Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara
Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.
Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn
Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.
Angus, Lynne E; Boritz, Tali; Bryntwick, Emily; Carpenter, Naomi; Macaulay, Christianne; Khattra, Jasmine
Recent studies suggest that it is not simply the expression of emotion or emotional arousal in session that is important, but rather it is the reflective processing of emergent, adaptive emotions, arising in the context of personal storytelling and/or Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) interventions, that is associated with change. To enhance narrative-emotion integration specifically in EFT, Angus and Greenberg originally identified a set of eight clinically derived narrative-emotion integration markers were originally identified for the implementation of process-guiding therapeutic responses. Further evaluation and testing by the Angus Narrative-Emotion Marker Lab resulted in the identification of 10 empirically validated Narrative-Emotion Process (N-EP) markers that are included in the Narrative-Emotion Process Coding System Version 2.0 (NEPCS 2.0). Based on empirical research findings, individual markers are clustered into Problem (e.g., stuckness in repetitive story patterns, over-controlled or dysregulated emotion, lack of reflectivity), Transition (e.g., reflective, access to adaptive emotions and new emotional plotlines, heightened narrative and emotion integration), and Change (e.g., new story outcomes and self-narrative discovery, and co-construction and re-conceptualization) subgroups. To date, research using the NEPCS 2.0 has investigated the proportion and pattern of narrative-emotion markers in Emotion-Focused, Client-Centered, and Cognitive Therapy for Major Depression, Motivational Interviewing plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and EFT for Complex Trauma. Results have consistently identified significantly higher proportions of N-EP Transition and Change markers, and productive shifts, in mid- and late phase sessions, for clients who achieved recovery by treatment termination. Recovery is consistently associated with client storytelling that is emotionally engaged, reflective, and evidencing new story outcomes and self-narrative
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena
Out of the complex influences of event, narrative and listener characteristics on narrative emotions, this paper focuses on event severity, narrative perspectives, mood, and dispositions for emotion regulation and empathy. Event severity and perspective representation were systematically varied in sad autobiographical narratives to study their influence on quantity and quality of readers' emotional response. Each of three stories were manipulated to contain elaborated perspectives, only the past protagonists' perspective (dramatic narration), and very little perspectives at all (impersonal narration). We predicted that event severity influences the quantity of emotional response, while degree of perspective representation influences plausibility and whether emotional responses are sympathetic or interactional, that is, directed against the narrator. Hypotheses were confirmed except for plausibility, and perspective representation had an effect only on anger against and dislike of the narrator. In a second study, impersonal narration evoked anger at and negative evaluations of the narrator which were related to blaming the narrator for showing too little emotional involvement. The generalizability of findings across emotions and implications for sharing of emotions in everyday and clinical settings are discussed.
Zupan, Barbra; Babbage, Duncan R
Film clips and narrative text are useful techniques in eliciting emotion in a laboratory setting but have not been examined side-by-side using the same methodology. This study examined the self-identification of emotions elicited by film clip and narrative text stimuli to confirm that selected stimuli appropriately target the intended emotions. Seventy participants viewed 30 film clips, and 40 additional participants read 30 narrative texts. Participants identified the emotion experienced (happy, sad, angry, fearful, neutral-six stimuli each). Eighty-five percent of participants self-identified the target emotion for at least two stimuli for all emotion categories of film clips, except angry (only one) and for all categories of narrative text, except fearful (only one). The most effective angry text was correctly identified 74% of the time. Film clips were more effective in eliciting all target emotions in participants for eliciting the correct emotion (angry), intensity rating (happy, sad), or both (fearful).
Boritz, Tali Z; Bryntwick, Emily; Angus, Lynne; Greenberg, Leslie S; Constantino, Michael J
While the individual contributions of narrative and emotion processes to psychotherapy outcome have been the focus of recent interest in psychotherapy research literature, the empirical analysis of narrative and emotion integration has rarely been addressed. The Narrative-Emotion Processes Coding System (NEPCS) was developed to provide researchers with a systematic method for identifying specific narrative and emotion process markers, for application to therapy session videos. The present study examined the relationship between NEPCS-derived problem markers (same old storytelling, empty storytelling, unstoried emotion, abstract storytelling) and change markers (competing plotlines storytelling, inchoate storytelling, unexpected outcome storytelling, and discovery storytelling), and treatment outcome (recovered versus unchanged at therapy termination) and stage of therapy (early, middle, late) in brief emotion-focused (EFT), client-centred (CCT), and cognitive (CT) therapies for depression. Hierarchical linear modelling analyses demonstrated a significant Outcome effect for inchoate storytelling (p = .037) and discovery storytelling (p = .002), a Stage × Outcome effect for abstract storytelling (p = .05), and a Stage × Outcome × Treatment effect for competing plotlines storytelling (p = .001). There was also a significant Stage × Outcome effect for NEPCS problem markers (p = .007) and change markers (p = .03). The results provide preliminary support for the importance of assessing the contribution of narrative-emotion processes to efficacious treatment outcomes in EFT, CCT, and CT treatments of depression.
