Mo concentration of the BSE if its abundance is in fact much higher, and similar to the values for ultramafic xenoliths.

  4. Palm Print Edge Extraction Using Fractional Differential Algorithm


    Chunmei Chi; Feng Gao


    Algorithm based on fractional difference was used for the edge extraction of thenar palm print image. Based on fractional order difference function which was deduced from classical fractional differential G-L definition, three filter templates were constructed to extract thenar palm print edge. The experiment results showed that this algorithm can reduce noise and detect rich edge details and has higher SNR than traditional methods.

  5. Swelling of medical grade silicones in liquids and calculation of their cross-link densities. (United States)

    Mahomed, Aziza; Hukins, David W L; Kukureka, Stephen N


    Four medical grade silicones were swollen, until they reached equilibrium (i.e. constant mass) in eight liquids at 25 degrees C. The greatest swelling was obtained with n-heptane but the volume fraction, varphi, of the silicones in their swollen state was not significantly different (psolubility parameter, for each liquid in which it was swollen. A second-order polynomial was plotted through the results; the minimum in this polynomial provided a value for the polymer solubility parameter, delta(p). The Flory polymer-liquid interaction parameter, chi, was calculated for the four best liquids, using Hildebrand's solubility parameter theory. An alternative method for calculating chi, directly from swelling measurements, was shown to produce physically unreasonable results. The cross-link density, upsilon, was calculated, from varphi and chi, for each grade of silicone, using the Flory-Rehner equation. Since the values of two parameters involved in Hildebrand's theory cannot be determined reliably and because the Flory-Rehner equation is an approximation, absolute values of upsilon cannot be obtained. However, the relative values of upsilon obtained were higher for the harder grades then for the softer grades and similarly, the grades with the higher Young's modulus had higher upsilon values.

  6. Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids (United States)

    Kruger, Jacob Scott

    molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2

  7. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio


    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  8. Fractional variational principles with delay (United States)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Maaraba Abdeljawad, Thabet; Jarad, Fahd


    The fractional variational principles within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives in the presence of delay are analyzed. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained and one example is analyzed in detail.

  9. Fractional variational principles with delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Abdeljawad, Thabet Maaraba; Jarad, Fahd [Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Cankaya University, 06530 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    The fractional variational principles within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives in the presence of delay are analyzed. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained and one example is analyzed in detail.

  10. Sterilization in a liquid of a specific starch makes it slowly digestible in vitro and low glycemic in rats. (United States)

    Severijnen, Chantal; Abrahamse, Evan; van der Beek, Eline M; Buco, Amra; van de Heijning, Bert J M; van Laere, Katrien; Bouritius, Hetty


    Diabetics are recommended to eat a balanced diet containing normal amounts of carbohydrates, preferably those with a low glycemic index. For solid foods, this can be achieved by choosing whole-grain, fiber-rich products. For (sterilized) liquid products, such as meal replacers, the choices for carbohydrate sources are restricted due to technological limitations. Starches usually have a high glycemic index after sterilization in liquids, whereas low glycemic sugars and sugar replacers can only be used in limited amounts. Using an in vitro digestion assay, we identified a resistant starch (RS) source [modified high amylose starch (mHAS)] that might enable the production of a sterilized liquid product with a low glycemic index. Heating mHAS for 4-5 min in liquid increased the slowly digestible starch (SDS) fraction at the expense of the RS portion. The effect was temperature dependent and reached its maximum above 120 degrees C. Heating at 130 degrees C significantly reduced the RS fraction from 49 to 22%. The product remained stable for at least several months when stored at 4 degrees C. To investigate whether a higher SDS fraction would result in a lower postprandial glycemic response, the sterilized mHAS solution was compared with rapidly digestible maltodextrin. Male Wistar rats received an i.g. bolus of 2.0 g available carbohydrate/kg body weight. Ingestion of heat-treated mHAS resulted in a significant attenuation of the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses compared with maltodextrin. mHAS appears to be a starch source which, after sterilization in a liquid product, acquires slow-release properties. The long-term stability of mHAS solutions indicates that this may provide a suitable carbohydrate source for low glycemic index liquid products for inclusion in a diabetes-specific diet.

  11. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  12. How Weird Are Weird Fractions? (United States)

    Stuffelbeam, Ryan


    A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions.

  13. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks. (United States)

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu


    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  14. Mathematical model of the agglomeration of solid disperse phase in the cyclone with a liquid-drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Saranov


    Full Text Available The paper concerns a process for producing an agglomerated structure powder by spray drying of liquid food and chemical environments. The development of this direction is the method based on collision in the cyclone chamber dispersible liquid pa rticles and previously dried up particles of swirling stream, returned from the separation system of finely fraction from spent heat medium. Thus, the solid particles collide with droplets of liquid wetting at the same time, due to this with further dry the particles collision with the moistened portion of another dry particles the spatial structure is formed. Repeating of this process leads to enlargement of particles and to the obtaining of their agglomerates or granules. To build an adequate model of the process of agglomera tion the use of the fundamental momentum and mass transfer equations is difficult, therefore, to build the model, it was decided to apply the principle of kinetic transformations in chemical reactions. To registrate the application of thin liquid films on the particle and the formation of agglomerates use the kinetic coefficients is proposed, and upon application of hydrodynamics of ideal displacement the task is written in the form of Cauchy. The solution to this task is done with numerical Euler method for end-difference scheme. Qualitative analysis of the calculation results shows that effective modes of agglomeration are possible if the kinetic coefficient and the agglomerates formation is higher than the kinetic coefficient of film formation on the particles, and the concentration of particles of solid fractions should be higher than the concentration of the liquid fraction particles, which in the conditions of standard spray dryers with return highly dispersed fr action can not be implemented without the development of special agglomeration units for drying plants.

  15. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process (United States)

    Koirala, K.


    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  16. Separating liquid and solid products of liquefaction of coal or like carbonaceous materials (United States)

    Malek, John M.


    Slurryform products of coal liquefaction are treated with caustic soda in presence of H.sub.2 O in an inline static mixer and then the treated product is separated into a solids fraction and liquid fractions, including liquid hydrocarbons, by gravity settling preferably effected in a multiplate settling separator with a plurality of settling spacings.

  17. Hypoglycaemic action of the flavonoid fraction of Artocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypoglycaemic effect was at its maximum 2 h after flavonoid fraction administration, and multiple dosing maintained the activity for a week. The hypoglycaemic effect of the flavonoid fraction of leaf (49%) is higher than that of tolbutamide (27.0%), a sulphonyl urea drug commonly used for treatment of hyperglycaemia.

  18. Fractionation of lead-acid battery soil amended with Biochar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a gradual decrease in the concentration of the heavy metals as the concentration of biochar increases from 5 – 20%. Fractionation result shows that the heavy metals (Zn,Cr,Cd,Cu and Pb) were mainly associated with the residual fraction, the mobility factor for the heavy metals was calculated and found to be higher ...

  19. Dielectric study on mixtures of ionic liquids. (United States)

    Thoms, E; Sippel, P; Reuter, D; Weiß, M; Loidl, A; Krohns, S


    Ionic liquids are promising candidates for electrolytes in energy-storage systems. We demonstrate that mixing two ionic liquids allows to precisely tune their physical properties, like the dc conductivity. Moreover, these mixtures enable the gradual modification of the fragility parameter, which is believed to be a measure of the complexity of the energy landscape in supercooled liquids. The physical origin of this index is still under debate; therefore, mixing ionic liquids can provide further insights. From the chemical point of view, tuning ionic liquids via mixing is an easy and thus an economic way. For this study, we performed detailed investigations by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry on two mixing series of ionic liquids. One series combines an imidazole based with a pyridine based ionic liquid and the other two different anions in an imidazole based ionic liquid. The analysis of the glass-transition temperatures and the thorough evaluations of the measured dielectric permittivity and conductivity spectra reveal that the dynamics in mixtures of ionic liquids are well defined by the fractions of their parent compounds.

  20. Specialist gelator for ionic liquids. (United States)

    Hanabusa, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Shirai, Hirofusa


    Cyclo(l-beta-3,7-dimethyloctylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (1) and cyclo(L-beta-2-ethylhexylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2), prepared from L-asparaginyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, have been found to be specialist gelators for ionic liquids. They can gel a wide variety of ionic liquids, including imizazolium, pyridinium, pyrazolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and ammonium salts. The mean minimum gel concentrations (MGCs) necessary to make gels at 25 degrees C were determined for ionic liquids. The gel strength increased at a rate nearly proportional to the concentration of added gelator. The strength of the transparent gel of 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([C(4)py]BF(4)), prepared at a concentration of 60 g L(-1) (gelator 1/[C(4)py]BF(4)), was ca. 1500 g cm(-2). FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that a driving force for gelation was intermolecular hydrogen bonding between amides and that the phase transition from gel to liquid upon heating was brought about by the collapse of hydrogen bonding. The gels formed from ionic liquids were very thermally stable; no melting occurs up to 140 degrees C when the gels were prepared at a concentration of 70 g L(-1) (gelator/ionic liquid). The ionic conductivities of the gels were nearly the same as those of pure ionic liquids. The gelator had electrochemical stability and a wide electrochemical window. When the gels were prepared from ionic liquids containing propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivities of the resulting gels increased to levels rather higher than those of pure ionic liquids. The gelators also gelled ionic liquids containing supporting electrolytes.

  1. Goethite liquid crystals and magnetic field effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Pol, E


    In this thesis the liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal, boardlike, goethite (alpha-FeOOH) particles is described. Apart from the nematic phase, a smectic A phase is formed in systems with a low and high polydispersity. Strong fractionation occurs which is able to reduce the local length

  2. Prefermentation of liquid dairy manure to support biological nutrient removal. (United States)

    Güngör, Kerem; Müftügil, Mert B; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F; Love, Nancy G


    A continuously operated, intermittently fed reactor (fermenter) system with a 2-d solids retention time was proposed for supporting biological nutrient removal from liquid dairy manure. The first objective of this study was to select a material with high fermentation potential to be used as the fermenter feed. Primary sludge, liquid separated dairy manure, and flushed dairy manure were investigated for their fermentation potential. Liquid separated dairy manure had the highest fermentation potential, 0.73mg volatile fatty acid as chemical oxygen demand/mg of initial volatile suspended solids (VSS). The second objective was to investigate the performance of a pilot-scale fermenter operated under an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 3 kg-VSS/m(3)/d. The reactor utilized 18% of the manure fermentation potential. Performance comparison of the pilot-scale fermenter and a lab-scale fermenter with an average OLR of 7 kg-VSS/m(3)/d highlighted the need to increase the OLR of the pilot-scale fermenter so that it can exploit a higher fraction of the manure fermentation potential. A continuously operated, intermittently fed fermenter with 2-d SRT can utilize the majority of the manure fermentation potential and support a downstream BNR reactor provided that it receives a sufficiently high OLR.

  3. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    Purification of proteins is an increasingly important process for the biotechnology industry. Separation of the desired high value protein from other proteins produced by the cell is usually attempted using a combination of different chromatographic techniques. These techniques separate mixtures...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited....... In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...

  4. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.


    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  5. Two-phase flow characteristics of liquid oxygen flow in low pressure liquid rocket engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkyung Cho; Youngmog Kim [Korea Aerospace Research Inst., Control Systems Dept., Daejeon (Korea); Seunghan Kim [Korea Aerospace Research Inst., Engine Dept., Daejeon (Korea); Sangkwon Jeong; Jeheon Jung [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Daejeon (Korea)


    In most cryogenic liquid rocket engines, liquid oxygen manifold and injector are not thermally insulated from room temperature environment for the purpose of reducing system complexity and weight. This feature of cryogenic liquid supply system results in the situation that liquid oxygen flow is vaporized especially in the vicinity of the manifold and the injector wall. The transient two-phase flow tendency is severe for low combustion pressure rocket engine without using turbo-pump. This paper focuses on the two-phase flow phenomena of liquid oxygen in low combustion pressure rocket engine. The KSR-III (Korea Sounding Rocket) engine test data is thoroughly analyzed to estimate the vapor fraction of liquid oxygen flow near the engine manifold and the injector. During the cold flow and the combustion tests of the KSR-III Engine, the static and dynamic pressures are measured at the engine inlet, the liquid oxygen manifold and the combustion chamber. The manifold outer wall and the inner wall temperatures are also measured. In this paper, we present the experimental investigation on the vapor generation, the vapor mass fraction, and the boiling characteristics of the liquid oxygen flow in the engine manifold and injector. (Author)

  6. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria measurement for epoxidized soybean oil + acetic acid + water. (United States)

    Cai, Shuang-Fei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qing; Li, Yi; Feng, Yun-Xia; Linghu, Rong-Gang


    Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data were measured for ternary system epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) + acetic acid + water at 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15 K, respectively. The consistency of the measured LLE data was tested, using Othmer-Tobias correlation and root-mean-square deviation (sigma) in mass fraction of water in the lower phase and average value of the absolute difference (AAD) between experimental mass fraction of epoxidized soybean oil in the upper phase and that calculated using Othmer-Tobias correlation.

  7. Cold neutron production in liquid para- and normal-H sub 2 moderators

    CERN Document Server

    Morishima, N


    A neutron transport analysis is performed for liquid H sub 2 moderators with 100% para and normal (ortho:para=0.75:0.25) fractions. Four sets of energy-averaged cross-sections (group constants) for liquid ortho- and para-H sub 2 at melting and boiling points are generated and neutron energy range between 0.1 mu eV and 10 eV is broken into 80 groups. Basic moderating characteristics are studied of a model cold-neutron source in a one-dimensional bare-slab geometry. It is shown that liquid para-H sub 2 is superior in cold neutron production to liquid normal H sub 2 on account of a para-to-ortho transition (molecular rotational excitation) and a good transmission property with a mean free path of about 10 cm. In the case of neutron extraction from the inside of the source, high intensity of cold neutrons is possible with liquid normal H sub 2 at higher temperatures up to the boiling point.

  8. Drop impact on a liquid-liquid interface (United States)

    Mohamed-Kassim, Zulfaa; Longmire, Ellen K.


    The effects of Reynolds number (Re) on the gravity-driven impact of a single drop onto a liquid-liquid interface were studied experimentally using the particle image velocimetry method. The liquid beneath the interface was identical to the drop liquid. Two liquids with different viscosities were used as the ambient above the interface resulting in viscosity ratios (drop to ambient) of 0.14 and 0.33. Index matching and a slight camera inclination were employed to eliminate optical distortion. Image planes were captured at a rate of 500 Hz, and velocity fields were determined from consecutive images. The flow Reynolds numbers based on drop impact velocity and ambient viscosity were 20 and 68 for the lower and higher viscosity ratios, respectively. During the approach toward the interface, the drop shape was more oblate for the higher Re case. At the same time, viscous stresses generated a vortex ring inside each drop and a wake behind it. Each wake contained a detached ring of similar sign to the ring inside the drop. The subsequent deformation of the drop and the interface due to impact was observed to be more radical in the higher Re case. The impingement and shearing of the trailing wake on the upper surface of each drop played a significant role in dissipating the vorticity inside both drops, and the vorticity dissipated faster for lower Re.

  9. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell’s equations (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.


    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

  10. Continuous and discrete fractional operators and some fractional functions


    Sadjang, P. Njionou; Mboutngam, S.


    The classical orthogonal polynomials are usually defined by the Rodrigues' formula. This paper refers to a fractional extension of the classical Hermite, Laguerre, Jacobi, Charlier, Meixner, Krawtchouk and Hahn polynomials. By means of the Caputo operator of fractional calculus, C-Hermite, C-Laguerre, C-Legndre and the C-Jacobi functions are defined and their representation in terms of the hypergeometric functions are provided. Also, by means of the Gray and Zhang fractional difference oparat...

  11. Fractional telegrapher's equation from fractional persistent random walks


    Masoliver, Jaume, 1951-


    We generalize the telegrapher's equation to allow for anomalous transport. We derive the space-time fractional telegrapher's equation using the formalism of the persistent random walk in continuous time. We also obtain the characteristic function of the space-time fractional process and study some particular cases and asymptotic approximations. Similarly to the ordinary telegrapher's equation, the time-fractional equation also presents distinct behaviors for different time scales. Specificall...

