WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher heavy metal

  1. Heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Domy; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Bolan, N.S.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    - Sources of Metals in the Environment - Environmental Contamination - Retention and Dynamics of Metals in Soils - Adsorption - Complexation - Precipitation - Bioavailability–Natural Attenuation Interactions - Biological Response to Metals - Soil Remediation

  2. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  3. heavy metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. bSchool of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, ... ing the levels of toxic metals in food.15,19 Compared to ET-AAS or .... mum pressure 350 psi and maximum temperature 210 °C. The.

  4. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  5. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    acute toxicity and sublethal chronic action the devastating effects that the accumulation - including ... the laboratory and kept in holding glass (a) Copper as CuSO,.5H,0 ... from 2 psu to 21 psu) depending on time of The choice of heavy metals for this s year. ... serving as substrate and food source for Salinity of test media.

  6. Oil Spill Related Heavy Metal: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Hafizan Juahir; Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Mohammad Azizi Amran; Che Noraini Che Hasnam; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Syahril Hirman Azmee; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill occurs every day worldwide and oil contamination is a significant contributor for the higher levels of heavy metals in the environment. This study is purposely to summarize the heavy metals which significant to major oil spill incidents around the world and effects of toxic metals to human health. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning heavy metals contamination and oil spills. Overall, the heavy metals most frequently been detected in oil spill related study where Pb>Ni>V>Zn>Cd and caused many effects to human health especially cancer. In conclusion, the comparison of heavy metal level between the post - spill and baseline levels must be done, and implementation of continuous monitoring of heavy metal. In addition, the result based on the strategies must be transparent to public in order to maintaining human health. (author)

  7. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Spectrophotometer (AAS) 2ID using their respective lamp and wavelengths. Calculation ... (Table 2). Concentration of heavy metals in the cassava. Lead and chromium were not significantly ..... Market basket survey for some heavy metals in ...

  8. Heavy metals in our foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    The special group ''chemistry of food and forensic chemistry'' of the Association of German Analytical Chemists in Munich in 1983 issued a statement on that subject. The publication points out how heavy metals (examples: lead, cadmium and mercury) make their way into the foodstuffs, how many heavy metals are contained in our foodstuffs, which heavy metals are indispensable minerals and which aren't, and which heavy metals are ingested with food. It concludes by discussing how heavy metal contamination of our food can be prevented.

  9. heavy metals and cyanide distribution in the villages surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detection limit) were higher in the wells closest to the Tailing Storage Facility ... Key Words: Heavy metals pollution, Total cyanide, ground water pollution and ..... cyanide, heavy metals and probably other hazardous substances, leakage of.

  10. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  11. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandau, E.; Sandau, P.; Pulz, O.

    1996-01-01

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  12. Biomolecules for Removal of Heavy Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Patents reveal that heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to identify the role of biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, natural compounds containing aromatic acid etc. for heavy metal removal by bio sorption. It has been observed that efficiency of biomolecules can be increased by functionalization e.g. cellulose functionalization with EDTA, chitosan with sulphur groups, alginate with carboxyl/ hydroxyl group etc. It was found that the porous structure of aerogel beads improves both sorption and kinetic properties of the material. Out of polypeptides metallothionein has been widely used for removal of heavy metal up to 88% from seawater after a single centrifugation. These cost effective functionalized biomolecules are significantly used for remediation of heavy metals by immobilizing these biomolecules onto materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Toxicity of heavy metals in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oehme, F.W

    1978-01-01

    ... as the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity resulting from heavy metal chemicals. The more common toxic heavy metals, along with their biochemistry and associated clinical syndromes, are then described...

  14. Heavy Metal Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  17. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.M.; Lin, K.C.; Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z.; Lin, C.Y.; Liu, W.F.; Fang, G.C.; Lu, C.; Chiang, C.F.; Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO 3 and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K d (l g -1 ) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K d (l g -1 ) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions

  18. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hmlo@cyut.edu.tw; Lin, K.C. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jiangguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.Y. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, W.F. [Department of Electronical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, G.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Lu, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, C.F. [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO{sub 3} and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions.

  19. Distribution of heavy metals in Tamshui mangrove forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C Y; Chou, C H

    1990-06-01

    Tamsui estuary area is one of the few places in Taiwan where mangrove is still growing. Heavy metals, carried by the water of the Tamsui river, are accumulated in the estuary soil. Most heavy metals in soil, however, are immobile under reducing conditions and are fixed in the large amount of organic matter present. Heavy metals are distributed at different concentrations in various tissues of Kandelia candel as well as grasses of Phragmites communis, Imperata cylindrica, and Cyperus malaccensis growing in the swamp area. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher root than in stems and leaves. The absorption of heavy metals by the plants was less in soil that was frequently submerged. Kandelia candel seems to have no special tolerance to copper and zinc. The soil environment which favors reduced availability of heavy metals may help Kandelia candel adapt to growth in the polluted estuary.

  20. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  1. Heavy metals in sea turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, S.A. (Millersville State College, PA); Frazier, J.G.

    1982-07-01

    Bone and barnacle samples from sea turtles (Hepidochelys olivacea) in Ecuador were analyzed for manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead. Analysis was performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that zinc and iron levels in bone and barnacles were greater than copper, manganese and lead levels. The significance of the findings is difficult to interpret because so little is known about baseline levels and physiological effects of heavy metals in the animals. (JMT)

  2. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Korinovskaya; V. N. Gryshko

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen) G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart.) Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC)) in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderm...

  3. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  4. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs

  5. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  6. Bioremediation of Toxic Heavy Metals: A Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover, these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development. Remedy: Bioremediation is the 'green' imperative technique for the heavy metal removal without creating secondary metabolites in the ecosystem. The metabolic potential of several bacterial, algal, fungal as well as plant species has the efficiency to exterminate the heavy metals from the contaminated sites. Different strategies like bioaccumulation, biosorption, biotransformation, rhizofilteration, bioextraction and volatilization are employed for removal of heavy metals by the biological species. Bioremediation approach is presenting a splendid alternate for conventional expensive and inefficient methods for the heavy metal removal. The patents granted on the bioremediation of toxic heavy metals are summarized in the present manuscript which supported the applicability of bioremediation technique at commercial scale. However, the implementation of the present information and advanced research are mandatory to further explore the concealed potential of biological species to resume the originality of the environment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  8. Heavy metals hazards from Nigerian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Offor, Samuel James; Njoku, Chinonso Judith; Ofoma, Ifeoma Victoria; Chukwuogor, Chiaku Chinwe; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    Natural spices are commonly used by the people in Nigeria. They may be easily contaminated with heavy metals when they are dried and then pose a health risk for the consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of heavy metals in some commonly consumed natural spices namely Prosopis Africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica, Monodora tenuifolia and Capsicum frutescens sold in the local markets of Awka, Anambra state, South East Nigeria to estimate the potential health risk. The range of heavy metal concentration was in the order: Zn (14.09 - 161.04) > Fe (28.15 - 134.59) > Pb (2.61 - 8.97) > Cr (0.001 - 3.81) > Co (0.28 - 3.07) > Ni (0.34 - 2.89). Pb, Fe and Zn exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for spices. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) of the spices varied from 0.06-0.5. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) were all below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The lead levels in Prosopis africana, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper gineense, Monodora myristica and Capsicum frutescens which are 8-30 times higher than the WHO/FAO permissible limit of 0.3 mg/kg. Lead contamination of spices sold in Awka (south east Nigeria) may add to the body burden of lead. A good quality control for herbal food is important in order to protect consumers from contamination. food products, spices, potential toxic metals, risk assessment, public health.

  9. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  10. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  11. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(4), pp. 280-298, April ..... present study gave higher values due to the effect of increasing ...... on The Heavy Metal. Pollution of Guanabara Bay Sediments and Evaluation of The.

  12. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  13. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  14. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheloske, Stefan E-mail: stefan.scheloske@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Maetz, Mischa; Schuessler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  15. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metal contamination in coastal areas of South China has been reviewed. • Heavy metal levels were closely related to economic development in past decades. • Heavy metal levels from Hong Kong continually decreased from the early 1990s. • Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in mollusk. • Levels of heavy metals in part of seafood exceeded the safety limit. -- Abstract: Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit

  16. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for

  18. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND CRUDE PROTEIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNICORN

    to quantify heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and crude protein content of these species that are sold in ... in protein, omega 3 and low fat content. Furthermore ... high levels of cadmium can cause kidney and liver damage in man [6]. Motivation .... analysis. Determination of heavy metals in the edible tissues of the organisms.

  19. Microbial treatment of heavy metal leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Aliaga, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Ore-mining metallurgy and other industrial activities represent the source of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Physico-chemical processes are employed for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters. However, limitations due to the cost-effectiveness and use of contaminating reagents make these processes not environmentally friendly. (Author)

  20. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention

  1. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on different clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present dissertation is to study the adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ) and their mixtures on clays. Different clays and bentonites (Ca 2+ -bentonite, activated Na + -bentonite, special heavy metal adsorber bentonite, two organophilic bentonites and a mixed layer clay) were used. The adsorbed metal ions were desorbed by appropriate solutions of HCl, EDTA and dioctadecyl dimethylammonium bromide. High concentrations of the heavy metal ions in the solutions can be reached. The desorption guarantees economical recycling. After desorption the clays were used (up to three times) for purification of contaminated water. The best experimental conditions, i.e. the highest adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions was found for the greatest ratio of adsorbent/adsorbate. The adsorption was very fast. Calcium, sodium bentonites and the heavy metal adsorber bentonite attained the highest adsorption and desorption for Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Pb 2+ ions. Cd 2+ ions were only absorbed by Silitonit, a special heavy metal absorber bentonite. The mixed layer clay (Opalit) ranges in adsorption and desorption properties below the unmodified Ca 2+ -bentonite (Montigel) or the activated Na + -bentonite. Only Tixosorb and Tixogel (organophilic bentonites) reach the lowest value of heavy metal adsorption. Only lead cations which are characterised by good polarizability were adsorbed at higher rates, therefore the organophilic bentonites are not appropriate for adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mixing of the metal ions generally decreases the adsorption of Pb 2+ and increases the adsorption of Cd 2+ . From mixtures if heavy metal ions adsorption and desorption of Cu 2+ ions reached a maximum for all clays. (author) figs., tabs., 56 refs

  2. Heavy metal pollution disturbs immune response in wild ant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorvari, Jouni; Rantala, Liisa M.; Rantala, Markus J.; Hakkarainen, Harri; Eeva, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    Concern about the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in both humans and wildlife is growing and practically nothing is known about this impact on terrestrial invertebrates, even though they are known to easily accumulate pollutants. We studied the effect of industrial heavy metal contamination on immune defense of a free-living wood ant (Formica aquilonia). To find out whether ants show an adapted immune function in a polluted environment, we compared encapsulation responses between local and translocated colonies. Local colonies showed higher heavy metal levels than the translocated ones but the encapsulation response was similar between the two groups, indicating that the immune system of local ants has not adapted to high contamination level. The encapsulation response was elevated in moderate whereas suppressed in high heavy metal levels suggesting higher risk for infections in heavily polluted areas. - Heavy metal pollution affects immune function in ants

  3. Heavy metal toxicity and iron chlorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeKock, P C

    1956-01-01

    The toxicity of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, chromium, and manganese to mustard was studied in water culture, utilizing either the ionic form or the EDTA chelate of the metal in the presence of either ferric chloride or ferric EDTA. In presence of ferric chloride the activity of the metals in producing chlorosis was as given above, i.e. in the order of stability of their chelates. In the presence of ferric versenate, toxicity of the ionic metal was much reduced. The metal chelates gave very little indication of toxicity with either form of iron. It was found that the ratio of total phosphorus to total iron was higher in chlorotic plants than in green plants, irrespective of which metal was causing the toxicity. Copper could be demonstrated in the phloem cells of the root using biscyclohexanone-oxalydihydrazone as histochemical reagent. It is postulated that transport of iron probably takes place in the phloem as an active process. It would appear that as a major part of the iron in plant cells is attached to nucleo- or phospho-proteins, the heavy metals must be similarly attached to phospho-proteins.

  4. Heavy Metal Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/heavymetalbloodtest.html Heavy Metal Blood Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Heavy Metal Blood Test? A heavy metal blood test ...

  5. Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index, urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11–2.20, P = 0.014, molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06–2.01, P = 0.023, manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09–1.86, P = 0.012, lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28–1.96, P < 0.001, tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001, antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10–1.77, P = 0.010, and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25–1.77, P < 0.001 concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00–1.62, P = 0.006, mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13–1.62, P = 0.002, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05–1.49, P = 0.014, mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.007, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.009, and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.69, P = 0.002 tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27–4.81, P = 0.011 and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12–1.79, P = 0.006 were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the

  6. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics and Levels of Some Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    indicated a significant degree of soil contamination for Pd, Cd, Co, Cu and Zn in the soils studied showing a higher ... disposed waste. These metals which are not biodegradable are accumulated in living organisms when released into the environment. Although trace ... heavy metals in Nigerian soils if such solid waste.

  8. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  9. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  10. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for cleaning up contaminated sites, which is ... A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been ...

  11. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 1597-6343. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics ... analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer – coupled with a hydride ... presence of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead. (Pb) in ...

  13. HEAVY METALS IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARD SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.

  14. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  15. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  16. Heavy metals anthropogenic pollutants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    Several heavy metals from anthropogenic sources are emitted in the atmosphere damaging the air quality and the human health, besides they accumulate on the soil and lately are transmitted into the human food chain. Therefore at international level there is a concern to reduce them. Austrian heavy metals emissions (cadmium, mercury and lead) during 1990-2002 are given including an analysis of causes and sources. Lead is the main pollutant and the main sector responsible is the industry. 5 figs. (nevyjel)

  17. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummelin, Matti; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Hirvonen, Heikki; Alanko, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators

  18. Mobile heavy metal fractions in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.; Kamel, A.A.; Ecker, S.; Benetka, E.; Rebler, R.; Lummerstorfer, E.; Kandeler, E.

    1994-01-01

    A long term outdoor experiment was conducted in plastic containers (50 litres) with three soils, contaminated by increasing concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and vanadium. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of heavy metal contamination on soil microbial processes as well as the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Spring barley, followed by winter endive were grown as experimental crops in a first vegetation period, while spring wheat was grown during the second year. The soil microbial activities, indicated by arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase, and substrate-induced respiration, decreased with increasing heavy metal contamination. Significant correlations were observed between the inhibition of soil microorganisms and the easily mobilizable heavy metal fractions of soils, extracted by a solution of 1 M ammoniumacetate at pH = 7. The heavy metal accumulation in vegetative and generative parts of the crop plants also showed a good agreement with mobilizable soil fractions. The results of the experiment indicate, that the extraction with ammoniumacetate can be used as a reference method for determination of tolerable heavy metal concentrations in soils. (authors)

  19. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, J. F. P

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through test and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. The chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, an increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slag samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-through test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5 % (Ca and 1% (other elements.

    Este articulo contiene los resultados obtenidos en ensayos de lixiviación de escorias de acero (horno electrico y cuchara ejecutados siguiendo la metodologia de flujo dinámico así como el ensayo normalizado DIN 38414-S4. El primer ensayo intenta simular el comportamiento de lixiviación de las escorias en vertedero. Para las escorias ensayadas se han complementado los ensayos con el análisis químico de los lixiviados y se ha verificado un aumento de la liberación de metales pesados. El ensayo DIN 38414-S4 se ha utilizado para evaluar la lixiviación por agua de metales pesados, en muestras de escorias originales. Despues de un año de ensayos, se han observado niveles muy bajos de lixiviación. Los elementos mas lixiviados han sido calcio y magnesio. No obstante, en los ensayos de flujo dinámico, el calcio y el magnesio lixiviados de las escorias sólidas era menor de 0,5% y el resto de los otros metales era inferior a 0,1%. Los lixiviados obtenidos con el ensayo DIN 38414-S4 presentan, como era de esperar, valores

  20. Gender identity and the electric guitar in heavy metal music

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Philip

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I will attempt to outline the gendered characteristics of heavy metal and the electric guitar and address the question: has society’s impression of heavy metal as a primarily masculine pursuit been so imbedded in Western culture that we will never see a female heavy metal band achieve the same level of success as a male heavy metal band?

  1. Transformation of heavy metals in lignite during supercritical water gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guifang; Yang, Xinfei; Chen, Shouyan; Dong, Yong; Cui, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Xiqiang; Ma, Chunyuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transformations of heavy metals during lignite SCWG were investigated. • The risks of heavy metals in lignite and residues after SCWG were evaluated. • The effects of experimental conditions on corrosion during SCWG were studied. - Abstract: Transformation characteristics of heavy metals during lignite supercritical water gasification (SCWG) were studied. A sequential extraction procedure (modified Tessier method) was used to selectively extract different fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Heavy metals transformed into more stable fractions after SCWG. For Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn, SCWG reduced the bioavailability and the risks posed by heavy metals in lignite. Under the experimental conditions, the conversion rates for Pb and Cd were 16.0%–25.2% and 16.3%–23.4%, respectively, whereas those for Mn, Cu, and Zn were much lower. Solid products enriched with Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were obtained after SCWG; the contents of these metals varied slightly in the liquid products under different experimental conditions. Excess Cr and Ni that did not originate from lignite were found in the residues, owing to reactor corrosion during lignite SCWG. Higher temperatures alleviated corrosion, whereas higher pressures and equivalence ratios (ER) had the opposite effect. None of the heavy metals were detected in the gas phase under the experimental conditions used in the present study. The correlation between the distributions of heavy metals and the experimental conditions were also studied. The transformation pathways of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn during SCWG were deduced according to the experimental results.

  2. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...... that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (

  3. Heavy metals: teeth as environmental biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Lumbau, Aurea Maria Immacolata; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca; Carboni, Donatella; Ginesu, Sergio; Falchi, Simonetta; Schinocca, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals in tooth matrix and to determine the factors that affect their presence. During tooth development and mineralization several metals can be absorbed in the tooth matrix, thus allowing us to use them as biological markers.

  4. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza; Siam, Rania; Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2014-01-01

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II

  5. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  6. Toxic Heavy Metals: Materials Cycle Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1992-02-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  7. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  8. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  9. [Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A

    1994-01-01

    Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies.

  10. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  11. Analysis of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2006-07-07

    Road-deposited sediments were analysed for heavy metal concentrations at three different landuses (residential, industrial, commercial) in Queensland State, Australia. The sediments were collected using a domestic vacuum cleaner which was proven to be highly efficient in collecting sub-micron particles. Five particle sizes were analysed separately for eight heavy metal elements (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Al and Mn). At all sites, the maximum concentration of the heavy metals occurred in the 0.45-75 microm particle size range, which conventional street cleaning services do not remove efficiently. Multicriteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, were employed in the data analysis. PROMETHEE, a non-parametric ranking analysis procedure, was used to rank the metal contents of the sediments sampled at each site. The most polluted site and particle size range were the industrial site and the 0.45-75 microm range, respectively. Although the industrial site displayed the highest metal concentrations, the highest heavy metal loading coincided with the highest sediment load, which occurred at the commercial site. GAIA, a special form of principal component analysis, was applied to determine correlations between the heavy metals and particle size ranges and also to assess possible correlation with total organic carbon (TOC). The GAIA-planes revealed that irrespective of the site, most of the heavy metals are adsorbed to sediments below 150 microm. A weak correlation was found between Zn, Mn and TOC at the commercial site. This could lead to higher bioavailability of these metals through complexation reactions with the organic species in the sediments.

  12. Heavy metals in the volcanic environment and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneri, R; Malandrino, P; Gianì, F; Russo, M; Vigneri, P

    2017-12-05

    In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission. Soil, water and atmosphere contamination, via the food chain, biocontaminate the residents as documented by high levels in the urines and the scalp hair compared to individuals living in adjacent non-volcanic areas. Trace amounts of metals are essential nutrients but, at higher concentrations, can be toxic for living cells. Metals can behave both as endocrine disruptors, perturbing the hormonal system, and as carcinogens, promoting malignant transformation. Similarly to other carcinogens, the transforming effect of heavy metals is higher in developing organisms as the fetus (contaminated via the mother) and individuals in early childhood. In the last decades environment metal pollution has greatly increased in industrialized countries. Although still within the "normal" limits for each single metal the hormesis effect (heavy metal activity at very low concentration because of biphasic, non linear cell response) and the possible potentiation effect resulting from the mixture of different metals acting synergistically can explain cell damage at very low concentrations. The effect of metals on the human thyroid is poorly studied: for some heavy metals no data are available. The scarce studies that have been performed mainly focus on metal effect as thyroid endocrine disruptors. The metal concentration in tissues has

  13. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  14. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, E.; Akunyili, Dora N.; Ekpo, B.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2006-01-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO 3 .The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies

  15. Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    Inputs of heavy metals to soils have increased recently and there is much concern that they may be toxic at various stages along the food chain and ultimately to man. Cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead move from geochemical sources to plants and then to animals and man; they then are returned in various forms to soil to complete the cycle. The ways in which heavy metals may be added to soils are reviewed. They include: aerial inputs by air pollution, fertilizers, pesticides, farm slurries and sewage sludge. Possibly the source of contamination which is to have the most impact on soils used for the production of crops is sewage sludge. The fate of heavy metal added to soils is discussed in relation to form, mobility, uptake by plants, effect of soil conditions on availability to plants, and toxicity to animals. 56 references.

  16. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  17. Heavy Metal Pollution Around International Hatay Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Özkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the heavy metal pollution in the agricultural lands around Hatay airport and travel possible alteration in the amount of heavy metal on the land in accordance with the distance to the airport. For this purpose, the airport was chosen as the center and 27 soil samples were obtained around the airport at 2 km intervals in depth ranging from 0 to 30 cm. Lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chrome (Cr, cobalt (Co, aluminium (Al, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn elements in soil samples were analysed using MP-AES instrument by DTPA method. (3 repetition for each sample. As a result of the analysis, heavy metal concentrations were found as Pb 0-1.45 mg/kg, Cd 0-0.220 mg/kg, Ni 0-3.95 mg/kg, Cr 0-0.780 mg/kg, Co 0-0.270 mg/kg, Al 0-0.700 mg/kg, Fe 1.47- 16.2 mg/kg, Cu 0.400-5.35 mg/kg, Mn 0-19 mg/kg and Zn 0.050-3.14 mg/kg. When comparing the obtained data through this study with allowable concentrations of heavy metals in soil of Environment and Forest Directorates Guidance, it was determined that the heavy metal concentration of the soil does not pose any problems in terms of heavy metal pollution. Besides, iron concentration was decreased when the distance to the airport is increased.

  18. Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Hua; Duan, Jing-Chun; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-Bin; Yu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7 ± 378.5 ng/m(3)), As (76.6 ± 49.1 ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6 ± 45.2 ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220 ng/m(3), 20.5 times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most

  19. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  20. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  1. A novel heavy metal ATPase peptide from Prosopis juliflora is involved in metal uptake in yeast and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeran, Nisha S; Ganesan, G; Parida, Ajay K

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is one of the most severe ecological problems in the world. Prosopis juliflora, a phreatophytic tree species, grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and is known to accumulate heavy metals. Heavy Metal ATPases (HMAs) are ATP driven heavy metal pumps that translocate heavy metals across biological membranes thus helping the plant in heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation. In the present study we have isolated and characterized a novel 28.9 kDa heavy metal ATPase peptide (PjHMT) from P. juliflora which shows high similarity to the C-terminal region of P 1B ATPase HMA1. It also shows the absence of the invariant signature sequence DKTGT, and the metal binding CPX motif but the presence of conserved regions like MVGEGINDAPAL (ATP binding consensus sequence), HEGGTLLVCLNS (metal binding domain) and MLTGD, GEGIND and HEGG motifs which play important roles in metal transport or ATP binding. PjHMT, was found to be upregulated under cadmium and zinc stress. Heterologous expression of PjHMT in yeast showed a higher accumulation and tolerance of heavy metals in yeast. Further, transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing PjHMT also showed increased accumulation and tolerance to cadmium. Thus, this study suggests that the transport peptide from P. juliflora may have an important role in Cd uptake and thus in phytoremediation.

  2. Characterization of landfill leachates and studies on heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceçen, F; Gürsoy, G

    2000-10-01

    This study covers a thorough characterisation of landfill leachates emerging from a sanitary landfill area. The landfill leachates were obtained in the acidic stage of landfill stabilisation. Their organic content was high as reflected by the high BOD5 (5 day biological oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) values. They were also highly polluted in terms of the parameters TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen), NH4-N, alkalinity, hardness and heavy metals. Nickel was present in these wastewaters at a significant concentration. With regard to the high heavy metal content of these wastewaters, several physicochemical removal alternatives for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn and Fe were tested using coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, base addition and aeration. Additionally, COD removal and ammonia stripping were examined. Co-precipitation with either alum or iron salts did not usually lead to significantly higher heavy metal removal than lime alone. The major methods leading to an effective heavy metal removal were aeration and lime addition. Nickel and cadmium seemed to be strongly complexed and were not removed by any method. Also lead removal proved to be difficult. The results are also discussed in terms of compliance with standards.

  3. Elimination of radionuclides and heavy metals from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarcik, I.; Cipakova, A.; Palagyl, S.

    1994-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of radionuclides and heavy metals, their vertical migration and gradual extraction from soils were studied. Tessier sequential extraction method was used for determination the physicochemical forms of radionuclides and heavy metals absorbed by root system of plants and leached into ground water. Fixed forms of heavy metals and radionuclides are prevailing in soils. As to artificial ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs) isotope ratio of fixed forms bound with soil components, it is higher for 137 Cs (black earth - 95%, sandy soil - 62%) as compared to 90 Sr. Mobilization procedures for elimination of unfavourable influence of these pollutants in soils were used. The bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus l. are applied for this purpose. At the same time the growing of technical plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Brassica napus L. var.) was studied as a method for mobilizing the heavy metals and radionuclides from soils. Retardation influence of bacteria on 85 Sr was noticed after as much as 3 months. The sum of water-soluble and exchangeable fractions reached 60%. Values of Cs distribution proved that microorganisms or plants used had no appreciable influence on Cs-mobility. After 3 months the relative ratio of accessible fraction increased with about 5%. As to heavy metals, both bacteria and plant growing influenced their retardation. In the case of Cd, one month operation of microorganisms resulted in important increase of easily available Cd-ratio (about 25%) in soils. (author)

  4. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  5. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  7. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  8. Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-09-01

    Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity.