Volkova, Ekaterina P; Mohler, Betty J; Dodds, Trevor J; Tesch, Joachim; Bülthoff, Heinrich H
Humans can recognize emotions expressed through body motion with high accuracy even when the stimuli are impoverished. However, most of the research on body motion has relied on exaggerated displays of emotions. In this paper we present two experiments where we investigated whether emotional body expressions could be recognized when they were recorded during natural narration. Our actors were free to use their entire body, face, and voice to express emotions, but our resulting visual stimuli used only the upper body motion trajectories in the form of animated stick figures. Observers were asked to perform an emotion recognition task on short motion sequences using a large and balanced set of emotions (amusement, joy, pride, relief, surprise, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, shame, and neutral). Even with only upper body motion available, our results show recognition accuracy significantly above chance level and high consistency rates among observers. In our first experiment, that used more classic emotion induction setup, all emotions were well recognized. In the second study that employed narrations, four basic emotion categories (joy, anger, fear, and sadness), three non-basic emotion categories (amusement, pride, and shame) and the "neutral" category were recognized above chance. Interestingly, especially in the second experiment, observers showed a bias toward anger when recognizing the motion sequences for emotions. We discovered that similarities between motion sequences across the emotions along such properties as mean motion speed, number of peaks in the motion trajectory and mean motion span can explain a large percent of the variation in observers' responses. Overall, our results show that upper body motion is informative for emotion recognition in narrative scenarios.
Ekaterina P. Volkova
Full Text Available Humans can recognise emotions expressed through body motion with high accuracy even when the stimuli are impoverished. However, most of the research on body motion has relied on exaggerated displays of emotions. In this paper we present two experiments where we investigated whether emotional body expressions could be recognised when they were recorded during natural narration. Our actors were free to use their entire body, face and voice to express emotions, but our resulting visual stimuli used only the upper body motion trajectories in the form of animated stick figures. Observers were asked to perform an emotion recognition task on short motion sequences using a large and balanced set of emotions (amusement, joy, pride, relief, surprise, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, shame and neutral. Even with only upper body motion available, our results show recognition accuracy significantly above chance level and high consistency rates among observers. In our first experiment, that used more classic emotion induction setup, all emotions were well recognised. In the second study that employed narrations, four basic emotion categories (joy, anger, fear and sadness, three non-basic emotion categories (amusement, pride and shame and the neutral category were recognised above chance. Interestingly, especially in the second experiment, observers showed a bias towards anger when recognising the motion sequences for emotions. We discovered that similarities between motion sequences across the emotions along such properties as mean motion speed, number of peaks in the motion trajectory and mean motion span can explain a large percent of the variation in observers' responses. Overall, our results show that upper body motion is informative for emotion recognition in narrative scenarios.
Ioannou, Maria; Canter, David; Youngs, Donna
A neglected area of research within criminality has been that of the experience of the offence for the offender. The present study investigates the emotions and narrative roles that are experienced by an offender while committing a broad range of crimes and proposes a model of criminal narrative experience (CNE). Hypotheses were derived from the circumplex of emotions, Frye, narrative theory, and its link with investigative psychology. The analysis was based on 120 cases. Convicted for a variety of crimes, incarcerated criminals were interviewed and the data were subjected to smallest space analysis (SSA). Four themes of CNE were identified: Elated Hero, Calm Professional, Distressed Revenger, and Depressed Victim in line with the recent theoretical framework posited for narrative offence roles. The theoretical implications for understanding crime on the basis of the CNE as well as practical implications are discussed.
The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…
Full Text Available Humanities and the sciences have long been considered polar opposites that exist in separate realms of academia and require different cognitive skills. However, neuroscience has brought about renewed interest in what we can learn about the human brain by investigating links between disciplines. For example, studies related to English literature have revealed that the benefits of reading narratives (fiction and nonfiction stories extend far beyond language development and include increased competence in social and emotional functioning. By combining the results of an original dissertation study and a review of past and current research in education, psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience, this essay explores how reading narratives serves as practice for managing emotions and social interactions in everyday life. In fact, several studies suggest that reading narratives strengthens nearly every part of the brain because the brain is designed—or “wired”—to think and learn in terms of narratives, regardless of subject matter. This essay provides several types of support for the claim that reading narratives facilitates social and emotional development. Research discussed includes studies showing that reading narratives is not a solitary activity but “a surprisingly social process” (Krakovsky, 2006, p. 1 and is linked to increased ability to view people and events from multiple perspectives, increased empathy for others, and increased ability to interpret social cues (Atkins, 2000; Courtright, Mackey, & Packard, 2005; Davis, 1980; Greif & Hogan, 1973; Harrison, 2008; Mar, 2004; Mar, Oatley, Hirsh, dela Paz, & Peterson, 2006; Stanovich & West, 1989. Understanding how the brain processes narratives and relates them to real life functioning has important implications for many disciplines, such as psychology, in its attempt to understand and treat post-traumatic stress disorder. This essay, however, focuses on the implications for education
Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Thiele, Ulrike; Breuning, Martina; Haug, Stephanie
To understand doctors' impacts on the emotional coping of patients, their stories about encounters with doctors are used. These accounts reflect meaning-making processes and biographically contextualized experiences. We investigate how patients characterize their doctors by voicing them in their stories, thus assigning them functions in their coping process. 394 narrated scenes with reported speech of doctors were extracted from interviews with 26 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 with chronic pain. Constructed speech acts were investigated by means of positioning and narrative analysis, and assigned into thematic categories by a bottom-up coding procedure. Patients use narratives as coping strategies when confronted with illness and their encounters with doctors by constructing them in a supportive and face-saving way. In correspondence with the variance of illness conditions, differing moral problems in dealing with doctors arise. Different evaluative stances towards the same events within interviews show that positionings are not fixed, but vary according to contexts and purposes. Our narrative approach deepens the standardized and predominantly cognitive statements of questionnaires in research on doctor-patient relations by individualized emotional and biographical aspects of patients' perspective. Doctors should be trained to become aware of their impact in patients' coping processes.