  12. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph


    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  13. Computational Solution of a Fractional Integro-Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kurulay


    Full Text Available Although differential transform method (DTM is a highly efficient technique in the approximate analytical solutions of fractional differential equations, applicability of this method to the system of fractional integro-differential equations in higher dimensions has not been studied in detail in the literature. The major goal of this paper is to investigate the applicability of this method to the system of two-dimensional fractional integral equations, in particular to the two-dimensional fractional integro-Volterra equations. We deal with two different types of systems of fractional integral equations having some initial conditions. Computational results indicate that the results obtained by DTM are quite close to the exact solutions, which proves the power of DTM in the solutions of these sorts of systems of fractional integral equations.

  14. Modified Legendre Wavelets Technique for Fractional Oscillation Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din


    Full Text Available Physical Phenomena’s located around us are primarily nonlinear in nature and their solutions are of highest significance for scientists and engineers. In order to have a better representation of these physical models, fractional calculus is used. Fractional order oscillation equations are included among these nonlinear phenomena’s. To tackle with the nonlinearity arising, in these phenomena’s we recommend a new method. In the proposed method, Picard’s iteration is used to convert the nonlinear fractional order oscillation equation into a fractional order recurrence relation and then Legendre wavelets method is applied on the converted problem. In order to check the efficiency and accuracy of the suggested modification, we have considered three problems namely: fractional order force-free Duffing–van der Pol oscillator, forced Duffing–van der Pol oscillator and higher order fractional Duffing equations. The obtained results are compared with the results obtained via other techniques.

  15. Fractional telegrapher's equation from fractional persistent random walks. (United States)

    Masoliver, Jaume


    We generalize the telegrapher's equation to allow for anomalous transport. We derive the space-time fractional telegrapher's equation using the formalism of the persistent random walk in continuous time. We also obtain the characteristic function of the space-time fractional process and study some particular cases and asymptotic approximations. Similarly to the ordinary telegrapher's equation, the time-fractional equation also presents distinct behaviors for different time scales. Specifically, transitions between different subdiffusive regimes or from superdiffusion to subdiffusion are shown by the fractional equation as time progresses.

  16. Fractional telegrapher's equation from fractional persistent random walks (United States)

    Masoliver, Jaume


    We generalize the telegrapher's equation to allow for anomalous transport. We derive the space-time fractional telegrapher's equation using the formalism of the persistent random walk in continuous time. We also obtain the characteristic function of the space-time fractional process and study some particular cases and asymptotic approximations. Similarly to the ordinary telegrapher's equation, the time-fractional equation also presents distinct behaviors for different time scales. Specifically, transitions between different subdiffusive regimes or from superdiffusion to subdiffusion are shown by the fractional equation as time progresses.

  17. Phase Segregation at the Liquid-Air Interface Prior to Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium. (United States)

    Bermúdez-Salguero, Carolina; Gracia-Fadrique, Jesús


    Binary systems with partial miscibility segregate into two liquid phases when their overall composition lies within the interval defined by the saturation points; out of this interval, there is one single phase, either solvent-rich or solute-rich. In most systems, in the one-phase regions, surface tension decreases with increasing solute concentration due to solute adsorption at the liquid-air interface. Therefore, the solute concentration at the surface is higher than in the bulk, leading to the hypothesis that phase segregation starts at the liquid-air interface with the formation of two surface phases, before the liquid-liquid equilibrium. This phenomenon is called surface segregation and is a step toward understanding liquid segregation at a molecular level and detailing the constitution of fluid interfaces. Surface segregation of aqueous binary systems of alkyl acetates with partial miscibility was theoretically demonstrated by means of a thermodynamic stability test based on energy minimization. Experimentally, the coexistence of two surface regions was verified through Brewster's angle microscopy. The observations were further interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, which show the diffusion of the acetates from the bulk toward the liquid-air interface, where acetates aggregate into acetate-rich domains.

  18. Measurement of pseudoturbulence intensity in monodispersed bubbly liquids for 10 (United States)

    Martínez-Mercado, Julián; Palacios-Morales, Carlos A.; Zenit, Roberto


    Experiments were performed to measure the velocities of both phases in a monodispersed bubbly flow in a vertical column. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, measurements were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 10 to 500. For all cases, the Weber number was below 2. To generate a uniform stream of bubbles, an array of identical capillaries was used. To avoid coalescence, a small amount of salt was added to the interstitial fluid, which did not affect the fluid properties significantly. Measurements of the bubble phase velocity were obtained using a dual impedance probe and through high-speed digital video processing. A measurement of the vertical component of the fluctuating liquid velocity was obtained using a flying hotwire technique, which resolved the deficiency of this technique for flows with zero-mean velocity. To the best of our knowledge, this technique has not been used to study bubbly liquids in the past. It was found that for all cases, the bubble velocity decreases as the mean gas volume fraction increases. For vanishing gas volume fraction, the mean bubble velocity was found to be smaller than that calculated for an isolated bubble. The flow agitation, characterized by the velocity variance both in the liquid and the bubble phases, increases with bubble concentration. The bubble velocity variance was found to rapidly increase with gas volume fraction but to reach a nearly constant value for concentrations higher than 1.5% for all cases. The liquid velocity variance was found to increase linearly with gas concentration for large Re; for low Re the increase was at a smaller rate. The variance, normalized with the mean bubble velocity squared, increased as the Reynolds number decreased. Direct comparisons are performed with recent theoretical and computational studies for the same range of conditions.

  19. Charge and spin fractionalization in strongly correlated topological insulators. (United States)

    Nikolić, Predrag


    We construct an effective topological Landau-Ginzburg theory that describes general SU(2) incompressible quantum liquids of strongly correlated particles in two spatial dimensions. This theory characterizes the fractionalization of quasiparticle quantum numbers and statistics in relation to the topological ground-state symmetries, and generalizes the Chern-Simons, BF ('background field') and hierarchical effective gauge theories to an arbitrary representation of the SU(2) symmetry group. We mainly focus on fractional topological insulators with time-reversal symmetry, which are treated as SU(2) generalizations of the quantum Hall effect.

  20. Foam fractionation as a tool to study the air-water interface structure-function relationship of wheat gluten hydrolysates. (United States)

    Wouters, Arno G B; Rombouts, Ine; Schoebrechts, Nele; Fierens, Ellen; Brijs, Kristof; Blecker, Christophe; Delcour, Jan A


    Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten protein improves its solubility and produces hydrolysates with foaming properties which may find applications in food products. First, we here investigated whether foam-liquid fractionation can concentrate wheat gluten peptides with foaming properties. Foam and liquid fractions had high and very low foam stability (FS), respectively. In addition, foam fractions were able to decrease surface tension more pronouncedly than un-fractionated samples and liquid fractions, suggesting they are able to arrange themselves more efficiently at an interface. As a second objective, foam fractionation served as a tool to study the structural properties of the peptides, causing these differences in air-water interfacial behavior. Zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity measurements did not fully explain these differences but suggested that hydrophobic interactions at the air-water interface are more important than electrostatic interactions. RP-HPLC showed a large overlap between foam and liquid fractions. However, a small fraction of very hydrophobic peptides with relatively high average molecular mass was clearly enriched in the foam fraction. These peptides were also more concentrated in un-fractionated DH 2 hydrolysates, which had high FS, than in DH 6 hydrolysates, which had low FS. These peptides most likely play a key role in stabilizing the air-water interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Palm-based diacylglycerol fat dry fractionation: effect of crystallisation temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed on physical and chemical properties of fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razam Ab Latip


    Full Text Available Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid and stearin (solid fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min, end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV, fatty acid composition (FAC, acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP, solid fat content (SFC, thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1 and palmitic (C16:0 respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of

  2. Positronium quenching in liquid and solid octanol and benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Mogensen, O.E.; Goldanskii, V.I.


    The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase.......The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase....

  3. Molecular dynamics analysis of the friction between a water-methanol liquid mixture and a non-polar solid crystal surface (United States)

    Nakaoka, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yasutaka; Omori, Takeshi; Joly, Laurent


    We performed molecular dynamics analysis of the momentum transfer at the solid-liquid interface for a water-methanol liquid mixture between parallel non-polar solid walls in order to understand the strong decrease of the friction coefficient (FC) induced by the methanol adsorption at the surface observed in our previous work [S. Nakaoka et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 022402 (2015)]. In particular, we extracted the individual contributions of water and methanol molecules to the total FC and found that the molecular FC for methanol was larger than that for water. We further showed that the reduction of the total solid-liquid FC upon the increase of the methanol molar fraction in the first adsorption layer occurred as a result of a decrease in the molecular number density as well as a decrease in the molecular FCs of both molecules. Analysis of the molecular orientation revealed that the decrease of the molecular FC of methanol resulted from changes of the contact feature onto the solid surface. Specifically, methanol molecules near the solid surface had their C-O bond parallel to the surface with both CH3 and O sites contacting the solid at low methanol molar fraction, while they had their C-O bond outward from the surface with only the CH3 site contacting the solid at higher methanol molar fraction. The mechanisms discussed in this work could be used to search for alternative water additives to further reduce the solid-liquid friction.

  4. Nicotine delivery from the refill liquid to the aerosol via high-power e-cigarette device. (United States)

    Prévôt, Nathalie; de Oliveira, Fabien; Perinel-Ragey, Sophie; Basset, Thierry; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Pourchez, Jérémie


    To offer an enhanced and well-controlled nicotine delivery from the refill liquid to the aerosol is a key point to adequately satisfy nicotine cravings using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). A recent high-power ENDS, exhibiting higher aerosol nicotine delivery than older technologies, was used. The particle size distribution was measured using a cascade impactor. The effects of the refill liquid composition on the nicotine content of each size-fraction in the submicron range were investigated. Nicotine was quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Particle size distribution of the airborne refill liquid and the aerosol nicotine demonstrated that the nicotine is equally distributed in droplets regardless of their size. Results also proved that the nicotine concentration in aerosol was significantly lower compared to un-puffed refill liquid. A part of the nicotine may be left in the ENDS upon depletion, and consequently a portion of the nicotine may not be transferred to the user. Thus, new generation high-power ENDS associated with propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) based solvent were very efficient to generate carrier-droplets containing nicotine molecules with a constant concentration. Findings highlighted that a portion of the nicotine in the refill liquid may not be transferred to the user.

  5. Copyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 2. Characterisation of the liquid phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, N.; Collura, S.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue Victor Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France); Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Kutnetzov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, Academgorodok, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russia); Cebolla, V. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)


    The copyrolysis of wood biomass-polyolefins was carried out in a rotating autoclave. At 400C, more than 50% (in mass) of final products are found in the liquid phase for a 1:1 (in mass) mixture. The obtained liquids are separated in a distillable liquids fraction and in an extracted liquids fraction. The first fraction can be fully characterised by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only olefins, paraffins and some aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylene), issued from the polymers, are found in this fraction. The origin of the polymer plays the most important role in the chemical composition of this fraction. Some interactions with the solid issued from thermal degradation of the biomass are evidenced, for example by the presence of 2-alkenes with 3n carbon atoms. In the heavy liquids fraction, more than 80% (in mass) of the products are heavy olefins or paraffins. Schematically, we can explain the results of the copyrolysis experiments by: the biomass, whatever its origin, leads to solid, water and gas; polymer leads to liquid and gaseous olefins and paraffins; at a temperature lower than 400C, the biomass reacts and during the pyrolysis at 400C the formed solid evolves to act as a radical donor; assisted by radicals from biomass, polymer chain scission leads to the production of the light liquids; if the presence of biomass has an influence on the chemical composition of final products (particularly the light liquids fraction) their origin has, in general, only a limited effect.

  6. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W. [Space and Particle Radiation Science Research Group, Chiba (Japan); Koike, S.; Kanai, T. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Accelerator Physics


    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/{mu}m also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/{mu}m in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/{mu}m were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/{mu} steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant properties of a cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysate and peptide fractions. (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; He, Rong; Hasan, Fida M; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Gill, Tom A; Aluko, Rotimi E


    Mechanically-deboned cod muscle proteins were sequentially hydrolysed using pepsin and a trypsin+chymotrypsin combination, which was followed by passing the digest through a 1 kDa equipped tangential flow filtration system; the permeate (<1 kDa peptides) was collected as the cod protein hydrolysate (CPH). Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to separate the CPH into four peptide fractions (CF1-CF4) and their in vitro antioxidant properties investigated. Results showed that most of the peptide fractions (CF2-CF4) displayed significantly higher (p<0.05) oxygen radical absorbance capacity values (698-942 μM Trolox equivalents, TE/g) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities (17-32%) than those of CPH (613 μM TE/g and 19%, respectively). However, the unfractionated CPH displayed improved capability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals as well as significantly higher (p<0.05) ferric iron reduction and chelation of iron than the RP-HPLC peptides. The CPH and peptide fractions displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishment of peritoneal liquid electrophoretogram from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.S. Nogueira


    Full Text Available The initial inflammatory stages of the colic syndrome include changes known as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to contribute with the establishment of reference values concerning the electrophoretogram of peritoneal liquid from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction. Twenty-one horses were allotted in four groups: duodenal obstruction (DG, ileum obstruction (IG, left-dorsal colon obstruction (MG, and control group (CG. Peritoneal liquid was sampled before obtruction (T0, with 3 hours of obstruction (T3 and 6, 30, 102 and 174 hours after desobstructing (T6, T30, T102 and T174, respectively. Total protein levels were determined by the biuret method and protein fractions were obtained by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The acute phase proteins (APP identified were Immunoglobulin-A, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitrypsin, heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin-G, haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein and a still unnamed protein, which was called P24. There was no difference (P>0.3 in protein levels among groups, although a significant difference (P>0.05 was observed between distinct experimental moments in each group evidencing a higher response of the APP in the obstructed groups. The APP fractioning of the peritoneal liquid was standardized to establish a standard curve for healthy equines and those submitted to induced intestinal obstruction. Moreover, it was verified that the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was sensitive and effective to help diagnose abdominal inflammatory processes.

  9. Feasibility analysis of two-phase MHD energy conversion for liquid metal cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Qiao [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)], E-mail:; Schubring, DuWayne L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Reactor Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    A two-phase MHD energy conversion unit is proposed to a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. Using supercritical CO{sub 2} as the working fluid in the gas cycle without considering friction and heat losses, the optimized cycles efficiency is obtained, which is about 5% higher than that of the gas turbine Brayton cycle with the same regenerator/compressor configurations. Based on a simple MHD power analysis and the two-phase homogeneous flow model, the important system operational conditions were estimated. The results suggest that a liquid lead pump of at least 20% of the MHD power output is needed in order to convert the 400 MW reactor heat into electricity at the specified thermal efficiency, unless a mixture foam flow of void fraction greater than 80% is achievable at very high mixture velocity.

  10. Controlling frustrated liquids and solids with an applied field in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. (United States)

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Shibata, Naokazu; Hotta, Chisa


    Quantum spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is the representative frustrated system possibly hosting a spin liquid. Clarifying the nature of this elusive topological phase is a key challenge in condensed matter; however, even identifying it still remains unsettled. Here we apply a magnetic field and discover a series of spin-gapped phases appearing at five different fractions of magnetization by means of a grand canonical density matrix renormalization group, an unbiased state-of-the-art numerical technique. The magnetic field dopes magnons and first gives rise to a possible Z₃ spin liquid plateau at 1/9 magnetization. Higher field induces a self-organized super-lattice unit, a six-membered ring of quantum spins, resembling an atomic orbital structure. Putting magnons into this unit one by one yields three quantum solid plateaus. We thus find that the magnetic field could control the transition between various emergent phases by continuously releasing the frustration.

  11. Origin of lavas from the Ninetyeast Ridge, Eastern Indian Ocean: An evaluation of fractional crystallization models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludden, J.N.; Thompson, G.; Bryan, W.B.; Frey, F.A.