  9. Pyrolized biochar for heavy metal adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of copper and lead metal ions from water using pyrolized plant materials. Method can be used to develop a low cost point-of-use device for cleaning contaminated water. This dataset is associated with the following publication:DeMessie, B., E. Sahle-Demessie , and G. Sorial. Cleaning Water Contaminated With Heavy Metal Ions Using Pyrolyzed Banana Peel Adsorbents. Separation Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker Incorporated, New York, NY, USA, 50(16): 2448-2457, (2015).

  10. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  11. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  12. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of municipal dumpsite compost in Kano metropolis and concentration of heavy metals were investigated. Analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry (Buck Scientific VPG 210). The results shows that the compost pH (6.63-8.19), electric conductivity of compost (638-933μs/cm), ...

  13. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  14. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Callinectes amnicola and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organisms is as a result of pollutants discharge generated by anthropogenic and natural activities which has become a tremendous concern in developing nations. The levels of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, zinc and nickel in the tissue of Callinectes amnicola and ...

  15. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the presence of heavy metal contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus. Adult C. nigrodigitatus and L. niloticus were obtained from fishermen in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria. Water samples were also collected during the wet and dry seasons of the year in the same locality.

  16. Heavy metal levels, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... out to assess the microbial, physicochemical and heavy metal characteristics of soil samples from five different waste collection sites within the University of Benin, Benin City and evaluated using standard analytical and classical microbiological methods.

  17. On chemical activity of heavy metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of solid oxides of heavy nonferrous metals with sulfur and carbon is investigated. The results are discussed. Direct dependence of chemical activity of oxides on disordering of their crystal lattice at heating is established. Beginning of interaction in the systems studied is accompanied by change of oxide conductivity type

  18. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamier, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available on various substrates introduced the possibility for portable and on-site instant verification of heavy metal pollutants. In this work, the favorable properties of the mercury-sensitive fluorescent molecule, Rhodamine 6G hydrozone derivative (RS), were...

  19. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  20. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    emissions from automobile exhaust, waste incineration, land disposal of wastes, use of .... of total organic carbon increased from 2.0 ± 1.5 % in the top soil to 3.42 ± 0.83 ..... Thus, accumulation of heavy metals in the soil has potential to restrict.

  1. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  2. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, J.-E.; Andrews, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an ESA/M5 spacecraft mission to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×1019 kg of (16) Psyche make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, 4.5 g cm-3, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. (16) Psyche orbits the Sun with semi-major axis 2.9 AU, 3º inclination, and is as yet unexplored in-situ.

  3. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. To study such ... heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area. ... mine is about 100 kilometers east of Lake. Victoria and 20 ...

  4. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  5. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    Key words: Heavy metals, freshwater, concentrations, quality, variation, distribution. ... prevalence of heavy metals in inland water of lower River. Niger drain are scarce ..... Niger waters at Ajaokuta were found to be low and within guideline.

  6. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban ... water is not mentioned by WHO, but all the samples analyzed were found to ... Key words: Drinking water quality, Heavy metals, Maximum admissible limit, ...

  7. Phytoremediation of heavy metals with several efficiency enhancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Key words: phytoremediation, heavy metal, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, multi-functional method. ... population in the twentieth century, heavy metal ... This natural and environmental friendly technology is.

  8. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLEXI-DONEST

    the use of private electricity generating sets, in recent times, have ... soil and evaluate the impact of heavy metal on soil degradable ..... a reasonable length of time by herbivores may .... Heavy Metals in Root, Stem and Leaves of Acalypha.

  9. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  10. A novel method for the sequential removal and separation of multiple heavy metals from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Li, Liang; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Xu, Jianfang; Yan, Naiqiang

    2018-01-15

    A novel method was developed and applied for the treatment of simulated wastewater containing multiple heavy metals. A sorbent of ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) was synthesized and showed extraordinary performance for the removal of Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The removal efficiencies of Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ were 99.9%, 99.9%, 90.8% and 66.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, it was determined that solubility product (K sp ) of heavy metal sulfides was closely related to adsorption selectivity of various heavy metals on the sorbent. The removal efficiency of Hg 2+ was higher than that of Cd 2+ , while the K sp of HgS was lower than that of CdS. It indicated that preferential adsorption of heavy metals occurred when the K sp of the heavy metal sulfide was lower. In addition, the differences in the K sp of heavy metal sulfides allowed for the exchange of heavy metals, indicating the potential application for the sequential removal and separation of heavy metals from wastewater. According to the cumulative adsorption experimental results, multiple heavy metals were sequentially adsorbed and separated from the simulated wastewater in the order of the K sp of their sulfides. This method holds the promise of sequentially removing and separating multiple heavy metals from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aery, N.C.; Panchal, Jayesh

    2007-01-01

    The nature of soil, the contaminant's chemical and physical characteristics and environmental factors such as climate and hydrology interact to determine the accumulation, mobility, toxicity, and overall significance of the contaminant in any specific instance. Although many metals are essential, all metals are toxic at higher concentrations, because they cause oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Another reason why metals may be toxic is that they can replace essential metals in enzymes disrupting their function. Thus, metals render the land unsuitable for plant growth and destroy the biodiversity. Metal contaminated soil can be remediated by chemical, physical and biological techniques

  12. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  13. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  15. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants like other living organisms respond differently under different environmental conditions. An elevated level of heavy metals is one of the stresses which results into three classes of plants depending on their heavy metal content. The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North ...

  16. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of some heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contamination of the aquatic systems with heavy metals from natural anthropogenic sources has become a global problem which poses threats to ecosystems and natural communities. Hence this study reviews the effects of heavy metals in freshwater fishes. Fishes bioaccumulate heavy metals (including cadmium, zinc ...

  17. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal by Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Instead of using mainly bacteria, it is also possible to use mainly algae to clean wastewater because many of the pollutant sources in wastewater are also food sources for algae. Nitrates and phosphates are common components of plant fertilizers for plants. Like plants, algae need large quantities of nitrates and phosphates to support their fast cell cycles. Certain heavy metals are also important for the normal functioning of algae. These include iron (for photosynthesis, and chromium (for metabolism. Because marine environments are normally scarce in these metals, some marine algae especially have developed efficient mechanisms to gather these heavy metals from the environment and take them up. These natural processes can also be used to remove certain heavy metals from the environment. The use of algae has several advantages over normal bacteria-based bioremediation processes. One major advantage in the removal of pollutants is that this is a process that under light conditions does not need oxygen. Instead, as pollutants are taken up and digested, oxygen is added while carbon dioxide is removed. Hence, phytoremediation could potentially be coupled with carbon sequestration. Additionally, because phytoremediation does not rely on fouling processes, odors are much less a problem. Microalgae, in particular, have been recognized as suitable vectors for detoxification and have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to physicochemical treatments. Uptake of metals by living microalgae occurs in two steps: one takes place rapidly and is essentially independent of cell metabolism – “adsorption” onto the cell surface. The other one is lengthy and relies on cell metabolism – “absorption” or “intracellular uptake.” Nonviable cells have also been successfully used in metal removal from contaminated sites. Some of the technologies in heavy metal removals, such as High Rate Algal Ponds and Algal Turf Scrubber, have been justified for

  18. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2005-01-01

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted

  19. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.; Kuan, Y.-C.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 deg. C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results

  20. Heavy Metal Pollution from Gold Mines: Environmental Effects and Bacterial Strategies for Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashola, Muibat Omotola; Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-10-26

    Mining activities can lead to the generation of large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes which are released in an uncontrolled manner, causing widespread contamination of the ecosystem. Though some heavy metals classified as essential are important for normal life physiological processes, higher concentrations above stipulated levels have deleterious effects on human health and biota. Bacteria able to withstand high concentrations of these heavy metals are found in the environment as a result of various inherent biochemical, physiological, and/or genetic mechanisms. These mechanisms can serve as potential tools for bioremediation of heavy metal polluted sites. This review focuses on the effects of heavy metal wastes generated from gold mining activities on the environment and the various mechanisms used by bacteria to counteract the effect of these heavy metals in their immediate environment.

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fauna from wet detention ponds for stormwater runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater detention ponds remove pollutants e.g. heavy metals and nutrients from stormwater runoff. These pollutants accumulate in the pond sediment and thereby become available for bioaccumulation in fauna living in the ponds. In this study the bioaccumulation was investigated by fauna samples...... from 5 wet detention ponds for analyses of heavy metal contents. Five rural shallow lakes were included in the study to survey the natural occurrence of heavy metals in water-dwelling fauna. Heavy metal concentrations in water-dwelling fauna were generally found higher in wet detention ponds compared...

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  3. Heavy metal burden of the Pinnau river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The water phase and sediment of the Pinnau river were investigated for their heavy-metal pollution. Tests for the elements chromium, mercury, nickel, arsenic, lead, copper, cadmium, zinc and iron were carried through with sediment samples in 1984 and 1989 and with water samples in 1987 and 1989. Whereas no significant changes in the levels of these metals were found in the water phase during the two-year period of invetigation, slightly reduced levels of zinc, cadmium and mercury were established in the sediment in 1989 as compared to 1984. (orig.) [de

  4. Heavy Metals Pollution in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.H.; Ezzat, A.A.E.; El-Rayis, O.A.; Hafez, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in the water of the heavily polluted Lake Mariut (Egypt) during August 1978 to September 1979 as well as the accumulation of these metals in the different parts of the common fish, Tilapia species, were studied. The study represents a second part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The mean concentrations of the measured Zn, Gu, Fe, Mn and Cd in the lake water were 10.9, 4.2, 19.1, 26.2 and 0.62 μg/l, respectively

  5. Health concerns of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    There is a long history and an overwhelming amount of data on the toxicity of heavy metal compounds. Here a brief look is taken of some aspects of the toxicity of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, chosen for their historical importance and environmental significance, highlighting especially the contrast between the acute and chronic toxicity of purely inorganic species and their organic derivatives. For further details of other toxic metal compounds, the reader might like to consult "Elements of murder: a history of poison" by John Emsley (2005, Oxford University Press).

  6. Heavy metals in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astruc, M.; Lester, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problems associated with heavy metals in the hydrological cycle is presented. Research and practical experience from a broad spectrum of disciplines are drawn together concentrating on the following themes: water quality, domestic and industrial wastes, sludge and dredge materials, soil interactions, effects on aquatic ecosystems, organometallics (with particular reference to tin compounds), speciation, the marine environment and health effects. One paper is within INIS scope and is processed separately. (U.K.)

  7. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  8. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  9. Polution of the environment by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the problems caused by pollution of the environment by heavy metals and the important role played by nuclear examination methods such as activation analysis and particle induced X-ray emission. A number of examples taken from work initiated by the interuniversitair Reactor Instituut, demonstrate that this research should be continued and extended, particularly in relation to the expected increase in the use of coal for energy generation in electricity centres. (C.F.)

  10. Heavy metal pollution of man and environment - A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    1989-01-01

    'Normal' levels of heavy metals are disturbingly close to toxic levels. This may be a man-made or natural phenomenon. The man-made exposure to heavy metals started thousands of years ago. In some European populations in the past the lead level was orders of magnitude higher than now, where it is comparable with the prehistoric level. The former high contamination of human populations was due to intake of metals from immediate sources (utensils, drugs, etc) not to their dispersion in the environment. A dramatic decrease of lead level in man occurred recently, when the majority of the immediate sources disappeared, but when at the local (but not at the global) scale the environmental level of metals increased. The current flow of metals into the global atmosphere, similar to the pre-industrial flow, is still dominated by natural processes, such as biological methylization of metals. This leads to an enrichment of the airborne particles in metals up to several orders of magnitude above the crustal abundances. It is not the magnitude of emissions of metals into the global atmosphere that marks a new role of man in the biosphere, but the mass of anthropogenic mobilization of raw materials now reaching the geological dimensions. (author)

  11. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  12. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  13. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  14. Heavy metals phytoremediation potential of Hevea brasiliensis in Bentong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talip; Yusoff, Siti Fairus Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Biomonitoring uses living organisms to assess environmental quality and being preferred over conventional methods that use fully or semi-automatic gauges for its lower cost and practicality. Recently, higher plants are widely used for biomonitoring purposes by means of their species identification simplicity, larger availability of biological substantial, and easy to sample. In this study, samples of Hevea brasiliensis (i.e leaves, barks, and latex as well as surrounding soils) from outskirts of Pelangai, Bentong were tested for heavy metals by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Enrichment factor of soils indicated that some metals (B, Ca, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Na) were anthropogenic which most likely originated from traffic emissions. In addition, leaves trapped the most heavy metals compared to barks and latex. The accumulation of pollutants in those samples has identified biomonitoring abilities of Hevea brasiliensis.

  15. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2012-03-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  16. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  18. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  19. Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, B; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a tree species that grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and accumulates heavy metals. To understand the possible contribution of metallothioneins (MTs) in heavy metal accumulation in P. juliflora, we isolated and compared the metal binding ability of three different types of MTs (PjMT1-3). Glutathione S-transferase fusions of PjMTs (GSTMT1-3) were purified from Escherichia coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3 mM cadmium, copper or zinc. Analysis of metal bound fusion proteins using atomic absorption spectrometry showed that PjMT1 bound higher levels of all three heavy metals as compared to PjMT2 and PjMT3. A comparative analysis of the genomic regions (including promoter for all three PjMTs) is also presented. All three PjMTs are induced by H(2)O(2) and ABA applications. PjMT1 and PjMT2 are induced by copper and zinc respectively while PjMT3 is induced by copper, zinc and cadmium. Variation in induction of PjMTs in response to metal exposure and their differential binding to metals suggests that each MT has a specific role in P. juliflora. Of the three MTs analyzed, PjMT1 shows maximum heavy metal sequestration and is thus a potential candidate for use in heavy metal phytoremediation.

  20. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decontamination of soils polluted with heavy metals using plants as determined by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfy, S.M

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were three folds. First, to study the mobility and fate of heavy metals in two polluted sites (Mostorud soil, irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years and El-Gabal EL-Asfar soil, subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 50 years) utilizing a modified tessier's sequential extraction procedure to evaluate the effect of total metal concentrations on metal partitioning into different fractions. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of some plant species (sunflower, cotton, penakium, Napier grass, and Squash) to extract heavy metals out of polluted soils. Third, to enhance the phyto-extraction of heavy metals by sunflower plant using some chemical chelators (citric acids, EDTA, and Ammonium nitrate) in order to improve the remediation of pollutants as well as to protect soil quality.It was observed that the distribution of heavy metals in various chemical fractions depends on the total heavy metals content. The distribution of heavy metals forms in the studied soils was in the following decreasing order: residual > Fe-Mn oxides > carbonates > organic > exchangeable > water soluble.Either higher metal accumulation in shoots or enhanced metal accumulation in roots was mainly due to improved phyto-extraction or rhizo-filtration efficiency, respectively. Heavy metals accumulation in shoots and roots of the investigated plant species was as follow: sunflower > cotton > penakium > Napier grass > Squash with a lower order of magnitude. Sunflower showed superiority for heavy metals extraction.Application of chemical chelators (soil amendments) enhanced the phyto-extraction efficiency of heavy metals by sunflower in both Mostorud and El-Gabal El-Asfar soils. Citric acid enhanced metals accumulation in shoots and roots more than EDTA and ammonium nitrate. Citric acid with rate of 20 m mole/kg soil was the best chelators to enhance phyto- extraction of heavy metals by sunflower.

  2. On the structure of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, J.

    1958-01-01

    The properties of the last series of Mendeleef's table are compared with those of the elements of the preceding series. This comparison suggests an electronic structure of the 'transition metal' type, with narrow bands, at the beginning of this series (up to certain phases at least of plutonium); then of the rare earth metal type, with independent non-saturated internal layers, further on in the series. The 5 f orbits seem to play an important part in these two types of structure, from uranium on. A more detailed study of the very heavy elements (americium and beyond) and alloys would allow these conclusions to be confirmed. Certain general points, concerning the nature of homopolar connections and paramagnetism in the transition metals, are developed in an additional section. (author) [fr

  3. Bioethanol production from recovered napier grass with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Yu, Fan-Chun; Chang, Fang-Chih; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hwang, Wen-Song; Tu, Ta-Chih

    2017-12-01

    Using plants to absorb and accumulate heavy metals from polluted soil, followed by the recycling of explants containing heavy metals, can help achieve the goal of reverting contaminated soil to low heavy-metal content soil. However, the re-use of recovered explants can also be problematic. Meanwhile, bioethanol has become a popular energy source. In this study, napier grass was used for the remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals (artificially contaminated soil). The influence of bioethanol production from napier grass after phytoremediation was also investigated. The concentration of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the contaminated soil was 1000, 100, and 250 mg/kg, respectively. After napier grass phytoremediation, the concentration (dry biomass) of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the explants was 2701.97 ± 173.49, 6.1 ± 2.3, and 74.24 ± 1.42 mg/kg, respectively. Biomass production in the unpolluted soil was 861.13 ± 4.23 g. The biomass production ratio in high Zn-polluted soil was only 3.89%, while it was 4.68% for Cd and 21.4% for Cr. The biomass obtained after napier grass phytoremediation was pretreated using the steam explosion conditions of 180 °C, for 10 min, with 1.5% H 2 SO 2 , followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for Zn-polluted biomass was 90% of the unpolluted biomass, while it was 77% for Cd, and approximately the same for Cr. The fermentation efficiency of the heavy-metal-containing biomass was higher than the control biomass. The fermentation ethanol concentration obtained was 8.69-12.68, 13.03-15.50, and 18.48-19.31 g/L in Zn, Cd, and Cr environments, respectively. Results show that the heavy metals had a positive effect on bacteria fermentation. However, the fermentation efficiency was lower for biomass with severe heavy metal pollution. Thus, the utilization of napier grass phytoremediation for bioethanol production has a positive effect on the sustainability of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017

  4. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Tumen, Fikret, E-mail: ftumen@firat.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol{sup -1} for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}H{sup o} values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low {Delta}H{sup o} values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  5. Heavy quark threshold dynamics in higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piclum, J.H.

    2007-05-15

    In this work we discuss an important building block for the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order corrections to the pair production of top quarks at threshold. Specifically, we explain the calculation of the third order strong corrections to the matching coefficient of the vector current in non-relativistic Quantum Chromodynamics and provide the result for the fermionic part, containing at least one loop of massless quarks. As a byproduct, we obtain the matching coefficients of the axial-vector, pseudo-scalar and scalar current at the same order. Furthermore, we calculate the three-loop corrections to the quark renormalisation constants in the on-shell scheme in the framework of dimensional regularisation and dimensional reduction. Finally, we compute the third order strong corrections to the chromomagnetic interaction in Heavy Quark Effective Theory. The calculational methods are discussed in detail and results for the master integrals are given. (orig.)

  6. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  7. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  8. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. A review of phytoremediation technology: heavy metals uptake by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiahadi, A.; Acar, R.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal is one of the serious environmental pollutions for now days as impact of industrial development in several countries. Heavy metals give toxic effects on human health and cause several serious diseases. Several techniques have been using for removing heavy metal contaminants from the environmental but these techniques have limitations such as high cost, long time, logistical problems and mechanical complexity. Phytoremediation can be used as an alternative solution for heavy metal remediation process because of its advantages as a cost-effective, efficient, environment- and eco-friendly technology based on the use of metal-accumulating plants. According to previous studies, several plants have a high potential as heavy metals bioaccumulator and can be used for phytoremediation process of heavy metals.

  10. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Imitation Biological Treatment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang; Chen, Jun; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Zhongkai; Cheng, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the treatment methods of heavy metal pollution in soils were analyzed, the existence and transformation of heavy metals in soil were explored, and the mechanism of heavy metal absorption by plants was studied. It was concluded that the main form of plants absorb heavy metals in the soil is exchangeable. The main mechanism was that the plant cell wall can form complex with heavy metals, so that heavy metals fixed on the cell wall, and through the selective absorption of plasma membrane into the plant body. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of the adsorbed material was analyzed. According to the results of some researchers, it was found that the mechanism of adsorption of heavy metals was similar to that of plants. According to this, using adsorbent material as the main material, Imitate the principle of plant absorption of heavy metals in the soil to removing heavy metals in the soil at one-time and can be separated from the soil after adsorption to achieve permanent removal of heavy metals in the soil was feasibility.

  11. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  12. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  13. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effects of sulphur compounds on the volatile characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash from the MSW and sewage sludge co-combustion plant during the disposal process with higher temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu

    2012-11-01

    Fly ash sample was collected from a MSW co-combustion with sewage sludge plant and the volatilization of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was investigated before and after the water washing of fly ash, meanwhile, the influence of adding different sulphur compounds (S, NaS, Na2 SO3, Na2 SO4) on the volatilization of heavy metals was studied. The results showed that the contents of Zn, Pb and Mn were high, the Ni content was low and the Cd content reached 29.4 mg x kg(1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn increased, while that of Cd reduced in the fly ash after water washing. TG-DTG curves of fly ash showed highest weight loss in ranges of 579-732 degrees C and 949-1 200 degrees C, with 690 degrees C and 1 154 degrees C as the inflection point temperatures. The volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, following the order of Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Pb was more than 80% and that of Cu was less than 30%. After water washing, the volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, with the order of Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Zn was more than 20%. With the pretreatment of adding Na2 SO3 and Na2 SO4, the evaporation rates of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) were significantly decreased. After adding S, the evaporation rate of Zn was reduced, whereas the addition of Na2S reduced the evaporation rates of Cd and Zn. The evaporation rates of the four heavy metals were all reduced after adding Na2S in the washed fly ash. The evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were reduced with addition of S and Na2SO3 and the evaporation rate of Cd was reduced by adding the four sulfides. The results can provide a basis for the harmless disposal and maximized resource utilization and recycling of fly ash.

  15. Heavy metals in sediments from the Athens sewage outfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakostidis, G.; Grimanis, A.P.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Griggs, G.B.; Hopkins, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    Sediments in the upper Saronikos Gulf have been contaminated by heavy metals from the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from the area around Athens. Neutron activation analysis indicates concentrations of antimony, arsenic, chromium, gold, mercury, silver and zinc at 8 to 200 times greater than in the surrounding uncontaminated sediments. The bottom area affected by increased metal concentrations is at least 13km 2 and indicates a nearly radial dispersal pattern from the main outfall with higher concentrations extending to the southeast and southwest. (author)

  16. Present status and future perspective of R and D on lead heavy metal-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    Since a lead heavy metal (lead-bismuth eutectic) is chemically inert and has higher boiling point compared to a sodium, a lead heavy metal-cooled fast reactor can be inherently safe and has good nuclear characteristics and is so suitable to a medium-small size of the reactor. R and D on corrosion of a lead heavy metal has been carried out in the world and this issue might be solved to choose specific corrosion resistant alloys for structural materials and fuel cans of a lead heavy metal-cooled reactor. This article reviews present status and future perspective on lead heavy metal-cooled fast reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  18. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z.; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD Mn in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community

  19. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  20. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  1. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc is manifested both in inhibition of lettuce growth and determined, above all, by the nature contamination, soil properties and biological specificity of the test plants.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical characteristics and Heavy metal levels in Drinking Water ... composition was analysed using X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. Majority of the water samples had neutral pH (6.80 – 7.20) few were slightly alkaline and one was acidic. ... Heavy metals (copper and lead), rare earth metals (gallium, rubidium, ...

  3. Fractionation, characterization and speciation of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation ...

  4. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  5. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most dominant A. candidus on the isolation plates exhibited the highest activity for biosorption of heavy metals. The results indicate that fungi of contaminated soils have high level of metal biosorption capacities. Keywords: Fungi, industrial wastewater, biosorption, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  6. Applicability of concentration factors for the heavy metals hazard identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) used as criteria for heavy metals hazards identification are inadequate. These considerations is based on the argument that the BCF-BAF model was developed and validated for xenobiotic synthetic organic substances and that does not recognize the complex internal metal dynamic of uptake, the internal sequestration, and the essentially of some heavy metals [it

  7. Predicting toxic heavy metal movements in upper Sanyati catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from boreholes located in areas where mining, mineral processing and agricultural activities were dominant, yielded the highest values of toxic heavy metals. Dilution Attenuation Factor (DAF) for each toxic heavy metal was calculated to observe metal behaviour along the contaminant path for each season.