Zarbo, Cristina; Brugnera, Agostino; Frigerio, Luigi; Malandrino, Chiara; Rabboni, Massimo; Bondi, Emi; Compare, Angelo
Endometriosis is a disabling and long-term medical condition affecting quality of life and mental health. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition could in part explain the link between the disease and impaired psychological and life functioning. This critical narrative review aimed at examining the state of the art of the relationships between endometriosis and these factors. According to PRISMA principles, we performed a systematic search for quantitative and qualitative studies on multiple electronic databases as regards coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition in women with endometriosis. Studies were subjected to interpretative and critical narrative synthesis. A total of 9 papers were included in the review. Three main categories were identified in thematic analysis and resumed in the manuscript. Findings suggested that (a) pain is considered the major stressor; (b) they usually use both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; (c) women with endometriosis and related chronic pain seem to repress emotions more likely than healthy ones; (d) suppressing own emotions, pain catastrophizing, and having a passive coping style are related to higher self-reported pain; and (e) emotional and avoidance coping styles are associated to poor mental status, while positive coping strategies focusing on the problem or on emotions, detached and rational styles are associated to better mental health. Few studies with mixed results and some methodological flaws have focused on coping strategies in women with endometriosis. No studies focusing on metacognition or emotional intelligence were found. Methodological biases, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice were discussed.
Smith, Thomas W.
Throughout the twentieth century, Catholic higher education in the United States modelled its institutional structures and intellectual life on the best standards and practices of the secular academy. The question for Catholic higher education became: How can we remain distinctively Catholic while engaging in these projects? Yet the situation…
Gliebe, Sudi Kate
This paper explores the importance of emotional intelligence in Christian higher education. Specifically, it addresses possible implications between emotional intelligence skills and success in the areas of learning, mental health, and career preparation. The paper addresses the following questions: Is there a positive relationship between…
Arsenio, William; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima
Children who attribute more positive emotions to hypothetical moral victimizers are typically more aggressive and have more behavior problems. Little is known, however, about when individual differences in these moral emotion attributions first emerge or about maternal correlates of these differences. In this study, 63 4-6-year-olds judged how they would feel after victimizing peers for gain and enacted event conclusions using narrative methods adapted from the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. In addition, children's mothers completed assessments of their disciplinary styles and social support, and children's aggressive tendencies were assessed based on ratings from mothers and a second familiar adult. Results revealed that most preschoolers expected to feel happy after their victimizing acts, but variations in happy victimization were unrelated to children's aggression. Several of children's narrative themes, including making amends (e.g., apologizing, reparations), aggressive acts, and mentions of death/killing, however, were related to children's aggression. Moreover, two maternal disciplinary dimensions, higher warmth and reasoning, as well as greater social support were also related to lower child aggression. Children's emotion attributions and moral narratives, however, were unrelated to maternal disciplinary practices or social support.
Truong, Khiet Phuong; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Sools, A.
Audiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in narratives. Using
Volkman, Julie E.; Parrott, Roxanne L.
This study examined the use of different narratives expressing positive or negative emotions, and varying the narrator's perspective on the arousal of discrete emotions, dominant cognitions, perceived evidence quality, and perceived message effectiveness related to osteoporosis behavioral intentions. Formative research led to the creation of…
Dennis, M; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Humphreys, R P
Narratives are not only about events, but also about the emotions those events elicit. Understanding a narrative involves not just the affective valence of implied emotional states, but the formation of an explicit mental representation of those states. In turn, this representation provides a mechanism that particularizes emotion and modulates its display, which then allows emotional expression to be modified according to particular contexts. This includes understanding that a character may feel an emotion but inhibit its display or even express a deceptive emotion. We studied how 59 school-aged children with head injury and 87 normally-developing age-matched controls understand real and deceptive emotions in brief narratives. Children with head injury showed less sensitivity than controls to how emotions are expressed in narratives. While they understood the real emotions in the text, and could recall what provoked the emotion and the reason for concealing it, they were less able than controls to identify deceptive emotions. Within the head injury group, factors such as an earlier age at head injury and frontal lobe contusions were associated with poor understanding of deceptive emotions. The results are discussed in terms of the distinction between emotions as felt and emotions as a cognitive framework for understanding other people's actions and mental states. We conclude that children with head injury understand emotional communication, the spontaneous externalization of real affect, but not emotive communication, the conscious, strategic modification of affective signals to influence others through deceptive facial expressions.
Dennis, A. A.; Foy, M. J.; Monrouxe, L. V.; Rees, C. E.
Emotion characterises learners' feedback experiences. While the failure-to-fail literature suggests that emotion may be important, little is known about the role of emotion for educators. Secondary analyses were therefore conducted on data exploring 110 trainers' and trainees' feedback experiences. Group and individual narrative interviews were…
Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina
How children make meaning of their own social experiences in situations involving moral issues is central to their subsequent affective and cognitive moral learning. Our study of young children's narratives describing their interpersonal conflicts shows that the emotions and judgments constructed in the course of these real-life narratives differ…
Cohen, Shuki J.