    Ferrobasalts from DSDP sites 214 and 216 on the Ninetyeast Ridge are characterized by high absolute iron (FeO>12.9 wt %), FeO/MgO>1.9, and TiO/sub 2/>2.0 wt %. Their trace element abundances indicate a tholeiitic affinity; however, they are distinct from midocean ridge incompatible element-depleted tholeiites owing to higher contents of Ba, Zr, and Sr and flat to slightly light-REE-enriched, chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Calculations using major and trace element abundances and phase compositions are generally consistent with a model relating most major elements and phase compositions in site 214 and 216 ferrobasalts by fractionation of clinopyroxene and plagio-class. However, some incompatible element abundances for site 216 basalts are not consistent with the fractional crystallization models. Baslats from site 214 can be related to andesitic rocks from the same site by fractionating clinopyroxene, plagioclase and titanomagnetite. Site 254 basalts, at the southern end of the Ninetyeast Ridge, and island tholeiites in the southern Indian Ocean (Amsterdam-St. Paul or Kerguelen-Heard volcanic provinces) possibly represent the most recent activity associated with a hot spot forming the Ninetyeast Ridge. These incompatible-element-enriched tholeiites have major element compositions consistent with those expected for a parental liquid for the site 214 and 216 ferrobasalts. However, differences in the trace element contents of the basalts from the Ninetyeast Ridge sites are not consistent with simple fractional crystallization derivation but require either a complex melting model or a heterogeneous mantle source.

  12. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J


    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  13. Binary Solvent Organization at Silica/Liquid Interfaces: Preferential Ordering in Acetonitrile-Methanol Mixtures. (United States)

    Gobrogge, Eric A; Walker, Robert A


    Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy experiments examined solvent organization at the silica/binary solvent interface where the binary solvent consisted of methanol and acetonitrile in varying mole fractions. Data were compared with surface vibrational spectra acquired from silica surfaces exposed to a vapor phase saturated with the same binary solvent mixtures. Changes in vibrational band intensities suggest that methanol ideally adsorbs to the silica/vapor interface but acetonitrile accumulates in excess relative to vapor-phase composition. At the silica/liquid interface, acetonitrile's signal increases until a solution phase mole fraction of ∼0.85. At higher acetonitrile concentrations, acetonitrile's signal decreases dramatically until only a weak signature persists with the neat solvent. This behavior is ascribed to dipole-paired acetonitrile forming a bilayer with the first sublayer associating with surface silanol groups and a second sublayer consisting of weakly associating, antiparallel partners. On the basis of recent simulations, we propose that the second sublayer accumulates in excess.

  14. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.


    We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n  =  1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0<α ≤slant 2 is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.

  15. Wet fractionation of the succulent halophyte Salicornia sinus-persica, with the aim of low input (water saving) biorefining into bioethanol. (United States)

    Alassali, Ayah; Cybulska, Iwona; Galvan, Alejandro Ríos; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard


    In this study Salicornia sinus-persica, a succulent halophyte was assessed for its potential to be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. For such succulent, salty, green biomasses, direct fractionation and fermentation allow for water preservation in the process. Fresh biomass of S. sinus-persica was collected and split into two fractions by wet fractionation; liquid (juice) and solid (pulp). Sugar contents were found to be 1.0-1.5% for the juice fraction and 50% (w/w) for the fresh pulp. Direct fermentation of the juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no salt inhibition of the yeast and ethanol yields of ~70% were achieved. A pretreatment study was carried out for the pulp fraction applying mild hydrothermal pretreatment. Cellulose convertibility was found to be significantly higher for severity factors above 2.00, and the highest ethanol yield (76.91 ± 3.03%) was found at process severity of 3.06 (170 °C, 10 min).

  16. Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen


    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…

  17. Unwrapping Students' Ideas about Fractions (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca M.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Kazemi, Elham; Lind, Teresa


    Supporting students to develop an understanding of the meaning of fractions is an important goal of elementary school mathematics. This involves developing partitioning strategies, creating representations, naming fractional quantities, and using symbolic notation. This article describes how teachers can use a formative assessment problem to…

  18. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence


    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  19. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)


    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with

  20. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, J., E-mail:; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F. [Departamento de Física Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Malomed, B. A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)


    It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.

  1. A new fractional wavelet transform (United States)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei


    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a potent tool to analyze the time-varying signal. However, it fails in locating the fractional Fourier domain (FRFD)-frequency contents which is required in some applications. A novel fractional wavelet transform (FRWT) is proposed to solve this problem. It displays the time and FRFD-frequency information jointly in the time-FRFD-frequency plane. The definition, basic properties, inverse transform and reproducing kernel of the proposed FRWT are considered. It has been shown that an FRWT with proper order corresponds to the classical wavelet transform (WT). The multiresolution analysis (MRA) associated with the developed FRWT, together with the construction of the orthogonal fractional wavelets are also presented. Three applications are discussed: the analysis of signal with time-varying frequency content, the FRFD spectrum estimation of signals that involving noise, and the construction of fractional Harr wavelet. Simulations verify the validity of the proposed FRWT.

  2. Nitrogen losses and chemical parameters during co-composting of solid wastes and liquid pig manure. (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; de la Varga, D; Plana, R; Soto, M


    The aim of this research was to study nitrogen losses during the treatment of the liquid fraction (LF) of pig manure by co-composting and to establish the best conditions for compost production with higher nitrogen and low heavy metal contents. Windrows were constituted with the solid fraction (SF) of pig manure, different organic waste (SF of pig manure, sawdust and grape bagasse) as co-substrate and Populus spp. wood chips as bulking material and watered intensely with the LF. Results show that nitrogen losses ranged from 30% to 66% of initial nitrogen and were mainly governed by substrate to bulking mass ratio and liquid fraction to substrate (LF/S) ratio, and only secondarily by operational parameters. Nitrogen losses decreased from 55-65% at low LF/S ratios (1.7-1.9 m3/t total solids (TS)) to 30-39% at high LF/S ratios (4.4-4.7 m3/t TS). Therefore, integrating the LF in the composting process at high LF/S ratios favoured nitrogen recovery and conservation. Nitrogen in the fine fraction (ranging from 27% to 48% of initial nitrogen) was governed by operational parameters, namely pH and temperature. Final compost showed low content in most heavy metals, but Zn was higher than the limits for compost use in agriculture. Zn content in the obtained compost varied from 1863 to 3269 mg/kg dm, depending on several factors. The options for obtaining better quality composts from the LF of pig manure are selecting co-substrates with low heavy metal content and using them instead of the SF of pig manure.

  3. Automated system for fractionation of blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N. E.; Genung, R. K.; Johnson, W. F.; Mrochek, J. E.; Scott, C. D.


    A prototype system for preparing multiple fractions of blood components (plasma, washed red cells, and hemolysates) using automated techniques has been developed. The procedure is based on centrifugal separation and differential pressure-induced transfer in a rotor that has been designed to process numerous samples simultaneously. Red cells are sedimented against the outer walls of the sample chamber, and plasma is syphoned, by imposition of eithr a slight positive or negative pressure, into individual reservoirs in a collection ring. Washing of cells is performed in situ; samples of washed cells, either packed or in saline solution, can be recovered. Cellular hemolysates are prepared and automatically transferred to individual, commercially available collection vials ready for storage in liquid nitrogen or immediate analysis. The system has potential application in any biomedical area which requires high sample throughput and in which one or more of the blood fractions will be used. A separate unit has been designed and developed for the semiautomated cleaning of the blood processing vessel.

  4. Atomic Transport in Dense, Multi-Component Metallic Liquids


    Meyer, A


    Pd43Ni10Cu27P0 has been investigated in its equilibrium liquid state with incoherent, inelastic neutron scattering. As compared to simple liquids, liquid PdNiCuP is characterized by a dense packing with a packing fraction above 0.5. The intermediate scattering function exhibits a fast relaxation process that precedes structural relaxation. Structural relaxation obeys a time-temperature superposition that extends over a temperature range of 540K. The mode-coupling theory of the liquid to glass...

  5. Local progression and pseudo progression after single fraction or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large brain metastases. A single centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggenraad, R.; Verbeek-de Kanter, A.; Mast, M. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Molenaar, R. [Diaconessenhuis, Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. [Medical Centre Haagladen, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Vecht, C. [Medical Centre Haagladen, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Struikmans, H. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kal, H.B.


    Purpose: The 1-year local control rates after single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases > 3 cm diameter are less than 70%, but with fractionated SRT (FSRT) higher local control rates have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare our treatment results with SRT and FSRT for large brain metastases. Materials and methods: In two consecutive periods, 41 patients with 46 brain metastases received SRT with 1 fraction of 15 Gy, while 51 patients with 65 brain metastases received FSRT with 3 fractions of 8 Gy. We included patients with brain metastases with a planning target volume of > 13 cm{sup 3} or metastases in the brainstem. Results: The minimum follow-up of patients still alive was 22 months. Comparing 1 fraction of 15 Gy with 3 fractions of 8 Gy, the 1-year rates of freedom from any local progression (54% and 61%, p = 0.93) and pseudo progression (85% and 75%, p = 0.25) were not significantly different. Overall survival rates were also not different. Conclusion: The 1-year local progression and pseudo progression rates after 1 fraction of 15 Gy or 3 fractions of 8 Gy for large brain metastases and metastases in the brainstem are similar. For better local control rates, FSRT schemes with a higher biological equivalent dose may be necessary. (orig.)

  6. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grain and fractions: antioxidant compounds and activities. (United States)

    Sedej, Ivana; Sakač, Marijana; Mandić, Anamarija; Mišan, Aleksandra; Tumbas, Vesna; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna


    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an alternative crop belonging to the Polygonaceae family. In comparison to antioxidant activity of frequently used cereals, buckwheat has been reported to possess higher antioxidant activity (AOA), mainly due to high rutin content. The objective of this work was to determine the main antioxidant compounds and AOA of buckwheat grain fractions (whole grain, hull, and groat). Buckwheat grain fractions were extracted with ethanol/water (80/20, v/v), followed by determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content. Quantification of phenolic compounds and tocopherols was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The AOA was estimated by 2 direct electron spin resonance (ESR) and 4 indirect (spectrophotometric) tests. Significantly higher contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were found in buckwheat hull than in whole grain and groat. Protocatechuic, syringic, and sinapic acid, rutin, and quercetin were found in all tested fractions, whereas vanilic acid was found in whole grain and hull. The content of total tocopherols in investigated samples ranged from 23.3 mmol/g for hull to 61.8 mmol/g for groat. Hull was superior in scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), hydroxyl ((•)OH), and superoxide anion (O(2)(•-)) radicals, reducing activity, AOA by β-carotene bleaching method, and chelating activity on Fe(2+) as evidenced by its lower IC(50) value. Obtained results can broaden the utilization of buckwheat, especially a share of hull in whole grain flour production. Obtained results suggest possibility to supplement the whole grain buckwheat flour with hull, which leads toward better usage of by-products in buckwheat production, and enhancement of antioxidant potential of the final product. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chen


    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  8. Some Technical Aspects of a CALIOP and MODIS Data Analysis that Examines Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties as a Function of Cloud Fraction (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander


    CALIOP shows stronger near-cloud changes in aerosol properties at higher cloud fractions. Cloud fraction variations explain a third of near-cloud changes in overall aerosol statistics. Cloud fraction and aerosol particle size distribution have a complex relationship.

  9. [Are liquid crystals living organisms?]. (United States)

    Snelders, H A


    In 1888 the Austrian botanist F. Reinitzer made the observation that the solid compound cholesteryl-benzoate changes - when melting at 145.5 oC - into a cloudy liquid, that however, turns into a clear liquid at 178.5 oC and higher temperatures. The cloudy liquid seemed to be doubly refracting. Soon a number of these so-called 'liquid crystals' were discovered; in 1908 D. Vorländer, professor of organic chemistry at Halle, described more than 250 of these substances. It was O. Lehmann, professor of physics at Aachen (1885), Dresden (1888) and Karlsruhe (1889), who immediately after Reinitzer's observation began a systematic study of these liquid crystals. In The Netherlands the Amsterdam professor of physican chemistry H. W. Bakhuis Roozeboom was interested in liquid crystals, in particular because of their place in his phase system. F.M. Jaeger, at that time teaching chemistry in a secondary school in Zaandam (near Amsterdam) and working as an unpaid university lecturer at the Amsterdam university (by recommendation of Bakhuis Roozeboom), investigated liquid crystals (1906), as did a number of doctoral students (A.C. de Kock, 1903; A. Prins, 1907). At the university of Utrecht L.S. Ornstein, professor of physics, gave the study of liquid crystals a prominent place in his research programme. The discovery of liquid crystals, which seemed to be able to grow, move, divide, copulate, and so on, led to a discussion on the nature of these substances. Time and again Lehmann called them 'apparently living crystals', although without considering them as 'real living beings'. In his book Flüssige Kristalle und die Theorien des Lebens (1906), Lehmann proved to be an obvious adherent of the monistic views of the biologist E. Haeckel. Haeckel considered the existence of liquid crystals as proof of the unity between the inorganic and the organic world that he believed in so strongly. In his last book, Kristallseelen. Studien über das Anorganische Leben (1917), he considered

  10. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William


    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  11. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes (United States)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul


    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  12. Thoracic fraction of inhaled fiber aerosol. (United States)

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Su, Wei-Chung


    Size-selective sampling is a health-related method to collect airborne particles based on penetration of inhaled particles into different regions of the human respiratory tract; thus, it is the most relevant sampling method to correlate health risks with occupational exposure. The current practice of sampling asbestos and other fibers is not a size-selective method. The thoracic size fraction, defined as the portion of inhaled particles that can penetrate through the larynx, has been suggested as the most relevant size-selective sampling method for fiber aerosol. The thoracic fraction is based on 1-deposition of inhaled spherical particles in the human extrathoracic airways for mouth breathing and corrected for the particle inhalability. There is no comparable information for fiber aerosols; therefore, there is no technical basis to ascertain whether the current thoracic fraction definition is suitable for fiber aerosols. No human data are available from controlled experiments of inhaled fiber aerosols for the obvious reason that most fiber materials are potentially hazardous when inhaled. Our approach was to measure penetration of fiber aerosol in realistic human oropharyngeal airway replicas and to compare that with data from spherical particles. We showed that realistic human oral airway replicas (including the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx regions) provided useful spherical and fiber particle deposition in the human head airway. These data could be used to test the thoracic fraction curves. The spherical penetration is in agreement with human in vivo data used to establish the thoracic fraction curve. Fiber penetrations through the larynx of two human oral airway replicas were higher than those for spherical particles for the same aerodynamic diameter using the same replicas. The thoracic curve as defined for spherical particles, therefore, may not include some fibers that could penetrate to the thoracic region.

  13. Flowthrough Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Stone, Michael L.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy


    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as a leading biomass fractionation and lignin valorization strategy. Here, flowthrough reactors were used to investigate RCF of poplar. Most RCF studies to date have been conducted in batch, but a flow-based process enables the acquisition of intrinsic kinetic and mechanistic data essential to accelerate the design, optimization, and scale-up of RCF processes. Time-resolved product distributions and yields obtained from experiments with different catalyst loadings were used to identify and deconvolute events during solvolysis and hydrogenolysis. Multi-bed RCF experiments provided unique insights into catalyst deactivation, showing that leaching, sintering, and surface poisoning are causes for decreased catalyst performance. The onset of catalyst deactivation resulted in higher concentrations of unsaturated lignin intermediates and increased occurrence of repolymerization reactions, producing high-molecular-weight species. Overall, this study demonstrates the concept of flowthrough RCF, which will be vital for realistic scale-up of this promising approach.

  14. Prescribed performance synchronization for fractional-order chaotic systems (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Li, Sheng-Gang; Sun, Ye-Guo; Wang, Hong-Xing


    In this paper the synchronization for two different fractional-order chaotic systems, capable of guaranteeing synchronization error with prescribed performance, is investigated by means of the fractional-order control method. By prescribed performance synchronization we mean that the synchronization error converges to zero asymptotically, with convergence rate being no less than a certain prescribed function. A fractional-order synchronization controller and an adaptive fractional-order synchronization controller, which can guarantee the prescribed performance of the synchronization error, are proposed for fractional-order chaotic systems with and without disturbances, respectively. Finally, our simulation studies verify and clarify the proposed method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11401243 and 61403157), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. GK201504002), and the Natural Science Foundation for the Higher Education Institutions of Anhui Province of China (Grant No. KJ2015A256).