  8. Use of heavy ions to model radiation damage of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, S.V.; Vyshemirskij, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    The methods for modeling radiation damage of metals using heavy ions are reviewed and the results obtained are analyzed. It is shown that irradiation of metals with heavy ion can simulate neutron exposure with the equivalent dose with adequate accuracy and permits a detailed analysis of radiation damage of metals

  9. Competitive sorption of heavy metals by water hyacinth roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Hui-Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global issue severely constraining aquaculture practices, not only deteriorating the aquatic environment but also threatening the aquaculture production. One promising solution is adopting aquaponics systems where a synergy can be established between aquaculture and aquatic plants for metal sorption, but the interactions of multiple metals in such aquatic plants are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the absorption behaviors of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water by water hyacinth roots in both single- and binary-metal systems. Cu(II) and Cd(II) were individually removed by water hyacinth roots at high efficiency, accompanied with release of protons and cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . However, in a binary-metal arrangement, the Cd(II) sorption was significantly inhibited by Cu(II), and the higher sorption affinity of Cu(II) accounted for its competitive sorption advantage. Ionic exchange was identified as a predominant mechanism of the metal sorption by water hyacinth roots, and the amine and oxygen-containing groups are the main binding sites accounting for metal sorption via chelation or coordination. This study highlights the interactive impacts of different metals during their sorption by water hyacinth roots and elucidates the underlying mechanism of metal competitive sorption, which may provide useful implications for optimization of phytoremediation system and development of more sustainable aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Nora; Kumar, Vikas; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Giménez Papiol, Gemma

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals). Chemical speciation of heavy metals has been estimated with Eh-pH diagram and Visual MINTEQ software; heavy metal and free heavy metal ion concentrations were used as input data, together with microalgae growth inhibition, for Dr. Fit software. The final goal was to assess the suitability of the ecotoxicological test based on the growth inhibition of microalgae cultures, and the mathematic models based on these results, for regulatory and decision-making purposes. The toxicity of a given heavy metal is not only determined by its chemical speciation; other chemical and biological interaction play an important role in the final toxicity. Raphidocelis subcapitata 48h-h-EC50 for tested heavy metals (especially Cu and Zn) were in agreement with previous studies, when ion metal bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. Nevertheless, the calculated growth inhibition was not in agreement with the obtained inhibition when exposed to the artificial mixture of heavy metals or the natural sample. Interactions between heavy metal ions and the compounds of the culture media and/or the natural sample determine heavy metal bioavailability, and eventually their toxicity. More research is needed for facing the challenge posed by pollutant mixtures as they are present in natural environments, and make microalgae-based assays suitable for pollution management and regulatory purposes. Copyright

  11. Shells of Nerita gastropod bio-monitors of heavy metals pollution around the Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Minor and heavy metals Mg, Sr, Mn, Fe and Zn were measured in individual shells of four different Nerita species collected from Phuket Island, Thailand. Shell weight and crystallography were also recorded. Heavy metal concentrations were poorly correlated with both shell weight and crystallography. Out of the four species, N. albicilla acquired the highest heavy metal concentrations. Subsequently shells of N. albicilla collected from different sites around the Indian Ocean were compared for their metal concentrations. Shells of industrial sites in Kenya and India had significantly higher heavy metal concentrations than shells from pristine sites in Mauritius and Aldabra. Discussing the factors that may affect the shell metal concentration, the variations encountered herein are best attributed to the ambient bio-available metal concentration. (author)

  12. Investigation of heavy metal pollutants at various depths in the Gulf of Izmit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergül, Halim Aytekin; Varol, Tolga; Ay, Ümit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Monitoring seasonal variations in heavy metal pollution. • Heavy metal levels according to depth in seawater from the Gulf of Izmit. • Industrial activity and biological life co-exist in Izmit Bay. -- Abstract: In this study, we report results concerning the accumulation of heavy metals in seawater from Izmit Bay. The bay was divided into the three parts: the eastern, the central and the western basins. The goal of this study was to determine levels of heavy metals at various depths in the bay between April 2008 and May 2010. Liquid–liquid extractions were performed on seawater samples. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to measure levels of six metals: lead, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese and zinc. We applied our results to evaluate the status of pollution in the Gulf of Izmit. Significant seasonal differences in metal concentrations and higher concentrations of many metals in water near the shore are evidence for uncontrolled release of pollutants in the water

  13. Sublethal Heavy Metal Stress Stimulates Innate Immunity in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sublethal heavy metal stress as plant biotic elicitor for triggering innate immunity in tomato plant was investigated. Copper in in vivo condition induced accumulation of defense enzymes like peroxidase (PO, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, and β-1,3 glucanase along with higher accumulation of total phenol, antioxidative enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, and total chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the treatment also induced nitric oxide (NO production which was confirmed by realtime visualization of NO burst using a fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA and spectrophotometric analysis. The result suggested that the sublethal dose of heavy metal can induce an array of plant defense responses that lead to the improvement of innate immunity in plants.

  14. Heavy metal removal using reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gajdošová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study reverse osmosis characteristics for copper, nickel and zinc removal from technological aqueoussolutions. Reverse osmosis (RO is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retainsthe solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. A polyamide thin-film composite membrane TW30-1812-50was used. The difference in flux decline is significant. There is a significant difference in flux decline depending on the anions of usedheavy metal salts. The heavy metal concentration also has a significant influence on the membrane separation. There is alsoa significant difference in flux decline depending on the transmembrane pressure.

  15. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  16. Heavy metal decontamination of sludges and soils. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, J.

    1993-06-01

    This research project deals with decontamination technology for contaminated soil and sediments. A pilot plant for the decontamination of soil contaminated with heavy metals has been erected and is operated. The process is arranged in two steps: - heavy metal contaminated solid is decontaminted with acidic extraction. - the heavy metals are separated in a recyclable formation from the process solution you gain in the first process step. Heavy metal contaminated soil, heavy metal contaminated sediments (habour sediments) as well as residue from a soil regeneration plant have been successfully decontaminated in the pilot plan. An adaption of the process is necessary for various materials. High rates of mobilisation of heavy metals (e.g. lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc) were obtained, especially with soil which contains less organic matter. (orig.). 54 figs., 30 tabs., 45 refs [de

  17. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sandeep K.; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Christen, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC 50 in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far

  18. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  19. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  20. Effect of heavy metal and EDTA application on heavy metal uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Cadmium, lead and ... removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn (Prasad and ... collected for the analysis of heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr ... One hundred millgram (100 mg) of leaf tissues ..... Variability for the fatty acid.

  1. One-century sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in western Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Shenglu; Zhu, Qing; Li, Baojie; Wang, Junxiao; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Lian; Wu, Shaohua

    2018-05-16

    Long-term trends of sediment compositions are important for assessing the impact of human activities on the sediment and protecting the sediment environment. In this study, based on the contents of heavy metals and the Pb isotope ratios in lake sediments, atmospheric dustfall and soil in Yixing, China, the representative heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd) in lake sediments from western Taihu Lake were studied. The evolution history of heavy metals in the local environment was constructed for the past 100 years. From 1892 to the 1990s, the anthropogenic fluxes of the representative heavy metals were negligible, indicating minimal anthropogenic emissions of heavy metals. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic fluxes of the representative heavy metals began to increase, concurrent with the economic growth and development in the western Taihu Lake Basin after the Chinese economic reform. The maximum flux percentage of the heavy metals in the sediments, caused by human activities, is 23.0% for Zn, 31.6% for Pb, 39.5% for Cr and 85.3% for Cd, indicating that most of the Cd comes from human activities. The Cd content in the western Taihu Lake Basin was significantly higher than that in the other areas, and the rapid development of the industry in the western Taihu Lake Basin and ceramics in Yixing led to the enrichment of heavy metals in local sediments. Since the 21st century, measures have been taken to control the pollution of heavy metals, including the increase in local government attention and the deployment of environmental monitoring technology. However, heavy metal content remains high, and the Pb content is still increasing. The ratios of Pb isotopes show that the main sources of heavy metals in the western Taihu Lake sediments, the local soil of Yixing and the atmospheric dustfall are coal combustion, leaded gasoline combustion, industrial wastewater and domestic sewage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaching of heavy metals from timah langat amang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri bin Othman

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated leaching studies of amang from Timah Langat for heavy metals showed that the material was rather stable. From almost 24 types of heavy metals contained in the material, the metal that leached out most was Al, followed by Pb, U, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, Y and La but at smaller quantities. The studies also showed that amang was very porous. The high seepage rate resulted in the solubilities of the metals not reaching equilibrium. In that situation, the leaching of heavy metals from amang was dependent on the seepage rate of water, the height of the material, the volume of water that seeped through and the solubility of the metals

  3. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  4. A higher twist correction to heavy quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Soper, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    The leading twist prediction for heavy quark production and a model for a higher twist correction that may be important for charm production was discussed. The correction arises from the interaction of the charm quark with spectator quarks

  5. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  6. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  7. THE STUDY OF HEAVY METAL FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY ATOMIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion V. POPESCU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF techniques we analyzed the contents of heavy metals ( Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Ti, Sr, Co, Bi from eight wild mushrooms and soil substrate samples (48 samples of eight fungal species and 32 underlying soil samples, collected from ten forest sites of Dambovița County Romania. It was determined that the elements, especially heavy metals, in soil were characteristic of the acidic soils of the Romanian forest lands and are influenced by industrial pollution. Analytical possibilities of AAS and EDXRF analytical techniques have been compared and the heavy metal transfer from substrate to mushrooms has been studied. The coefficient of accumulation of essential and heavy metals has been calculated as well. Heavy metal contents of all analyzed mushrooms were generally higher than previously reported in literature.

  8. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2014-06-02

    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthetic biology for microbial heavy metal biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-02-01

    Using recombinant DNA technology, various whole-cell biosensors have been developed for detection of environmental pollutants, including heavy metal ions. Whole-cell biosensors have several advantages: easy and inexpensive cultivation, multiple assays, and no requirement of any special techniques for analysis. In the era of synthetic biology, cutting-edge DNA sequencing and gene synthesis technologies have accelerated the development of cell-based biosensors. Here, we summarize current technological advances in whole-cell heavy metal biosensors, including the synthetic biological components (bioparts), sensing and reporter modules, genetic circuits, and chassis cells. We discuss several opportunities for improvement of synthetic cell-based biosensors. First, new functional modules must be discovered in genome databases, and this knowledge must be used to upgrade specific bioparts through molecular engineering. Second, modules must be assembled into functional biosystems in chassis cells. Third, heterogeneity of individual cells in the microbial population must be eliminated. In the perspectives, the development of whole-cell biosensors is also discussed in the aspects of cultivation methods and synthetic cells.

  10. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.; Perveen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Metals contamination is a persistent problem at many contaminated sites. In the U.S., the most commonly occurring metals at Superfund sites are lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury. The presence of metals in surface and ground waters, and soils can pose a significant threat to human health and ecological systems. Surface water and groundwater many be contaminated with metals from wastewater discharges or by direct contact with metals contaminated soils, sludges, mining wastes and debris. Due to use of sewage water and industrial effluents for agriculture in NWFP, there is a great threat to the human and animal health. In a survey of sewage water from three channels, it was found that 10 out of 18 samples ha lead content above the safe limits, while two in cadmium and 8 in chromium. While in soils irrigated with these channels, all the 18 samples were high in Cu and Pb, and 6 in Mn. As regards plants growing on these soils, samples of garlic, 4 of wheat and 3 of berseem were high in Pb. Cd content was high in 5 garlic samples, 5 wheat and 3 berseem. Effluents from two industries were high in Pb and four in Ni. In another study, all the nine water samples were high in Cu, 3 in Cd, and 6 in Pb. A survey of 20 Industries in Industrial Estate Hattar showed that all the effluent samples collected from these Industries were above the safe limits in Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. From these studies, it seems that use of sewage water and industrial effluents for longer period can create heavy metals hazard in agriculture in NWFP. (author)

  12. Adsorption of heavy metal in freeway by asphalt block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals are toxic, persistent, and carcinogenic in freeway. Various techniques are available for the removal of heavy metals from waste water among soils during freeway including ion-exchange, membrane filtration, electrolysis, coagulation, flotation, and adsorption. Among them, bio-sorption processes are widely used for heavy metal and other pollutant removal due to its sustainable, rapid and economic. In this paper, heavy metal removal facilitated by adsorption in plants during freeway was illustrated to provide concise information on exploring the adsorption efficiency.

  13. Heavy metals in the cell nucleus - role in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna; Pawlas, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    People are exposed to heavy metals both in an occupational and natural environment. The most pronounced effects of heavy metals result from their interaction with cellular genetic material packed in form of chromatin. Heavy metals influence chromatin, mimicking and substituting natural microelements in various processes taking place in the cell, or interacting chemically with nuclear components: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. This paper is a review of current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals on chromatin, exerted at the level of various nuclear components.

  14. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  15. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Miriama Kopernická; Luboš Harangozo; Radovan Stanovič; Pavol Trebichalský; Petra Kavalcová

    2014-01-01

    In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86...

  16. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...

  17. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Heavy metal pollution in drinking water - a global risk for the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fabian Fernandez

    parts of the world heavy metal (HM) concentrations in drinking water are higher than some international guideline values. ..... become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches ...... physiological and hygienic needs. Monitoring ...

  19. Low-cost bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthy, P.; Golan-Goldhrish, A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution by toxic metals, especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr) and radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 226 Ra) is a potential hazard to health and welfare of mankind. Rapid industrial revolution has left an international legacy of soil and water contaminated with a combination of toxic and potentially carcinogenic compounds and heavy metals. Many of the contaminated sites were abandoned due to high cost of traditional clean-up approaches. Various approaches are being practiced to decontaminate heavy metals and radionuclides from polluted-soil. Remediation of heavy metal and radionuclides contaminated soils poses a significant expense to many industries and government organizations. Remediation cost in the United States and European Union alone is expected to exceed US$20 billion annually. Bioremediation strategy depends on the limitations of technology, cost and nature of the contaminant in the soil. Certain higher plants are capable of accumulation of heavy metals (2-5 %) in roots and shoots to the level far exceeding those present in the soils, these are called hyper-accumulators. Using heavy metal hyper-accumulating higher plants for environmental clean-up of contaminated soil is a recently emerged technology known as 'phytoremediation'. Genetically engineered (Transgenic) plants have a remarkable potential to absorb heavy metals and show a new avenue for biotechnology technique in Phytoremediation. The cost-effective approach of using heavy metal and radionuclide hyper-accumulators in phytoremediation is discussed. (author)

  20. Assessment of spatial distribution of soil heavy metals using ANN-GA, MSLR and satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Arman; Delavar, Mohammad Amir; Kaboudin, Babak; Askari, Mohammad Sadegh

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to assess and compare heavy metal distribution models developed using stepwise multiple linear regression (MSLR) and neural network-genetic algorithm model (ANN-GA) based on satellite imagery. The source identification of heavy metals was also explored using local Moran index. Soil samples (n = 300) were collected based on a grid and pH, organic matter, clay, iron oxide contents cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined for each sample. Visible/near-infrared reflectance (VNIR) within the electromagnetic ranges of satellite imagery was applied to estimate heavy metal concentrations in the soil using MSLR and ANN-GA models. The models were evaluated and ANN-GA model demonstrated higher accuracy, and the autocorrelation results showed higher significant clusters of heavy metals around the industrial zone. The higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn was noted under industrial lands and irrigation farming in comparison to barren and dryland farming. Accumulation of industrial wastes in roads and streams was identified as main sources of pollution, and the concentration of soil heavy metals was reduced by increasing the distance from these sources. In comparison to MLSR, ANN-GA provided a more accurate indirect assessment of heavy metal concentrations in highly polluted soils. The clustering analysis provided reliable information about the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals and their sources.

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  2. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  3. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondhand smoke is associated with heavy metal concentrations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guo, Li; Chen, Xingjie; Xiang, Mingli; Yang, Fang; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhang, Guang-Hui

    2018-02-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has adverse effects on health, particularly for children. Our purpose was to analyze the correlation between SHS exposure and heavy metal concentrations in children. The investigation was conducted in Xinxiang County, Henan Province, China, from August 2015 to December 2015. In total, 821 students (433 boys and 388 girls) were recruited, and the contents of heavy metals in their hair-including chromium, manganese, nickel, arsenic, lead, and cadmium-were detected by ICP-MS. The children's parents were informed, and a questionnaire was conducted, which included questions about smoking habits and demographic characteristics. Our results indicate that all parent smokers are fathers, 48.9% of fathers who are smokers, but 25.2% of fathers smoke in front of their children. The levels of chromium (median girls vs boys, μg/g) (2.36 vs 2.06, p secondhand smoking (SHS) exposure was inquired by face-to-face investigation of their parents. We illustrated that children exposed to SHS have increased lead and cadmium accumulations in the body. What is Known: • Secondhand smoke (SHS) has adverse effects on health, particularly for children. • There might be correlation between SHS exposure and heavy metal concentrations in children. What is New: • The levels of chromium, nickel, arsenic, and lead in girls were significantly higher than in boys. • SHS exposure in children was correlated with increasing levels of lead and cadmium in their hair because of exposure to SHS.

  5. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Levels of Cu, Mn, Pd and Zn in mushroom samples analysed were ... metal concentration in soil and fungal factors such as species ..... Levels of trace elements in the fruiting bodies ... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals.

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metals Level of River Kaduna at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... status and the implications of the heavy metal pollution on human health and the environment. ... metals discharged into the river especially from the industries and municipal ...

  7. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Biosorption, bacteria, heavy metal, dead bacterial cells, immobilization. INTRODUCTION ... Moreover, the metals cannot be degraded to harmless products and ... a sterile plastic container and taken immediately to the laboratory.

  8. Waste printing paper as analogous adsorbents for heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    heavy metals uptake from aqueous solutions but the recovery efficacy as economic and environmental ... system. 1 . Wastes containing metals are directly or indirectly discharge into the environment ... According to World health Organization. 5.

  9. Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Kano Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-23

    Sep 23, 2017 ... toxic metals in the body system of the consumers of these herbal preparations in order to attain to safe and effective ..... heavy metal availability and vegetation recovery at a grown ... World Health Organization (WHO,. 2007).

  10. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  11. Rhizofiltration of heavy metals from the tannery sludge by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The accumulation of toxic metals in the plants was significantly increased, with increasing exposure time ..... in the conversion of organic carbon into carbon dioxide. It ... Once absorbed by the plants, toxic or heavy metals can.

  12. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  13. Heavy Metal Analyses and Nutritional Composition of Raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Nutritional composition, heavy metals, fresh water fishes, marine water fishes, lagoons. Introduction. Fish is an .... the flame and 90% passed out as waste. The flame ..... metals in surface water, sediments, fish and periwinkles of ...

  14. Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    The distribution and occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment, water and benthic animals of the Lagos lagoon ... The concentrations of the metals detected in the lagoon sediment and water ..... waste products contaminating water sources.

  15. Heavy metals in trees and energy crops - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, Lars

    1995-12-01

    This literature review deals with the use of energy crops for cleaning of soils from heavy metals. It also deals with the use of low accumulating energy crops to be used on strongly contaminated soils where a low uptake of heavy metals is preferred, for example on mining deposits. In addition to the efforts to reduce the sources for heavy metal contamination of soils (for example commercial fertilizers and atmospheric deposition) the uptake and removal of heavy metals from the soils by the use of energy crops have recently been discussed as a method for cleaning of soils. Species from the Salix family (willow) have a greater potential for accumulating heavy metals than cereals which makes them interesting for this purpose. The Salix family consists of species with a great genetic variation. This will probably make it possible to find or develop clones with different characteristics suitable for cleaning of contaminated soils as well as for plant covering of soils that are extremely contaminated by heavy metals. In the former case an accumulation of heavy metals in the harvested parts, the shoots, is preferred. In the later case clones that do not accumulate heavy metals and maybe also clones with only root accumulation are preferred. There are also Salix clones with a specific accumulation of heavy metals which makes it possible to clean soils from a toxic metal and at the same time avoid the risk for deficiency of essential metals, for example Zn. The greatest potential to clean soils by the use of energy crops, is when the contamination levels in the soils are low, the areas to clean are large and when the time needed for cleaning is of minor importance. The most suitable soils are those where the metal contamination is located in the top soil layer and where the heavy metal concentrations in the sub soil layer are still low. 58 refs, 8 tabs, 1 fig

  16. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals.

  17. Speciation of Aquatic Heavy Metals in Humic Substances by$^{111m}$Cd/$^{199m}$Hg-TDPAC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Humic substances are ubiquitous in waters and soils and act as complexing agents for different heavy metals, e.g. Cd, Hg. Toxicity, reactivity, fixation and migration are therefore strongly influenced by the interactions between heavy metals and humic substances. Humic substances derive from postmortal materials such as rotten plants, have dark colours and usually a molecular weight between 500 and 10~000 Dalton. Complex formation studies with different heavy metal ions indicate at least two different kinds of metal sites. Usually, these studies are restricted to heavy metal concentrations 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the natural heavy metal abundance (i.e. 10$^{-10}$ molar). This serious limitation can be overcome by the use of suitable radiosotope techniques capable of metal speciation at extreme sensitivity levels such as TDPAC (Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation of~$\\gamma$-rays). Thus, we studied the interaction of heavy metals with humic substances by monitoring the nuclear quadru...

  18. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, A; Hovmand, M F; Johnsen, I

    1978-10-01

    Transport of heavy metals from the atmosphere to the soil and vegetation takes place by dust fall, bulk precipitation, and gas/aerosol adsorption processes. Atmospheric dry and wet deposition of the heavy metals lead, zinc, nickel, vanadium, iron, and copper over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations throughout the area for 12 months. Epigeic bryophytes, epiphytic lichen, and topsoil samples were analyzed. A linear correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes was found. An exponential correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil was noted. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described, and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished. (10 diagrams, 8 graphs, 13 references, 2 tables)

  19. Experimental testing facilities for ultrasonic measurements in heavy liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nicolescu, D.; Nitu, A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM), like lead or its alloy, Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE), makes them attractive as coolant candidates in advanced nuclear systems. The opaqueness, that is common to all liquid metals, disables all optical methods. For this reason ultrasound waves are used in different applications in heavy liquid metal technology, for example for flow and velocity measurements and for inspection techniques. The practical use of ultrasound in heavy liquid metals still needs to be demonstrated by experiments. This goal requires heavy liquid metal technology facility especially adapted to this task. In this paper is presented an experimental testing facility for investigations of Heavy Liquid Metals acoustic properties, designed and constructed in RATEN ICN. (authors)

  20. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  1. Scaling behavior of heavy fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a, Chernova str. Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are fundamental systems in physics that are best studied experimentally, which until very recently have lacked theoretical explanations. This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as heavy-fermion (HF) metals and two-dimensional (2D) Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the scaling behavior of HF metals can be described within the framework of a fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) and an extended quasiparticle paradigm that allow us to explain the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in strongly correlated Fermi systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Having analyzed the collected facts on strongly correlated Fermi systems with quite a different microscopic nature, we find these to exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior at FCQPT. We show both analytically and using arguments based entirely on the experimental grounds that the data collected on very different strongly correlated Fermi systems have a universal scaling behavior, and materials with strongly correlated fermions can unexpectedly be uniform in their diversity. Our analysis of strongly correlated systems such as HF metals and 2D Fermi systems is in the context of salient experimental results. Our calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, the scales and thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties are in good agreement with experimental facts.

  2. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  3. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  4. Heavy metal residues in tissues of marine turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of marine turtles are presented. The most frequently monitored elements are mercury, cadmium and lead; and the tissues mainly analysed in nearly all the stranded individuals are muscle, liver and kidney. The highest mercury and cadmium levels were found in liver and kidney respectively; the majority of the lead burden existed in bones and carapace, while arsenic was present mainly in muscle tissue. Mercury occurred quite completely as methylmercury in muscle, whereas in liver the main form was the inorganic one. Arsenic was exclusively present in the metallorganic form either in muscle tissue or in liver. Metals in the eggs were mainly present in the yolk. Significantly higher concentration of mercury, copper, zinc and iron were found in yolk than albumen, while shell contained highest levels of manganese and copper. The load of trace metals in these animals strictly correlated with the species seems to depend on their different food behaviour

  5. Heavy metal residues in tissues of marine turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O

    2003-04-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of marine turtles are presented. The most frequently monitored elements are mercury, cadmium and lead; and the tissues mainly analysed in nearly all the stranded individuals are muscle, liver and kidney. The highest mercury and cadmium levels were found in liver and kidney respectively; the majority of the lead burden existed in bones and carapace, while arsenic was present mainly in muscle tissue. Mercury occurred quite completely as methylmercury in muscle, whereas in liver the main form was the inorganic one. Arsenic was exclusively present in the metallorganic form either in muscle tissue or in liver. Metals in the eggs were mainly present in the yolk. Significantly higher concentration of mercury, copper, zinc and iron were found in yolk than albumen, while shell contained highest levels of manganese and copper. The load of trace metals in these animals strictly correlated with the species seems to depend on their different food behaviour.

  6. Heavy metal contamination in canned foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, W.A.; Flex, H.; Allan, K.F.; Mahmoud, R.M.; Abdel-Haleem, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper aims to the study of contamination of different foodstuffs, that are consumed frequently in our daily life, such as tomatoes concentrate, jam, tuna, and bean, as a result of canning in glass or tin cans. The effect of the storage time on the contamination of the aforementioned foods with heavy metals was also investigated. The technique used for the simultaneous determination of these elements was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique was selected due to its high accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity. In the light of the obtained results it was suggested that tin cans is the best choice for canning jam and it is suitable also for preserving tuna. On the other hand, glass utensils were found to be the most suitable for preserving tomatoes concentrate. detailed studies are needed to throw more light on the effect of canning material on the concentration level of both essential and toxic trace elements in bean

  7. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-01-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated

  8. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, J; Szpak, J; Hamric, T; Cutright, T

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  9. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  10. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  11. Heavy Metal Content in Terraced Rice Fields at Sruwen Tengaran Semarang - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindarwati, Yulis; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih; Sudarno

    2018-02-01

    The presence of heavy metal on agricultural soils can be caused not only natural factors but also due to human intervention. Differences in management and lack of understanding of farmers in the production input of fertilizers and pesticides ensued in land ravaged. Periodic testing of paddy fields is necessary to minimize the contaminants from being absorbed by plants that will have an impact on health decline. The purpose of the assessment was to identify the heavy metal content in the terraced rice field in Sruwen Village, Tengaran District, Semarang Regency. Survey was conducted in February 2017. Sampling on terraced rice fields of different heights consisted of upper, middle, and upper down. Taken as many as eight single points and composed at a depth of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. The identification results showed that heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu were present at all altitudes. Heavy Metals Pb and Cd at a depth of 0-20 cm were higher from 20-40 cm in the upper and lower rice fields but lower in the middle rice field. Cu heavy metal at a depth of 0-20 cm was higher than 20-40 cm in all altitude land. The heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu was still below the heavy metal standard set by the European Union and India.

  12. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  13. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  14. Irradiation of Liquid Fungi Isolated Media from Contaminated Sources with Heavy Metals Additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, E.; Mohamed, A.A.; El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Egyptian workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centres, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Wastewater, particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries, contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and bio sorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dis functions and cognitive impairment in children. Seventy six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi with respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni with maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55 and 0.55 mg/g by fungi Pb 3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, C r 8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni 27 (A. niger), respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as bio sorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. The F-ratio was 0.55 and gives non-significant as irradiated

  15. Heavy metal levels in soil samples from highly industrialized Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anyakora

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The effect of heavy metals on the environment is of serious concern and threatens life in all forms. Environmental ... have affected the quality of soil due to contamination of soil with heavy metals and the consequent effects on the ..... tested for remediation of chromium-contaminated soils. (Collen, 2003).

  16. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  17. Selected mineral and heavy metal concentrations in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Pb in the dead vultures were generally above values characteristic of heavy metal poisoning. ... of the food chain), may accumulate and concentrate heavy metals in their ..... µg/g wet weight) (Honda et al., 1990), which validates the order of ...