This study presents a novel methodology for the measurement of negativity bias using positive and negative dictionaries of emotion words applied to autobiographical narratives. At odds with the cognitive theory of mood dysregulation, previous text-analytical studies have failed to find significant correlation between emotion dictionaries and…
F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); K.P. Truong (Khiet); G.J. Westerhof (Gerben); S.M.A. Lamers (Sanne); A. Sools (Anneke)
textabstractAudiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in
Chamcharatsri, Pisarn Bee
Writing to express emotions can be a challenging task for second language (L2) writers, especially because it tends to be a process that is less addressed in language classrooms. This paper aims to expand thinking on L2 literacy and writing by exploring how L2 writers can express emotion (fear) through narratives both in their first language (L1)…
Over the course of the twentieth century, Victorian narrative painting became synonymous with sentimentality, melodrama, and the artificial evocation of emotion. This essay aims to complicate this familiar assessment by examining the role of emotional effect played in aesthetic evaluations of some of the most popular modern life genre paintings of the 1850s to 1870s. I argue that the critical discourse on Victorian narrative painting was marked by a persistent skepticism about the role of feeling in aesthetic response -- as excessively painful or obvious emotional impact marked the limit between artistic success and failure -- and I locate these concerns within the physical and social exhibition culture of the Royal Academy.
Machera, Robert P.; Machera, Precious C.
This study investigates the need to design and develop emotional intelligence curriculum for students in higher education. Emotional intelligence curriculum may be used as a therapy that provides skills to manage high emotions faced by generation "Y", on a day-to-day basis. Generation "Y" is emotionally challenged with: drug…
Anderson, Emily E; Wasson, Katherine
The stories in this volume shed light on the potential of narrative inquiry to fill gaps in knowledge, particularly given the mixed results of quantitative research on patient views of and experiences with genetic and genomic testing. Published studies investigate predictors of testing (particularly risk perceptions and worry); psychological and behavioral responses to testing; and potential impact on the health care system (e.g., when patients bring DTC genetic test results to their primary care provider). Interestingly, these themes did not dominate the narratives published in this issue. Rather, these narratives included consistent themes of expectations and looking for answers; complex emotions; areas of contradiction and conflict; and family impact. More narrative research on patient experiences with genetic testing may fill gaps in knowledge regarding how patients define the benefits of testing, changes in psychological and emotional reactions to test results over time, and the impact of testing on families.
Scutt, Cecily; Hobson, Julia
As higher education research is largely practised by those immersed within the university, the questions we ask, and the stories we tell, over time co-create the university itself. Using Bruner's concept of the "narrative mode," we argue for a revaluing of narrative and storytelling within higher education research. We ground our…
Van Herwegen, Jo; Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet
Although individuals with Williams syndrome are very sociable, they tend to have limited contact and friendships with peers. In typically developing children the use of positive emotions (e.g., happy) has been argued to be related to peer relationships and popularity. The current study investigated the use and development of emotion words in Williams syndrome using cross-sectional developmental trajectories and examined children's use of different types of emotion words. Nineteen children with Williams syndrome (WS) and 20 typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological age told a story from a wordless picture book. Participants with WS produced a similar number of emotion words compared to the control group and the use of emotion words did not change when plotted against chronological age or vocabulary abilities in either group. However, participants with WS produced more emotion words about sadness. Links between emotion production and friendships as well as future studies are discussed. After reading this article, readers will be able to: explain the development of positive and negative emotions in Williams syndrome and recognize that emotion production is atypical in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gliebe, Sudi Kate
This article proposes five initiatives to foster emotional intelligence (EI) education throughout institutions of Christian higher education. Goleman (1995) identifies self-awareness, managing emotions, motivation, empathy, and social intelligence as the hallmark skills of emotional intelligence. The importance of mastering these skills and their…
Robertson, Sarah M C; Swickert, Rhonda J
Researchers have been attempting to understand the variables that predict differences in autobiographical narratives, given that these differences often reveal important information about the psychological characteristics of the person providing the narrative. A sample of young adults (n = 80) and older adults (n = 80) completed a battery of self-report measures in addition to an autobiographical narrative task in which they described a negative emotional experience. These narratives were transcribed and entered into a text analysis program. Results indicated a significant three-way interaction (age × gender × forgiveness) for negative emotion words. Results also indicated two significant two-way interactions (age × forgiveness and gender × forgiveness) and one significant main effect for anger words. There were no significant findings related to anxiety or sad words. Results are discussed in the context of Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, which asserts that social and emotional goals shift throughout the lifespan such that older adults are more motivated to regulate their emotions than young adults. Clinical applications and future directions are discussed.
Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of ethnographic research in a village in eastern Slovakia. My aim is to consider the narratives of people from countryside who witnessed socialist period and to present their view of land which they cultivated. I explore two sources: people’s life stories; and a local chronicle which was written during the 1960s. I argue that (1 both kinds of narratives serve as cultural tools for members of a collective as they recount the past in certain context; (2 in this, expression of moral emotions indicates narrative conventions related to social norms. I demonstrate that the semi-official context of the local chronicle demands expression of moral emotions in evaluation of the big-scale political events, but the chroniclers are rather cautious in assessment of local people’s behaviour. On the other side, in informal settings people summarize life periods using moral terms and freely express positive as well as negative attitudes toward other people and social conditions, to make sense of the past events in relation to the present time. Thus, the language of emotions indicates the specific narrative context as well as social rules. At the same time, emotional expressions should be read considering a narrator’s personality and social background; in this, the local historical and cultural setting is essential.