  15. Theoretical background and the flow fields in downhole liquid-liquid hydrocyclone (LLHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Harrison


    Full Text Available Hydrocyclone system for downhole oil-water separation provides an effective technique of enhancing the economic viability of higher water-cut wells while at the same time reducing the risk of environmental pollution. This paper describes the hydrodynamics of the liquid-liquid hydrocyclones and the flow fields within it are paramount for achieving successful separation process. Some of the important hydrodynamic flow phenomenon within the liquid-liquid hydrocyclone and how they influence the separation efficiency of water/oil was analyzed through analytical solution. The properties of the liquids were based on Bayan offshore field measured properties. The results indicated that there are two swirling zones separated by stagnant flow field. The inner is the light liquid zone, while the outer is the heavy liquid zone.

  16. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat


    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  17. Intelligent fractions learning system: implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C


    Full Text Available surface, manipulatives, mobile phone, fractions, developing region, Montessori-inspired manipulatives. 1. Introduction A set of fraction blocks is a tool to learn about fractions, often used in schools. With large classes often in excess of 35 children... children prefer using manipulatives instead of on-screen interfaces [2]. However, with the poor teacher-to-student ratio in developing regions it is hardly possible for the teacher to take note of the children?s use of the available tools. In developing...

  18. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab


    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  19. Relationship between fractional calculus and fractional Fourier transform (United States)

    Zhang, Yanshan; Zhang, Feng; Lu, Mingfeng


    The fractional calculus (FC) deals with integrals and derivatives of arbitrary (i.e., non-integer) order, and shares its origins with classical integral and differential calculus. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), which has been found having many applications in optics and other areas, is a generalization of the usual Fourier transform. The FC and the FRFT are two of the most interesting and useful fractional areas. In recent years, it appears many papers on the FC and FRFT, however, few of them discuss the connection of the two fractional areas. We study their relationship. The relational expression between them is deduced. The expectation of interdisciplinary cross fertilization is our motivation. For example, we can use the properties of the FC (non-locality, etc.) to solve the problem which is difficult to be solved by the FRFT in optical engineering; we can also through the physical meaning of the FRFT optical implementation to explain the physical meaning of the FC. The FC and FRFT approaches can be transposed each other in the two fractional areas. It makes that the success of the fractional methodology is unquestionable with a lot of applications, namely in nonlinear and complex system dynamics and image processing.

  20. The serum protein fractions in thymoquinone treated rats | Güllü ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 mg/kg/day were given by oral gavage for four weeks. The serum protein fractions were identified using cellulose acetate technique. Results: The total protein level and albumin, α-1, α-2 fractions and A/G ratio have showed no difference between groups (p>0.05). β-globulin fractions of TQ group were higher than control's ...

  1. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.


    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  2. Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals: From viscoelastic properties to living liquid crystals (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) represents a broad range of molecules, from organic dyes and drugs to DNA, that self-assemble into linear aggregates in water through face-to-face stacking. These linear aggregates of high aspect ratio are capable of orientational order, forming, for example nematic phase. Since the microscopic properties (such as length) of the chromonic aggregates are results of subtle balance between energy and entropy, the macroscopic viscoelastic properties of the nematic media are sensitive to change of external factors. In the first part of this thesis, by using dynamic light scattering and magnetic Frederiks transition techniques, we study the Frank elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients of LCLC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and sunset yellow (SSY) as functions of concentration c , temperature T and ionic contents. The elastic moduli of splay (K1) and bend (K3) are in the order of 10pN, about 10 times larger than the twist modulus (K2). The splay modulus K1 and the ratio K1/K3 both increase substantially as T decreases or c increases, which we attribute to the elongation of linear aggregates at lower T or higher c . The bend viscosity is comparable to that of thermotropic liquid crystals, while the splay and twist viscosities are several orders of magnitude larger, changing exponentially with T . Additional ionic additives into the system influence the viscoelastic properties of these systems in a dramatic and versatile way. For example, monovalent salt NaCl decreases bend modulus K3 and increases twist viscosity, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals form by covalently bound units of fixed length. The second part of the thesis studies a new active bio-mechanical hybrid system called living liquid crystal

  3. Free-Base and Protonated Nicotine in Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosols. (United States)

    El-Hellani, Ahmad; El-Hage, Rachel; Baalbaki, Rima; Salman, Rola; Talih, Soha; Shihadeh, Alan; Saliba, Najat A


    As with other tobacco aerosols, nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes (ECIG) depends on the total nicotine and its partitioning between free-base (Nic) and protonated (NicH(+)) forms. Previous studies of ECIG nicotine emissions have generally reported "nicotine yield" without attention to whether the methods employed resulted in quantification of the total nicotine or only one of its forms, making reported results difficult to compare across studies or to evaluate against reported blood exposure. This study reports a convenient solvent extraction method for determining total nicotine and its partitioning in ECIG liquids and aerosols by gas chromatography. Commercial ECIG liquids and aerosols were analyzed, and it was found that most of the nicotine was in the Nic form, with aerosols exhibiting higher Nic fraction than the parent liquids. Apparent pH was found to correlate with nicotine partitioning and can provide a useful indirect measure when chromatography is unavailable. Finally, labeled ECIG liquid nicotine concentration in commercial products was often inconsistent with measured nicotine.

  4. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model (United States)

    Gould, Peter


    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  5. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons'

    CERN Multimedia

    Ball, P


    The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page).

  6. Fractional Transmission Line with Losses (United States)

    Gómez-Aguilar, José Francisco; Dumitru, Baleanu


    In this manuscript, the fractional transmission line with losses is presented. The order of the Caputo derivative is considered as 0 Mittag-Leffler functions. The classic cases are recovered when β and γ are equal to 1.

  7. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz


    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  8. Vehicle type affects filling of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Uffe Høgh; Mogensen, Mette; Haedersdal, Merete


    . This study aims to elucidate the impact of vehicle type on the filling of MTZs from application of liquid, gel, and cream vehicles. Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser at 5% density, 120 μm beam diameter, and fluences of 40 and 80 mJ/microbeam (mJ/mb). Six repetitions were......Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is an emerging method that enhances topical drug delivery. Penetrating the skin in microscopic, vertical channels, termed microscopic treatment zones (MTZs), the fractional technique circumvents the skin barrier and allows increased uptake of topically applied drugs....... At 80 mJ/mb, liquid (67% completely filled, p cream formulation (31%). At 40 mJ/mb, liquid and gel formulations filled 90% (p  0.05) of MTZs completely versus 55% for cream formulation. Thus, filling...

  9. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.


    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  10. Drop coalescence through a liquid/liquid interface (United States)

    Mohamed-Kassim, Zulfaa; Longmire, Ellen K.


    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments were conducted to study the coalescence of single drops through planar liquid/liquid interfaces. Sequences of velocity vector fields were obtained with a high-speed video camera and subsequent PIV analysis. Two ambient liquids with different viscosity but similar density were examined resulting in Reynolds numbers based on a surface tension velocity of 10 and 26. Prior to rupture, the drops rested on a thin film of ambient liquid above an underlying interface. After rupture, which was typically off-axis, the free edge of the thin film receded rapidly allowing the drop fluid to sink into the bulk liquid below. Vorticity generated in the collapsing fluid developed into a vortex ring straddling the upper drop surface. The ring core traveled radially inward with a ring-shaped capillary wave effectively pinching the upper drop surface and increasing the drop collapse speed. The inertia of the collapse deflected the interface downward before it rebounded upward. During this time, the vortex core split so that part of its initial vorticity moved inside the drop fluid while part remained in the ambient fluid above it. A second ring-shaped capillary wave formed along the interface outside of the drop and propagated radially outward during the collapse. Changing the ambient fluid viscosity resulted in several effects. First, the velocity of the receding free edge was smaller for higher ambient viscosity. Second, the pinching of the upper drop surface caused by the shrinking capillary ring wave was stronger when the ambient viscosity was lower, and this resulted in a higher maximum collapse speed and higher vorticity values in the dominant vortex ring.

  11. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.


    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquid-vapour interfaces: effect of cation symmetry on structure at the interface. (United States)

    Sarangi, S S; Raju, S G; Balasubramanian, S


    The influence of alkyl chain symmetry of the imidazolium cation on the structure and properties of the ionic liquid-vapour interface has been addressed through molecular dynamics simulations. The anion chosen is bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf(2)). Profiles of number densities, orientation of cations, charge density, electrostatic potential, and surface tension have been obtained. At the interface, both cations and anions were present, and the alkyl chains of the former preferred to orient out into the vapour phase. A large fraction of cations preferred to be oriented with their ring-normal parallel to the surface and alkyl chains perpendicular to it. These orientational preferences are reduced in ionic liquids with symmetric cations. Although the charge densities at the interface were largely negative, an additional small positive charge density has been observed for systems with longer alkyl chains. The electrostatic potential difference developed between the liquid and the vapour phases were positive and decreased with increasing length of the alkyl group. The calculated surface tension of the liquids also decreased with increasing alkyl chain length, in agreement with experiment. The surface tension of an ionic liquid with symmetric cation was marginally higher than that of one with an asymmetric, isomeric cation.

  13. Efficient Lewis Acid Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Synthesis of the Key Intermediate of Coenzyme Q10 under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth


    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of a valuable intermediate of coenzyme Q10 by microwave-assisted Lewis acidic ionic liquid (IL-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation is reported. The acidity of six [Etpy]BF4-based ionic liquids was characterized by means of the FT-IR technique using acetonitrile as a molecular probe. The catalytic activities of these ionic liquids were correlated with their Lewis acidity. With increasing Lewis acid strength of the ionic liquids, their catalytic activity in the Friedel-Crafts reaction increased, except for [Etpy]BF4-AlCl3. The effects of the reaction system, the molar fraction of Lewis acid in the Lewis acid ILs and heating techniques were also investigated. Among the six Lewis acid ionic liquids tested [Etpy]BF4-ZnCl2 showed the best catalytic activity, with a yield of 89% after a very short reaction time (150 seconds. This procedure has the advantages of higher efficiency, better reusability of ILs, energy conservation and eco-friendliness. The method has practical value for preparation of CoQ10 on an industrial scale.

  14. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  15. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Potential of Protein Fractions from Flour and Milk Substitutes from Canary Seeds (Phalaris canariensis L.). (United States)

    Valverde, María Elena; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Nieto-Rendón, Blanca; Paredes-López, Octavio


    Canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) is used to feed birds but it has been recently considered a promising cereal with nutraceutical potential for humans. The aim of this work was to analyze the protein fractions from canary seed flour and from milk substitutes (prepared by soaking the seeds in water 12 and 24 h), and to evaluate antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity of peptides obtained after in vitro digestion. Prolamins were the major protein fraction, followed by glutelins. After digestion, albumins and prolamins fractions from milks presented higher levels of peptides than flour, globulins showed more peptides in flour and glutelins were found in similar concentrations in all samples; 24 h milk prolamins had the highest concentration of peptides. Purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sequencing of peptides, in vitro antioxidant ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, and antihypertensive capacity (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay), indicated that peptides from canary seed prolamins were the most efficient compounds with antioxidant and antihypertensive activity. Canary seeds may be considered an accessible and cheap source to prepare milk substitutes with high contents of bioactive peptides with remarkable functional properties to promote better human health and healthy ageing.

  16. Coagulation of humic waters for diffused pollution control and the influence of coagulant type on DOC fractions removed. (United States)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn


    This study examined the suitability of organic coagulants for treatment of typically humic peat extraction runoff water by comparing their performance with that of ferric sulphate (FS). The influence of coagulant type on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions removed was analysed in detail using LC-OCD-OND (size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and organic nitrogen detection) fractionation techniques. In general, lower coagulant dosage was needed under acidic (pH 4.5) than neutral (pH 6.5) conditions. Chitosan (Chit) and poly (diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDMAC) required significantly lower dosage (40-55%) than FS for acceptable purification, while a tannin-based coagulant (Tan2) required substantially higher dosage (55-75%) independent of water pH. FS demonstrated the best removal of DOC (coagulants, with FS being the most efficient (biopolymers 69% and humic substances 91%), followed by Tan2. FS also displayed satisfactory removal of lower MW fractions (building blocks ∼46% and low MW neutrals 62%). Overall, FS was the best performing coagulant. Nevertheless, the organic polymers demonstrated satisfactory overall performance, achieving purification rates mostly inside the requirements set by Finnish environmental authorities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Freezing Point Determination of Water–Ionic Liquid Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi


    Freezing points ofaqueous solutions of HOEtpyBr, HOEtmimBr, AmimCl,EtOMmimCl, EmimDep, and EmimAc were measured using a modified Beckmannapparatus with automatic data logging. The ionic liquids (ILs) inthis study exhibited features similar to those of inorganic saltsin depressing the freezing point.......841 K in thefirst system and at a water mole fraction of 0.657 and 202.565 K inthe second system. Water activities in aqueous IL solutions were predictedby COSMO-RS and COSMO-SAC and compared to water activities derivedfrom the experimentally determined freezing points. The COSMO-RS predictionswere...... of water. On the basis of the cryoscopicbehavior recorded, the solid phases formed at higher IL contents werepresumed to be hydrates of the form IL·nH2O. The HOEtpyBr+H2O and HOEtmimBr+H2O systems formed simple eutectic systems. The eutectic points werefound to be at a water mole fraction of 0.617 and 219...

  18. Temperature-dependent structure evolution in liquid gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, L. H.; Wang, X. D.; Yu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Sun, Y.; Cao, Q. P.; Xie, H. L.; Xiao, T. Q.; Zhang, D. X.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Ren, Y.; Jiang, J. Z.


    Temperature-dependent atomistic structure evolution of liquid gallium (Ga) has been investigated by using in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiment and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Both experimental and theoretical results reveal the existence of a liquid structural change around 1000 K in liquid Ga. Below and above this temperature the liquid exhibits differences in activation energy for selfdiffusion, temperature-dependent heat capacity, coordination numbers, density, viscosity, electric resistivity and thermoelectric power, which are reflected from structural changes of the bond-orientational order parameter Q6, fraction of covalent dimers, averaged string length and local atomic packing. This finding will trigger more studies on the liquid-to-liquid crossover in metallic melts.

  19. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen (United States)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.


    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  20. Directed Line Liquids (United States)

    Kamien, Randall David

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. We first study nematic polymers dissolved in a nematic solvent. We show that in the dense phase nematic polymers interacting directly through excluded volume and indirectly through nematic solvent fluctuations are, at long wavelengths, identical to nematic polymers in an isotropic solvent, interacting through, again, excluded volume as well as their nematic degrees of freedom. By including the effects of free ends we study ferro- and electrorheological fluids and finite chain length polymers. In the dilute phase, near the transition to the semi-dilute phase, a renormalization group treatment is performed, in the physical and critical dimension 3. For sufficiently dilute systems we find logarithmic corrections to polymer wandering, predicted by de Gennes. However, at higher densities, the logarithmic enhancement is suppressed, and the polymers execute conventional random walks along the preferred axis. We then study the isotropic to nematic transition in this same system of liquid-crystalline polymers. Using the replica technique introduced by de Gennes to study isotropic polymers, we formulate a fully isotropic theory of liquid-crystalline polymers dissolved in a liquid crystal matrix. The first order transition from isotropic to nematic ordering occurs, and leads to the original directed polymer theory previously studied. In agreement with physical expectations, the nematic ordering temperature is depressed by polymerization. Finally, we go back to directed systems, in this case directed by an explicit symmetry violation instead of spontaneously. We discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro

  1. The first calculation of fractional jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Walsh, Jonathan R. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    In collider physics, jet algorithms are a ubiquitous tool for clustering particles into discrete jet objects. Event shapes offer an alternative way to characterize jets, and one can define a jet multiplicity event shape, which can take on fractional values, using the framework of “jets without jets”. In this paper, we perform the first analytic studies of fractional jet multiplicity N-tilde{sub jet} in the context of e{sup +}e{sup −} collisions. We use fixed-order QCD to understand the N-tilde{sub jet} cross section at order α{sub s}{sup 2}, and we introduce a candidate factorization theorem to capture certain higher-order effects. The resulting distributions have a hybrid jet algorithm/event shape behavior which agrees with parton shower Monte Carlo generators. The N-tilde{sub jet} observable does not satisfy ordinary soft-collinear factorization, and the N-tilde{sub jet} cross section exhibits a number of unique features, including the absence of collinear logarithms and the presence of soft logarithms that are purely non-global. Additionally, we find novel divergences connected to the energy sharing between emissions, which are reminiscent of rapidity divergences encountered in other applications. Given these interesting properties of fractional jet multiplicity, we advocate for future measurements and calculations of N-tilde{sub jet} at hadron colliders like the LHC.