  18. Heavy metals concentration in various tissues of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals like cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead and mercury were measured in the various tissues of Labeo rohita and Channa striatus and in the water samples collected from ... The values of heavy metals concentration in the present study are within the maximum permissible levels for drinking water and fish.

  19. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  20. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and health implication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of common heavy metals were conducted at Onitsha, Anambra State, the most urbanized city in Southeastern Nigeria. It was discovered that both surface and subsurface water were heavily polluted. Seven (7) heavy metals namely: arsenic (As+2), cadmium (Cd+2), lead (Pb+2), mercury (Hg+2), zinc (Zn+2), copper ...

  1. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  2. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  3. Occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in indoor settled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed widespread heavy metals contamination especially Fe and Zn, which were present as the highest concentration while Cd was the lowest in the settled particles (dust). The order of occurrence of heavy metals in settled particles (dust) collected indoor in 2007 and 2008 respectively were as follows, ...

  4. Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Beauty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential carcinogenicity of human exposure to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on African black and beauty soaps. Hence, this study examines the presence of some heavy metals in selected African black and beauty soaps commonly used in ...

  5. Heavy metal biosorption sites in Penicillium cyclopium | Tsekova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass of Penicillium cyclopium was subjected to chemical treatment to study the role of the functional groups in the biosorption of heavy metal ions. The modifications of the functional groups were examined with infrared spectroscopy. Hydroxyl groups were identified as providing the major sites of heavy metal ...

  6. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while VOCs were determined by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector ...

  7. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many organic and inorganic pollutants, including heavy metals are being transported and mixed with the cultivated soils and water. Heavy metals are the most dangerous pollutants as they are nondegradable and accumulate and become toxic to plants and animals. An experiment was conducted in the glasshouse to ...

  8. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms play a vital role in heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater by the mechanisms of biosorption. In this study, heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from an electroplating industrial effluent samples that uses copper, cadmium and lead for plating. These isolates were characterized to evaluate their ...

  9. assessment of heavy metals concentration in drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    guidelines (WHO 2005). Findings suggest that continues water quality monitoring should be carried out to check the concentration levels of heavy metals in that area, to prevent them from been above the limit of WHO. Keywords: Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers, Heavy Metals, Water, Kauru Local. Government Area.

  10. Uptake and elimination kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthworm inoculation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil is thought to catalyze the bioremediation. Most bioremediation studies focus on the petroleum hydrocarbon content and not on the heavy metals. Here, the uptake kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm in used engine oil contaminated soil was investigated.

  11. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    karst caves and water systems in the caves are well developed. So, heavy metals can contaminate cave envi- ronment and affect cave animals. Karst topography is widely distributed in Guizhou province, China, accounting for 73.8% of the total land area. So, the examination of heavy metal pollution in cave soil and water ...

  12. Heavy metal accumulation in under crown Olea europaea L forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal concentration in plants increased in site irrigation with wastewater. Zn, Pb and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in soils and Pb, Cr and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in roots of plants irrigated with wastewater. It was concluded that the use of wastewater in urban forest enriched the soils with heavy metals ...

  13. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  14. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  15. Heavy metal contamination of some vegetables from pesticides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable farming in developing countries is characterized by the indiscriminate application of pesticides and the resultant pollution of agricultural soil with heavy metals that form constituents of these pesticides. These heavy metals have long term toxicity to human and other biota in the ecosystem. This problem is ...

  16. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from these sources were discovered to pose severe toxicological risks to the environment and human health. Samples of mosses were collected at eight different locations in each ...

  17. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal and trace element composition of the powdered aerial parts of Origanum sipyleum L. and its water extract. Methods: The heavy metal and trace elements content of the powdered plant material and 2 % aqueous extract were evaluated by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with silicon ...

  18. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  19. Heavy metals – a silent threat to health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kosek-Hoehne

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution makes it impossible to produce goods and food from products completely free from heavy metals contamination. That is why we should focus on reducing the amount of heavy metals to the minimum when it comes to the world around us.

  20. selected heavy metals in some vegetables produced through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiib

    Haramaya University; P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 10013 ... and trace elements that have potential health benefits [1]. ... leads to a build-up of heavy metals in soils and foods [3]. Exposure of ... Based on the effect of heavy metals on ... (Buck Scientific Model 210VGP AAS, East Norwalk, USA) with air-acetylene flame.

  1. Heavy Metal Pollution of Vegetable Crops Irrigated with Wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Cr (< 0.006), Cd (< 0.002) and Co (< 0.005), soil Fe (164.38; 162.92), Mn (39.39; 20.09), Cu (7.21; ... extent of heavy metal contamination, steps must be taken to reduce human activities at the sites. ...... The degree of toxicity of heavy metals to.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution pattern of heavy metals in petrol stations, abattoirs, mechanic workshops and hospital incinerator sites were Mn > Zn > Pb > Cd, while for dumpsites Zn > Mn > Pb > Cd. Pollution index indicated that soil qualities varied between slightly contaminated to severely polluted status. This showed that the heavy metal ...

  3. Determination of the levels of heavy metals in cocoa products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankyi Enock

    2009-06-01

    Fermented and dried cocoa beans from all the major cocoa-producing regions in Ghana were analyzed for levels of the following heavy metals: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. The shells of the beans which usually do not form a part of the edible portion of the beans were removed and analyzed separately from the cocoa nibs (de-shelled beans) for all the elements above. To determine the distribution of metals during processing of the beans soxhlet extractions of fat from pulverised cocoa nibs was performed and cocoa powders obtained analyzed for their levels of heavy metals. Three commercial brands of 'natural' cocoa powders on the local market were also analyzed to determine the levels of these metals. The analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) following a microwave-assisted digestion process. The levels of toxic metals lead, cadmium and arsenic were found to be low (≤ 0.020 μg/g, ≤ 0.087 μg/g, < 0.001 μg/g, respectively) and well within the acceptable limits set by the WHO (0.100 μg/g, 0.100 μg/g, and 0.010 μg/g respectively). However, the levels of zinc copper, iron and manganese were however quite high. With a high fat content of the cocoa beans (approximately 50%) and greater portioning of metals into the non-fat portions of the beans, metals levels were considerably higher (almost double) in processed cocoa than in the cocoa itself. (au)

  4. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by sawdust of deciduous trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, D.; Stankovic, V.; Gorgievski, M.; Bogdanovic, G.; Kovacevic, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of heavy metal ions from synthetic solutions was performed using sawdust of beech, linden and poplar trees. The adsorption depends on the process time, pH of the solution, type of ions, initial concentration of metals and the sawdust concentration in suspension. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium for less than 20 min. The adsorption equilibrium follows Langmuir adsorption model. The ion exchange mechanism was confirmed assuming that the alkali-earth metals from the adsorbent are substituted by heavy metal ions and protons. On lowering the initial pH, the adsorption capacity decreased, achieving a zero value at a pH close to unity. The maximum adsorption capacity (7-8 mg g -1 of sawdust) was achieved at a pH between 3.5 and 5 for all the studied kinds of sawdust. The initial concentration of the adsorbate and the concentration of sawdust strongly affect the process. No influence of particles size was evidenced. A degree of adsorption higher than 80% can be achieved for Cu 2+ ions but it is very low for Fe 2+ ions, not exceeding 10%.

  5. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  6. Heavy metals from Kueishantao shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, offshore northeast Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Gang; Lyu, Shuang-Shuang; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Lebrato, Mario; Li, Xiaohu; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Shallow water hydrothermal vents are a source of heavy metals leading to their accumulation in marine organisms that manage to live under extreme environmental conditions. This is the case at Kueishantao (KST) shallow-sea vents system offshore northeast Taiwan, where the heavy metal distribution in vent fluids and ambient seawater is poorly understood. This shallow vent is an excellent natural laboratory to understand how heavy and volatile metals behave in the nearby water column and ecosystem. Here, we investigated the submarine venting of heavy metals from KST field and its impact on ambient surface seawater. The total heavy metal concentrations in the vent fluids and vertical plumes were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than the overlying seawater values. When compared with deep-sea hydrothermal systems, the estimated KST end-member fluids exhibited much lower concentrations of transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn) but comparable concentrations of toxic metals such as Pb and As. This may be attributed to the lower temperature of the KST reaction zone and transporting fluids. Most of the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, As, Y, and Ba) in the plumes and seawater mainly originated from hydrothermal venting, while Cd and Pb were largely contributed by external sources such as contaminated waters (anthropogenic origin). The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the surface seawater indicated that seafloor venting impacts ambient seawater. The measurable influence of KST hydrothermal activity, however, was quite localized and limited to an area of heavy metals emanating from the yellow KST hydrothermal vent were: 430-2600 kg Fe, 24-145 kg Mn, 5-32 kg Ba, 10-60 kg As, 0.3-1.9 kg Cd, and 2-10 kg Pb. This study provides important data on heavy metals from a shallow-sea hydrothermal field, and it helps to better understand the environmental impact of submarine shallow hydrothermal venting.

  7. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    M. Taufik Kaisupy; Abdul Rozak; Endang Rochyatun

    2006-01-01

    Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Mu...

  8. Effects of heavy metals (other than mercury) on marine and estuarine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G W

    1971-01-01

    Heavy metals such as copper, zinc and lead are normal constituents of marine and estuarine environments. When additional quantities are introduced from industrial wastes or sewage they enter the biogeochemical cycle and, as a result of being potentially toxic, may interfere with the ecology of a particular environment. In different marine organisms, the behavior of heavy metals is described in terms of their absorption, storage, excretion and regulation when different concentrations are available in the environment. At higher concentrations, the detrimental effects of heavy metals become apparent and their different toxic effects and factors affecting them are also described. 78 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Microbial functional genes enriched in the Xiangjiang River sediments with heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Shiqi; Li, Mingming; Gan, Min; Zhu, Jianyu; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Xueduan

    2016-08-08

    Xiangjiang River (Hunan, China) has been contaminated with heavy metal for several decades by surrounding factories. However, little is known about the influence of a gradient of heavy metal contamination on the diversity, structure of microbial functional gene in sediment. To deeply understand the impact of heavy metal contamination on microbial community, a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) has been used to study the functional genes structure, composition, diversity and metabolic potential of microbial community from three heavy metal polluted sites of Xiangjiang River. A total of 25595 functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes have been detected in three sites, and different diversities and structures of microbial functional genes were observed. The analysis of gene overlapping, unique genes, and various diversity indices indicated a significant correlation between the level of heavy metal contamination and the functional diversity. Plentiful resistant genes related to various metal were detected, such as copper, arsenic, chromium and mercury. The results indicated a significantly higher abundance of genes involved in metal resistance including sulfate reduction genes (dsr) in studied site with most serious heavy metal contamination, such as cueo, mer, metc, merb, tehb and terc gene. With regard to the relationship between the environmental variables and microbial functional structure, S, Cu, Cd, Hg and Cr were the dominating factor shaping the microbial distribution pattern in three sites. This study suggests that high level of heavy metal contamination resulted in higher functional diversity and the abundance of metal resistant genes. These variation therefore significantly contribute to the resistance, resilience and stability of the microbial community subjected to the gradient of heavy metals contaminant in Xiangjiang River.

  10. Sewage sludge pyrolysis - the distribution of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, R.; Widmer, F.; Brunner, P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper informs about the heavy metal contents of sewage sludges and discusses the origin of household, industry and surface sewerage of the respective heavy metals. The study aimed at assessing whether and in how far heavy metal volatility may be checked by reducing the temperature during sewage sludge pyrolysis. The testing equipment used was made of glass/silica glass. Instead of in particles heavy metals were precipitated in the gaseous state. Except from mercury heavy metals are retained by the ashes up to temperatures from 450 to 555/sup 0/C. Due to the persistence of mercury care should be taken to keep the sewerage clear of it from the very beginning. Emissions caused by reactor materials can be avoided by choosing appropriate pyrolysis reactors.

  11. [Biosorption of heavy metals in fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pei-wu; Hu, Wei; Hu, Ya-qiang; Tan, Zhao-yang

    2014-09-01

    To explore the biosorption technology of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium. Four factors including fungal mycelium amount, adsorption time, pH value and temperature were employed to estimate the fungal biomass adsorption conditions for removing the heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction. Then an orthogonal experimental design was taken to optimize the biosorption process, and the removal efficiency was also evaluated. Under the optimized conditions of 1.0 g/50 mL Fluoritum decoction, 3 hours adsorption time, pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C, a result of 70.12% heavy metals removal rate was accomplished with 35.99% calcium ion loss. The study indicates that removing of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction through fungal mycelium is feasible, and the experiment results can also provide a basis for further research on biosorption of heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine

  12. Indicators of Lake Temsah Potential by some heavy metals Heavy Metals in Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Sabour, M.F.; Aly, R.O.; Khalil, M.T.; Attwa, A.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental impact of industrial, agricultural and domestic waster on heavy metals sediment content in lake Temsah has been investigated. Seven sites were chosen, differ in nature of activity and quantity of wastes, namely from south to north-west; Arab contractors shipyard workshop(A), The junction between the western logon and the lake(B), El-Temsah workshop (C), El-Temsah shipyard (private workshop) (D), El-Karakat workshop for SCA (E), El-Forsan drain out fall to the lake (F) and SCA Press outlet (G). Eight of heavy metal concentrations of concern (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) were estimated in sediment samples collected from different chosen sites during the seasons; summer , autumn 1995 and winter , spring 1996. Results of this study reveal that pollution is directly related to the type of the activity in each site. Sediment samples results showed that the most suffering sites were found to be in the order of B> D> C> G> F, and the least polluted ones were E> A. And the highest polluted season was summer, whereas the least one was winter. It is obvious that the general mean values of Cu, Ni and Cd are exceeding the allowed concentrations documented for diverse trace components in coastal sediments. Strict regulations that must be followed in order to minimize this pollution specially, by heavy metals from marine workshop

  13. Stress induced by heavy metals on breeding of magpie (Pica pica) from central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrintab, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to address the impacts of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) contamination on laying behavior, egg quality and breeding performance of Pica pica in north of Isfahan Province, Iran. During the breeding season of 2013, magpie's egg content and eggshell as well as nestling excrements and feathers were collected and total concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-OES. Except for Zn in nestling feathers, the significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed in nestling excrements than other samples. Also, comparison of heavy metals concentrations in egg content and eggshell showed that egg content had significantly higher concentrations of Zn and Pb, instead eggshell had significantly higher amount of Cu and Cd. Except for Cu, all heavy metals concentrations in eggshell had a negative relationship with morphological characters; and also concentration of Cu in egg content showed a significantly negative correlation with egg weight and volume. The most of heavy metals in nestling feathers and excrements had strongly positive correlations with each other. Also all heavy metals levels in eggshell and egg content had significantly positive correlations (except for Cu). Unhatched eggs had significantly lower weight but also greater levels of Zn, Cd, and Pb, than randomly collected eggs. No significant differences were observed for morphometric measurements of eggs between different sites, however, a decreased gradient was observed in egg volume toward the brick kiln site. Samples collected in brick kiln site accumulated higher concentrations of heavy metals than other sites. Although numbers of clutch size in brick kiln site were significantly higher than other sites, however, other breeding variable were lower than other sites. It can be suggested that ecosystem contamination may be caused to decrease the reproduction rate of Pica pica in brick kiln, probably by laying more poor quality eggs per clutch and nestling

  14. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.; Rastogi, S.C.

    1977-08-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chromium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P < 0.1). Nineteen percent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally high blood level of carboxyhemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed.

  15. Heavy metals in the landscape components of the Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ch. Sangadzhieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soil of nord-west part of Precaspian low-land and their subsequent distribution over the trophic chain: plant fodder - sheep are investiqаtеd. It was revealed that the highest biogenic accumulation is characteristic of Zn and Cu at all the levels of trophic chain. An increase in the transition coefficients for the most toxic elements Pb, Cd is observed, which is an evidence of their accumulation in the higher levels of trophic chain.

  16. Modeling of Heavy Metal Transformation in Soil Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, Kira; Nikovskaya, Galina N.

    2017-04-01

    The intensification of industrial activity leads to an increase in heavy metals pollution of soils. In our opinion, sludge from biological treatment of municipal waste water, stabilized under aerobic-anaerobic conditions (commonly known as biosolid), may be considered as concentrate of natural soil. In their chemical, physical and chemical and biological properties these systems are similar gel-like nanocomposites. These contain microorganisms, humic substances, clay, clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds, and so on involved into heteropolysaccharides matrix. It is known that microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of different nature substances in soil and its health maintenance. The regularities of transformation of heavy metal compounds in soil ecosystem were studied at the model of biosolid. At biosolid swelling its structure changing (gel-sol transition, weakening of coagulation contacts between metal containing nanoparticles, microbial cells and metabolites, loosening and even destroying of the nanocomposite structure) can occur [1, 2]. The promotion of the sludge heterotrophic microbial activities leads to solubilization of heavy metal compounds in the system. The microbiological process can be realized in alcaligeneous or acidogeneous regimes in dependence on the type of carbon source and followed by the synthesis of metabolites with the properties of flocculants and heavy metals extragents [3]. In this case the heavy metals solubilization (bioleaching) in the form of nanoparticles of hydroxycarbonate complexes or water soluble complexes with oxycarbonic acids is observed. Under the action of biosolid microorganisms the heavy metals-oxycarbonic acids complexes can be transformed (catabolised) into nano-sizing heavy metals- hydroxycarbonates complexes. These ecologically friendly complexes and microbial heteropolysaccharides are able to interact with soil colloids, stay in the top soil profile, and improve soil structure due

  17. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  18. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  19. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  20. Heavy metals in reindeer and their forage plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Eriksson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to assess the level of heavy metal transfer from forage plants to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L. in an area in northern Lapland affected from dust from an open pit copper mine. Botanical analyses of rumen contents from reindeer provided information about the main plant species in the diet. Representative plant material was collected from sample plots within an 8 km radius from the central part of the mine and from a reference area situated about 200 km upwind of the mining site. The following plant species were analysed: Bryoria jremontii, Br. juscescens, Cladina rangiferina, Equisetum fluviatile, Descbampsiaflexuosa, Eriopborum vaginatum, Salix glauca, Salix pbylicifolia, Betula nana, and Vaccini-um myrtillus. The greatest difference between metal concentrations in the plants collected from dust contaminated area and from the reference area was found in lichens. Copper is the main metallic component of the ore and was found in higher concentrations in lichens coming from the area around the mine than in lichens from the reference area. Smaller differences were found in vascular plants. Dust particles, remaining on outer surfaces after snow smelt contributed to a limited extent to the metal contents. Species—specific accumulation of metals was observed in some plants. The uptake of lead and cadmium in some vascular plants was somewhat higher in the reference area compared with plants growing in the perifery of the mining center, probably due to the metal concentrations in the bedrock. Organ material (liver and kidney was collected from reindeer in both areas. No noticable effect on metal concentrations in the liver of the reindeer were found. Although the lead, cadmium and copper concentrations were higher in the organs collected from animals in the reference area than in those from the mining area, the levels were still below the concentrations regarded as harmful for the animals from toxicological point of view. The

  1. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. Results. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Conclusions. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  2. The effects of fire temperatures on water soluble heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.; Martin, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire ash are majority composed by base cations, however the mineralized organic matter, led also available to transport a higher quantity of heavy metals that potentially could increase a toxicity in soil and water resources. The amount availability of these elements depend on the environment were the fire took place, burning temperature and combusted tree specie. The soil and water contamination from fire ash has been neglected, because the majority of studies are focused on base cations dynamic. Our research, beside contemplate major elements, is focused in to study the behavior of heavy metals released from ash slurries created at several temperatures under laboratory environment, prescribed fires and wildland fires. The results presented in these communication are preliminary and study the presence of Aluminium (Al3+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) of ash slurries generated in laboratory environment at several temperatures (150°, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, 400°,450°, 500°, 550°C) from Quercus suber, Quercus robur, Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster and from a low medium temperature prescribed fire in a forest dominated Quercus suber trees. We observed that ash produced at lower and medium temperatures (Pinus ashes. Fe2+ and Zn2+ showed a reduced concentration in test solution in relation to unburned sample at all temperatures of exposition. In the results obtained from prescribed fire, we identify a higher release of Al3+ and a decrease of the remain elements. The solubilization of these elements are related with pH levels and ash calcite content, because their ability to capture ions in solution. Moreover, the amount and the type of ions released in relation to unburned sample vary in each specie. In this study Al3+ release is related with Quercus species and Mn2+ with Pinus species. Fire ashes can be an environmental problem, because at long term can increase soil acidity. After all base cations have being leached, pH values decrease, and

  3. Heavy metal pollution and forest health in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shparyk, Y.S.; Parpan, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by high air pollution caused by emissions from numerous industries. We have been monitoring the state of forests in this region since 1989. The highest levels of tree defoliation (>30%) are found close to industrial emission sources and in the upper mountain forests of the Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions. This is caused by a combination of strong anthropogenic influences (pollution, illegal uses, recreation) as well as poor site and climatic conditions. In the Ivano-Frankivsk region, Cd and Mo accumulate in forest soils; Cr, Mo and Zn soil concentrations are higher than their limit levels; and Pb concentrations exceed toxic levels close to industrial areas (10% of the region territory). Local background levels of heavy metals are greatly exceeded in snow close to industrial regions. Analysis of correlation matrices shows that the chemical elements Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn occur at pollution levels in natural ecosystems in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Maximum concentrations of toxic elements occur in the oak forest zone; the most industrially developed area of the region. Toxic heavy metals in the Ukrainian Carpathians forests enter with precipitation and dustfall, then become fixed in soil and accumulate in leaves, needles of vascular plants and mosses. Concentrations of these metals decrease with altitude: highest in the oak forests, less in beech, and lowest in the spruce forest zones. However, some chemical elements have the highest concentrations in spruce forests; V in needles, As in snow, and Ba and Al in soils. - Local industrial emissions of heavy metal pollution and the condition of Ukrainian Carpathians forests are examined

  4. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Anita; Mody, Kalpana; Jha, Bhavanath

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here

  5. Biosorption of heavy metals by a marine bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Anita [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Mody, Kalpana [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)]. E-mail: khmody@csmcri.org; Jha, Bhavanath [Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2005-03-01

    Heavy metal chelation property of exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloaceae, a marine bacterium, isolated from the West Coast of India, is reported in this paper. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated excellent chelating properties with respect to cadmium (65%) followed by copper (20%) and cobalt (8%) at 100 mg/l heavy metal concentration. However, it could not chelate mercury. A comparative study of the percentage biosorption of the above mentioned metals is presented here.

  6. Predictive Modelling of Heavy Metals in Urban Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals are well-known environmental pollutants. In this thesis predictive models for heavy metals in urban lakes are discussed and new models presented. The base of predictive modelling is empirical data from field investigations of many ecosystems covering a wide range of ecosystem characteristics. Predictive models focus on the variabilities among lakes and processes controlling the major metal fluxes. Sediment and water data for this study were collected from ten small lakes in the ...

  7. Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Dennis; Duarte, Bernardo; Paiva, Filipa; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João

    2016-09-01

    The permanent presence of microplastics in the marine environment is considered a global threat to several marine animals. Heavy metals and microplastics are typically included in two different classes of pollutants but the interaction between these two stressors is poorly understood. During 14 days of experimental manipulation, we examined the adsorption of two heavy metals, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), leached from an antifouling paint to virgin polystyrene (PS) beads and aged polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fragments in seawater. We demonstrated that heavy metals were released from the antifouling paint to the water and both microplastic types adsorbed the two heavy metals. This adsorption kinetics was described using partition coefficients and mathematical models. Partition coefficients between pellets and water ranged between 650 and 850 for Cu on PS and PVC, respectively. The adsorption of Cu was significantly greater in PVC fragments than in PS, probably due to higher surface area and polarity of PVC. Concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly on PVC and PS over the course of the experiment with the exception of Zn on PS. As a result, we show a significant interaction between these types of microplastics and heavy metals, which can have implications for marine life and the environment. These results strongly support recent findings where plastics can play a key role as vectors for heavy metal ions in the marine system. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of monitoring marine litter and heavy metals, mainly associated with antifouling paints, particularly in the framework of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  8. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities.

  9. HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE MUD SEDIMENT IN EKATERINBURG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Seleznev

    2018-03-01

    sediments at the city territory. The content of Pb, Zn, and Cu in particle size fraction <0.1 mm are higher than the permissible level for soils and soil background level in the city. The Ni concentrations in the mud sediment are higher than permissible concentrations for soil. The Co content in the mud sediment is higher than the soils content and the background for Ekaterinburg. Concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of Mn, are higher than Clarke value for soil.

  10. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  11. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  13. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  14. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  15. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  17. A Drinking Water Sensor for Lead and Other Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chi; Li, Zhongrui; Burns, Mark A

    2017-09-05

    Leakage of lead and other heavy metals into drinking water is a significant health risk and one that is not easily detected. We have developed simple sensors containing only platinum electrodes for the detection of heavy metal contamination in drinking water. The two-electrode sensor can identify the existence of a variety of heavy metals in drinking water, and the four-electrode sensor can distinguish lead from other heavy metals in solution. No false-positive response is generated when the sensors are placed in simulated and actual tap water contaminated by heavy metals. Lead detection on the four-electrode sensor is not affected by the presence of common ions in tap water. Experimental results suggest the sensors can be embedded in water service lines for long-time use until lead or other heavy metals are detected. With its low cost (∼$0.10/sensor) and the possibility of long-term operation, the sensors are ideal for heavy metal detection of drinking water.

  18. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetation in urban areas of Quezon City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ian A; Gabiana, Christella C; Dumo, Joan Ruby E; Salmo, Severino G; Guzman, Maria Aileen Leah G; Valera, Nestor S; Espiritu, Emilyn Q

    2017-04-01

    Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]. Soil (0-15 cm) and senescent plant leaves were collected and were analyzed for soil properties and heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in urban soils were higher in areas where anthropogenic activities or disturbance (PL, RA, and CA) were dominant as compared to the less disturbed areas (LM and PA). Organic matter and available phosphorous were strongly correlated with heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that heavy metal concentrations were primarily controlled by these soil properties. The average foliar heavy metal concentrations varied, ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/kg for Cd, 0-10 mg/kg for Cr, 2-22 mg/kg for Cu, 0-5 mg/kg for Pb, and 11-250 mg/kg for Zn. The concentrations of Cd and Cr exceeded the critical threshold concentrations in some plants. Leaves of plants growing in PL (i.e., landfill) showed the highest levels of heavy metal contamination. Our results revealed that anthropogenic activities and disturbance caused by the rapid urbanization of the city are major contributors to the heavy metal accumulation and persistence in the soils in these areas.