Constanti, Panikkos; Gibbs, Paul
Service organizations are encouraged to consider the manner in which employees perform at the customer/front-line employee interface, as a means to gain competitive advantage. The employee's behaviour requires "emotional labour" where the front-line employee (academic), has to either conceal or manage actual feelings for the benefit of a…
Ribeiro, Sandra; Moreira, António; da Silva, Cristina Pinto
In tandem with the deep structural changes that have taken place in society, education must also shift towards a teaching approach focused on learning and the overall development of the student. The integration of technology may be the drive to foster the needed changes. We draw on the literature of pertaining to the role of emotions and…
Durkin, Mark; McKenna, Seamas; Cummins, Darryl
Purpose: Through examination of a case study this paper aims to describe a brand re-positioning exercise and explore how an emotionally driven approach to branding can help create meaningful connections with potential undergraduate students and can positively influence choice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper's approach is a case study…
Leathwood, Carole; Hey, Valerie
This article engages with contemporary debates about the absence/presence of emotion in higher education. UK higher education has traditionally been constructed as an emotion-free zone, reflecting the dominance of Cartesian dualism with its rational/emotional, mind/body, male/female split. This construction has been challenged in recent years by…
This paper addresses the fundamental contributions of client narrative disclosure in psychotherapy and its importance for the elaboration of new emotional meanings and self understanding in the context of Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. An overview of the multi-methodological steps undertaken to empirically investigate the contributions of client story telling, emotional differentiation and meaning-making processes (Narrative Processes Coding System; Angus et al., 1999) in EFT treatments of depression is provided, followed by a summary of key research findings that informed the development of a narrative-informed approach to Emotion-focused therapy of depression (Angus & Greenberg, 2011). Finally, the clinical practice and training implications of adopting a research-informed approach to working with narrative and emotion processes in EFT are described, and future research directions discussed.
Burke, Penny Jane
This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…
Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I.; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel
This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664
Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel
This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too.
Fernando E. eCallejas-Albiñana
Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students’ ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too.
Lewis, Gillian M; Neville, Christine; Ashkanasy, Neal M
To investigate the current state of knowledge about emotional intelligence and affective events that arise during nursing students' clinical placement experiences. Narrative literature review. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, ERIC and APAIS-Health databases published in English between 1990 and 2016. Data extraction from and constant comparative analysis of ten (10) research articles. We found four main themes: (1) emotional intelligence buffers stress; (2) emotional intelligence reduces anxiety associated with end of life care; (3) emotional intelligence promotes effective communication; and (4) emotional intelligence improves nursing performance. The articles we analysed adopted a variety of emotional intelligence models. Using the Ashkanasy and Daus "three-stream" taxonomy (Stream 1: ability models; 2: self-report; 3: mixed models), we found that Stream 2 self-report measures were the most popular followed by Stream 3 mixed model measures. None of the studies we surveyed used the Stream 1 approach. Findings nonetheless indicated that emotional intelligence was important in maintaining physical and psychological well-being. We concluded that developing emotional intelligence should be a useful adjunct to improve academic and clinical performance and to reduce the risk of emotional distress during clinical placement experiences. We call for more consistency in the use of emotional intelligence tests as a means to create an empirical evidence base in the field of nurse education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Angus, Lynne E; Kagan, Fern
Personality researchers use the term self-narrative to refer to the development of an overall life story that places life events in a temporal sequence and organizes them in accordance to overarching themes. In turn, it is often the case that clients seek out psychotherapy when they can no longer make sense of their life experiences, as a coherent story. Angus and Greenberg (L. Angus and L. Greenberg, 2011, Working with narrative in emotion-focused therapy: Changing stories, healing lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press) view the articulation and consolidation of an emotionally integrated self-narrative account as an important part of the therapeutic change process that is essential for sustained change in emotion-focused therapy of depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate client experiences of change, and self-narrative reconstruction, in the context of one good outcome emotion-focused therapy dyad drawn from the York II Depression Study. Using the Narrative Assessment Interview (NAI) method, client view of self and experiences of change were assessed at three points in time--after session one, at therapy termination, and at 6 months follow-up. Findings emerging from an intensive narrative theme analyses of the NAI transcripts--and 1 key therapy session identified by the client--are reported and evidence for the contributions of narrative and emotion processes to self-narrative change in emotion-focused therapy of depression are discussed. Finally, the implications of assessing clients' experiences of self-narrative change for psychotherapy research and practice are addressed.
Badolamenti, Sondra; Sili, Alessandro; Caruso, Rosario; FidaFida, Roberta
Nurses have to manage their emotions and the expression of emotion to perform best care, and their behaviours pass through emotional labour (EL). However, EL seems to be an under-appreciated aspect of caring work and there is no synthetic portrait of literature about EL in the nursing profession. This review was conducted to synthesise and to critically analyse the literature in the nursing field related to EL. Twenty-seven papers were included and analysed with a narrative approach, where two main themes were found: EL strategies and EL antecedents and consequences. Hence, EL is a multidimensional, complex concept and it represents a nursing competence to provide the best care. Moreover, nurses have a high awareness of EL as a professional competence, which is a fundamental element to balance engagement with an appropriate degree of detachment to accomplish tasks for best practice, and to provide high-quality patient care.