  2. Impact sensitivity test of liquid energetic materials (United States)

    Tiutiaev, A.; Dolzhikov, A.; Zvereva, I.


    This paper presents new experimental method for sensitivity evaluation at the impact. A large number of researches shown that the probability of explosion initiating of liquid explosives by impact depends on the chemical nature and the various external characteristics. But the sensitivity of liquid explosive in the presence of gas bubbles increases many times as compared with the liquid without gas bubbles. In this case local chemical reaction focus are formed as a result of compression and heating of the gas inside the bubbles. In the liquid as a result of convection, wave motion, shock, etc. gas bubbles are easily generated, it is necessary to develop methods for determining sensitivity of liquid explosives to impact and to research the explosives ignition with bubbles. For the experimental investigation, the well-known impact machine and the so-called appliance 1 were used. Instead of the metal cup in the standard method in this paper polyurethane foam cylindrical container with liquid explosive was used. Polyurethane foam cylindrical container is easily deforms by impact. A large number of tests with different liquid explosives were made. It was found that the test liquid explosive to impact in appliance 1 with polyurethane foam to a large extent reflect the real mechanical sensitivity due to the small loss of impact energy on the deformation of the metal cup, as well as the best differentiation liquid explosive sensitivity due to the higher resolution method.

  3. On liquid phases in cometary nuclei (United States)

    Miles, Richard; Faillace, George A.


    In this paper we review the relevant literature and investigate conditions likely to lead to melting of H2O ice, methanol (CH3OH) ice, ethane (C2H6) ice and other volatile ices in cometary nuclei. On the basis of a heat balance model which takes account of volatiles loss, we predict the formation of occasional aqueous and hydrocarbon liquid phases in subsurface regions at heliocentric distances, rh of 1-3 AU, and 5-12 AU, respectively. Low triple-point temperatures and low vapour pressures of C2H6, C3H8, and some higher-order alkanes and alkenes, favour liquid phase formation in cometary bodies at high rh. Microporosity and the formation of a stabilization crust occluding the escape of volatiles facilitate liquid-phase formation. Characteristics of the near-surface which favour subsurface melting include; low effective surface emissivity (at low rh), high amorphous carbon content, average pore sizes of ˜10 μm or less, presence of solutes (e.g. CH3OH), mixtures of C2-C6 hydrocarbons (for melting at high rh), diurnal thermal cycling, and slow rotation rate. Applying the principles of soil mechanics, capillary forces are shown to initiate pre-melting phenomena and subsequent melting, which is expected to impart considerable strength of ˜104 Pa in partially saturated layers, reducing porosity and permeability, enhancing thermal conductivity and heat transfer. Diurnal thermal cycling is expected to have a marked effect on the composition and distribution of H2O ice in the near-surface leading to frost heave-type phenomena even where little if any true melting occurs. Where melting does take place, capillary suction in the wetted zone has the potential to enhance heat transfer via capillary wetting in a low-gravity environment, and to modify surface topography creating relatively smooth flat-bottomed features, which have a tendency to be located within small depressions. An important aspect of the "wetted layer" model is the prediction that diurnal melt-freeze cycles

  4. Novel biocompatible and self-buffering ionic liquids for biopharmaceutical applications. (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Almeida, Mafalda R; Silva, Francisca A E; Domingues, Pedro; Ventura, Sónia P M; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G


    Antibodies obtained from egg yolk of immunized hens, immunoglobulin Y (IgY), are an alternative to the most focused mammal antibodies, because they can be obtained in higher titers by less invasive approaches. However, the production cost of high-quality IgY for large-scale applications remains higher than that of other drug therapies due to the lack of efficient purification methods. The search for new purification platforms is thus vital. The solution could be liquid-liquid extraction by using aqueous biphasic systems (ABS). Herein, we report the extraction and attempted purification of IgY from chicken egg yolk by using a new ABS composed of polymers and Good's buffer ionic liquids (GB-ILs). New self-buffering and biocompatible ILs based on the cholinium cation and anions derived from Good's buffers were synthesized and the self-buffering characteristics and toxicity were characterized. Moreover, when these GB-ILs are combined with PPG 400 (poly(propylene) glycol with a molecular weight of 400 g mol(-1)) to form ABS, extraction efficiencies, of the water-soluble fraction of proteins, ranging between 79 and 94% were achieved in a single step. Based on computational investigations, we also demonstrate that the preferential partitioning of IgY for the GB-IL-rich phase is dominated by hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals interactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chirality and Current-Current Correlation in Fractional Quantum Hall Systems


    Campagnano, G.; Lucignano, P.; Giuliano, D.


    We study current-current correlation in an electronic analog of a beam splitter realized with edge channels of a fractional quantum Hall liquid at Laughlin filling fractions. In analogy with the known result for chiral electrons, if the currents are measured at points located after the beam splitter, we find that the zero frequency equilibrium correlation vanishes due to the chiral propagation along the edge channels. Furthermore, we show that the current-current correlation, normalized to th...

  6. Quantitative void fraction detection with an eddy current flowmeter for generation IV Sodium cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 2 Allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse, (France); French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA), DEN, Laboratory of Instrumentation and technological Test, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, (France); Tordjeman, Ph.; Bergez, W. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 2 Allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse, (France); Cavaro, M.; Paumel, K.; Jeannot, J. P. [French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA), DEN, Laboratory of Instrumentation and technological Test, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, (France)


    This study was carried out to understand the response of an eddy current type flowmeter in two phase liquid-metal flow. We use the technique of ellipse fit and correlate the fluctuations in the angle of inclination of this ellipse with the void fraction. The effects of physical parameters such as coil excitation frequency and flow velocity have been studied. The results show the possibility of using an eddy current flowmeter as a gas detector for large void fractions. (authors)

  7. Quantitative void fraction measurement with an eddy current flowmeter for generation IV Sodium cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 2 Allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Tordjeman, Ph.; Bergez, W. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 2 Allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Cavaro, M.; Paumel, K.; Jeannot, J.P. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    This study was carried out to understand the response of an eddy current type flowmeter in two phase liquid-metal flow. We use the technique of ellipse fit and correlate the fluctuations in the angle of inclination of this ellipse with the void fraction. The effects of physical parameters such as coil excitation frequency and flow velocity have been studied. The results show the possibility of using an eddy current flowmeter as a gas detector for large void fractions. (authors)

  8. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.


    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  9. Fractional active disturbance rejection control. (United States)

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang


    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From Funding Liquidity to Market Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Lund, Jesper; Gyntelberg, Jacob

    This paper shows empirically that funding liquidity drives market liquidity. As it becomes harder to secure term funding in the money markets, liquidity deteriorates in the Danish bond market. We show that the first principal component of bond market liquidity is driven by the market makers......' ability to obtain funding. This effect holds true across both long and short term, government and covered bonds. We use MiFID data which provides a complete transaction level dataset for the Danish market covering both the subprime crisis and the Euro sovereign crisis. Furthermore, we verify the findings...... for other European government bonds using MTS data. The findings suggest that regulatory bond based liquidity buffers for banks will have limited effectiveness....

  11. REDISTILAT ASAP CAIR CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET BAKSO SAPI [Redistilled Liquid Smoke of Oil-Palm Shells as a Preservative for Beef Meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suminar Setiati Achmadi


    Full Text Available Liquid smoke has been used to extend the shelf life of food. However, its composition varies considerably depending on the type of raw materials used and preparation precedure. Liquid smoke derived from palm oil shell is potential due to the abundance of its byproduct sources in the palm oil industry. This study thus aims to prepare the best fraction of liquid smoke that can extend the shelf life of beef meatballs at room temperature. The raw liquid smoke was redistilled at 80, 90, and 100°C and was used as an ingredient in the beef meatballs production. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identification showed that there were no harmful compounds such as derivatives of tar and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Liquid smoke produced from redistillation at 80°C had the best result for providing higher acid value and lower pH, i.e. 5.14% and 2.26, respectively. The LC50 value of the redistilled liquid smoke in brine shrimp lethality assay was 0.16%. Inhibition zones of 0.1 and 0.8% redistilled liquid smoke on the antibacterial test against Staphylococcus aureus were both 6.10 mm, while the zones of inhibition for Escherichia coli were 0 and 7.0 mm, respectively. These resulting inhibition zones were less effective than that of 100 ppm chloramphenicol, i.e. 14.2 mm on S. aureus and 12.6 mm on E. coli. The usage of redistilled liquid smoke at concentration of 0.8% in meatballs was found to inhibit total microbial growth greater than that of the addition at 0.1%. Moreover, the addition of redistilled liquid smoke inhibited the growth of microbial up to 18 hours at room temperature.

  12. Dielectric relaxation of binary polar liquid mixture measured in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2. Experimental procedures. The pure polar liquids Ac (Siso Research Laboratory, Mumbai) and DMA (Central ... band microwave facility at different temperatures (25, 30, 35 and 40◦C) and mole fractions xj's of Ac (0.0, 0.30, ... [8] in σijk and σijk and purity of the liquids are such that one cannot trust the data to better than 1% ...

  13. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  14. Semi-infinite fractional programming

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ram U


    This book presents a smooth and unified transitional framework from generalised fractional programming, with a finite number of variables and a finite number of constraints, to semi-infinite fractional programming, where a number of variables are finite but with infinite constraints. It focuses on empowering graduate students, faculty and other research enthusiasts to pursue more accelerated research advances with significant interdisciplinary applications without borders. In terms of developing general frameworks for theoretical foundations and real-world applications, it discusses a number of new classes of generalised second-order invex functions and second-order univex functions, new sets of second-order necessary optimality conditions, second-order sufficient optimality conditions, and second-order duality models for establishing numerous duality theorems for discrete minmax (or maxmin) semi-infinite fractional programming problems.   In the current interdisciplinary supercomputer-oriented research envi...

  15. Spread and Liquidity Issues: A markets comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašek Sebastjan


    Full Text Available The financial crises are closely connected with spread changes and liquidity issues. After defining and addressing spread considerations, we research in this paper the topic of liquidity issues in times of economic crisis. We analyse the liquidity effects as recorded on spreads of securities from different markets. We stipulate that higher international risk aversion in times of financial crises coincides with widening security spreads. The paper then introduces liquidity as a risk factor into the standard value-at-risk framework, using GARCH methodology. The comparison of results of these models suggests that the size of the tested markets does not have a strong effect on the models. Thus, we find that spread analysis is an appropriate tool for analysing liquidity issues during a financial crisis.

  16. Liquid lithium surface research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, B.I. E-mail:; Petrov, V.B.; Shapkin, V.V.; Pleshakov, A.S.; Rupyshev, A.S.; Antonov, N.V.; Litnovsky, A.M.; Prokhorov, D.Yu.; Shpansky, Yu.S.; Evtikhin, V.A.; Lyublinsky, I.E.; Vertkov, A.V


    A liquid metal surface made with a capillary porous structure (CPS) (solid base) filled with lithium (liquid) has been offered for application in a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. The approach is investigated experimentally for divertor and first wall relevant conditions. The CPS ensured stability of the liquid surface under pulsed plasma impact in disruption simulation and tokamak experiments. Continuous operation of lithium capillary target was studied under electron beam load in stationary thermal conditions in the range 1-10 MW/m{sup 2} of energy flux in steady state. Lithium evaporation was shown to dominate at temperatures higher than 400 deg. C and it removed up to 0.7 of incident power. Heat flux redistribution at the liquid lithium surface was analyzed. Lithium ionization, lithium plasma parameters near the liquid surface were evaluated. The importance and possibility of prompt lithium removal from the near surface layer in divertor conditions are emphasized.

  17. Metabolism of the environmental toxicant benzo(a)pyrene by subcellular fractions of human ovary (United States)

    Rekhadevi, PV; Diggs, DL; Huderson, AC; Harris, KL; Archibong, AE; Ramesh, A


    Knowledge of the ability of the female reproductive system to metabolize environmental chemicals is critical not only from the standpoint of toxicity but also from infertility risk assessment. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a toxicant that is released into the environment from automobile exhausts, cigarette smoke, burning of refuse, industrial emissions, and hazardous waste sites. In exposed animals, BaP becomes activated to reactive meta-bolites that interfere with target organ function and as a consequence cause toxicity. Studies on animal models conducted in our laboratories and those of others have shown that BaP possess endocrine disrupting properties. Thus, this chemical has the potential to cause infertility and cancers in the female genital tract. An understanding of BaP metabolism in the female reproductive system will be of importance in the diagnosis and management of female fertility as well as cancers in the reproductive tissues. Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine the metabolism of BaP by human ovarian subcellular fractions. Human ovary samples (eight individuals) were obtained from postoperative tissue removed from subjects with uterine tumors. Sub-cellular fractions (nuclear, cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal) were prepared by differential centrifugation. BaP (1 μM and 3 μM) was individually incubated with individual subcellular fractions for 15 min and the products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the different fractions tested, microsomal BaP metabolism was higher than the rest of the fractions. The BaP metabolites identified were as follows: BaP-9,10-diol, BaP-4,5-diol, BaP-7,8-diol, 9(OH) BaP, 3(OH) BaP, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, and BaP-6,12-dione. Of interest was the presence of DNA-reactive metabolites such as BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-6,12-dione, and BaP 7,8-diol, which have been implicated in the causation of infertility and cancer. Our results indicate that women who are exposed to BaP via

  18. Instantaneous Liquid Interfaces


    Willard, Adam P.; Chandler, David


    We describe and illustrate a simple procedure for identifying a liquid interface from atomic coordinates. In particular, a coarse grained density field is constructed, and the interface is defined as a constant density surface for this coarse grained field. In applications to a molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water, it is shown that this procedure provides instructive and useful pictures of liquid-vapor interfaces and of liquid-protein interfaces.

  19. On a Fractional Master Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Thomas


    derivative and Caputo derivative of order ,,1<ℜ(≤2 and 1<ℜ(≤2 respectively. In this paper, we derive an analytic solution for the fractional time-independent form of the wave equation or diffusion equation in two dimensions in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function. The solutions to the fractional Poisson and the Laplace equations of the same kind are obtained, again represented by means of the Mittag-Leffler function. In all three cases, the solutions are represented also in terms of Fox's -function.

  20. On a fractional difference operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baliarsingh


    Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus.

  1. The role of monomer fraction data in association theories—Can we improve the performance for phase equilibrium calculations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Bøgh, David; Karakatsani, Eirini


    Monomer fraction (fraction of non-hydrogen bonded molecules) data obtained from spectroscopy are available for a few associating compounds. Such data can be used for testing the performance of association models like CPA and SAFT or alternatively be employed in the model development. But how...... containing mixtures, using an ethanol parameter set that was adjusted to experimental vapor pressure and liquid density data. We present in this work a new parameter set for ethanol which is estimated using experimental vapor pressure, liquid density data as well as the experimental monomer fractions...... for liquid ethanol. Using both the existing (“old”) and the new parameter sets, we perform an extensive comparison of CPA results for a wide range of ethanol-containing systems, with water and alkanes as well as multicomponent water–ethanol–hydrocarbon liquid–liquid equilibria and hydrate curves...