  20. Distribution and health risk assessment to heavy metals near smelting and mining areas of Hezhang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Meryem; Zhu, Yi; Gao, Yang; Shao, Mengmeng; Ding, Huaijian; Ji, Hongbing

    2017-08-19

    Mining and smelting areas in Hezhang have generated a large amount of heavy metals into the environment. For that cause, an evaluative study on human exposure to heavy metals including Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Bi, Be, and Hg in hair and urine was conducted for their concentrations and correlations. Daily exposure and non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk were estimated. Sixty-eight scalp hair and 66 urine samples were taken from participants of different ages (6-17, 18-40, 41-60, and ≥ 65 years) living in the vicinity of an agricultural soil near mine and smelting areas. The results compared to the earlier studies showed an elevated concentration of Pb, Be, Bi, Co, Cr, Ni, Sb, and Zn in hair and urine. These heavy metals were more elevated in mining than in smelting. Considering gender differences, females were likely to be more affected than male. By investigating age differences in this area, high heavy metal concentrations in male's hair and urine existed in age of 18-40 and ≥ 66, respectively. However, females did not present homogeneous age distribution. Hair and urine showed a different distribution of heavy metals in different age and gender. In some cases, significant correlation was found between heavy metals in hair and urine (P > 0.05 and P > 0.01) in mining area. The estimated average daily intake of heavy metals in vegetables showed a great contribution compared to the soil and water. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk values of total pathways in mining and smelting areas were higher than 1 and exceeded the acceptable levels. Thus, the obtained data might be useful for further studies. They can serve as a basis of comparison and assessing the effect of simultaneous exposure from heavy metals in mining and smelting areas, and potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in vegetables need more consideration.

  1. [Mapping Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soil Based on Different Environmental Effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-xing; Wu, Shao-hua; Zhou, Sheng-lu; Wang, Chun-hui; Chen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    China's rapid development of industrialization and urbanization causes the growing problem of heavy metal pollution of soil, threatening environment and human health. Therefore, prevention and management of heavy metal pollution become particularly important. Critical loads of heavy metals are an important management tool that can be utilized to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution. Our study was based on three cases: status balance, water environmental effects and health risks. We used the steady-state mass balance equation to calculate the critical loads of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn at different effect levels and analyze the values and spatial variation of critical loads. In addition, we used the annual input fluxes of heavy metals of the agro-ecosystem in the Yangtze River delta and China to estimate the proportion of area with exceedance of critical loads. The results demonstrated that the critical load value of Cd was the minimum, and the values of Cu and Zn were lager. There were spatial differences among the critical loads of four elements in the study area, lower critical loads areas mainly occurred in woodland and high value areas distributed in the east and southwest of the study area, while median values and the medium high areas mainly occurred in farmland. Comparing the input fluxes of heavy metals, we found that Pb and Zn in more than 90% of the area exceeded the critical loads under different environmental effects in the study area. The critical load exceedance of Cd mainly occurred under the status balance and the water environmental effect, while Cu under the status balance and water environmental effect with a higher proportion of exceeded areas. Critical loads of heavy metals at different effect levels in this study could serve as a reference from effective control of the emissions of heavy metals and to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution.

  2. Effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guixiang; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Zhihua; He, Qiusheng; Wang, Shuifeng; Zhu, Yuen; Yan, Yulong; Liu, Xitao; Sun, Ke; Zhao, Ye; Qian, Tianwei

    2016-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil. Biochars only slightly decreased or even increased the availability of heavy metals assesses by chemical extractant (a mixture of 0.05 mol L -1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium, 0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 , and 0.1 mol L -1 triethanolamine). The significantly positive correlation between most chemical-extractable heavy metals and the ash content in biochars indicated the positive role of ash in this extraction. Biochars significantly reduced the plant uptake of heavy metals, excluding Mn. The absence of a positive correlation between the chemical-extractable heavy metals and the plant uptake counterparts (except for Mn) indicates that chemical extractability is probably not a reliable indicator to predict the phytoavailability of most heavy metals in alkaline soils treated with biochars. The obviously negative correlation between the plant uptake of heavy metals (except for Mn) and the (O + N)/C and H/C indicates that biochars with more polar groups, which were produced at lower temperatures, had higher efficiency for reducing the phytoavailability of heavy metals. The significantly negative correlations between the plant uptake of Mn and ryegrass biomass indicated the "dilution effect" caused by the improvement of biomass. These observations will be helpful for designing biochars as soil amendments to reduce the availability of heavy metals to plants in soils, especially in alkaline soils. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Biosorption of heavy metals and uranium from dilute solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, I.A.H.; Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes approaches being a scourge in many parts of the world, choking waterways and hindering transport upon them. At the same time it is known to readily abstract heavy metal ions from water and, thus, aids in the removal of heavy metals found in such waters. This paper considers the possibility of using specific parts of the plant as an inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated chemical and mining industry waste waters. In particular the root of the plant was found to be an excellent accumulator of heavy metal ions including uranium from solution. It is also suggested that dried roots of the plant might be placed in simple bags and used in a very low cost metal ion removal system

  4. Improving crop tolerance to heavy metal stress by polyamine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Ursu, Marina; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2016-12-15

    Many areas have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals from industry and are not suitable for food production. The consumption of contaminated foods represents a health risk in humans, although some heavy metals are essential at low concentrations. Increasing the concentrations of essential elements in foods is one goal to improve nutrition. The aim of this study was to increase the accumulation of heavy metals in plant foods by the external application of putrescine. The levels of cadmium, zinc and iron were measured in different vegetables grown in hydroponic medium supplemented with heavy metals and compared with those grown in a reference medium. The estimated daily intake, based on the average daily consumption for various vegetable types, and the influence of polyamines on metal uptake were calculated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metals' data in soils for agricultural activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Adagunodo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the heavy metals in soils for agricultural activities were analyzed statistically. Ten (10 soil samples were randomly taken across the agricultural zones in Odo-Oba, southwestern Nigeria. Ten (10 metals; namely: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, arsenic (As, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, antimony (Sb, cobalt (Co and vanadium (V were determined and compared with the guideline values. When the values were compared with the international standard, none of the heavy metals in the study area exceeded the threshold limit. However, the maximum range of the samples showed that Cr and V exceeded the permissible limit which could be associated with ecological risk. The data can reveal the distributions of heavy metals in the agricultural topsoil of Odo-Oba, and can be used to estimate the risks associated with the consumption of crops grown on such soils. Keywords: Agricultural soils, Heavy metals, Contamination, Environment, Soil screening, Geostatistics

  6. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  7. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake ... employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. ... nitrate, mercuric chloride, cadmium nitrate and potassium dichromate salts. ... polymer resin was determined by reacting 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm of metal.

  8. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Ismail; Yap Chee Kong

    1999-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  9. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  10. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Marcela; Zechmeister, Harald; Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Bouso, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael; Koellensperger, Gunda; Deltell, Alexandre; Vizcaya, David

    2011-01-01

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO 2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO 2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO 2 . Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO 2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO 2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO 2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO 2 . → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  11. Heavy liquid metal cooled FBR. Results 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuma, Yasuhiro; Soman, Yoshindo; Konomura, Mamoru; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2003-08-01

    In the feasibility studies of commercialization of an FBR fuel cycle system, the targets are economical competitiveness to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation, besides ensuring safety. Both medium size pool-type lead-bismuth cooled reactor with primary pumps system and without primary pumps system are studied to pursue their improvement in heavy metal coolant considering design requirements form plant structures. The design of plant systems are reformed, and the conceptual design is made and the commodities are analyzed. (1) Conceptual design of lead-bismuth cooled reactor with pumping system: Electrical output 750 MWe and 4-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (2) Structural analysis of main components. (3) Conceptual design of natural circulation type lead-bismuth cooled reactor: Electrical output 550 MWe and 6-module system. The heat-mass balance is optimized and drawings are made about plant layout, cooling system, reactor structure and cooling component structures. (4) Study of R and D program. (author)

  12. Bioavailability of Sediment-bound Heavy Metals on the East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that heavy metal levels at some locations were higher than at others. Cd, Mn and Co were more concentrated in labile fractions compared to the other elements. These metals are easily liberated into overlying water, making them available for biological uptake. More than 62% of the total concentrations ...

  13. Heavy metals contamination of soil and fodder: a possible risk to livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.; Shaheen, M.; Khan, Z.I.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are significant ecological pollutant, principally in areas with sky-scraping anthropogenic stress. Their existence in the environment, soil and water, still in traces can cause severe tribulations to all organisms; heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain particularly can be extremely hazardous to animal and human health. Heavy metals generally come into the body by breathing and eating, ingestion being the most important route of contact to these elements in animals. The current study was conducted to examine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in the soil and fodders. Representative samples of soil were collected during two different seasons from two different sites, known as feeding sites for ruminants and analysed for heavy metals after wet digestion, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that location and season had a significant effect (P>0.001) on soil and heavy metal concentrations. Soil and forage Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations were higher in summer than in winter. From the results of the current study, it was determined that all the metals in soil were lower than deadly levels, posing no probable threat to both plant and animal life. There is an incessant need for monitoring the bioavailability of these heavy metals to grazing livestock, principally in summer season when these metals were found in relatively elevated concentrations, so that their possible toxic consequence to the grazing livestock can not be permitted. Agronomic practices, such as, manure and water managements as well as crop alternation system, can affect bioavailability and crop accretion of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing nutritional toxicity of heavy metals in the foodstuff. This study would be important for livestock owners and scientists working in extension services in Pakistan and other countries with same ecological condition. (author)

  14. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, A. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: fritioff@botan.su.se; Kautsky, L. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Greger, M. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants.

  15. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritioff, A.; Kautsky, L.; Greger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants

  16. The influence of heavy metals on the production of extracellular polymer substances in the processes of heavy metal ions elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikes, J; Siglova, M; Cejkova, A; Masak, J; Jirku, V

    2005-01-01

    Wastewaters from a chemical industry polluted by heavy metal ions represent a hazard for all living organisms. It can mean danger for ecosystems and human health. New methods are sought alternative to traditional chemical and physical processes. Active elimination process of heavy metals ions provided by living cells, their components and extracellular products represents a potential way of separating toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. While the abilities of bacteria to remove metal ions in solution are extensively used, fungi have been recognized as a promising kind of low-cost adsorbents for removal of heavy-metal ions from aqueous waste sources. Yeasts and fungi differ from each other in their constitution and in their abilities to produce variety of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with different mechanisms of metal interactions. The accumulation of Cd(2+), Cr(6+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) by yeasts and their EPS was screened at twelve different yeast species in microcultivation system Bioscreen C and in the shaking Erlenmayer's flasks. This results were compared with the production of yeast EPS and the composition of yeast cell walls. The EPS production was measured during the yeast growth and cell wall composition was studied during the cultivations in the shaking flasks. At the end of the process extracellular polymers and their chemical composition were isolated and amount of bound heavy metals was characterized. The variable composition and the amount of the EPS were found at various yeast strains. It was influenced by various compositions of growth medium and also by various concentrations of heavy metals. It is evident, that the amount of bound heavy metals was different. The work reviews the possibilities of usage of various yeast EPS and components of cell walls in the elimination processes of heavy metal ions. Further the structure and properties of yeasts cell wall and EPS were discussed. The finding of mechanisms mentioned

  17. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufik Kaisupy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Muara Saban and Tanjung Pasir. High Pb and Zn distributions on November 2005 were found only in front of Cisadane estuary. Cd distribution of Cisadane estuary was constant at all station but did not show any correlation with the distance of station and estuary. The Cd content on July and November 2005 is lower than 0,001 ppm. Generally, heavy metallic elements content have a uniform distribution at all stations inspite of its distance to estuary.

  18. Analysis of physical composition and heavy metals pollution of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. B.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Bai, X. J.

    2018-03-01

    By using on-site sampling and physical-chemical analysis, the physical composition and the contents of heavy metals in Beijing MSW were researched. The result showed that the main components of MSW in Beijing are mainly kitchen waste, the average content of kitchen waste are more than 60% and 50% in summer and in winter, respectively. The pollution of Cu, Hg and Cr are all more serious for MSW in Haidian and Dongcheng district. The heavy metal pollution of MSW in summer is higher than that in winter in Beijing. Seasonal impacts should be taken into consideration when dealing with MSW. The content of heavy metals in MSW exceeded the background value of soil in Haidian and Dongcheng districts. In order to reduce heavy metal pollution, the MSW should be separated collection and treated.

  19. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: their relations to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang

    2014-04-15

    This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  1. Chemodynamics of heavy metals in long-term contaminated soils: metal speciation in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The concentration and speciation of heavy metals in soil solution isolated from long-term contaminated soils were investigated. The soil solution was extracted at 70% maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) after equilibration for 24 h. The free metal concentrations (Cd2+, CU2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+) in soil solution were determined using the Donnan membrane technique (DMT). Initially the DMT was validated using artificial solutions where the percentage of free metal ions were significantly correlated with the percentages predicted using MINTEQA2. However, there was a significant difference between the absolute free ion concentrations predicted by MINTEQA2 and the values determined by the DMT. This was due to the significant metal adsorption onto the cation exchange membrane used in the DMT with 20%, 28%, 44%, and 8% mass loss of the initial total concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in solution, respectively. This could result in a significant error in the determination of free metal ions when using DMT if no allowance for membrane cation adsorption was made. Relative to the total soluble metal concentrations the amounts of free Cd2+ (3%-52%) and Zn2+ (11%-72%) in soil solutions were generally higher than those of Cu2+ (0.2%-30%) and Pb2+ (0.6%-10%). Among the key soil solution properties, dissolved heavy metal concentrations were the most significant factor governing free metal ion concentrations. Soil solution pH showed only a weak relationship with free metal ion partitioning coefficients (K(p)) and dissolved organic carbon did not show any significant influence on K(p).

  2. Data mining using multivariate statistical analysis: The case of heavy metals in sediments of the Msimbazi Creek mangrove wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mrutu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove wetlands are important biological systems that usually filter out organic and inorganic contaminants from the wastewaters before entering the ocean. Our previous work showed that sediments of the Msimbazi Creek wetland are contaminated with heavy metals and the amounts decreased with increasing depth. However, the hidden relationships between the heavy metals and clay particles were not fully understood based on the numerical data. Therefore this work used the data from literature and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software to study how significant the relationships are and predict the sources of heavy metals and clays. The results showed that Cd is the only metal that showed insignificant correlations with other heavy metals (with Pb and Zn while the rest of heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlation (except Pb vs. Ni. Cluster analysis classified the heavy metals based on the concentration and the first 50 cm cores (0-50 cm had higher heavy metals and % clay than the second 50 cm cores (51-100 cm. The results from the factor analysis suggests that Pb, Cd, Ni, and clay owe their source mostly from anthropogenic activities while Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and sand come from both anthropogenic and natural sources. These results support our previous suggestions that heavy metals and clays found in this wetland have mostly anthropogenic origin. However, we recommend isotopic tracing studies in order to accurately identify the origins of the heavy metals and clays in sediments of Msimbazi Creek mangrove wetland.

  3. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Sharizal Hasan; Mohd Lias Kamal; NorShahrizan Mohd Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  5. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  6. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Xiaomin [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Dai, Xiaohu [National Engineering Research Centre for Urban Pollution Control, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  7. Studies on heavy metal contamination in Godavari river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Jakir; Husain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohammed; Gupta, Nidhi

    2017-12-01

    Surface water samples from Godavari river basin was analyzed quantitatively for the concentration of eight heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analyzed data revealed that iron and zinc metals were found to be the most abundant metals in the river Godavari and its tributaries. Iron (Fe) recorded the highest, while cadmium (Cd) had the least concentration. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron and zinc metals are within the acceptable limit of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 1050 (2012) Specification for drinking water, pp 1-5). The analysis of Godavari river and its tributary's water samples reveals that the water is contaminated at selected points which are not suitable for drinking. Nickel and Copper concentration is above acceptable limit and other metal concentration is within the acceptable limit. Comprehensive study of the results reveals that out of 18 water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 7 water quality stations are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes. While Rajegaon, Tekra, Nandgaon, P. G. Bridge, Bhatpalli, Kumhari, Pauni, Hivra, Ashti, Bamini, and Jagda stations were beyond the desirable limit due to presence of copper and nickel metals. The contents of copper metal ions were higher at some water quality stations on Wunna river (Nandgaon); Wardha river (Hivra) and Wainganga river (Kumhari, Pauni, Ashti) during Feb. 2012, while nickel concentration during Feb. 2012, June 2012, March 2013 and Aug. 2013 at some water quality stations on rivers Bagh, Indravati, Pranhita, Wunna, Penganga, Peddavagu, Wainganga and Wardha. It can be concluded that rapid population growth and industrialization have brought about resource degradation and a decline in environmental quality.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED FACTORS ON THE LEACHING OF HEAVY METALS FROM SMELTER WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Mizerna; Anna Król

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of leaching research of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr) from industrial waste. The impact of waste fragmentation on the level of heavy metals leaching was analyzed. The decrease of copper and zinc release and the increase of nickel leaching were observed with increasing grain size fraction of waste. Furthermore, release of contaminants in different ratio of liquid to solid (L/S = 10 dm3/kg and 2 dm3/kg) was studied. Higher concentrations of heavy ...

  9. Removal of heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, X.-J.; Kao, Jimmy C.M.; Stabnikova, Olena

    2006-01-01

    An upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology was proposed to remove heavy metals from contaminated kaolin. Unlike conventional electrokinetic treatment that uses boreholes or trenches for horizontal migration of heavy metals, the UESR technology, applying vertical non-uniform electric fields, caused upward transportation of heavy metals to the top surface of the treated soil. The effects of current density, treatment duration, cell diameter, and different cathode chamber influent (distilled water or 0.01 M nitric acid) were studied. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals positively correlated to current density and treatment duration. Higher heavy metals removal efficiency was observed for the reactor cell with smaller diameter. A substantial amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the nearest to cathode 2 cm layer of kaolin when distilled water was continuously supplied to the cathode chamber. Heavy metals accumulated in this layer of kaolin can be easily excavated and disposed off. The main part of the removed heavy metals was dissolved in cathode chamber influent and moved away with cathode chamber effluent when 0.01 M nitric acid was used, instead of distilled water. Energy saving treatment by UESR technology with highest metal removal efficiencies was provided by two regimes: (1) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 mm, duration of 18 days, and constant voltage of 3.5 V (19.7 kWh/m 3 of kaolin) and (2) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 cm, duration of 6 days, and constant current density of 0.191 mA/cm 2 (19.1 kWh/m 3 of kaolin)

  10. Heavy metals in the snow pack of Semey town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Esenzholova, A.Zh.; Toropov, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The data about the maintenance of heavy metals in the snow pack in various zones of Semey and biogeochemical operation factors of snow pack in Semey are presented in this work. Also the correlation connection between elements is calculated.

  11. Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment | Baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... The indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents, raw sewage wastes and other waste pollute most of the environments and ...

  12. Assessment of heavy metals in chicken feeds available in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-12-08

    Dec 8, 2014 ... through eggs and meats. Supplementation of some ... heavy metal contaminations of chicken meat, eggs and other products .... processing and mixing of ingredients to the feed. ... Additives and Contaminants, 22(2): 141-. 149.

  13. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  14. Determination of heavy metals and genotoxicity of water from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of heavy metals and genotoxicity of water from an artesian well ... do Amaral, Vanessa Marques de Oliveira Moraes, Luciana Pereira Silva ... environmental interest because it is the most important zinc producer district of Brazil.

  15. Heavy Metals Levels in Fish Samples from North Central Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... Most aquatic organisms are capable of accumulating heavy metals to concentrations ... This indicates that the fish samples could be used to monitor Mn and Cr pollution levels .... was carried out to remove any organic plastic.

  16. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria ... contamination (e.g. lead pipes), high ambient air concentrations near emission ... Thus heavy metals acquired through the food chain as a.

  17. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... assess their heavy metal ions adsorption potential. The results show that the .... De-ionised water obtained from the Mineral. Engineering Laboratory of ... Batch adsorption experiment for each of the derived activated carbons ...

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    analyzed using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Results: Most of the products exceeded the permissible limits for lead (100 %), cadmium (68 %), .... absorption spectrometry. M e ta l n a m ..... Determination of Heavy Metals in Medicinal.

  19. 92 Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Dumpsites in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Speciation and distribution of heavy metals in soil controls the degree to which ... observed that the groundwater is vulnerable to contamination as no treated ... toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, .... designing remediation programme for.

  20. Removal of heavy metals from waste water of tanning leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LG

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... The results indicate that fungi of contaminated soils have high level of metal biosorption capacities. ... such as mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, copper, chromium and ... considered as an alternative remediation for heavy.

  1. Effect of depuration on heavy metal concentrations in periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tympanatonus fuscastus) was evaluated in this study. Periwinkle in depuration tanks were taken at intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of depuration and analyzed for these heavy metals: Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd).

  2. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    water quality and permissible levels of metals in food and water. It revealed that the heavy .... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by .... Reuse of domestic grey water for irrigation of food crops, unpublished ...

  3. The effects of heavy metals concentration on some commercial fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Badmus B S

    heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) were analyzed and only copper and zinc were found to be present in the ... contents of essential minerals, vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids .... that the interaction effect is significant. This effect ...

  4. Heavy Metal Contents in Some Commonly Consumed Vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    This work reports on the levels of cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and ... source of both heavy metals and essential trace elements due to their ... content, clay mineral and other soil chemical ... addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-.

  5. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ahmadi, David, E-mail: david.ahmadi@web.de [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Engel, Alice; Weidemann, Joerg [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver [Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine (ZfAM), University of Hamburg (Germany); Frick, Ulrich [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Healthcare Management, Carinthia University of Applied Sciences (Austria); Hauser, Simone [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Dahmen, Norbert [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  6. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  7. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... represents the protective barrier moderating the chloride attack which ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  8. Potential Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Gyawali et al., 2011). The concentrations of natural and synthetic ... traditional nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and various other ... fertilizers and pesticides to soils, with a number of ..... selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: Estimation of ...

  9. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from...

  11. Seasonal variation in heavy metal concentration in mangrove foliage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seasonal variation in the concentration of some heavy metals in the leaves of seven species of mangrove vegetation from Goa, revealed that maximum concentration of iron and manganese occurs during the monsoon season without any significant toxic...

  12. incidence of heavy metals in kano metropolis drinking water sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    corrosion of brass fittings of certain submersible pumps and pipes used in borehole and taps specifically. The contamination of well with heavy metals might be due to seepage of sewage ... Chloride determination (Agumetric method):.

  13. Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater system around ... cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (pb) and arsenic (As) as ... Water samples (from bore holes, hand-dug wells, ponds and streams) were ...

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Waterleaf from Various Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Standard method was followed for sample treatment, digestion, and analysis of selected heavy metals: lead .... research laboratory, University of Ibadan. Each ... Survey of consumption of waterleaf in Ota: Over 500 ..... In Encyclopedia of.

  15. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Quantitative determination of heavy metals: zinc, iron, lead, copper, cadmium and aluminium ...... consumption of dairy products, fish/seafood and meat from Ismailia ... Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Grown in Bangalore Urban.

  16. Biomonitoring of heavy metals: Definitions, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.; Oehlmann, J.; Roth, M.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing attention given to heavy metals as components of the pollutant load in ecosystems makes it necessary to find reliable biological indicators. Fundamental investigations into the effect of heavy metals on organisms are therefore required. Different organisms (mosses, snails, etc.) were chosen as indicator organisms to optimize the indication of heavy metal loads at the physiological and biochemical level. All current programmes are designed to observe and measure pollutant inputs on a short or long-term basis. However, the changes in the environment of a phenological, physiological, sociological, genetic and physiological/biochemical nature have been investigated by biologists since the beginning of biological scientific research. So far excellent scientific results have been produced by qualification of the heavy metal status in ecosystems. Until now, the quantification of the results with regard to pollutant inputs in ecosystems (mass balances) and their action in these ecosystems have been investigated inadequately. (author)

  17. Estimation of Heavy Metals in Neem Tree Leaves along Katsina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Key Words: Neem tree, Heavy metals, Pollution. Determination ... concentrations of pollutants in the tree bark correlate with those of ... hence are not readily detoxified and removed by .... levels can severely damage the brain and kidneys and.

  18. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Freshwater Fishes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-24

    Dec 24, 2015 ... indicate that the concentrations of the heavy metals in the samples are generally well above the respective recommended ... weathering processes on rocks and soils (Babel and. Opiso ..... Source apportionment of suspended.

  19. Natural occurrence of heavy metal, fungi and mycotoxins in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Heavy metals are a definite human health hazard be- cause of their .... The mean values of nutrient composition of the soybean meal samples ..... A food borne disease outbreak due to the consumption of moldy sorghum and.

  20. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezel-Ahmadi, David; Engel, Alice; Weidemann, Joerg; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver; Frick, Ulrich; Hauser, Simone; Dahmen, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  1. Determination of heavy metals in chinese prickly ash from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digestion, and the contents of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium ... concentrations of heavy metals in these CPA samples mean they are safe for human consumption. ... poisoning, including Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Sn, and Sb.

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Opa Reservoir, Ile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, with a view to assessing its pollution level. ... Heavy metals are not biodegradable, but are assimilated .... samples were filtered (with Whatman filter paper. No 42) and ..... acidity,Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  3. Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Heavy metal, contamination, mining, soil, sediment. INTRODUCTION ... drinking water and inhaling air or soil contaminated by mining activities and the ..... indicates that copper waste discharged into the upper reaches of the Kafue ...