Cunha, Carla; Mendes, Inês; Ribeiro, António P; Angus, Lynne; Greenberg, Leslie S; Gonçalves, Miguel M
This research explored the consolidation phase of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for depression and studies-through a task-analysis method-how client-therapist dyads evolved from the exploration of the problem to self-narrative reconstruction. Innovative moments (IMs) were used to situate the process of self-narrative reconstruction within sessions, particularly through reconceptualization and performing change IMs. We contrasted the observation of these occurrences with a rational model of self-narrative reconstruction, previously built. This study presents the rational model and the revised rational-empirical model of the self-narrative reconstruction task in three EFT dyads, suggesting nine steps necessary for task resolution: (1) Explicit recognition of differences in the present and steps in the path of change; (2) Development of a meta-perspective contrast between present self and past self; (3) Amplification of contrast in the self; (4) A positive appreciation of changes is conveyed; (5) Occurrence of feelings of empowerment, competence, and mastery; (6) Reference to difficulties still present; (7) Emphasis on the loss of centrality of the problem; (8) Perception of change as a gradual, developing process; and (9) Reference to projects, experiences of change, or elaboration of new plans. Central aspects of therapist activity in facilitating the client's progression along these nine steps are also elaborated.
Lando, Jennifer Rose
The purpose of this narrative study was to explore how Latina cultural brokers understand their role in translating and interpreting complex, adult situations for their families, called cultural brokering, and how that background shapes their collegiate experiences. While much of the higher education literature in recent years has focused on the…
Shields, A; Ryan, R M; Cicchetti, D
This study examined whether maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to develop poor-quality representations of caregivers and whether these representations predicted children's rejection by peers. A narrative task assessing representations of mothers and fathers was administered to 76 maltreated and 45 nonmaltreated boys and girls (8-12 years old). Maltreated children's representations were more negative/constricted and less positive/coherent than those of nonmaltreated children. Maladaptive representations were associated with emotion dysregulation, aggression, and peer rejection, whereas positive/coherent representations were related to prosocial behavior and peer preference. Representations mediated maltreatment's effects on peer rejection in part by undermining emotion regulation. Findings suggest that representations of caregivers serve an important regulatory function in the peer relationships of at-risk children.
This article offers a critical examination of students' emotional bargaining in higher education. Based on an analysis of student emails and staff interviews, the article uses a case-study approach to explore the nature of this behaviour and the motivational drivers behind it. The paper reveals an amalgam of socio-cultural and educational factors,…
Gu, Xuan; Tse, Chi-Shing
The present study manipulated participants' narrative perspectives (1st-personal pronoun "I" and 3rd-personal pronoun "He/She") to vary their field and observer visual perspectives that they took to retrieve autobiographical events and examine how the shifts in narrative perspective could influence the self-rated emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Results showed that when narrative perspectives effectively shifted participants' visual perspectives from field to observer, they felt attenuated emotional intensities of positive and negative autobiographical memories. However, this did not occur when narrative perspectives effectively shifted the visual perspectives from observer to field. Multiple mediator models further showed that the changes in psychological distance and imagery vividness (a distance-related construct) of autobiographical memory mediated the relationship between the narrative perspective shift from the 1st- to 3rd-person and the reduction in the intensities of negative and positive emotion. This provides support for the role of psychological distancing in reducing the emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kogan, Inna; Richter-Levin, Gal
An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under higher versus lower stress conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was de...
Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.
In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women's emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular…
Full Text Available The framework for assessment in child protection, as well as the context of the welfare state, differs between England and Norway. Assessments in England are structured in terms of a set model (the triangle and procedures to be followed, whereas in Norway there are few national guidelines and not a set model for assessments. This underpins professional judgement as the most important component in Norway. This is a study of parents` experiences from assessment in these two contexts, and patterns and themes of assessment experiences have been identified in the two countries through a narrative analysis of in-depth interviews with parents. When asked about their opinions of the current assessment framework, parents in both countries talk more about feelings than about framework and procedures, as their experiences of assessment are similar in both countries. First and foremost, they experience strong emotions in a stressful situation, including anxiety, frustration and powerlessness, but also relief. These cross-national emotions might provide information about how assessment is a stressful situation for the parents involved. However, we find some differences in the way social work is acted out according to the national assessment framework and policy context. In England, the framework and procedures seem to provide clarity with regard to process and power within the system. In Norway, the assessment is characterized by a professional judgement accompanied by more resources, which we find enables helpful decisions from a family perspective. However, this heavy reliance on relationships using professional judgement might also be viewed as a source of informal power. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of emotions and the concept of power. Regarding implications for practice, we would recommend a more explicit awareness of help and control in assessment among social workers involved, together with a clear communication on the topic
Full Text Available This article seeked to read the interconnected narratives of Sarah and Hagar (Genesis 16, 21 in terms of the hermeneutical lens of human dignity. For the purpose of this article, recent studies on the performative nature of emotions, which considered the central role of emotions such as pain, disgust and hatred in shaping the lives of individuals as well as the ways in which people relate to one another, were helpful in contemplating the situations of dehumanisation faced by both Sarah and Hagar as well as the broader question regarding upholding human worth in a context of indignity. This article furthermore considered the role of emotions in a conversation on ethics and particularly the way in which the narrative offered a fruitful avenue for considering Israel�s relationship to their neighbours � a line of interpretation that holds potential for reflecting on complex interracial and interethnic relationships in today�s global context.
Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.