  2. Lithium isotope fractionation by diffusion in minerals Part 2: Olivine (United States)

    Richter, Frank; Chaussidon, Marc; Bruce Watson, E.; Mendybaev, Ruslan; Homolova, Veronika


    Recent experiments have shown that lithium isotopes can be significantly fractionated by diffusion in silicate liquids and in augite. Here we report new laboratory experiments that document similarly large lithium isotopic fractionation by diffusion in olivine. Two types of experiments were used. A powder-source method where lithium from finely ground spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) diffused into oriented San Carlos olivine, and piston cylinder annealing experiments where Kunlun clinopyroxene (∼30 ppm lithium) and oriented San Carlos olivine (∼2 ppm lithium) were juxtaposed. The lithium concentration along traverses across the run products was measured using both laser ablation as a source for a Varian 820-MS quadrupole mass spectrometer and a CAMECA 1270 secondary ion mass spectrometer. The CAMECA 1270 was also used to measure the lithium isotopic fractionation across olivine grains recovered from the experiments. The lithium isotopes were found to be fractionationed by many tens of permil in the diffusion boundary layer at the grain edges as a result of 6Li diffusing significantly faster than 7Li. The lithium concentration and isotopic fractionation data across the olivine recovered from the different experiments were modeled using calculations in which lithium was assumed to be of two distinct types - one being fast diffusing interstitial lithium, the other much less mobile lithium on a metal site. The two-site diffusion model involves a large number of independent parameters and we found that different choices of the parameters can produce very comparable fits to the lithium concentration profiles and associated isotopic fractionation. Because of this nonuniqueness we are able to determine only a range for the relative diffusivity of 6Li compared to 7Li. When the mass dependence of lithium diffusion is parameterized as D6Li /D7Li =(7 / 6) β , the isotope fractionation for diffusion along the a and c crystallographic direction of olivine can be fit by β = 0.4 ± 0

  3. Scale-up and evaluation of high solid ionic liquid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; He, Wei; Wong, Jessica; Gardner, James L; Sale, Kenneth L; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema


    Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is receiving significant attention as a potential process that enables fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and produces high yields of fermentable sugars suitable for the production of renewable fuels...

  4. Liquid Gradient Refractive Index Microlens for Dynamically Adjusting the Beam Focusing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le, Zichun; Sun, Yunli; Du, Ying


    .... The influences of the diffusion coefficient, mass fraction of ethylene glycol and flow rate of liquids on the refractive index profile of L-GRIN microlens are analyzed, and the finite element method...

  5. Stromal vascular fraction improves deep partial thickness burn wound healing. (United States)

    Atalay, Sibel; Coruh, Atilla; Deniz, Kemal


    The practice of early burn wound excision and wound closure by immediate autologous skin or skin substitutes is the preferred treatment in extensive deep partial and full-thickness burns. To date there is no proven definite medical treatment to decrease burn wound size and accelerate burn wound healing in modern clinical practice. Stromal vascular fraction is an autologous mixture that has multiple proven beneficial effects on different kinds of wounds. In our study, we investigated the effects of stromal vascular fraction on deep partial-thickness burn wound healing. In this study, 20 Wistar albino rats were used. Inguinal adipose tissue of the rats was surgically removed and stromal vascular fraction was isolated. Thereafter, deep second-degree burns were performed on the back of the rats by hot water. The rats were divided into two groups in a randomized fashion. The therapy group received stromal vascular fraction, whereas the control group received only physiologic serum by intradermal injection. Assessment of the burn wound healing between the groups was carried out by histopathologic and immuno-histochemical data. Stromal vascular fraction increased vascular endothelial growth factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, and reduced inflammation of the burn wound. Furthermore, vascularization and fibroblastic activity were achieved earlier and observed to be at higher levels in the stromal vascular fraction group. Stromal vascular fraction improves burn wound healing by increasing cell proliferation and vascularization, reducing inflammation, and increasing fibroblastic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of vegetable market waste fraction of municipal solid waste and development of improved technology for phase separation in two-phase reactor. (United States)

    Majhi, Bijoy Kumar; Jash, Tushar


    Biogas production from vegetable market waste (VMW) fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) by two-phase anaerobic digestion system should be preferred over the single-stage reactors. This is because VMW undergoes rapid acidification leading to accumulation of volatile fatty acids and consequent low pH resulting in frequent failure of digesters. The weakest part in the two-phase anaerobic reactors was the techniques applied for solid-liquid phase separation of digestate in the first reactor where solubilization, hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic waste occur. In this study, a two-phase reactor which consisted of a solid-phase reactor and a methane reactor was designed, built and operated with VMW fraction of Indian MSW. A robust type filter, which is unique in its implementation method, was developed and incorporated in the solid-phase reactor to separate the process liquid produced in the first reactor. Experiments were carried out to assess the long term performance of the two-phase reactor with respect to biogas production, volatile solids reduction, pH and number of occurrence of clogging in the filtering system or choking in the process liquid transfer line. The system performed well and was operated successfully without the occurrence of clogging or any other disruptions throughout. Biogas production of 0.86-0.889m(3)kg(-1)VS, at OLR of 1.11-1.585kgm(-3)d(-1), were obtained from vegetable market waste, which were higher than the results reported for similar substrates digested in two-phase reactors. The VS reduction was 82-86%. The two-phase anaerobic digestion system was demonstrated to be stable and suitable for the treatment of VMW fraction of MSW for energy generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking granulation performance with residence time and granulation liquid distributions in twin-screw granulation: An experimental investigation. (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Toiviainen, Maunu; De Leersnyder, Fien; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar


    Twin-screw granulation is a promising wet granulation technique for the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. A twin screw granulator displays a short residence time. Thus, the solid-liquid mixing must be achieved quickly by appropriate arrangement of transport and kneading elements in the granulator screw allowing the production of granules with a size distribution appropriate for tableting. The distribution of residence time and granulation liquid is governed by the field conditions (such as location and length of mixing zones) in the twin-screw granulator, thus contain interesting information on granulation time, mixing and resulting sub-processes such as wetting, aggregation and breakage. In this study, the impact of process (feed rate, screw speed and liquid-to-solid ratio) and equipment parameters (number of kneading discs and stagger angle) on the residence time (distribution), the granulation liquid-powder mixing and the resulting granule size distributions during twin-screw granulation were investigated. Residence time and axial mixing data was extracted from tracer maps and the solid-liquid mixing was quantified from moisture maps, obtained by monitoring the granules at the granulator outlet using near infra-red chemical imaging (NIR-CI). The granule size distribution was measured using the sieving method. An increasing screw speed dominantly reduced the mean residence time. Interaction of material throughput with the screw speed and with the number of kneading discs led to most variation in the studied responses including residence time and mixing capacity. At a high screw speed, granulation yield improved due to high axial mixing. However, increasing material throughput quickly lowers the yield due to insufficient mixing of liquid and powder. Moreover, increasing liquid-to-solid ratio resulted in more oversized granules, and the fraction of oversized granules further increased at higher throughput. Although an increasing number

  8. Liquid ``Coffee Rings'' and the Spreading of Volatile Liquid Mixtures (United States)

    Wood, Clay; Pye, Justin; Burton, Justin

    When a volatile liquid drop is placed on a wetting surface, it rapidly spreads and evaporates. The spreading dynamics and drop geometry are determined by a balance between thermal and interfacial forces, including Marangoni effects. However, this spreading behavior is drastically altered when drops contain a miniscule amount of a less-volatile miscible liquid (solute) in the bulk (solvent); contact line instabilities in the form of ``fingers'' develop. Characteristic finger size increases with increasing solute concentration and is apparent for concentrations as small as 0.1% by volume. Also, the spreading rate depends sensitively on the solute concentration, especially if the solute preferentially wets the substrate. At higher solute concentrations, the spreading droplet will form ``beads'' at the contact line, rather than fingers, and are deposited as the solvent recedes and evaporates, leaving behind a complex pattern of solute micro-droplets. Liquid ``coffee rings'' are often left behind after evaporation because there is a high evaporation rate of the solvent at the contact line, which increases the concentration of the solute, and the longevity of the rings depends on the solute vapor pressure. These results highlight the unusual sensitivity to contamination of volatile spreading, and the complex patterns of liquid contamination deposited following evaporation from a wetted surface. NSF 1455086.

  9. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang


    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  10. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Michalski


    Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.

  11. Fractional governing equations of transient groundwater flow in confined aquifers with multi-fractional dimensions in fractional time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Kavvas


    Full Text Available Using fractional calculus, a dimensionally consistent governing equation of transient, saturated groundwater flow in fractional time in a multi-fractional confined aquifer is developed. First, a dimensionally consistent continuity equation for transient saturated groundwater flow in fractional time and in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer is developed. For the equation of water flux within a multi-fractional multidimensional confined aquifer, a dimensionally consistent equation is also developed. The governing equation of transient saturated groundwater flow in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer in fractional time is then obtained by combining the fractional continuity and water flux equations. To illustrate the capability of the proposed governing equation of groundwater flow in a confined aquifer, a numerical application of the fractional governing equation to a confined aquifer groundwater flow problem was also performed.

  12. Fractional Trajectories: Decorrelation Versus Friction (United States)


    numerical solutions of fractional-order predator–prey and rabies models, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 325 (2007) 542–553. [6] D. West, B.J. West, On allometry...E 70 (2004) 051103. [17] E.W. Montroll, G.H. Weiss, Random walks on lattices . II, J. Math. Phys. 6 (1965) 167–181. [18] R. Metzler, J. Klafter, The

  13. Complexity and the Fractional Calculus (United States)


    and H. A. A. El-Saka, “Equi- librium points, stability and numerical solutions of fractional- order predator-prey and rabies models,” Journal of...Montroll and G. H. Weiss, “Random walks on lattices . II,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol. 6, pp. 167–181, 1965. [35] J.-P. Bouchaud and A. Georges

  14. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.


    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  15. A graph with fractional revival (United States)

    Bernard, Pierre-Antoine; Chan, Ada; Loranger, Érika; Tamon, Christino; Vinet, Luc


    An example of a graph that admits balanced fractional revival between antipodes is presented. It is obtained by establishing the correspondence between the quantum walk on a hypercube where the opposite vertices across the diagonals of each face are connected and, the coherent transport of single excitations in the extension of the Krawtchouk spin chain with next-to-nearest neighbour interactions.

  16. Staircase and Fractional Part Functions (United States)

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel


    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in…

  17. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...

  18. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte


    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  19. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.


    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  20. A fast fractional difference algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard


    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  1. A Fast Fractional Difference Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  2. Crystalline Kitaev spin liquids (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Dwivedi, Vatsal; Hermanns, Maria


    Frustrated magnetic systems exhibit many fascinating phases. Prime among them are quantum spin liquids, where the magnetic moments do not order even at zero temperature. A subclass of quantum spin liquids called Kitaev spin liquids are particularly interesting, because they are exactly solvable, can be realized in certain materials, and show a large variety of gapless and gapped phases. Here we show that nonsymmorphic symmetries can enrich spin liquid phases, such that the low-energy spinon degrees of freedom form three-dimensional Dirac cones or nodal chains. In addition, we suggest a realization of such Kitaev spin liquids in metal-organic frameworks.

  3. Molecular Design of Polymerized Ionic Liquids (United States)

    Sanoja, Gabriel Eduardo

    Polymerized ionic liquids are an emerging class of functional materials with ionic liquid moieties covalently attached to a polymer backbone. As such, they synergistically combine the structural hierarchy of polymers with the versatile physicochemical properties of ionic liquids. Unlike other ion-containing polymers that are typically constrained to high glass transition temperatures, polymerized ionic liquids can exhibit low glass transition temperatures due to weak electrostatic interactions even at high charge fractions. Promising applications relevant to electrochemical energy conversion and CO2 capture and sequestration have been demonstrated for polymerized ionic liquids, but a molecular design strategy that allows for elucidation of their structure-property relationships is yet to be developed. A combination of anionic polymerization, click chemistry, and ion metathesis allows for fine and independent control over polymer properties including the number of repeat units, fraction of ionic liquid moieties, composition, and architecture. This strategy has been exploited to elucidate the effect of lamellar domain spacing on the ionic conductivity of block copolymers based on hydrated protic polymerized ionic liquids. The conductivity relationship demonstrated in this study suggests that a mechanically robust material can be designed without compromising its ability to transport ions. The vast set of ion pair combinations in polymerized liquids provides a unique opportunity to develop functional materials where properties can be controlled with subtle changes in molecular structure via ion metathesis. We illustrate the case of a polymerized ionic liquid that combines the low toxicity and macromolecular dimensions of poly(ethylene glycol) with the magnetic functionality of ion pairs containing iron(III). This material can yield novel theranostic agents with controlled residence time within the human body, and paramagnetic functionality to enhance 1H nuclei

  4. Fractional diffusion: recovering the distributed fractional derivative from overposed data (United States)

    Rundell, W.; Zhang, Z.


    There has been considerable recent study in ‘subdiffusion’ models that replace the standard parabolic equation model by a one with a fractional derivative in the time variable. There are many ways to look at this newer approach and one such is to realize that the order of the fractional derivative is related to the time scales of the underlying diffusion process. This raises the question of what order α of derivative should be taken and if a single value actually suffices. This has led to models that combine a finite number of these derivatives each with a different fractional exponent {αk} and different weighting value c k to better model a greater possible range of time scales. Ultimately, one wants to look at a situation that combines derivatives in a continuous way—the so-called distributional model with parameter μ ≤ft(α \\right) . However all of this begs the question of how one determines this ‘order’ of differentiation. Recovering a single fractional value has been an active part of the process from the beginning of fractional diffusion modeling and if this is the only unknown then the markers left by the fractional order derivative are relatively straightforward to determine. In the case of a finite combination of derivatives this becomes much more complex due to the more limited analytic tools available for such equations, but recent progress in this direction has been made, (Li et al 2015 Appl. Math. Comput. 257 381-97, Li and Yamamoto 2015 Appl. Anal. 94 570-9). This paper considers the full distributional model where the order is viewed as a function μ ≤ft(α \\right) on the interval (0, 1]. We show existence, uniqueness and regularity for an initial-boundary value problem including an important representation theorem in the case of a single spatial variable. This is then used in the inverse problem of recovering the distributional coefficient μ ≤ft(α \\right) from a time trace of the solution and a uniqueness result is proven.

  5. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  6. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin


    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  7. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk


    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  8. India's Higher Education Challenges (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.


    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  9. On the rheology of crustal rocks containing low melt fractions (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Handy, M. R.


    A review and reinterpretation of older experimental data on the deformation of partially-melted granite reveals a non-linear strength decrease with increasing melt fractions. This decrease is characterised by two sharp discontinuities, each reflecting a dramatic change of strength within a limited range of melt fractions. A first discontinuity is shown by all experiments at melt fractions between 0.0 and 0.1. The change of strength within this range of melt fractions is the largest over the entire melting range. The second discontinuity occurs at higher melt fractions (0.4 to 0.6) and corresponds to the well known rheologically critical melt percentage (RCMP). In contrast to recent interpretations, we infer that the experimental data do indicate the occurrence of the RCMP, for crystallising as well as for melting rocks. However, the magnitude of the stress drop at the RCMP is negligible compared to the stress drop at melt fractions RCMP, at melt fractions >= 0.4, as proposed by several experimentalists. We suggest that the attainment of a melt fraction of 0.03 to 0.08 will control the large-scale localisation of deformation into partially-melted crustal layers, irrespective of the attainment of the RCMP. If the RCMP is achieved, however, the large-scale deformational response of the crust may not be different than that of a crust containing a melt fraction of 0.1. Instead, the RCMP controls localisation of flow within magmatic bodies, where it effects the internal dynamics of magma chambers.

  10. 9 CFR 113.7 - Multiple fractions. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple fractions. 113.7 Section 113... § 113.7 Multiple fractions. (a) When a biological product contains more than one immunogenic fraction, the completed product shall be evaluated by tests applicable to each fraction. (b) When similar...

  11. 'The mother of all continued fractions'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajani, K.; Kraaikamp, C.


    In this paper we give the relationship between the regular continued fraction and the Lehner fractions using a procedure known as insertion Starting from the regular continued fraction expansion of any real irrational x when the maximal number of insertions is applied one obtains the Lehner fraction

  12. Improving Boundary-layer Turbulence and Cloud Processes in CAM with a Higher-order Turbulence Closure Scheme and ASR Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Cheng, Anning [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)


    The intermediately-prognostic higher-order turbulence closure (IPHOC) introduces a joint double-Gaussian distribution of liquid water potential temperature (θl ), total water mixing ratio (qt), and vertical velocity (w) to represent any skewed turbulence circulation. The distribution is inferred from the first-, second-, and third-order moments of the variables given above, and is used to diagnose cloud fraction and gridmean liquid water mixing ratio, as well as the buoyancy term and fourth-order terms in the equations describing the evolution of the second- and third-order moments. Only three third-order moments, i.e., the triple moments of θl, qt, and w, are predicted in IPHOC.