  4. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  5. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2016-01-01

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal (_5_6Ba, _6_4Gd, _8_2Pb, _8_3Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  6. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal ({sub 56}Ba, {sub 64}Gd, {sub 82}Pb, {sub 83}Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  7. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  8. Distribution and source apportionment studies of heavy metals in soil of cotton/wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals enriched agricultural soils have been the subject of great concern because these metals have potential to be transferred to the soil solution and afterward accumulated in food chain. To study the trace metal persistence in crop soil, 90 representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and anions (chloride, nitrates, phosphates and sulfates). Cluster and factor analysis techniques were used for the source identification of these excessive heavy metal levels and ecological risk was determined with potential ecological risk assessment. The degree of enrichment of eight studied heavy metals in comparison with the corresponding background levels decreased in order: Cd > Pb > Fe > Ni > Mn > As > Cu ~ Zn. Arsenic and cadmium exhibited 1.30- and 1.64-fold exceeded levels than threshold limits set by National environment quality standards, respectively. Cd in cotton field's soil may lead to higher potential risk than other heavy metals. On overall basis, the cumulative mean potential ecological risk for the district (207.75) corresponded to moderate risk level with higher contributions from As and Pb especially from Cd. Cadmium formed strong positive correlation with phosphate content of soil at p < 0.01. Cluster analysis indicated that Cluster 1 (extremely polluted) probably originated from anthropogenic inputs of phosphate fertilizer and past usage of arsenical pesticides.

  9. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  10. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...

  11. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; Obiora, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  12. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  13. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tee, L.W.; Najiah, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) an...

  14. Study of heavy metals in urban runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabizadeh, R.; Mahvi, A.; Mardani, G.; Yunesian, M.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted through Tehran city and a field study was conducted to prepare main and accessory drainage channels map. Three main drainage channels were identified for this research and some sampling stations were chosen. Three stations selected in south of Tehran. The reason for selecting these stations is that all urban surface run off completely pass through these points and samples taken from these points are representative of all kinds of pollutants that transit from city surface. Another three stations were selected in center and further three stations were selected at north of Tehran. Surface runoff flow in three main channels, from north of south of Tehran, converge at south of Rey city and finally end up to Ghom Salt lake. The stations were chosen at three trajectories Sorkhe Hesar, Emad Avard, Kan. At each month two samples were from nine different stations. After collection of samples with respect to standard methods, they were dissolved in nitric acid and then analyzed by atomic absorption device. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants increased from north to south. For instance, Zinc had most concentration with monthly average of 0.98 mg/l and Nickel had the lowest amount with 0.02 mg/l in southern stations. Average concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were: 0.638, 0.97, 0.04 and 0.035 mg/l respectively. Total average concentrations of heavy metals at three main channels were of 0.177, 0.176 and 0.145 mg/l. Emad Avard was the most polluted channel

  15. Using different amendments to reduce heavy metals movement in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmasi, R.; Tavassoli, A.

    2005-01-01

    With long-term use of sewage waste, heavy metals can accumulate to phyto toxic levels and resulted in reduced plant growth and/or enhanced metal concentrations in plants, as a result food chain. If these metals penetrate too rapidly in a particular soil, especially with high water table, they can pollute ground water supplies. The aim of this research is prevention of movement of waste water-borne heavy metals in soils of southern parts of Tehran. These waste waters are used for irrigation of agricultural lands at regions since many years ago. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. In laboratory, sorption capacities of the soils for Ni, Cd and Pb were compared with those of calcite, Na-bentonite, Zeolite, illite and hematite amendments. The method was carried out by equilibration of known quantities of these adsorbents and soils with solutions containing these elements. The results showed that among the 5 amendments, Calcite and Na-bentonite had the greatest sorption percentages of the 3 elements and illite had the least one. The retention capacity of calcite and Na-bentonite for Cd was highest in all 8 soils. However, retention capacities of these 2 minerals for Pb and Ni were higher than those of loamy soils without lime and organic matter and also sandy soils. Because of abundance and low price of calcite, this amendment is preferred to Na-bentonite. Therefore, calcite is recommended for adding to soils with low sorption capacity of Ni, Cd and Pb

  16. Routine soil testing to monitor heavy metals and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Cleide Aparecida de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microelements are an important issue in agriculture, due to their need as micronutrients for plants and also to the possibility of the build-up of toxic levels for plants and animals. Five micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn are routinely determined in soil analysis for advisory purposes. Other four elements (Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni are considered environmentally important heavy metals in farmland soils. Thus high contents of these metals in cropland might go eventually unnoticed. In this paper we present an approach that can be used to monitor the contents of the nine elements in farmland soils using advisory soil testing. A total of 13,416 soil samples from 21 Brazilian states, 58% of them from the state of São Paulo, sent by farmers were analyzed. Boron was determined by hot water extraction and the other metals were determined by DTPA (pH 7.3 extraction. The ranges of content, given in mg dm-3 soil, were the following: B, 0.01-10.6; Cu, 0.1-56.2; Fe, 0.5-476; Mn, 1-325; Zn, 1-453; Cd, 0.00-3.43, Cr, 0.00-42.9; Ni, 0.00-65.1; Pb, 0.00-63.9. The respective average values for São Paulo were: B-0.32; Cu-2.5; Fe-36; Mn-16; Zn-4.8; Cd-0.02; Cr-0.03; Ni-0.18; Pb-0.85. For other states the results are in the same ranges. The higher values are indicative of anthropogenic inputs, either due to excess application of fertilizers or to industrial or mining activities. The conclusion is that massive chemical analysis of farmland soil samples could serve as a database for indicating potential micronutrient deficiency and excesses or heavy metal buil-up in croplands, allowing preventive actions to be taken.

  17. Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.; Zahir, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  18. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Milinović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  19. Heavy Metal Displacement in Chelate-Assisted Phytoremediation of Biosolids Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, M. B.; Liphadzi, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    . However, the wood, which contains the xylem, from plants grown with EDTA had a higher concentration of Ni and Pb than did wood from plants grown with no EDTA. The results showed that heavy metals in soil with sludge treated with EDTA could contaminate ground water, even in the presence of plant roots. (This research is part of the dissertation of M.S. Liphadzi, who was supported by a Fulbright Fellowship.)

  20. Removal of heavy metals from metal-containing effluent by yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of heavy metals from metal-containing effluent by yeast biomass. ... Research studies have described this phenomenon of fast initial sorption with a ... chrome and tin from the chrome and tin effluents of a local iron and steel industry.

  1. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  2. Effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dian

    2018-02-01

    Soil is one of the most important environmental natural resources for human beings living, which is of great significance to the quality of ecological environment and human health. The study of the function of arable soil microbes exposed to heavy metal pollution for a long time has a very important significance for the usage of farmland soil. In this paper, the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community were reviewed. The main contents were as follows: the effects of soil microbes on soil ecosystems; the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial activity, soil enzyme activities and the composition of soil microbial community. In addition, a brief description of main methods of heavy metal detection for soil pollution is given, and the means of researching soil microbial community composition are introduced as well. Finally, it is concluded that the study of soil microbial community can well reflect the degree of soil heavy metal pollution and the impact of heavy metal pollution on soil ecology.

  3. Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aimi abdul Wahab; Fairus Muhamad Darus; Norain Isa; Siti Mariam Sumari; Nur Fatihah Muhamad Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in settled surface dust were collected from nine residential buildings in different areas in Seberang Prai Tengah District, Pulau Pinang. The samples of settled surface dust were collected in 1 m 2 area by using a polyethylene brush and placed in the dust pan by sweeping the living room floor most accessible to the occupants. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results show that the range of heavy metals observed in residential buildings at Seberang Prai Tengah were in the range of 2.20-14.00 mg/ kg, 1.50-32.70 mg/ kg, 1.50-76.80 mg/ kg and 14.60-54.40 mg/ kg for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the investigated areas followed the order: Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. Statistical analysis indicates significant correlation between all the possible pairs of heavy metal. The results suggest a likely common source for the heavy metal contamination, which could be traced most probably to vehicular emissions, street dust and other related activities. (author)

  4. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available River Ganga is considered sacred by people of India for providing life sustenance to environment and ecology. Anthropogenic activities have generated important transformations in aquatic environments during the last few decades. Advancement of human civilization has put serious questions to the safe use of river water for drinking and other purposes. The river water pollution due to heavy metals is one of the major concerns in most of the metropolitan cities of developing countries. These toxic heavy metals entering the environment may lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. These heavy metals are not readily degradable in nature and accumulate in the animal as well as human bodies to a very high toxic amount leading to undesirable effects beyond a certain limit. Heavy metals in riverine environment represent an abiding threat to human health. Exposure to heavy metals has been linked to developmental retardation, kidney damage, various cancers, and even death in instances of very high exposure. The following review article presents the findings of the work carried out by the various researchers in the past on the heavy metal pollution of river Ganga.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  6. Brown algae overproduce cell wall polysaccharides as a protection mechanism against the heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Leonardo R.; Leal, Raquel N.; Noseda, Miguel; Duarte, Maria Eugenia R.; Pereira, Mariana S.; Mourao, Paulo A.S.; Farina, Marcos; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

    2010-01-01

    Brown algae are often used as heavy metal biomonitors and biosorbents because they can accumulate high concentrations of metals. Cation-exchange performed by cell wall polysaccharides is pointed out as the main chemical mechanism for the metal sequestration. Here, we biochemically investigated if the brown alga Padina gymnospora living in a heavy metal contaminated area would modify their polysaccharidic content. We exposed non-living biomass to Cd and Pb and studied the metals adsorption and localization. We found that raw dried polysaccharides, sulfate groups, uronic acids, fucose, mannose, and galactose were significantly higher in contaminated algae compared with the control ones. Metal concentrations adsorbed by non-living biomass were rising comparatively to the tested concentrations. Electron microscopy showed numerous granules in the cell walls and X-ray microanalysis revealed Cd as the main element. We concluded that P. gymnospora overproduces cell wall polysaccharides when exposed to high metal concentrations as a defense mechanism.

  7. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  8. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases...

  9. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  10. Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vymazal, J.

    1984-12-31

    The utilization of periphyton for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn) have been determined during four hours exposure. In addition the influence of humic substances on heavy metals uptake has been determined. Uptake of all metals increased during four hours exposure but not in the same way. Some metals were removed continuously (Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn), other metals were removed more rapidly during the first hour or first two hours of exposure and then only slight removal continued (Cu, Pb, Cd, Co). Uptake of Zn was rather unambiguous. Results of these experiments suggest that the course of uptake for individual metals could be similar for most periphyton algae. It was established that humic substances significantly reduce heavy metals uptake. The highest decrease of uptake was observed in Cu, Cr, Co and Cd. The results of model experiments are being tested in a pilot scale with respect to the demands of engineering practice. (J.R.)

  11. Traversing the Links between Heavy Metal Stress and Plant Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalmi, Siddhi K.; Bhagat, Prakash K.; Verma, Deepanjali; Noryang, Stanzin; Tayyeba, Sumaira; Singh, Kirti; Sharma, Deepika; Sinha, Alok K.

    2018-01-01

    Plants confront multifarious environmental stresses widely divided into abiotic and biotic stresses, of which heavy metal stress represents one of the most damaging abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause toxicity by targeting crucial molecules and vital processes in the plant cell. One of the approaches by which heavy metals act in plants is by over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) either directly or indirectly. Plants act against such overdose of metal in the environment by boosting the defense responses like metal chelation, sequestration into vacuole, regulation of metal intake by transporters, and intensification of antioxidative mechanisms. This response shown by plants is the result of intricate signaling networks functioning in the cell in order to transmit the extracellular stimuli into an intracellular response. The crucial signaling components involved are calcium signaling, hormone signaling, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling that are discussed in this review. Apart from signaling components other regulators like microRNAs and transcription factors also have a major contribution in regulating heavy metal stress. This review demonstrates the key role of MAPKs in synchronously controlling the other signaling components and regulators in metal stress. Further, attempts have been made to focus on metal transporters and chelators that are regulated by MAPK signaling. PMID:29459874

  12. Reports of 5. International scientific-practical conference 'Heavy metals and radionuclides in the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    To the collection, consisting of 3 chapters, are included more 185 reports of plenary and sectional meetings of the conference, reflecting biogeochemical problems of heavy metals and radionuclides, modeling of processes of their migration and accumulation in natural and anthropogenic landscapes; physiology-biochemical aspects of metabolism and the participation of heavy metals and radionuclides in ecology-tropic system; the sources of entering of heavy metals and radionuclides to the natural components, ecological regulation of their loadings and the organization of environment monitoring; new methods of defining of heavy metals and radionuclides in the natural objects; of top-soil and natural water polluted by heavy metals and radionuclides; bio indicational methods of evaluation the condition of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, the problems of heavy metals and radionuclides in the context of education of higher educational establishments. The materials are made for the specialists, who work in the sphere of protection of environment, biogeochemists, ecologists, hydro chemists, biologists, pedologists, scientists, teachers and students of educational institutions

  13. Effect of heavy metals ondecolorization of reactive brilliant red by newly isolated microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, S.; Arshad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study involves aerobic decolorisation of reactive azo dye reactive brilliant red 2KBP by newly isolated microbial strains (two bacterial and one fungal strain) in presence of heavy metals including cobalt chloride, ferric chloride, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate and nickel chloride. Many heavy metals are necessary for microbial growth and are required in very small amounts however at higher levels they become toxic. So was the objective of present work to check the effect of concentration of heavy metals on the potential of microbial strains to decolorize azo dyes. All the heavy metals under consideration were added in range of 0.5 gl-1-2.5gl/sup -1/. All heavy metals showed inhibitory effect on decolorization capacity of bacterial as well as fungal strain .At optimum conditions bacterial strains named as B1 and B2 removed 84% and 78% while fungal strain decolorized 90.4% of dye. Cobalt and nickel showed greater inhibitors on% decolorization of dyes than Zinc and iron. Fungal strain showed greater negative effect. Heavy metals might affect enzyme activities and thus reducing removal of dye. (author)

  14. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400-800°C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Zakir, Shahida; Ihsanullah; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Akbar Ali; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in drinking water sources (surface and groundwater) collected from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The potential health risks of heavy metals to the local population and their possible source apportionment were also studied. Heavy metal concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometer and compared with permissible limits set by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were higher than their respective permissible limits, while Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations were observed within their respective limits. Health risk indicators such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated for adults and children separately. CDIs and HRIs of heavy metals were found in the order of Cr > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb and Cd > Ni > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn, respectively. HRIs of selected heavy metals in the drinking water were less than 1, indicating no health risk to the local people. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses showed that geologic and anthropogenic activities were the possible sources of water contamination with heavy metals in the study area.

  16. Heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sedimentation in the Lianhua Mountain Reservoir, Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Amuzu-Sefordzi, Basil; Li, Ming

    2015-05-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the biggest electronics manufacturing regions in the world. Due to the presence of abandoned industrial sites and the proliferation of large-scale electronics companies in the past four decades, it is therefore imperative to investigate the extent of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in the region. Spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in the Lianhua Mountain reservoir in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan City, China were examined based on a sedimentary profile analysis. Higher concentrations of the heavy metals detected were recorded in bottom sediments whereas 70% of the detected PCBs recorded maximum concentrations in top sediments. The geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) indicate that the study area is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. Also, the integrated pollution indices (IPI) were above 1, except Pb, which shows that the study area is contaminated with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of individual heavy metals and PCBs over a period of 60 years were also analyzed in order to establish a historical trend of pollution in the study area. This study provides baseline information on the level and historical trend of heavy metals and PCBs pollution in the study area.

  17. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  18. Some heavy metals in Luciobarbus esocinus for public consumption and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düşükcan, M; Canpolat, Ö; Eroğlu, M

    2017-09-30

    In this study, the concentrations of some heavy metals were determined in the muscle of Luciobarbus esocinus Heckel, 1843 and in water where they live. The results were evaluated in term of potential human risk of consumption of this fish and the relationship between the heavy metal load of fish and some of their biological aspects (weight, length and sex). In addition, the accumulation factor of heavy metals in the muscle of L. esocinus were also determined. The Cr, Pb and Ni were not found in detectable levels according to results obtained by ICP. Only Cu, Zn and Fe were detected. It was found that heavy metals concentrations in the muscle of L. esocinus were higher than that in the water. The concentration of heavy metals showed differences according to weight, length and sex of fish. The results were discussed and compared with tolerable values for heavy metals provided from the EPA, FAO and WHO in order to determine whether this fish species has any risk for human consumption.

  19. [Evaluation of soil heavy metals accumulation in the fast economy development region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xian-Lan; Zhou, Sheng-Lu; Li, Jiang-Tao; Zhao, Qi-Guo

    2010-06-01

    Evaluation of soil heavy metals accumulation was studied in Kunshan City, a typical region of the fast economy development region in China. 126 soil samples were collected and analyzed, and evaluation indexes of soil heavy metal accumulation, which including total concentration of soil heavy metal index (THMI), soil available heavy metal index (AHMI) and fractionation of soil heavy metal index (FHMI), were established, and the heavy metal accumulation conditions of soil in this region were also discussed. Results showed as follows: the spatial variability of THMI was relative lower, with a mean value of 42.57%, whereas strong variability was found in AHMI and FHMI (especially active fraction of soil heavy metals), with the average value of 82.75% and 77.83%, respectively. Judging by each index reference standard of C Horizon, THMI was low-grade with a mean value of 1.01, while the AHMI and FHMI reached to medium accumulation and serious accumulation, with the average values of 2.46 and 4.32, respectively. The synthetic accumulation index of soil heavy metals (SHMI) was 2.56, reaching to medium grade level and with strong variability. 21.54% land area was in low-grade accumulation and 54.70% land area was in medium grade accumulation, while 23.76% land area was in serious accumulation under SHMI evaluation system. All the accumulation evaluation indexes in livestock breeding zone were the lowest, while the indexes in the smelting and plating zone were the highest, but the indexes difference between two zones were unobvious. There were markedly differences in soil types, which the accumulation indexes in Wushan soil were significantly higher than those in Huangni soil and Qingni soil.

  20. Safety of Potato Consumption in Slovak Region Contaminated by Heavy Metals due to Previous Mining Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Musilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the most serious environmental contaminants in mining districts. Soil, as one of the main components of the environment, is the place of heavy metal entry into plants and consequently into the food chain, too. Potatoes grown in the region of Middle Spis (Slovakia may be a source of increased content of heavy metals and pose a health risk to the consumer. The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Ni in potato and soil samples were determined using the AAS method and compared with limit values set by the Slovak Republic and the European Union. The content of heavy metals was determined in 12 potato cultivars with different length of vegetation period (mid-early, very early, and early, resp., which were grown in three localities with a highly disturbed environment. Total contents and mobile forms of heavy metals as well as physical and chemical properties were determined in soil samples which were collected from the same sampling sites. Only Pb content in potato tubers was higher than the hygienic limit value (0.1 mg kg−1 FM in 15 sampling sites (interval was n.d. –0.2298 mg kg−1 FM. The contents of exchangeable forms (total content of heavy metals in soil were ranged between the intervals: Cd 0.004–0.055 (0.94–1 56, Pb 0.023–0.295 (17.00–26.80, and Ni 0.019–0.475 (30.80–71.00 mg kg−1. At current average consumption levels of potatoes, tolerable weekly intake (TWI or tolerable daily intake (TDI for observed heavy metals was not exceeded.

  1. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland.

  2. Heavy metals in the finest size fractions of road-deposited sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2018-08-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in urban road-deposited sediments (RDS) can be used as an indicator for environmental pollution. Thus, their occurrence has been studied in whole road dust samples as well as in size fractions obtained by sieving. Because of the limitations of size separation by sieving little information is available about heavy metal concentrations in the road dust size fractions heavy metals concentrations and size distribution. According to the Geoaccumulation Index the pollution of the road dust samples deceased in the following order: Sb » As > Cu ≈ Zn > Cr > Cd ≈ Pb ≈ Mn > Ni > Co ≈ V. For all heavy metals the concentration was higher in the fine size fractions compared to the coarse size fractions, while the concentration of Sr was size-independent. The enrichment of the heavy metals in the finest size fraction compared to the whole RDS  Sb > (Cu) ≈ Zn ≈ Pb > As ≈ V » Mn. The approximation of the size dependence of the concentration as a function of the particle size by power functions worked very well. The correlation between particle size and concentration was high for all heavy metals. The increased heavy metals concentrations in the finest size fractions should be considered in the evaluation of the contribution of road dust re-suspension to the heavy metal contamination of atmospheric dust. Thereby, power functions can be used to describe the size dependence of the concentration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implication of heavy metals distribution for a municipal solid waste management system - a case study in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; He Pinjing; Shao Liming

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern. The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in MSW and their implications for the integrated MSW management system in mega-cities have been investigated by means of material flow analysis based on a case study of Shanghai in China. A good statistical basis was provided through a one-year monitoring program on the mass and metals composition of the waste from three MSW treatment facilities. The results showed that the main heavy metals in the MSW were Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb (on average > 100 mg kg -1 ), followed by Ni, Cd, and Hg. The MSW contained higher levels of Cu and Ni in metals, Cr and Pb in plastics, and Pb and Zn in the inorganic fractions. Regardless of the sources, the statistically similar heavy metal contents in the organic fractions indicated that effective blending and diffusion of heavy metals had taken place throughout the MSW collection, transfer, transportation, and storage, leading to cross-contamination of the waste fractions. PU (composed of putrescible waste and miscellaneous indistinguishable particles) contributed the majority of the heavy metals to the MSW, followed by plastics, as a result of the predominance in the overall composition of PU and plastics rather than from differences in their heavy metal contents. Therefore, manual or mechanical separation of some significantly heavy metal-rich fractions alone is not sufficient to reduce the heavy metal contents in the MSW. Source separation of organic waste and the diversion of tailored inorganic waste such as hazardous components, construction and demolition waste, etc., are proposed to control the heavy metal contamination in MSW. For the mixed MSW management system, physicochemical fractionation to exclude particles containing high levels of heavy metals can be conducted

  4. Implication of heavy metals distribution for a municipal solid waste management system - a case study in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: solidwaste@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2008-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination in municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern. The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in MSW and their implications for the integrated MSW management system in mega-cities have been investigated by means of material flow analysis based on a case study of Shanghai in China. A good statistical basis was provided through a one-year monitoring program on the mass and metals composition of the waste from three MSW treatment facilities. The results showed that the main heavy metals in the MSW were Zn, Cr, Cu, and Pb (on average > 100 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by Ni, Cd, and Hg. The MSW contained higher levels of Cu and Ni in metals, Cr and Pb in plastics, and Pb and Zn in the inorganic fractions. Regardless of the sources, the statistically similar heavy metal contents in the organic fractions indicated that effective blending and diffusion of heavy metals had taken place throughout the MSW collection, transfer, transportation, and storage, leading to cross-contamination of the waste fractions. PU (composed of putrescible waste and miscellaneous indistinguishable particles) contributed the majority of the heavy metals to the MSW, followed by plastics, as a result of the predominance in the overall composition of PU and plastics rather than from differences in their heavy metal contents. Therefore, manual or mechanical separation of some significantly heavy metal-rich fractions alone is not sufficient to reduce the heavy metal contents in the MSW. Source separation of organic waste and the diversion of tailored inorganic waste such as hazardous components, construction and demolition waste, etc., are proposed to control the heavy metal contamination in MSW. For the mixed MSW management system, physicochemical fractionation to exclude particles containing high levels of heavy metals can be conducted.

  5. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  6. Immunotoxicology in wood mice along a heavy metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tersago, Katrien; De Coen, Wim; Scheirs, Jan; Vermeulen, Katrien; Blust, Ronny; Bockstaele, Dirk van; Verhagen, Ron

    2004-01-01

    We carried out an immunotoxicological field study of wood mice in three populations along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Heavy metal concentrations in liver tissue indicated that exposure to silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and lead decreased with increasing distance from a non-ferrous smelter. Host resistance to the endoparasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus decreased with increasing exposure, while the abundance of tick larvae and the nematode Syphacia stroma was unrelated to heavy metal exposure. Spleen mass was increased at the intermediate and the most polluted sites and was positively correlated with the number of H. polygyrus and tick larvae. Proportion of early apoptotic leukocytes increased towards the smelter and was positively related to cadmium exposure. Red and white blood cell counts and lysozyme activity showed no relationship with metal exposure. All together, our observations suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune function of wood mice under field conditions. - Capsule: Complex interactions among metal burden, immune response and parasite burden suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune system of wood mice

  7. Heavy metals effect in Drosophila melanogaster germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Duque de la, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metals occur naturally and some of them are very important in cellular metabolism. Industrial development has increased metal concentration in the environment and in the living organisms tissues. This increase promotes the human risk to suffer teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Different biological systems have been used to proof the genetic effect of heavy metals including Drosophila. In the present work chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc and arsenic salts were administered to Drosophila females and males adults in order to determine the genetic effect produced by these compounds, in both femenine and masculine germinal cells. The mating system used (''Oster males'' and y 2 wsup(a)/y 2 wsup(a); e/e females) permited to determine among two succesive generations, the mutagenic effects produced by heavy metals in Drosophila. The salts administration to adult flies was made by injection. Non-disjunction, X-chromosome loss, and sex linked recessive lethals frequency was increased by heavy metals. It was observed a fertility disminution between F 1 descendants from individuals treated with the metalic salts. It was demonstrated that heavy metals can interact with genetic material at different levels in the two types of gametic cells to produce genetic damage. (author)

  8. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  9. Covalent bonding in heavy metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Connie J.; Hrovat, Dave A.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2017-04-07

    Novel theoretical methods were used to quantify the magnitude and the energetic contributions of 4f/5f-O2p and 5d/6d-O2p interactions to covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide oxides. Although many analyses have neglected the involvement of the frontier d orbitals, the present study shows that f and d covalency are of comparable importance. Two trends are identified. As is expected, the covalent mixing is larger when the nominal oxidation state is higher. More subtly, the importance of the nf covalent mixing decreases sharply relative to (n+1)d as the nf occupation increases. Atomic properties of the metal cations that drive these trends are identified.

  10. An optimised method for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-compartment electrodialytic cell set-up for treatment of solid materials has in many respects proven superior to other types of cells in removing heavy metals from sediments. Most notably, remediation times were shorter, energy consumption was lower and higher removal efficiencies were observed....... By employing m1ultivariate modelling and investigating additional experimental variables, the relative importance of variables effecting remediation was determined and response surfaces for heavy metal removal were calculated. Employing optimal conditions it was possible to remove targeted metals (Pb, Cu, Zn...

  11. Elimination of radionuclides and heavy metals from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarcik, I.; Cipakova, A.; Palagyi, S.