The paper investigates relations between higher education teachers' approaches to teaching and their emotions during teaching, as well as their emotion regulation strategies. Based on the assumption that the approaches hinge on emotional experiences with higher education teaching and learning, three studies assessed teachers' emotions, their…
Berry, Karen; Cassidy, Simon
Emotional labour is a state that exists when there is a discrepancy between the emotional demeanour that an individual displays and the genuinely felt emotions that would be inappropriate to display (Mann 1999b).The study examined levels of emotional labour in university lecturers and compared these data to other occupations. Employing a mixed…
Full Text Available Orientation: This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of emotional intelligence (EI in women leaders in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in South Africa from an inside perspective. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore EI in South African women leaders working in HEIs to identify women leader’s strengths, foci and their possible areas of development. The aim is to get deeper insights in EI in women leaders because EI is associated with effective leadership qualities, creativity and innovation, as well as empathetic communication which is needed in the challenging HEI workplaces. Motivation for the study: Emotional intelligence is an important source for women leaders to increase leadership qualities. This study is motivated by a deep interest to explore aspects of EI in women leaders in this specific professional context. Research design, approach and method: The study uses a qualitative research design and an approach based on Dilthey’s modern hermeneutics of ‘Verstehen’ (understanding. Twenty-three women leaders of the Higher Education Research Service (HERS-SA network were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. One researcher observed behaviour in one HEI to support the interpretation of the data. Data were analysed through content analysis. Main findings: Findings show that women leaders mainly refer to intrapersonal emotional quotient (EQ, followed by interpersonal EQ, adaptability, stress management and, finally, general mood. The most highly rated components of EQ are self-regard, followed by interpersonal relationships, problem solving, empathy, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, impulse control and social responsibility. Findings also provide ideas on what EQ components can be further developed. Practical/managerial implications: New insights are provided on what components of EI should be developed in women leaders to increase overall EI, on cognitive and behavioural levels
Majeski, Robin A.; Stover, Merrily; Valais, Teresa; Ronch, Judah
Given the complex challenges organizations face and the importance of emotional intelligence to effective leadership, management education has begun to help adult learners develop emotional intelligence competencies. These include emotional self-control, conflict management, teamwork, cultural awareness, and inspirational leadership, among other…
Almudena Cotán Fernández
Full Text Available This paper presents the partial results of a doctoral thesis linked to a research project financed by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, which aims at divulging the enablers and significant obstacles that students with disabilities encountered during their stay in institutions of higher education. Using a biographical narrative the points of view of the students with disabilities is exposed identifying and explaining the barriers and aids these young people experienced at the University. For the collection of information, various instruments such as biographical interviews, photographs and lifelines were used. Specifically, the results achieved of this work focuses to know on the main barriers and help that this group identified at the institutional level at the University. The main conclusions highlight that quality education is not guaranteed by the current legislation and that support services for guidance and advice during their careers or, for example, the administration and service are of great importance as they serve as resilient factor.
Full Text Available Research in psychotherapy has shown that the frequency of use of specific classes of words (such as terms with emotional valence in descriptions of scenes of affective relevance is a possible indicator of psychological affective functioning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of these linguistic markers in narrative texts depicting core aspects of emotional experience in human interaction, and their modulation by individual differences in the propensity to use these markers. Emotional words activated both lateral and medial aspects of the prefrontal cortex, as in previous studies of instructed emotion regulation and in consistence with recruitment of effortful control processes. However, individual differences in the spontaneous use of emotional terms in characterizing the stimulus material were prevalently associated with modulation of the signal in the perigenual cortex, in the retrosplenial cortex and precuneus, and the anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Modulation of signal by the presence of these textual markers or individual differences mostly involved areas deactivated by the main task, thus further differentiating neural correlates of these appraisal styles from those associated with effortful control. These findings are discussed in the context of reports in the literature of modulations of deactivations, which suggest their importance in orienting attention and generation of response in the presence of emotional information. These findings suggest that deactivations may play a functional role in emotional appraisal and may contribute to characterizing different appraisal styles.
Full Text Available Testamos o grau de desagregação dislógica do discurso de dez pacientes esquizofrênicos não medicados que narravam fatos carregados emocionalmente ou neutros. As "narrativas emocionais" mostraram-se bem mais dislógicas do que as "narrativas neutras" e, para explicar estes fatos, evocamos: 1Uma disjunção das conexões fronto-têmporo-límbicas que impediria um tratamento cognitivo adequado das emoções que seriam, desta forma, altamente disruptivas sobre os processos lógicos. 2Uma disfunção da memória de trabalho/sistema supervisor atencional que induziria tanto a uma perda das conexões normais entre os fragmentos do discurso como a uma ausência de planificação estratégica das linhas globais do enunciado.We tested the degree of dyslogia in the narrative of ten schizophrenic non-medicated outpatients while they narrated emotionally-loaded or neutral facts. The "emotional narratives" were much more dyslogic than the "neutral narratives". In order to explain these facts we evoke: 1. A fronto-temporo-limbic connection dysfunction would disturb an adequate cognitive treatement of emotions that would be, in this way, highly disruptive over logical processes. 2. A working memory/supervisory attentional system dysfunction that would produce both a loss of the normal conections among the fragments of speech and a lack of global strategical planning of the thought.