  13. [Higher Brain Dysfunction]. (United States)

    Kashima, Haruo


    The technical term "higher brain dysfunction" is used widely in Japan. However, it is not always clear what "higher" means. The author thinks that the term "higher" is understood as being associated with a meaning. In this article, the differences between higher brain dysfunctions and elementary brain dysfunctions are discussed from the point of view of lesion localization and the consistency of symptoms. The psychiatric approach is indispensable for the assessment of higher brain dysfunction. A simple test for mild Alzheimer-type dementia is also introduced.

  14. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska


    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  15. Fractional vector calculus and fluid mechanics (United States)

    Lazopoulos, Konstantinos A.; Lazopoulos, Anastasios K.


    Basic fluid mechanics equations are studied and revised under the prism of fractional continuum mechanics (FCM), a very promising research field that satisfies both experimental and theoretical demands. The geometry of the fractional differential has been clarified corrected and the geometry of the fractional tangent spaces of a manifold has been studied in Lazopoulos and Lazopoulos (Lazopoulos KA, Lazopoulos AK. Progr. Fract. Differ. Appl. 2016, 2, 85-104), providing the bases of the missing fractional differential geometry. Therefore, a lot can be contributed to fractional hydrodynamics: the basic fractional fluid equations (Navier Stokes, Euler and Bernoulli) are derived and fractional Darcy's flow in porous media is studied.

  16. Use of Monomer Fraction Data in the Parametrization of Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; von Solms, Nicolas


    the monomer fraction of hydrogen bonding compounds and their mixtures. Monomer fraction data are obtained from spectroscopic measurements and they are available for a few compounds such as pure water and alcohols as well as for some alcohol–alkane and similar mixtures. These data are useful...... for an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of association models. The purpose of this work is two-fold: (i) to compare the performance of three models, CPA, NRHB and sPC-SAFT, in predicting the monomer fraction of water, alcohols and mixtures of alcohol-inert compounds and (ii) to investigate whether...... “improved” model parameters can be obtained if monomer fraction data are included in the parameter estimation together with vapor pressures and liquid densities. The expression “improved” implies parameters which can represent several pure compound properties as well as monomer fraction data for pure...

  17. Determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; Hulston, Carl J; van Hall, Gerrit


    In the present study, different MS methods for the determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) using [ring-(13)C6 ]phenylalanine as a tracer were evaluated. Because the turnover rate of human skeletal muscle is slow, only minute quantities of the stable isotopically...... labeled amino acid will be incorporated within the few hours of a typical laboratory experiment. GC combustion isotope ratio MS (GC-C-IRMS) has thus far been considered the 'gold' standard for the precise measurements of these low enrichment levels. However, advances in liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC...

  18. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Spigelia anthelmia protein fractions against Haemonchus contortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves Araújo

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder. Protein extraction was performed with sodium phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 7.0. The extract was fractionated using ammonium sulfate (0-90% and extensively dialyzed. The resulting fractions were named LPF (leaf protein fraction, SPF (stem protein fraction and RPF (root protein fraction, and the protein contents and activities of the fractions were analyzed. H. contortus egg hatching (EHA, larval exsheathment inhibition (LEIA and larval migration inhibition (LMIA assays were performed. Proteomic analysis was conducted, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC chromatographic profiles of the fractions were established to identify proteins and possible secondary metabolites. S. anthelmia fractions inhibited H. contortus egg hatching, with LPF having the most potent effects (EC50 0.17 mg mL-1. During LEIA, SPF presented greater efficiency than the other fractions (EC50 0.25 mg mL-1. According to LMIA, the fractions from roots, stems and leaves also reduced the number of larvae, with EC50 values of 0.11, 0.14 and 0.21 mg mL-1, respectively. Protein analysis indicated the presence of plant defense proteins in the S. anthelmia fractions, including protease, protease inhibitor, chitinase and others. Conversely, secondary metabolites were absent in the S. anthemia fractions. These results suggest that S. anthelmia proteins are promising for the control of the gastrointestinal nematode H

  19. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Spigelia anthelmia protein fractions against Haemonchus contortus. (United States)

    Araújo, Sandra Alves; Soares, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos; Silva, Carolina Rocha; Almeida Júnior, Eduardo Bezerra; Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; Ferreira, André Teixeira da Silva; Perales, Jonas; Costa-Júnior, Livio M


    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder. Protein extraction was performed with sodium phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 7.0). The extract was fractionated using ammonium sulfate (0-90%) and extensively dialyzed. The resulting fractions were named LPF (leaf protein fraction), SPF (stem protein fraction) and RPF (root protein fraction), and the protein contents and activities of the fractions were analyzed. H. contortus egg hatching (EHA), larval exsheathment inhibition (LEIA) and larval migration inhibition (LMIA) assays were performed. Proteomic analysis was conducted, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatographic profiles of the fractions were established to identify proteins and possible secondary metabolites. S. anthelmia fractions inhibited H. contortus egg hatching, with LPF having the most potent effects (EC50 0.17 mg mL-1). During LEIA, SPF presented greater efficiency than the other fractions (EC50 0.25 mg mL-1). According to LMIA, the fractions from roots, stems and leaves also reduced the number of larvae, with EC50 values of 0.11, 0.14 and 0.21 mg mL-1, respectively. Protein analysis indicated the presence of plant defense proteins in the S. anthelmia fractions, including protease, protease inhibitor, chitinase and others. Conversely, secondary metabolites were absent in the S. anthemia fractions. These results suggest that S. anthelmia proteins are promising for the control of the gastrointestinal nematode H. contortus.

  20. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ji-Huan, E-mail: [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Elagan, S.K., E-mail: [Mathematics and Statistics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. 888 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menofiya University, Shebin Elkom (Egypt); Li, Z.B., E-mail: [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011 (China)


    The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

  1. Evaluating fractionated space systems - Status (United States)

    Cornford, S.; Jenkins, S.; Wall, S.; Cole, B.; Bairstow, B.; Rouquette, N.; Dubos, G.; Ryan, T.; Zarifian, P.; Boutwell, J.

    DARPA has funded a number of teams to further refine its Fractionated Spacecraft vision. Several teams, including this team led by JPL, have been tasked to develop a tool for the evaluation of the Business case for a fractionated system architecture. This evaluation is to understand under what conditions and constraints the fractionated architecture make more sense (in a cost/benefit sense) than the traditional monolithic paradigm. Our approach to this evaluation is to generate and evaluate a variety of trade space options. These options include various sets of stimuli, various degrees of fractionation and various subsystem element properties. The stimuli include many not normally modeled such as technology obsolescence, funding profile changes and changes in mission objectives during the mission itself. The degrees of fractionation enable various traditional subsystem elements to be distributed across different free flyers which then act in concert as needed. This will enable key technologies to be updated as need dictates and availability allows. We have described our approach in a previous IEEE Aerospace conference paper but will briefly summarize here. Our approach to generate the Business Case evaluation is to explicitly model both the implementation and operation phases for the life cycle of a fractionated constellation. A variety of models are integrated into the Phoenix ModelCenter framework and are used to generate various intermediate data which is aggregated into the Present Strategic Value (PSV). The PSV is essentially the value (including the value of the embedded real options) minus the cost. These PSVs are calculated for a variety of configurations and scenarios including variations of various stimuli or uncertainties (e.g. supply chain delays, launch vehicle failures and orbital debris events). There are various decision options (e.g. delay, accelerate, cancel) which can now be exercised for each stimulus. We can compute the PSV for the various comb

  2. Liquid phase micro-extraction: Towards the green methodology for ultratrace metals determination in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López J. A.


    Full Text Available Heavy metals are normally found, in natural waters, in very low concentrations. Some of them are essential for life in low level; however, in higher level they are toxic. Therefore, analyzing their bio-available fraction is of main interest. Standard methodology is based in the collection of a number of samples from a water body. Collected samples must be stored, pre-treated and then analyzed. Pre-treatment usually involves pre-concentrating the metal, with the corresponding risk of contamination or loss of analyte. This way, punctual information is obtained from every sampling campaign. As an alternative, passive sampling techniques allow the continuous and coupled sampling-pre-treatment for heavy metals analysis, giving a better approach in the characterization of the studied water body. Liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME is a green analytical alternative for liquid-liquid extraction that promotes a reduction of sample volume, solvent needed and waste generation. Using these systems, polypropylene hollow fibers (HF with pores in their walls can be used. A few micro-liters of organic solvent are supported in the pores. The sample is placed in the outer part of the fiber and a receiving phase is placed in its inner part, allowing continuous liquid extraction of the metal from the sample. Several fibers with different physical features have been employed to analyzed total concentration and bio-availability of some heavy metals (Ag, Ni, Cu in natural water samples. Thanks to fibers configuration, devices for passive sampling based in HF-LPME could be designed. Advantages of this methodology over existing ones are supported because the receiving phase is liquid. As a consequence, retained metals do not need to be eluted from the acceptor prior to instrumental analysis.

  3. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Marika, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Björnsson, Lovisa, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Håkan, E-mail: [Rosqvist Resurs, Gamla Malmövägen 25, SE-230 41 Klågerup (Sweden); Bohn, Irene, E-mail: [NSR AB, Hjortshögsvägen 1, SE-251 89 Helsingborg (Sweden)


    Highlights: ► A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ► Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ► Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ► Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ► We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  4. Higher derivative mimetic gravity (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini; Firouzjahi, Hassan


    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic gravity in the presence of classified higher derivative terms which can make the mimetic perturbations stable. We show that the quadratic higher derivative terms which are independent of curvature and the cubic higher derivative terms which come from curvature corrections are sufficient to remove instabilities in mimetic perturbations. The classified higher derivative terms have the same dimensions but they contribute differently in the background and perturbed equations. Therefore, we can control both the background and the perturbation equations allowing us to construct the higher derivative extension of mimetic dark matter and the mimetic nonsingular bouncing scenarios. The latter can be thought as a new higher derivative effective action for the loop quantum cosmology scenario in which the equations of motion coincide with those suggested by loop quantum cosmology. We investigate a possible connection between the mimetic cosmology and the Randall-Sundrum cosmology.

  5. Higher Spin Matrix Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valenzuela


    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid class of theories for higher spin gravity and matrix models, i.e., which handle simultaneously higher spin gravity fields and matrix models. The construction is similar to Vasiliev’s higher spin gravity, but part of the equations of motion are provided by the action principle of a matrix model. In particular, we construct a higher spin (gravity matrix model related to type IIB matrix models/string theory that have a well defined classical limit, and which is compatible with higher spin gravity in A d S space. As it has been suggested that higher spin gravity should be related to string theory in a high energy (tensionless regime, and, therefore to M-Theory, we expect that our construction will be useful to explore concrete connections.

  6. Complexity and the Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensri Pramukkul


    Full Text Available We study complex processes whose evolution in time rests on the occurrence of a large and random number of events. The mean time interval between two consecutive critical events is infinite, thereby violating the ergodic condition and activating at the same time a stochastic central limit theorem that supports the hypothesis that the Mittag-Leffler function is a universal property of nature. The time evolution of these complex systems is properly generated by means of fractional differential equations, thus leading to the interpretation of fractional trajectories as the average over many random trajectories each of which satisfies the stochastic central limit theorem and the condition for the Mittag-Leffler universality.

  7. Fractional Authorship in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B


    Large, multi-institutional groups or collaborations of scientists are engaged in nuclear physics research projects, and the number of research facilities is dwindling. These collaborations have their own authorship rules, and they produce a large number of highly-cited papers. Multiple authorship of nuclear physics publications creates a problem with the assessment of an individual author's productivity relative to his/her colleagues and renders ineffective a performance metrics solely based on annual publication and citation counts. Many institutions are increasingly relying on the total number of first-author papers; however, this approach becomes counterproductive for large research collaborations with an alphabetical order of authors. A concept of fractional authorship (the claiming of credit for authorship by more than one individual) helps to clarify this issue by providing a more complete picture of research activities. In the present work, nuclear physics fractional and total authorships have been inv...

  8. Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the phenolic fraction in a cranberry syrup used to prevent urinary tract diseases, together with a study of its antibacterial activity. (United States)

    Iswaldi, Ihsan; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Arráez-Román, David; Uberos, José; Lardón, Marita; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto


    The phenolic fraction of a commercial cranberry syrup, which is purported to have good properties for the prevention of urinary diseases, has been thoroughly characterized using HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS. A study of its antibacterial activity has also been carried out. For this purpose a new HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS method using negative and positive ionization modes was developed and it was thus possible to identify 34 different compounds, nine of which have been tentatively characterized for the first time in cranberry syrup. It is also important to highlight that different coumarins in this matrix were also determined, which, to our knowledge, have not been found previously in the cranberry. The phenolic fraction obtained by HPLC-DAD was found to be 5.47 mg/mL. Catechin and procyanidins belonging to flavanols were the family of compounds found at the highest concentrations (2.37 mg/mL); flavonols were at a concentration of 1.91 mg/mL and phenolic-acid derivatives were found at the lowest concentration (0.15 mg/mL). With regard to antibacterial activity, the incubation of Escherichia coli with cranberry syrup was found to reduce surface hydrophobicity as a function of the concentration of the extract. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laser tattoo removal with preceding ablative fractional treatment (United States)

    Cencič, Boris; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija


    A combined laser tattoo removal treatment, first the ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) with an Er:YAG laser and then the q-switched (QSW) Nd:YAG laser treatment, was studied. Experiments show that significantly higher fluences can be used for the same tissue damage levels.

  10. The Klein–Gordon–Zakharov equations with the positive fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 3, 2016 ... Abstract. In this paper, the famous Klein–Gordon–Zakharov (KGZ) equations are first generalized, and the new special types of KGZ equations with the positive fractional power terms (gKGZE) are presented. In order to derive exact solutions of the new special gKGZE, subsidiary higher-order ordinary ...

  11. Detection of dentin antigenic fractions by salivary immunoglobulin G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western blot analysis revealed the presence of dentinal fractions of approximately 35 to 70 kDa in (T12) and (PT) but not in the control samples. In immunoenzymatic assays, the anti-FI salivary IgG levels were significantly higher in T12 and PT groups than in the controls (P< 0.05). Our results demonstrate that dentinal ...

  12. Brazilian Bidens pilosa Linne´ yields fraction containing quercetin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bidens pilosa is a plant used by Amazonian and Asian folks for some hepatopathies. The hydroethanol crude extract and three fractions were assessed for antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Higher levels of scavenger activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation and lipid ...

  13. Effect of ionic liquids on (vapor + liquid) equilibrium behavior of (water + 2-methyl-2-propanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lianzhong; Qiao Bingbang; Ge Yun; Deng Dongshun [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Ji Jianbing [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)], E-mail:


    Isobaric T, x, y data were reported for ternary systems of {l_brace}water + 2-methyl-2-propanol (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA) + ionic liquid (IL){r_brace} at p = 100 kPa. When the mole fraction of TBA on IL-free basis was fixed at 0.95, measurements were performed at IL mass fractions from 0.6 down to 0.05, in a way of repeated synthesis. The vapor-phase compositions were obtained by analytical methods and the liquid-phase compositions were calculated with the aid of mass balances. Activity coefficients of water and TBA were obtained without the need of a thermodynamic model of the liquid-phase. Six ILs, composed of an anion chosen from [OAc]{sup -} or [Cl]{sup -}, and a cation from [emim]{sup +}, or [bmim]{sup +}, or [hmim]{sup +}, were studied. Relative volatility and activity coefficients were presented in relation with the IL mole fraction, showing the effect of the ILs on a molar basis. The effect of the ILs on relative volatility of TBA to water was depicted by the effect of anions and cations on, respectively, the activity coefficients of water and TBA. The results indicated that, among the six ILs studied, [emim][Cl] has the most significant effect on enhancement of the relative volatility, which reaches a value of 7.2 at an IL mass fraction of 0.58. Another IL, [emim][OAc], has also significant effect, with an appreciable value of 5.2 for the relative volatility when the IL mass fraction is 0.6. Considering the relatively low viscosity and melting point of [emim][OAc], it might be a favorable candidate as solvent for the separation of water and TBA by extractive distillation. Simultaneous correlation by the NRTL model was presented for both systems of (water + ethanol + IL) and (water + TBA + IL), using consistent binary parameters for water and IL.