    1994-01-01

    At present increased attention is devoted to occurrence of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils, that enter them, owing to a development of power supply, industry, agriculture, traffic etc. These pollutants can cumulate in soils and therefore it is necessary to know to what extent and under which conditions they are held by soil material, so their transfer into plants and so enter into foodchains and their penetration into underground waters could be stopped. Sorption and desorption processes are the basic ones that can determine migration range of radionuclides and heavy metals. Distribution coefficients (K D ) characterize division of pollutants between soil and soil solution. There is connection between K D and soil characteristics and therefore it is possible to use this quantity for observation of factors influencing sorption of pollutants in soils. In the first period of our work sorption and desorption of radionuclides (RN) and heavy metals (HM) in soils, their vertical migration and gradual extraction from soils were verified. In experiments samples of arable and forest soils of the Slovak Republic (black earth, brown soil and sandy soil) were used. Tessier sequential extraction method was used for determination of RN and HM physico-chemical forms. On the base of obtained experimental results we can claim: From the point of view of RN and HM receipt by root system of plants and their appropriate leaching into ground waters, fixed forms (unavailable) are prevailing in soils. Ratio of their unavailable forms are increasing with content of organic matter and clay minerals in soils. As to artificial RN ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs) ratio of firmly bound forms with soil compartments is higher for 137 Cs (black earth - about 95 % , sandy soil - 62 %). Higher measure of 90 Sr depth migration and higher ratio of its availability for plants follow from it. From studied HM, Cd is more mobile, because of its not firm linkage with soil compartments. Ratio of Cd easily available

  12. Heavy metals pollution status in surface sediments (rivers and artifical lakes, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Potentially hazardous trace elements, often in literature referred as "heavy metals", are deemed serious pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence and non-degradability in the environment. These elements play an important role in extent of water pollution and threaten the health of populations and ecosystems. As the sink of heavy metals, sediment beds adsorb metals in quantities that are many times higher than those found in the water column in the long-term polluted water environment. It is believed that most of the metal content, as much as 90% in aquatic sediments is bound to sediments. Metal contamination in these sediments could be directly affect the river water quality, resulting in potential consequences to the sensitive lowest levels of the food chain and ultimately to human health. The objective of this research was the evaluation of heavy metal contamination level in sediments of the most important rivers and artificial lakes in Serbia. The heavy metal enrichment in studied sediments was conducted by using: determination of total metal content, sequential extraction procedure for the fractionation of studied elements, quantification of the metal enrichment degree in the sediments by calculating geo-accumulation indices, determination of actual and potential element availability and application of BRAI index for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly with Cd, Cu, and Zn. The significant variation in heavy metal distribution among samples collected in this large region, encompassing all Serbian watersheds, suggests the selective contamination of sediments by heavy metals. Elevated concentrations of elements in most cases were detected in samples of river sediments, since artificial lake reservoirs are usually built in rural areas, where the less anthropogenic pollution. Rivers often flow through the towns and these water basins less or more loaded

  13. Historical trend in heavy metal pollution in core sediments from the Masan Bay, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinhyung; Hyun, Sangmin; Han, J-H; Kim, Suhyun; Shin, Dong-Hyeok

    2015-06-15

    The spatiotemporal distribution and their mass accumulation rate (MAR) of heavy metals were investigated to evaluate the time-dependent historical trends of heavy metal concentration. The three short cores used for this study were collected from the catchment area (MS-PC5, 60cm length), the central part (MS-PC4, 40cm length) and the offshore (MS-PC2, 60cm length) of the Masan Bay, Korea. The concentration of heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) in catchment area is as much as 1.5-2 times higher than central part of the Bay, and about 2 times higher than offshore area approximately. In particular, MAR of metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) show clear spatiotemporal variation, so that MAR's of heavy metal may provide more accurate information in evaluating the degree of pollution. Temporally, the heavy metal concentration had been increased since the late 1970s, but it seems to decrease again since the 2004yr in catchment area. This may came from concentrated efforts for the government to reduce industrial waste release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on adsorption and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jia, Youngfeng

    2010-08-01

    Field experiments at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology were conducted to study the adsorption, accumulation, and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch grown in artificially contaminated soil. The soil was spiked with a combination of Cd, Cu, and Zn at concentrations of 1.5, 100, and 200 mg.kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the biomass of poplar (Populus canadensis Moench) was lower by 26.0% in the soil spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, and Zn, compared with the control. Concentrations of Cd in poplar leaf and Cu in poplar roots in the treated soil were 4.11 and 14.55 mg kg(-1), respectively, which are much greater than in corresponding controls. The migration of heavy metals in woody plant body was in the order Cd > Zn > Cu. Poplar had higher metal concentrations in aboveground tissues and a higher biomass compared with larch of the same age and therefore is potentially more suitable for remediation. In the heavy metal-polluted soil of this study, phytoremediation by poplar may take 56 and 245 years for Cd and Cu, respectively, for meeting the soil standards of heavy metals, and the corresponding phytoremediation times by larch would take 211 and 438 years. The research findings could be used as a basis to develop ecological engineering technologies for environmental control and remediation of pollution caused by heavy metals in soils.

  15. Spatial patterns of heavy metal accumulation in sediments and macrophytes of Bellandur wetland, Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T V; Sudarshan, P B; Mahesh, M K; Vinay, S

    2018-01-15

    Heavy metals are one among the toxic chemicals and accumulation in sediments and plants has been posing serious health impacts. Wetlands aid as kidneys of the landscape and help in remediation through uptake of nutrients, heavy metals and other contaminants. The analyses of macrophytes and sediment samples help in evaluating pollution status in aquatic environment. In this study concentration of six heavy metals (Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) were assessed in sediment and dominant macrophyte samples collected from Bellandur Lake, largest Lake of Bangalore, India. Sediment samples reveal of heavy metals in the inlet regions and shore samples. The accumulation of metals in sediments were in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. All metals exceeded the critical limits of metals in the sediment. Concentration of different metals in the macrophyte samples ranked as: Cr > Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd. Chromium and Copper were found to be more than critical range. Typha angustata had the higher accumulation of all metals except chromium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  17. Possibility of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, B.; Mihajlovic, A.; Drobnjak, Dj.

    1965-01-01

    The review of metal uranium properties including irradiation in the reactor core lead to the following conclusions. Using metal uranium in the heavy water reactors would be favourable from economic point of view for ita high density, i.e. high conversion factor and low cost of fuel elements fabrication. Most important constraint is swelling during burnup and corrosion

  18. Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus papillio from the mangrove swamps of the Bukuma oilfield, Rivers State. ... Generally elevated metal levels in both tissues were recorded at the stations with wellheads, implicating oil-related activities as the main source of contamination. However, the levels in ...

  19. Evaluation of Heavy and Trace Metals in Fingernails of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAHAB

    These elements have been produced by alteration and distribution via wind blow. The result indicates that soil or road dust plays an important role in the concentration buildup of the road side dust near automobile workshops. Table 2: Concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples in the automobile workshop. Metals.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in, and human health risk assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, sediment and fish samples were collected for six months and heavy metals were determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Fe ranked highest in water and sediment, with concentrations of 2.74 mg l−1 and 61.60 mg kg−1, respectively. Metals followed the magnitude of Fe > Mn > Ni > V > Pb in the water ...

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Dumpsites in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation and distribution of heavy metals in soil controls the degree to which metals and their compounds are mobile, extractable, and plant available. Eight strategically located dumpsites in Ilorin metropolis (an averagely growing city and a state capital) were chosen for dumpsites-soil characteristics study. Both the ...

  2. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewaters Using Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater samples from battery, paint and textile industries were treated with different doses of locally available alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to determine and compare their effectiveness in removing heavy metal contents from the wastewaters. The percentage removal of the metals from the ...

  3. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several sediment samples in Lake Burullus have been affected by the discharges of heavy metals through different drains. The study aimed to analyze the chemical speciation of these metals. In particular, the chemical forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in sediments collected in spring season were studied using a ...

  4. Assessment of heavy metals concentration in drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of all the metals were considerably found to be below the limit permitted by WHO's drinking water guidelines (WHO 2005). Findings suggest that continues water quality monitoring should be carried out to check the concentration levels of heavy metals in that area, to prevent them from been above the limit ...

  5. levels of heavy metals in gubi dam water bauchi, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    copper and lead were always highest in the suspended materials which indicate the dominant role played by ... essential. However, at high concentrations, these trace metals become toxic (Nurnberg, 1982). Heavy metals in .... mobilization of cobalt minerals into the dam. .... Interaction between sediments and fresh water ...

  6. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  7. Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by sorption using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by sorption using natural clays from Burkina Faso. ... The high alkaline pH in one of the samples is attributable to the presence of ... The point of zero charge (pHpzc) values of the clays, as determined by ... significant contributions to the removal of metal ions in aqueous systems.

  8. Study of heavy metals bioaccumulation in the process of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... The bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cr) and the relationship between them was investigated on ... this elements in 14 days) exposure, the metal accumulation was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. ... sed to the point that it endangers human life in some areas, and the ...

  9. Evaluation of heavy metals pollution of Nokoue Lake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(3), pp. 255-261, March ... Key words: Nokoue Lake, pollution, heavy metal, texture. INTRODUCTION ... certain anthropogenic trace metals released by industries and domestic .... storage on ice, complete filling containers, use of plastic materials for storage ...

  10. Modelling heavy metal and phosphorus balances for farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, A.N.; Schulin, R.

    2003-01-01

    Accounting for agricultural activities such as P fertilization in regional models of heavy metal accumulation provides suitable sustainable management strategies to reduce nutrient surpluses and metal inputs in agricultural soils. Using the balance model PROTERRA-S, we assessed the phosphorus ( P),

  11. Determination of Levels of Essential and Toxic Heavy Metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace essential metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) and toxic heavy metals (Cd and Pb) in lentil samples collected from Dejen (East Gojjam), Boset (East Shewa) and Molale (North Shewa), Ethiopia, were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A wet digestion procedure, using mixtures of ...

  12. Heavy metals burden in Kidney and heart tissues of Scarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of selected heavy metals (Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cd) in the heart and kidney tissues of parrot fish, collected from the Arabian Gulf, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, were determined by wet-digestion based atomic absorption method. The results showed that accumulation pattern of analyzed metals in the kidney ...

  13. Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    and they probably reduced the effect of high concentrations of these metals on the lake ... 31° 07' E. It's a shallow brackish lake connected with the sea by a ... The concentration of heavy metals in water (µg/l) at 15 stations at Lake Burullus.

  14. Concentration of heavy metals from traffic emissions on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, emission and combustion of fossils and fuels have been identified as primary sources of atmospheric metallic burden. Detailed information about this is not readily available in Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury and cadmium} ...

  15. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  16. Review of heavy metal accumulation on aquatic environment in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea part I: some essential metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ayşe Bahar; Yanar, Alper; Alkan, Ela Nur

    2017-03-01

    All pollutants can reach the aquatic environments and the levels of heavy metals in upper members of the food web like fish can reach values many times higher than those found in aquatic environment or in sediments. Although heavy metals are essential or non-essential, all heavy metals are potentially harmful to humans and most organisms at some level of exposure and absorption. Marine organisms are good indicators for long-term monitoring of metal accumulation. The present review study is for evaluation of the data from previous studies about the toxic effects of selected heavy metals, like essential metals (copper, zinc, iron, chromium, and manganese), on seawater, sediment, and in different tissues of aquatic animals (demersal and bentic fish, invertabres) collected from different areas in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea since the 1990s. Some concern arose from previous studies, particularly in terms of safety for human consumption. For this purpose, 86 articles and 4 theses were examined and information was collected on the table to open a forward-looking view of the pollution of studied area. In previous studies, the variations in feeding habits, habitats, and the level of copper found in edible muscles of the demersal fish species (deep water fish species, carnivore) such as Mullus barbatus barbatus, Solea lascaris, Sparus aurata were always higher than those found in pelagic (omnivore) Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata. Results show discrepancies caused by many factors; thus, more work must be done carefully.

  17. THE IMPACT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temitope

    Index of geo-accumulation (Igeo), revealed no contamination of the trace metals. ... (Hg), arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). ... standards, and to suggest the best remedial methods ..... metal concentrations in urban soil of Ibadan metropolis,.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF SEDIMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2011 Chemical Society of Ethiopia. ______ ... 2Department of Laboratory Technology, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. (Received June 23 ... industrial and urban wastes are inevitably discharged into water bodies and consequently, heavy.

  19. Phytoextraction of heavy metal from sewage sludge by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 and 2009, studies made contents of cadmium and lead in the soil and their uptake by non-traditional plants were studied in a small-plot trial. At the same time also the effect of bio-algeen preparations on phytoextraction of heavy metals by these plants was investigated. Experimental plots were established on the reclaimed land after closing down mining operations in the town of Žacléř (North-East Bohemia where a layer of sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant 0.6–0.8 m thick was subsequently applied. The locality is situated in the altitude of 612 m, its average annual temperature is about 6.8 °C and the mean annual precipitations are 857 mm. Analyses revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in the applied sewage sludge. The average concentrations of lead and cadmium were 180 mg . kg−1 and 6.89 mg . kg−1, respectively. The experiment had two variants: Variant 1 – sewage sludge without any other substances, and Variant 2 – sewage sludge + bio-algeen preparations (B. A. S-90 or B. A. Root Concentrate. To find the most suitable plant species for the phytoextraction of cadmium and lead, the following non-traditional plants were cultivated in both variants: fodder mallow (Malva verticillata L., rye (Secale cereale L. var. multicaule METZG. ex ALEF. and white sweet clover (Melilotus alba MEDIC.. The highest accumulation of cadmium and lead in the aboveground biomass was found out in rye, viz 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM and 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively., As compared with other plants under study, white sweet clover exhibited the significantly lowest capability to extract both heavy metals from soil (viz 0.22 and 3.20 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively. A positive effect of bio-algeen on phytoextraction of cadmium and lead was evident in all plants. The highest yield of aboveground biomass was recorded on the plot with white sweet clover with added

  20. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  1. Biosorption of heavy metals from wastewater by biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orhan, Y.; Bueyuekguengoer, H. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Hrenovic, J. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-08-15

    In a study where the removal of heavy metals from wastewater is the primary aim, the biosorption of heavy metals onto biosolids prepared as Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized onto granular activated carbon was investigated in batch and column systems. In the batch system, adsorption equilibriums of heavy metals were reached between 20 and 50 min, and the optimal dosage of biosolids was 0.3 g/L. The biosorption efficiencies were 84, 80, 79, 59 and 42 % for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions, respectively. The rate constants of biosorption and pore diffusion of heavy metals were 0.013-0.089 min{sup -1} and 0.026-0.690 min{sup -0.5}. In the column systems, the biosorption efficiencies for all heavy metals increased up to 81-100 %. The affinity of biosorption for various metal ions towards biosolids was decreased in the order: Cr = Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  3. Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wang, Jinsheng

    2015-01-01

    China faces a big challenge of environmental deterioration amid its rapid economic development. To comprehensively identify the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in Chinese soils on a national scale, data set of the first national soil pollution survey was employed to evaluate the pollution levels using several pollution indicators (pollution index, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor) and to quantify their exposure risks posed to human health with the risk assessment model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that, due to the drastically increased industrial operations and fast urban expansion, Chinese soils were contaminated by heavy metals in varying degrees. As a whole, the exposure risk levels of soil metals in China were tolerable or close to acceptable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Cadmium and mercury have been identified as the priority control metals due to their higher concentrations in soils or higher health risks posed to the public, as well as, arsenic, lead, chromium and nickel. Spatial distribution pattern analysis implied that the soil metal pollutions in southern provinces of China were relatively higher than that in other provinces, which would be related to the higher geochemical background in southwest regions and the increasing human activities in southeast areas. Meanwhile, it should be noticed that Beijing, the capital of China, also has been labeled as the priority control province for its higher mercury concentration. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention and control in China. - Highlights: • Soil contamination with heavy metals in China was systematically studied. • Spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in Chinese soils were identified. • Monte

  4. Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiyang [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Teng, Yanguo, E-mail: Teng1974@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao [China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Jinsheng [Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-04-15

    China faces a big challenge of environmental deterioration amid its rapid economic development. To comprehensively identify the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in Chinese soils on a national scale, data set of the first national soil pollution survey was employed to evaluate the pollution levels using several pollution indicators (pollution index, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor) and to quantify their exposure risks posed to human health with the risk assessment model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that, due to the drastically increased industrial operations and fast urban expansion, Chinese soils were contaminated by heavy metals in varying degrees. As a whole, the exposure risk levels of soil metals in China were tolerable or close to acceptable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Cadmium and mercury have been identified as the priority control metals due to their higher concentrations in soils or higher health risks posed to the public, as well as, arsenic, lead, chromium and nickel. Spatial distribution pattern analysis implied that the soil metal pollutions in southern provinces of China were relatively higher than that in other provinces, which would be related to the higher geochemical background in southwest regions and the increasing human activities in southeast areas. Meanwhile, it should be noticed that Beijing, the capital of China, also has been labeled as the priority control province for its higher mercury concentration. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention and control in China. - Highlights: • Soil contamination with heavy metals in China was systematically studied. • Spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in Chinese soils were identified. • Monte

  5. Novel polymer-based nanocomposites for application in heavy metal pollution remediation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé-Jacobs, L

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available and kidney damage and also cancer ? Heavy metals can accumulate in food sources through heavy metal contamination of soil and plants ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Removal of heavy metals ? Small volume applications: ion exchange ? Larger volumes eg. acid mine... pollution, treatment shortfalls at municipalities and contaminated surface water discharges ? Accumulation of heavy metals and endocrine disrupters ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 Introduction: Heavy metals ? Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, As etc. ? Exposure can cause liver...

  6. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  7. Heavy metal absorption by vegetables grown in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, F.; Riolfatti, M.; Ravazzolo, E.; Da Ros, D.; Brigato, L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors study the bibliographic and experimental data on absorption by vegetables of several heavy metals present in the soil or brought to it via fertilizations, especially with the use of compost coming from waste treatment plants. The presence of heavy metals in the soil causes increased levels of these toxic substances in the edible parts of the vegetables grown in that soil. Not to be neglected is also the absorption by the leaf apparatus of airborne particulate containing heavy metals which deposit on the parts of the vegetable exposed to the air. The available data lack homogeneity of investigation as they have been draw from studies which followed different methodologies. Therefore further studies are required in order to: eliminate some of the variables that might affect the absorption of metals from the soil and supply comparable data. Moreover, a greater number of vegetable species and their different edible parts will have to be taken into consideration

  8. Experiences of the Use of Bio monitors for Heavy Metal Pollution Control in Almendares River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares- Rieumont, S.; Lima, L.; De la Rosa, D.; Martinez, F.; Borroto, J.; Columbie, I.; Sanchez, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text: This work is the first approach to establish a monitoring system for heavy metals in the Almendares Vento Basin. This basin is the most important watershed of Havana City, which main river is the Almendares River, that with 42 km of length goes through 5 municipalities, where live more than 500,000 inhabitants. The river receives a large pollution loads from more than 50 pollution sources of Havana City. Inputs of toxic substances like heavy metals come from the industries located along the river and tributaries, the urban discharges and from important speedways in both shores of the river. In the work, concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in sediments, water, gastropod species Tarebia granifera Lamarck, macrophyte Eichhornia Crassipes and fish from the specie Gambusia were evaluated at 14 stations during the dry season of 2003. Concentrations of copper and lead in water samples exceeded applicable guidelines for many of the sites monitored in the river basin. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed using three-stage sequential extraction procedure. In sediments high contents of studied metals were found in the bioavailable fraction. Some stations were highly polluted with all elements. Two main sources of pollution with heavy metals could be identified in the basin due to the higher concentration of most of the studied metals in the analized sampling stations. Pb concentrations were high in almost all the stations. Similar behaviour was found for the metal concentration in Eichhornia Crassipes roots, that appear to have an interesting potential as bio monitor of the pollution with heavy metals. Tarebia granifera Lamarck only could be found in 5 of the 14 stations monitored, and it presence is related with the quality of the river water. The magnitude of contamination was estimated by the comparison between local backgrounds and concentration of metals measured. Only high concentration of Zn were found in the Gambusia tissue, and no

  9. Heavy metal migration through clay below a domestic waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanful, E K

    1986-01-01

    Migration of contaminants from a domestic waste landfill overlying a 30 m thick natural clay deposit is presented. Profiles for Na/sup +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, DOC and other soluble species indicate that, at 16 years, contaminants have migrated up to 130 cm from the waste. Profiles for conservative species suggest that Cl-, /sup 3/H, /sup 18/O and /sup 2/H fronts are ahead of those species such as Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and DOC. In comparison, the heavy metals, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb, have migrated only 10-20 cm. Batch equilibrium studies involving Fe/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/ result in classical adsorption-pH curves which show increasing adsorption at higher pH levels and vice versa. The presence of soil carbonates is shown to significantly increase the mass of Pb and Cu removed from domestic landfill leachate.

  10. Increased Tolerance to Heavy Metals Exhibited by Swarming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, M.; Shrout, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes several different modes of motility to colonize surfaces, including swarming, which is the coordinated movement of cells over surfaces in groups. Swarming facilitates surface colonization and biofilm development for P. aeruginosa, and it is known that swarming behavior is influenced by changes in nutrient composition and surface moisture. To understand the fate and cycling of heavy metals in the environment, it is important to understand the interaction and toxicity of these metals upon bacteria. While previous studies have shown surface-attached bacterial biofilms to be highly resistant to heavy metal toxicity, little is known about the influence of heavy metals upon surface motile bacteria and developing biofilms. Using a combination of laboratory assays we examined differences in bacterial behavior in response to two metals, Cd and Ni. We find that surface swarming bacteria are able to grow on 4x and 2.5x more Cd and Ni, respectively, than planktonic cells (i.e., test tube cultures). P. aeruginosa was able to swarm in the presence ≤0.051mM Ni and ≤0.045mM Cd. To investigate the bioavailability of metals to bacteria growing under our examined conditions, we separated cell and supernatant fractions of P. aeruginosa cultures, and used ICP-MS techniques to measure Cd and Ni sorption. A greater percentage of Cd than Ni was sorbed by both cells and supernatant (which contains rhamnolipid, a surfactant known to sorb some metals and improve swarming). While we show that cell products such as rhamnolipid bind heavy metals (as expected) and should limit metal bioavailability, our results suggest at least one additional mechanism (as yet undetermined) that promotes cell survival during swarming in the presence of these heavy metals.

  11. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Wild Mushrooms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chinatu Charity Ndimele; Prince Emeka Ndimele; Kanayo Stephen Chukwuka

    2017-01-01

    Background. Many companies in Nigeria generate industrial effluents, including heavy metals. These metals can be accumulated by biota such as mushrooms, which are then eaten by the populace. Objectives. The present study investigates the metal content of wild mushrooms in order to educate the local population on the safety of their consumption. Methods. Seven different species of wild mushrooms (Cortinarius melliolens, Chlorophyllum brunneum, Pleurotus florida, Volvariella speciosa, Can...

  13. Phytoremediation of heavy metals from fly ash pond by Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2012-08-01

    Abundance of naturally growing Azolla caroliniana (water fern) on the surface of metal enriched fly ash (FA) pond reflects its toxitolerant characteristics. Results indicate the efficiency of A. caroliniana for phytoremediation of FA pond because of its higher bioconcentration factor. The metal concentration ranged from 175 to 538 and 86 to 753mgkg(-1) in roots and fronds, respectively. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of all metals in root and frond ranged from 1.7 to18.6 and 1.8 to 11.0, respectively, which were greater than one and indicates the metal accumulation potential of A. caroliniana. Translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.37 to 1.4 for various heavy metals. The field result proved that A. caroliniana is a potential accumulator for the examined heavy metals and can be used for phytoremediation of FA pond. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual and competitive removal of heavy metals using capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhe; Lu, Lu; Cai, Zhenxiao; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Capactive deionization can effectively remove cadmium, lead, and chromium from water. • The removal rates of the individual metal ions vary due to adsorption difference. • The interplay between different metal ions when co-present affects ion removal. - Abstract: This study presents the viability and preference of capacitive deionization (CDI) for removing different heavy metal ions in various conditions. The removal performance and mechanisms of three ions, cadmium (Cd"2"+), lead (Pb"2"+) and chromium (Cr"3"+) were investigated individually and as a mixture under different applied voltages and ion concentrations. It was found that CDI could effectively remove these metals, and the performance was positively correlated with the applied voltage. When 1.2 V was applied into solution containing 0.5 mM individual ions, the Cd"2"+, Pb"2"+, and Cr"3"+ removal was 32%, 43%, and 52%, respectively, and the electrosorption played a bigger role in Cd"2"+ removal than for the other two ions. Interestingly, while the removal of Pb"2"+ and Cr"3"+ remained at a similar level of 46% in the mixture of three ions, the Cd"2"+ removal significantly decreased to 14%. Similar patterns were observed when 0.05 mM was used to simulate natural contaminated water condition, but the removal efficiencies were much higher, with the removal of Pb"2"+, Cr"3"+, and Cd"2"+ increased to 81%, 78%, and 42%, respectively. The low valence charge and lack of physical sorption of Cd"2"+ were believed to be the reason for the removal behavior, and advanced microscopic analysis showed clear deposits of metal ions on the cathode surface after operation.

  15. Individual and competitive removal of heavy metals using capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhe; Lu, Lu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cai, Zhenxiao [Access Business Group LLC, 7575 Fulton Street East, Ada, MI 49301 (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Capactive deionization can effectively remove cadmium, lead, and chromium from water. • The removal rates of the individual metal ions vary due to adsorption difference. • The interplay between different metal ions when co-present affects ion removal. - Abstract: This study presents the viability and preference of capacitive deionization (CDI) for removing different heavy metal ions in various conditions. The removal performance and mechanisms of three ions, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}), lead (Pb{sup 2+}) and chromium (Cr{sup 3+}) were investigated individually and as a mixture under different applied voltages and ion concentrations. It was found that CDI could effectively remove these metals, and the performance was positively correlated with the applied voltage. When 1.2 V was applied into solution containing 0.5 mM individual ions, the Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cr{sup 3+} removal was 32%, 43%, and 52%, respectively, and the electrosorption played a bigger role in Cd{sup 2+} removal than for the other two ions. Interestingly, while the removal of Pb{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} remained at a similar level of 46% in the mixture of three ions, the Cd{sup 2+} removal significantly decreased to 14%. Similar patterns were observed when 0.05 mM was used to simulate natural contaminated water condition, but the removal efficiencies were much higher, with the removal of Pb{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Cd{sup 2+} increased to 81%, 78%, and 42%, respectively. The low valence charge and lack of physical sorption of Cd{sup 2+} were believed to be the reason for the removal behavior, and advanced microscopic analysis showed clear deposits of metal ions on the cathode surface after operation.

  16. Expressing a bacterial mercuric ion binding protein in plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Chein, Mei-Fang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Endo, Ginro; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2009-01-30

    A specific mercuric ion binding protein (MerP) originating from transposon TnMERI1 of Bacillus megaterium strain MB1 isolated from Minamata Bay displayed good adsorption capability for a variety of heavy metals. In this study, the Gram-positive MerP protein was expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis to create a model system for phytoremediation of heavy metals. Under control of an actin promoter, the transgenic Arabidpsis showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for mercury, cadium and lead when compared with the control plant. Results from confocal microscopy analysis also indicate that MerP was localized at the cell membrane and vesicles of plant cells. The developed transgenic plants possessing excellent metal-accumulative ability could have potential applications in decontamination of heavy metals.

  17. Heavy Metals in ToxCast: Relevance to Food Safety (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to heavy metals occurs through food contamination due to industrial processes, vehicle emissions and farming methods. Specific toxicity endpoints have been associated with metal exposures, e.g. lead and neurotoxicity; however, numerous varieties of heavy metals hav...

  18. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyere, Vincent Nartey; Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (C deg ), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall C deg . We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall C deg . Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and C deg , indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied.

  19. Serpentine soils affect heavy metal tolerance but not genetic diversity in a common Mediterranean ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzi, Filippo; Masoni, Alberto; Çelikkol, Mine; Palchetti, Enrico; Ciofi, Claudio; Chelazzi, Guido; Santini, Giacomo

    2017-08-01

    Natural habitats with serpentine soils are rich in heavy metal ions, which may significantly affect ecological communities. Exposure to metal pollutants results, for instance, in a reduction of population genetic diversity and a diffused higher tolerance towards heavy metals. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to metals in serpentine soils affect accumulation patterns, tolerance towards metal pollutants, and genetic diversity in ants. In particular, we studied colonies of the common Mediterranean ant, Crematogaster scutellaris, along a contamination gradient consisting of two differently contaminated forests and a reference soil with no geogenic contamination. We first evaluated the metal content in both soil and ants' body. Then, we tested for tolerance towards metal pollutants by evaluating the mortality of ants fed with nickel (Ni) solutions of increasing concentrations. Finally, differences in genetic diversity among ants from different areas were assessed using eight microsatellite loci. Interestingly, a higher tolerance to nickel solutions was found in ants sampled in sites with intermediate levels of heavy metals. This may occur, because ants inhabiting strongly contaminated areas tend to accumulate higher amounts of contaminants. Additional ingestion of toxicants beyond the saturation threshold would lead to death. There was no difference in the genetic diversity among ant colonies sampled in different sites. This was probably the result of queen mediated gene flow during nuptial flights across uncontaminated and contaminated areas of limited geographical extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawidis, T. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Breuste, J., E-mail: juergen.breuste@sbg.ac.at [Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, 5010 Salzburg (Austria); Mitrovic, M.; Pavlovic, P. [Department of Ecology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsigaridas, K. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. - Highlights: > Oriental plane and Austrian pine are suitable for comparative urban air quality biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. > Pine tree is excellently suitable as urban bioindicator as it accumulates high concentrations of trace metals. > The highest heavy metal pollution was found in Belgrade followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. - Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis L.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, are suitable for comparative biomonitoring of urban air pollution.

  1. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawidis, T.; Breuste, J.; Mitrovic, M.; Pavlovic, P.; Tsigaridas, K.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. - Highlights: → Oriental plane and Austrian pine are suitable for comparative urban air quality biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. → Pine tree is excellently suitable as urban bioindicator as it accumulates high concentrations of trace metals. → The highest heavy metal pollution was found in Belgrade followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. - Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis L.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, are suitable for comparative biomonitoring of urban air pollution.

  2. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  3. EDGA amendment of slightly heavy metal loaded soil affects heavy metal solubility, crop growth and microbivorous nematodes but not bacteria and herbivorous nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Japenga, J.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a promising technology to remediate slightly and moderately contaminated soils. To enhance crops' uptake of heavy metals, chelates such as EDGA are being tested as soil additives. Heavy metal loaded EDGA can affect soil organisms such as bacteria and nematodes in

  4. Competitive adsorption of heavy metal by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qing; Li, Ming-Ming; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo

    2014-07-01

    Competitive adsorption of heavy metals by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was investigated. Chemical analysis showed that different EPS compositions had different capacities for the adsorption of heavy metals which was investigated using Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Batch adsorption tests indicated that EPS had a higher combined ability with Zn(2+) than Cu(2+). This was confirmed and explained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy analysis. FTIR analysis showed that both polysaccharides and protein combined with Zn(2+) while only protein combined with Cu(2+). EEM spectra further revealed that tryptophan-like substances were the main compositions reacted with the heavy metals. Moreover, Zn(2+) had a higher fluorescence quenching ability than Cu(2+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal immobilization in mineral phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apblett, A.

    1993-01-01

    A successful waste form for toxic or radioactive metals must not only have the ability to chemically incorporate the elements but it must also be extremely stable in the geological environment. Thus, ceramic wasteforms are sought which mimic those minerals that have sequestered the hazardous metals for billions of years. One method for producing ceramics, metal organic deposition (MOD) is outstanding in its simplicity, versatility, and inexpensiveness. The major contribution that the MOD process can make to ceramic waste forms is the ability to mix the toxic metals at a molecular level with the elements which form the ceramic matrix. With proper choice of organic ligands, the inclusion of significant amounts of alkali metals in the ceramic and, hence, their detrimental effect on durability may be avoided. In the first stage of our research we identified thermally-unstable ligands which could fulfill the role of complexing toxic metal species and allowing their precipitation or extraction into nonaqueous solvents

  6. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  7. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  8. Stabilization of heavy metals in Tehran agricultural land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torabian, A.; Sadeghi, Sh.

    2001-01-01

    In order to prevent contamination of heavy metals accumulation in soil, plant, and ground water, several methods of prevention are studied, and tested worldwide. One of the method which has not been studied and applied in Iran is stabilization of heavy metals in soil by using clay minerals. Clay minerals due to hydration properties can adsorb organic and inorganic substances. Two clay minerals were used in this research: Bentonite with chemical structure of 2 to 1 (Two layers of silica and one layer of Aluminium) with CEC equal to 85 m eq/100 grams and Kao line with chemical structure of one to one (one layer silica and one layer Aluminum) and CEC=3 m eq/100 grams of soil. The physical and chemical properties of these two kinds of clays were different. Stabilization of heavy metals with different percentages of these two clays (7%, 15%, 22%) with different p H (4,7,8,11.5) were studied. The results indicate that with increasing of stabilizing agent at p H=7.8 and greater, stabilization of heavy metals increased significantly. The results also indicate the stabilization of heavy metals decreased rapidly at p H 4 and lower. The results of this study agree with the work of pervious researchers

  9. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-05-01

    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R 2  > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe 3 O 4 ) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO 3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe 3 O 4 . The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 content under higher sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals derived from electronic waste (e-waste), such as, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, distribution, metabolism, excretion and biological transmission. Our previous studies showed that heavy metal exposure have adverse effects on children's health including lower birth weight, lower anogenital distance, lower Apgar scores, lower current weight, lower lung function, lower hepatitis B surface antibody levels, higher prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and higher DNA and chromosome damage. Heavy metals influence a number of diverse systems and organs, resulting in both acute and chronic effects on children's health, ranging from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary and reproductive disease, as well as aggravation of pre-existing symptoms and disease. These effects of heavy metals on children's health are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heavy metals in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weihua; Bai, Jianfeng; Yao, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, JingWei

    2017-11-01

    For the objective of evaluating the contamination degree of heavy metals and analysing its variation trend in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in Shanghai, China, evaluation methods, which include single factor index method, geo-accumulation index method, comprehensive pollution index method, and potential ecological risk index method, were adopted in this study. The results revealed that the soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area was polluted by arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium. It also demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals were increased over time. Exceptionally, the average value of the metalloid (arsenic) was 73.31 mg kg -1 in 2014, while it was 58.31 mg kg -1 in the first half of 2015, and it was 2.93 times and 2.33 times higher than that of the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soil in 2014 and the first half of 2015, respectively. The sequences of the contamination degree of heavy metals in 2014 and the first half of 2015 were cadmium > lead > copper > chromium > zinc and cadmium > lead > chromium > zinc > copper. From the analysis of the potential ecological risk index method, arsenic and cadmium had higher ecological risk than other heavy metals. The integrated ecological risk index of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium) and metalloid (arsenic) was 394.10 in 2014, while it was 656.16 in the first half of 2015, thus documenting a strong ecological risk.

  12. Peroxidase activity in Raphanus sativus and its relationship with soil heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, H.; Zare Myvan, H.; Sharifi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Today heavy metals are important environmental pollutants which generated from human activities and are one of the most important environmental stresses that cause molecular damages to plants through reactive oxygen species formation such as H2O2. Heavy metals are absorbed and accumulated by plants thus are absorbed by human bodies through the food chain. Raphanus sativus is a herbaceous plant within the Brassicaceae family that has different varieties and is used as a food plant in different parts of Iran. Peroxidase is one of the most important enzyme in oxidoreductase super family that can metabolize H2O2. In this research we studied some growth parameters, peroxidase activity and their relationships with heavy metal content and other soil factors in three different populations of radish collected from Sari, Semnan and south of Tehran. After harvesting the plants shoots and roots Peroxidase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically at 470 nm. Our results showed total heavy metal content of shomal 3 station soil and radish plants was higher than other stations, so plants collected from this station had lowest root and shoot lengths, fresh weights, dry weights, protein content and leaf collrophyll content. The peroxidase activity in both leaves and roots of these plants was higher than plants of other stations Therefore our results showed that with increasing heavy metal concentrations in soils peroxidase activity increased.

  13. Milk: Carrier of Heavy Metals from Crops through Ruminant Body to Human Beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, F.; Iqbal, S.; Tariq, M. I.; Akbar, J.; Noreen, S.; Danish, M.; Chan, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of heavy metals to humans is higher today than ever before in modern history due to continuously increasing industrialization around the globe. Industrial wastes are rich in heavy metals and these wastes are discharged near agricultural fields or mixed with soil, from where these metals are taken up by the crops and are finally transported to humans. Due to this increasing threat of heavy metals contamination in food, it is necessary to analyze the food before consumption. Content of selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in cow milk is determined in this study. To investigate the possible pathways of these metals to reach in milk; fodder supplied to these cows was analyzed besides analysis of soil samples on which this fodder was grown. Pearson correlation among metal contents in soil-forage and forage-milk was also determined to check the route of transfer of these metals from soil to forage and from forage to milk. It was found that a strong correlation (p < 0.5) exists for Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn. This shows that these metals are mainly transferred through soil. However, a weak correlation was found for Pb, which shows that Pb is introduced into forage through some other source (automobile exhaust etc.). A comparison of present study is also done with previously reported work from other countries on metal contents in milk and findings of both the studies were in good agreement mutually. (author)

  14. Heavy metal in sediments of Ziya River in northern China: distribution, potential risks, and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2016-12-01

    The concentration partitioning between the sediment particle and the interstitial water phase plays an important role in controlling the toxicity of heavy metals in aquatic systems. The aim of this study was to assess the sediment quality in a polluted area of the Ziya River, Northern China. The contamination potential and bioavailability of six metals were determined from the concentrations of total metals and the bioavailable fractions. The results showed that the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb exceeded the probable effect concentration at several sites. The high geoaccumulation indices showed that the sediments were seriously contaminated by Cd. The ratio of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) to simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) was higher than 1, which indicated that the availability of metals in sediments was low. The risk assessment of interstitial waters confirmed that there was little chance of release of metals associated with acid-volatile sulfide into the water column. Values of the interstitial water criteria toxicity unit indicated that none of the concentrations of the studied metals exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Positive matrix factorization showed that the major sources of metals were related to anthropogenic activities. Further, if assessments are based on total heavy metal concentrations, the toxicity of heavy metals in sediment may be overestimated.

  15. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Wood; Caixian Tang; Ashley E. Franks; Wuxing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediat...

  16. Spatial patterns of heavy metals in soil under different geological structures and land uses for assessing metal enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krami, Loghman Khoda; Amiri, Fazel; Sefiyanian, Alireza; Shariff, Abdul Rashid B Mohamed; Tabatabaie, Tayebeh; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2013-12-01

    One hundred and thirty composite soil samples were collected from Hamedan county, Iran to characterize the spatial distribution and trace the sources of heavy metals including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, and Fe. The multivariate gap statistical analysis was used; for interrelation of spatial patterns of pollution, the disjunctive kriging and geoenrichment factor (EF(G)) techniques were applied. Heavy metals and soil properties were grouped using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and gap statistic. Principal component analysis was used for identification of the source of metals in a set of data. Geostatistics was used for the geospatial data processing. Based on the comparison between the original data and background values of the ten metals, the disjunctive kriging and EF(G) techniques were used to quantify their geospatial patterns and assess the contamination levels of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution map combined with the statistical analysis showed that the main source of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, and V in group A land use (agriculture, rocky, and urban) was geogenic; the origin of As, Cd, and Cu was industrial and agricultural activities (anthropogenic sources). In group B land use (rangeland and orchards), the origin of metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and V) was mainly controlled by natural factors and As, Cd, Cu, and Pb had been added by organic factors. In group C land use (water), the origin of most heavy metals is natural without anthropogenic sources. The Cd and As pollution was relatively more serious in different land use. The EF(G) technique used confirmed the anthropogenic influence of heavy metal pollution. All metals showed concentrations substantially higher than their background values, suggesting anthropogenic pollution.

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H. de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.dewolf@ua.ac.be; Rashid, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically. - Anthropogenic activities result in heavy metal accumulation and adverse morphological effects in the mangrove gastropod Littoraria scabra.

  18. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH)(2) in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb>Cd>Cr, but the order was changed to Pb>Cr>Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only.

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H. de; Rashid, R.

    2008-01-01

    The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically. - Anthropogenic activities result in heavy metal accumulation and adverse morphological effects in the mangrove gastropod Littoraria scabra

  20. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH) 2 in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb > Cd > Cr, but the order was changed to Pb > Cr > Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only

  1. Effects of heavy metal pollution on red wood ant (Formica s. str.) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeva, T.; Sorvari, J.; Koivunen, V.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the species composition, mound population densities, relative abundance and colony sizes of red wood ants along a well known air pollution gradient of a copper smelter in Southwest Finland. The dominant species, Formica aquilonia, was further studied for heavy metal (Al, Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Hg) levels and morphological characters (body mass, head width, labial gland disease) of workers. We found five species belonging to Formica s. str., and two of them showed changes in their relative abundance, which could not be explained by natural habitat differences. Nest mound volumes were 34% smaller in the polluted area, suggesting that smaller colonies can be maintained there. The heavy metal levels in F. aquilonia workers were higher in the polluted area for all metals, except Hg. The largest relative differences between the study areas (polluted/unpolluted) were found for As (4.1), Ni (2.4), Cu (2.1) and Pb (1.8). Morphological characters of workers were not related to the heavy metal levels. Our data showed that red wood ants can tolerate relatively high amounts of heavy metals and maintain reproducing colonies even in a heavily polluted area, but on the basis of smaller colony sizes, pollution stress may also cause trade-offs in reproduction. - Capsule: Five species of red wood ants vary in their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution but all of them had smaller colonies in a polluted area

  2. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  3. Heavy metals in soils: a possible rule of Fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedini, S.; Argese, E.; Giovannetti, M.; Gobbo, L.; Pietrangeli, B.

    2009-01-01

    The development of effective bio technologies is a mail goal in reclaiming polluted soils. Plants may represent a very useful tool, since they are able to reduce pollution by means of the synergic action of rhizospheric microorganisms. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (A M) fungi, root symbionts of most land plants, produce a proteinaceous substance named glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) that has been demonstrated to interact with metallic ions. In this study we investigated the role of GRSP in the immobilization of potentially toxic heavy metals both in an agricultural and in a highly polluted soil. The results show that in heavy metal contaminated soils, GRSP can ease soil pollution by sequestering toxic metallic ions. On the other hand, in agricultural soils, where metallic elements are present in low concentrations, GRSP may be important also as a nutrient slow-releasing fraction of the soil organic matter.

  4. Removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work concerns the optimization of the operating conditions for the removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution by Electrocoagulation (EC. To reach this purpose, we prepared a synthetic wastewater containing certain heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Pb to study the influence of various parameters (conductivity, pH, time of electrolysis, current density and the initial concentration of the metal on the rate of removal of these metals. The results show that this rate of removal can reach 99.9 % in the following optimal conditions: pH included between 6 and 8 and a density of the current of 1~1.5A / dm2. This study shows that it is possible to remove metals in aqueous solution by the technique of electrocoagulation. 

  5. Analysis of heavy metals in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, B.; Dirdal, B.; Paus, P.E.

    1979-03-01

    Methods for the analysis of metals in Norwegian corn types have been tested. The main emphasis is on atomic absorption spectroscopy, with both wet and dry ashing, but the results are compared with emission spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis. In the latter only instrumental analysis has been carried out, restricting the number of metals which could be analysed. (JIW)

  6. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecchio, A; Finoli, C; Di Simine, D; Andreoni, [No Value

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the

  7. Temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system and associated influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Shiwei; Liu, Bailin; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Yang, Wenzhi; Bai, Xiaojuan; Naeem, Sajid; Zhang, Yingmei

    2018-05-30

    Heavy metal pollution in farmlands is highly concerned as crops' easy-uptake of heavy metal can ultimately affect consumers. In order to offer suggestions on cultivating safe quality vegetable, specifically eggplant which is widely consumed for its nutritional value and antioxidant activity, a field study was undertaken to investigate the temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system. In the present study, eggplants were planted in the farmlands of Weichuan village (WC) (relatively unpolluted field), Liangzhuang village (LZ) (moderately polluted field) and Minqin village (MQ) (seriously polluted field) to elucidate their temporal uptake processes of heavy metals described by the sigmoid model. Eggplant tissues from severely polluted farmlands were found with higher heavy metal concentrations and lower yields compared with other two groups. What is more, 25 farmlands along the Dongdagou stream (heavy metals polluted stream) were chosen to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils and eggplants. Heavy metal concentrations in eggplants decreased with the decline of heavy metal concentrations in soil from upstream (pollution source) to downstream. Moreover, several methods were employed to assess bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. All the bioavailable heavy metals were found in linear positive correlations with heavy metal concentrations. Meanwhile, linear correlations were found between heavy metals in soils and eggplants. At last, redundancy analysis was used to investigate the effects of soil properties (pH, organic matter and texture of soils) and heavy metals on eggplants' uptake. The results indicated that soil heavy metals had a dominant impact on their accumulations in eggplant fruit, with a variance contribution of 78.0%, while soil properties had a regulatory effect, with a variance contribution of 5.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetism in heavy-electron metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Originally it was believed that the presence of heavy-mass charge carriers at low temperatures in some special rare-earth or actinide compounds was simply the result of a suppression of magnetic order in these materials. Various experiments reveal, however, that magnetic order may occur from a heavy-electron state or that a heavy-electron state may also develop within a magnetically ordered materix. It turned out that pure compounds without any sign of a cooperative phase transition down to very low temperatures are rare but examples are known where microscopic experimental probes give evidence for strong magnetic correlations involving moments of much reduced magnitude (≤ 0.1μ Β ) in such cases. It apperas that electronic and magnetic inhomogeneities, both in real and reciprocal space occur which are not simply the result of chemical inhomogeneities. Long range magnetic order among strongly reduced magnetic moments seems to be a particular feature of some heavy-electron materials. Other examples show, that disorder may lead to a suppression of cooperative phase transitions and both macroscopic and microscopic physical properties indicate that conservative model calculations are not sufficient to describe the experimental observations. The main difficulty is to find a suitable theoretical approach that considers the various interactions of similar strength on an equal footing. Different examples of these various features are demonstrated and discussed. (au)

  9. [Leaching characteristics of heavy metals and utilization of filter media in BAF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jin-long; Dai, Ying

    2007-10-01

    A series of leaching tests were conducted to study the solidification of heavy metals in biological filter media made with dried sludge as an additive. The maximum leaching contents of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb are obtained when pH is 1; leaching contents of heavy metals have an obvious decrease as pH is greater than or equal to 3; and it can be concluded from the results that pH has a significant influence on the leaching characteristic of heavy metals at leaching time of either 24 h or 30 d. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on filter media reveal the main compounds of the 4 heavy metals are Pb2O(CrO4), CdSiO3 and CuO, and the heavy metals are solidified in the mesh structure of Si--O. Heavy metals (such as Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) can be solidified in filter media through a series of crystalline phase changes and chemical reaction after high temperature sintering. The new filter media (obtained in test) were used in biological aerated filter (BAF) to treat wastewater (C/N about 11.5 and 25.5) in a simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) system. Based on the mechanism of SND, the average removal efficienciesof NH4(+)-N and TN filled with the new filter media (obtained in test) are about 85.5%, 90.3%, 46.6% and 49.6%, respectively, and it is higher than those of other 3 medias (Jiangxi ceramsite, Guangzhou ceramsite and Shanxi activated carbon). The results provide a better understanding of factors that may affect the immobilization and leaching characteristics of heavy metals in ceramsite, which promotes the extensive use of filter media in BAF.

  10. Selective heavy metals removal from waters by amorphous zirconium phosphate: behavior and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Qingrui; Du, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Pan, Bingjun; Zhang, Qingjian; Xu, Zhengwen; Zhang, Quanxing

    2007-07-01

    Selective removal of heavy metals from water has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present study, the amorphous zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrography (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as pH-titration experiments. Uptake of heavy metals including lead, cadmium, and zinc onto ZrP was studied by using a polystyrene sulfonic-acid exchanger D-001 as a reference sorbent and Ca(2+) as a competing cation due to its ubiquity in natural or industrial waters. The results indicated that the uptake of heavy metals onto ZrP is essentially an ion-exchange process and dependent upon solution pH. In comparison with D-001, ZrP exhibited more favorable sorption of heavy metals particularly in terms of high selectivity, as indicated by the distribution coefficients of ZrP even several orders higher than D-001 towards heavy metals when calcium ion coexisted at a high level in solution. The Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic investigation indicated that the uptake of calcium, cadmium, and zinc ions onto ZrP is only driven by the electrostatic interaction, while that of lead ion is possibly dependent upon the inner-sphere complex formation with ZrP. XPS results further elucidated that ZrP displays different sorption affinity towards heavy metals in the same order as selectivity sequence of Pb(2+)>Zn(2+) approximately Cd(2+)>Ca(2+), which can be explained by hard and soft acids and bases (HASB) theory. Moreover, uptake of heavy metals onto ZrP approached to equilibrium quickly and the used ZrP could be readily regenerated for reuse by the dilute HCl solution. Thus, all the results suggest that amorphous ZrP has excellent potential as a sorption material for water treatment.

  11. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  12. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  13. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Paiva, Ana Luiza Sobral; Machado, Ronei Dorneles; Arenhart, Rafael Augusto; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  14. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Bücker-Neto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  15. Fluorescent and Colorimetric Electrospun Nanofibers for Heavy-Metal Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelma A. A. Terra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of heavy metals in the human body and/or in the environment can be highly deleterious for mankind, and currently, considerable efforts have been made to develop reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection. Among the detection methods, chemical sensors appear as a promising technology, with emphasis on systems employing optically active nanofibers. Such nanofibers can be obtained by the electrospinning technique, and further functionalized with optically active chromophores such as dyes, conjugated polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials and nanoparticles, in order to produce fluorescent and colorimetric nanofibers. In this review we survey recent investigations reporting the use of optically active electrospun nanofibers in sensors aiming at the specific detection of heavy metals using colorimetry and fluorescence methods. The examples given in this review article provide sufficient evidence of the potential of optically electrospun nanofibers as a valid approach to fabricate highly selective and sensitive optical sensors for fast and low-cost detection of heavy metals.

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, I.M.; Escudey, M.; Utria, E.; Garcia, D.; Cartaya, O.; Morua, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation sewage sludges from Quibu plant, located in City of the Havana, with the objective of evaluating the capacity of accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol when in the wheat plants are cultivated (Triticum aestivum L.) , as well as the potential damages in this plants. Rates of 0, 60, 180 and 300 sludges tons/ soil hectare was applied and the plants were growth in recipient of 5 L of capacity. The levels of heavy metals were evaluated before the and after the crop. The extraction one carries out with the mixture HCl:HNO3 and they were determined by spectroscopy inductively coupled to plasma. Presence of Zn, Cu and Pb were detected in sludges and a tendency decrease is observed to heavy metals retention is observed in soil with the increase of the disposition rate together to a differential behavior of the different chemical species

  17. Heavy metal concentrations in forest litter - indicators of pollutant depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angehrn-Bettinazzi, C.; Hertz, J.

    1990-01-01

    By means of a comparison of the heavy metal concentrations in organic litter from different sites it was examined to what extent the heavy metal concentrations correlate with the atmospheric pollution situation. It follows from the variance analyses: The atmospheric pollution situation is the dominating factor for the heavy metal concentration in L litter. The elements Cd and Zn show a pH-sensitivity at the same time. The lead concentration in the L n and L v horizons reflects the atmospheric pollution situation of the corresponding site. Specific pollution patterns, e.g. in the case of hillside sites, are neither detected through the gravitational deposition (open land) nor through the airborne dust concentration; these can be recognized by the monitor 'litter'. Only horizons in the intercrown area with identical tree vegetation, which are characterized in detail, must be used for monitoring. (orig.) [de

  18. Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, F.-A. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Minna J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsumin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43 {+-} 0.37 {mu}g/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. - Metal effects occur in India's mangrove ecosystem.

  19. Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, F.-A.; Hsu, Minna J.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43 ± 0.37 μg/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. - Metal effects occur in India's mangrove ecosystem

  20. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01 correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.