  14. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid (United States)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  15. Treatment of separated piggery anaerobic digestate liquid using woodchip biofilters. (United States)

    Carney, K N; Rodgers, M; Lawlor, P G; Zhan, X


    The Irish nitrates directive restricts the land area suitable for landspreading of pig manure, so anaerobic digestion warrants consideration. In this study, six identical Lodgepole pine woodchip biofilters were set up to treat the separated liquid fraction of digestate after anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Two hydraulic loading rates were examined: 5 L/m2/d (LLR) and 10 L/m2/d (HLR). Following a start-up period of 70 days, an average of 90% and 71% of NH4(+)-N was removed at LLR and HLR, respectively. LLR resulted in higher total nitrogen removals than HLR (p < 0.05). Efficient nitrification occurred at LLR as indicated by the lower NH4(+)-N (p < 0.05) and higher NO3(-)-N (p < 0.05) concentrations in the biofilter effluent. A batch experiment testing the capacity of saturated woodchips in removing total oxidized nitrogen (TON) from the effluent of the woodchip biofilters showed that TON was reduced by 323 mg/L from 663 mg/L in 360 h, indicating that the aerobic woodchip biofilters should incorporate a saturated layer ofwoodchips at the base ofthe biofilters to enhance nitrogen removal.

  16. Higher dimensional higher derivative ϕ4 theory (United States)

    Gracey, J. A.; Simms, R. M.


    We construct several towers of scalar quantum field theories with an O (N ) symmetry which have higher derivative kinetic terms. The Lagrangians in each tower are connected by lying in the same universality class at the d -dimensional Wilson-Fisher fixed point. Moreover the universal theory is studied using the large N expansion and we determine d -dimensional critical exponents to O (1 /N2). We show that these new universality classes emerge naturally as solutions to the linear relation of the dimensions of the fields deduced from the underlying force-matter interaction of the universal critical theory. To substantiate the equivalence of the Lagrangians in each tower we renormalize each to several loop orders and show that the renormalization group functions are consistent with the large N critical exponents. While we focus on the first two new towers of theories and renormalize the respective Lagrangians to 16 and 18 dimensions there are an infinite number of such towers. We also briefly discuss the conformal windows and the extension of the ideas to theories with spin-1/2 and spin-1 fields as well as the idea of lower dimension completeness.

  17. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). (United States)

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence


    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  18. Liquid organic foams for formulation optimization: an assessment of foam linear viscoelasticity and its temporal dependence (United States)

    Kropka, Jamie; Mondy, Lisa; Celina, Mat


    Liquid foams are viscoelastic liquids, exhibiting a fast relaxation attributed to local bubble motions and a slow response due to structural evolution of the intrinsically unstable system. In this work, these processes are examined in unique organic foams that differ from the typically investigated aqueous systems in two major ways: the organic foams (1) posses a much higher continuous phase viscosity and (2) exhibit a coarsening response that involves coalescence of cells. The transient and dynamic relaxation responses of the organic foams are evaluated and discussed in relation to the response of aqueous foams. The change in the foam response with increasing gas fraction, from that of a Newtonian liquid to one that is strongly viscoelastic, is also presented. In addition, the temporal dependencies of the linear viscoelastic response are assessed in the context of the foam structural evolution. These foams and characterization techniques provide a basis for testing stabilization mechanisms in epoxy-based foams for encapsulation applications. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Complexation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin with 11S protein fractions of soybean (Glycine max) and sesame (Sesamum indicum). (United States)

    Anuradha, S N; Prakash, V


    Beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) comprises 50% of the whey component of bovine milk. Protein-protein interactions between bovine beta-Lg and 11S protein fractions of soybean and sesame were investigated by turbidity, solubility behaviour and by evaluation of functional properties in the mixed systems. In this work, the aggregation behaviour of soybean and the whey protein (beta-Lg) showed the formation of soluble complexes. Turbidity and solubility studies showed that the proteins interacted at temperatures between 60 and 90+/-5 degrees C. Heating a mixture of beta-Lg and 11S proteins of soybean at higher temperatures formed soluble complexes with beta-Lg. It also reduced the self aggregation behaviour, especially that of 11S protein fraction of soybean. This reduced the precipitation of soybean proteins at higher temperature. The complex formed was resolved by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Upon heating beta-Lg at neutral pH, native dimer starts to dissociate into monomers leading to the exposure of previously buried hydrophobic amino acids and the free thiol group. The soluble complex is formed by the exposed thiol groups. But interaction of beta-Lg with sesame 11S protein fractions did not form any soluble complexes. The mechanism of interaction indicates that hydrophobic interactions were preferred over disulfide linkages at the high salt concentrations of the buffer used. During thermal treatment the molecules are unfolded, leading to an exposure of the hydrophobic groups that further enhance the protein-protein interactions that are entropically driven hydrophobic interactions.



    Zhukova, Yaroslava; Petov, Pylyp; Mudrak, Tatyana


    Raw organic and conventional cow’s milk samples were analyzed for total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and milk urea content with the aim of evaluation of the different diets effect. Conventional milk contained higher level of total milk urea nitrogen as well as higher proportion in total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen fraction. We detected that ratio of milk urea nitrogen to non-protein nitrogen is the most significant criterion for assessment of diet differences.

  1. Fractional Sums and Differences with Binomial Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabet Abdeljawad


    Full Text Available In fractional calculus, there are two approaches to obtain fractional derivatives. The first approach is by iterating the integral and then defining a fractional order by using Cauchy formula to obtain Riemann fractional integrals and derivatives. The second approach is by iterating the derivative and then defining a fractional order by making use of the binomial theorem to obtain Grünwald-Letnikov fractional derivatives. In this paper we formulate the delta and nabla discrete versions for left and right fractional integrals and derivatives representing the second approach. Then, we use the discrete version of the Q-operator and some discrete fractional dual identities to prove that the presented fractional differences and sums coincide with the discrete Riemann ones describing the first approach.

  2. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system. (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla


    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  3. Cost in Higher Education (United States)


    standardize methodology and accountability used nationwide by institutions of higher education . The aim is to review existing cost criteria and procedures...task. The objective of this research is to look into the cost structure used presently by two institutions of higher education , namely the Naval

  4. Higher Education in California (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016


    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  5. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie


    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...

  6. Happiness in Higher Education (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara


    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  7. Reimagining Christian Higher Education (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.


    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  8. Consumerism in Higher Education (United States)

    Green, Mark


    In considering consumerism in higher education, the student becomes the consumer,'' the university the corporation,'' and higher education the education industry.'' Other members of the education fraternity become investors, management, workers, direct consumers, and indirect consumers. This article proposes that it behooves the student to…

  9. Coupling of Plasmas and Liquids (United States)

    Lindsay, Alexander David

    Plasma-liquids have exciting applications to several important socioeconomic areas, including agriculture, water treatment, and medicine. To realize their application potential, the basic physical and chemical phenomena of plasma-liquid systems must be better understood. Additionally, system designs must be optimized in order to maximize fluxes of critical plasma species to the liquid phase. With objectives to increase understanding of these systems and optimize their applications, we have performed both comprehensive modeling and experimental work. To date, models of plasma-liquids have focused on configurations where diffusion is the dominant transport process in both gas and liquid phases. However, convection plays a key role in many popular plasma source designs, including jets, corona discharges, and torches. In this dissertation, we model momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer in a convection-dominated system based on a corona discharge. We show that evaporative cooling produced by gas-phase convection can lead to a significant difference between gas and liquid phase bulk temperatures. Additionally, convection induced in the liquid phase by the gas phase flow substantially increases interfacial mass transfer of hydrophobic species like NO and NO2. Finally, liquid kinetic modeling suggests that concentrations of highly reactive species like OH and ONOOH are several orders of magnitude higher at the interface than in the solution bulk. Subsequent modeling has focused on coupling discharge physics with species transport at and through the interface. An assumption commonly seen in the literature is that interfacial loss coefficients of charged species like electrons are equal to unity. However, there is no experimental evidence to either deny or support this assumption. Without knowing the true interfacial behavior of electrons, we have explored the effects on key plasma-liquid variables of varying interfacial parameters like the electron and energy


    Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.


    This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

  11. Quantum Spin Liquids


    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon


    Quantum spin liquids may be considered "quantum disordered" ground states of spin systems, in which zero point fluctuations are so strong that they prevent conventional magnetic long range order. More interestingly, quantum spin liquids are prototypical examples of ground states with massive many-body entanglement, of a degree sufficient to render these states distinct phases of matter. Their highly entangled nature imbues quantum spin liquids with unique physical aspects, such as non-local e...

  12. Innovative modeling of Tuned Liquid Column Damper motion (United States)

    Di Matteo, A.; Lo Iacono, F.; Navarra, G.; Pirrotta, A.


    In this paper a new model for the liquid motion within a Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) device is developed, based on the mathematical tool of fractional calculus. Although the increasing use of these devices for structural vibration control, it is shown that existing model does not always lead to accurate prediction of the liquid motion. A better model is then needed for accurate simulation of the behavior of TLCD systems. As regards, it has been demonstrated how correctly including the first linear liquid sloshing mode, through the equivalent mechanical analogy well established in literature, produces numerical results that highly match the corresponding experimental ones. Since the apparent effect of sloshing is the deviation of the natural frequency from the theoretical one, the authors propose a fractional differential equation of motion. The latter choice is supported by the fact that the introduction a fractional derivative of order α alters simultaneously both the resonant frequency and the degree of damping of the system. It will be shown, through an extensive experimental analysis, how the proposed model accurately describes liquid surface displacements.

  13. Phosphorus fractions in apple orchards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P applications at dosages higher than the necessary may cause P buildup in the soil labile fractions and, consequently, pollution of water sources. This study aimed to assess accumulation of P fractions as well as the parameters of adsorption isotherms in soil profiles having a history of application of phosphate fertilizers and cultivated with apple trees. Soil samples were collected from an area with no history of cultivation and 2 apple orchards cultivated for 8 (P8 and 18 (P18 years, in the city of Urubici, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Soil samples were air dried, sieved in a 2-mm mesh, and subjected to chemical analyses (P adsorption besides P chemical fractionation. Applications of phosphate fertilizers to the orchards, particularly P18, increased the inorganic and organic concentrations of P in all fractions. The distribution of P in organic and inorganic forms in the planted soils was similar to the distribution observed for the native vegetation soil. The highest inorganic labile P fraction, the lowest maximum P adsorption capacity, and the highest equilibrium concentration values at P18 are indicators of a higher environmental pollution risk of the orchards soils compared to the native soil.

  14. Evidence for cooperative vibrational relaxation of the NH-, OH-, and OD-stretching modes in hydrogen-bonded liquids using infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. (United States)

    Shaw, D J; Panman, M R; Woutersen, S


    Vibrational energy relaxation of the NH-, OH-, and OD-stretching modes in hydrogen-bonded liquids has been investigated by means of infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. The relaxation rates have been determined both in neat liquids and in isotopic mixtures with systematically varied isotope fractions. In all liquids, the vibrational relaxation rate increases as the isotope fraction is increased and reaches a maximum in the neat liquid. The dependence of the relaxation rate on the isotope fraction suggests a relaxation channel in which the vibrational energy is partitioned between accepting modes of two neighboring molecules.

  15. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  16. Fire effects on silica fractionation (United States)

    Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Schaller, Jörg; Vandevenne, Floor; Barao, Lúcia; Struyf, Eric; Meire, Patrick


    Fire events are expected to increase due to climate change, both in number and intensity Effects range from changes in soil biogeochemistry up to the whole ecosystem functioning and morphology. While N, P and C cycling have received quite some attention, little attention was paid to fire effects on the biogeochemical Si cycle and the consequences after a fire event. The Si cycle is a globally important biogeochemical cycle, with strong connections to other biogeochemical cycles, including C. Dissolved silica is taken up by plants to form protective structures called phytoliths, which become a part of the soil and contribute strongly to soil Si cycling upon litter burial. Different silica fractions are found in soils, with phytoliths among the most easily soluble, especially compared to silicate minerals. A whole set of secondary non-biogenic fractions exist, that also have a high reactivity (adsorbed Si, reactive secondary minerals…). Biogenic and other pedogenic secondary Si stocks form an important filter between weathering of mineral silicates and eventual transport of dissolved Si to rivers and the coastal zone. We used a new method to analyze the different reactive fractions of silica in the litter layer of 3 ecosystems after different fire treatments. Using a continuous extraction of Si and Al in 0.5M NaOH at 85°C, biogenic and non-biogenic alkaline reactive Si fractions can be separated based on their Si/Al ratios and their reactivity. We analyzed the silica fractionation after two burning treatments (no heating, 350°C and 550°C) from three types of litter (spruce forest, beech forest and Sphagnum peat). Reactive Si from litter of spruce and beech forest was purely biogenic, based on the observed Si/Al ratio. Beech litter (~2.2 % BSi) had two different biogenic silica pools, one reactive and one more refractory. Spruce litter (~1.5% BSi) showed only one fraction of biogenic Si. There was negligible biogenic Si present in the peat samples (<0.1%). While

  17. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compositions of lentil (Lens culinaris var. Morton) extract and its fractions. (United States)

    Zou, Yanping; Chang, Sam K C; Gu, Yan; Qian, Steven Y


    Phenolic compounds were extracted from Morton lentils using acidified aqueous acetone. The crude Morton extract (CME) was applied onto a macroresin column and desorbed by aqueous methanol to obtain a semipurified Morton extract (SPME). The SPME was further fractionated over a Sephadex LH-20 column into five main fractions (I-V). The phytochemical contents such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) of the CME, SPME, and its fractions were examined by colorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions were screened by DPPH scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reduced antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) methods. In addition, the compositions of active fractions were determined by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods. Results showed that the fraction enriched in condensed tannins (fraction V) exhibited significantly higher values of TPC, CTC, and antioxidant activity as compared to the crude extract, SPME, and low molecular weight fractions (I-IV). Eighteen compounds existed in those fractions, and 17 were tentatively identified by UV and MS spectra. HPLC-MS analysis revealed fraction II contained mainly kaempferol glycoside, fractions III and IV mainly contained flavonoid glycosides, and fraction V was composed of condensed tannins. The results suggested that the extract of Morton lentils is a promising source of antioxidant phenolics and may be used as a dietary supplement for health promotion.

  18. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin


    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development


    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  20. Iron Isotope Fractionation in Artic Weathering Environments (United States)

    Rouxel, O. J.; Escoube, R.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Wisch, M.; Miller, C.


    While our current knowledge of Fe isotope systematics in rivers is still limited, Fe isotopes provide a new approach to important questions concerning Fe sources, Fe speciation and its bioavailability in the hydrological cycles. Here, we investigated several Arctic rivers for elemental and Fe-isotopic composition with specific emphasis on silicate weathering and organic C content in order to provide new insights into the delivery of trace nutrients, such as Fe, that are important for the biological productivity of the Arctic Ocean. Without such characterization of the present state of the system, future changes in the response of these river systems to global change cannot be properly evaluated. Our Fe isotope systematics results in Siberian rivers, include (1) a time-series of water samples from large rivers (Ob and Lena) focusing on the peak flow that has not yet been investigated despite its critical importance for annual budgets; (2) the colloidal fractions (1 kDa to 0.45 μm) of rivers and their estuaries in the White Sea, including the Severnaya Dvina River to assess the influence of Fe-rich colloids flocculation on the Fe isotopic composition of the estuarine waters. Dissolved iron fractions (ice break-up on the rivers. In contrast, dissolved iron fractions in the Severnaya Dvina River and its tributaries yield more positive δ56Fe values, with values ranging from -0.09 to up to 0.64‰, averaging 0.2‰ (n=19). Small swamp rivers from the South White Sea coast reveal an even higher spread of dissolved δ56Fe values, from -1.1 to +0.8‰ with some clear variations among the various colloidal fractions (1 kDa-10 kDa - 100 kDa). These results, together with the high Fe and DOC concentrations in the water samples, suggest that Fe-redox cycling in soil aquifer, as well as the formation of organic-rich colloids, may impart specific Fe-isotope signatures in dissolved Fe reaching the Artic Ocean. Recent studies (e.g. Fantle and De Paolo, 2004 and Bergquist and