Full Text Available Role-play scenarios have been considered a successful learning space for children to develop their social and emotional abilities. In this paper, we investigate whether socially assistive robots in role-playing settings are as effective with small groups of children as they are with a single child and whether individual factors such as gender, grade level (first vs. second, perception of the robots (peer vs. adult, and empathy level (low vs. high play a role in these two interaction contexts. We conducted a three-week repeated exposure experiment where 40 children interacted with socially assistive robotic characters that acted out interactive stories around words that contribute to expanding children’s emotional vocabulary. Our results showed that although participants who interacted alone with the robots recalled the stories better than participants in the group condition, no significant differences were found in children’s emotional interpretation of the narratives. With regard to individual differences, we found that a single child setting appeared more appropriate to first graders than a group setting, empathy level is an important predictor for emotional understanding of the narratives, and children’s performance varies depending on their perception of the robots (peer vs. adult in the two conditions.
Walton, Marsha D.; Davidson, Alice J.
"Conflict Narratives in Middle Childhood" presents evidence from twenty years of research, examining nearly 3,000 narratives from 1,600 children in eight settings in two countries about their own experiences with interpersonal conflict. Close readings, combined with systematic analysis of dozens of features of the stories reveal that…
This article uses a narrative approach to investigate the learning experiences of third-year medical students in a transnational higher educational setting, specifically during an elective period abroad. The students evaluate their learning experiences in an unfamiliar environment both in relation
Pino, Marco; Mortari, Luigina
This article reports on a study focusing on the inclusion of students with dyslexia in higher education (HE). A systematic review was carried out to retrieve, critically appraise and synthesize the available evidence on how the inclusion of students with dyslexia can be fostered in HE. The 15 studies included in the final synthesis employed descriptive designs and overwhelmingly used qualitative methods to explore dyslexic students' perceptions on the impact of teaching, support and accommodation in their own learning experience. A critical appraisal of these studies revealed a landscape of significant gaps in the available stock of evidence on the inclusion of students with dyslexia in HE. The synthesis of the available evidence is presented in a narrative of five cross-study thematic areas: student coping strategies, being identified as dyslexic, interaction with academic staff, accessibility and accommodations, and using assistive technologies and information and communication technologies. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Callejas-Albi?ana, Ana I.; Callejas-Albi?ana, Fernando E.; Mart?nez-Rodr?guez, Isabel
This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available...
Aldrich, Naomi J; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Brooks, Patricia J; Harrison, Karine; Sines, Jennie
This study explored relationships between perspective-taking, emotion understanding, and children's narrative abilities. Younger (23 5-/6-year-olds) and older (24 7-/8-year-olds) children generated fictional narratives, using a wordless picture book, about a frog experiencing jealousy. Children's emotion understanding was assessed through a standardized test of emotion comprehension and their ability to convey the jealousy theme of the story. Perspective-taking ability was assessed with respect to children's use of narrative evaluation (i.e., narrative coherence, mental state language, supplementary evaluative speech, use of subjective language, and placement of emotion expression). Older children scored higher than younger children on emotion comprehension and on understanding the story's complex emotional theme, including the ability to identify a rival. They were more advanced in perspective-taking abilities, and selectively used emotion expressions to highlight story episodes. Subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence were predictive of children's elaboration of the jealousy theme. Use of supplementary evaluative speech, in turn, was predictive of both subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under high versus low emotionality conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was detected only under high emotionality conditions. Here we further evaluate the potential implications of the difference in the level of amygdala activation on the quality of the memory formed under these stress conditions. We attempted to affect spatial memory consolidation under low or high stress conditions by either introducing a foot shock interference following massed training in the water maze; by manipulating the threshold for acquisition employing either brief (3 trials or full (12 trials training sessions; or by employing a spaced training (over three days rather than massed training protocol. The current findings reveal that under heightened emotionality, the process of consolidation seems to become less effective and more vulnerable to interference; however, when memory consolidation is not interrupted, retention is improved. These differential effects might underlie the complex interactions of stress, and, particularly, of traumatic stress with memory formation processes.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the emotional competence of first year undergraduates enrolled on a high or low drop-out rate (HDR and LDR, respectively) course, at a newly established university within the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was…
Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette
Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of students' construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students' sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students' social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students' choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students' interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense.
Bruening, Meg; Dinour, Lauren M; Chavez, Jose B Rosales
To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations. Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being. The USA. Children and adults. Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time. Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.
This article has dual aims. First, it proposes an explicit focus on emotion as a means of enriching thinking about employee health and wellbeing in the higher education (HE) sector. Second, in order to bring conceptual clarity to a highly complex area, it presents and illustrates (using a fictional scenario) a framework for understanding emotion.…
Maguire, Rebecca; Egan, Arlene; Hyland, Philip; Maguire, Phil
Student engagement is a key predictor of academic performance, persistence and retention in higher education. While many studies have identified how aspects of the college environment influence engagement, fewer have specifically focused on emotional intelligence (EI). In this study, we sought to explore whether EI could predict cognitive and/or…
Burke, Penny Jane
This paper draws attention to gendered inequalities in relation to pedagogic participation, the politics of difference and the concept of "shame." I use the term "pedagogic participation" to illuminate the relationship between formations of difference, policy concerns to improve "equity" and higher education…
Osman Ferda BEYTEKİN
Full Text Available In this study, higher education administrators, administrative behaviors; as educator, leader and manager, emotional competency; as self awareness and self management and social competency; as social awareness and social skills were compared according to two different cultures. The data was collected by inventories from 165 educators, and head of the departments Istanbul, and Helsinki Universities in 2008-2009 educational year. Elkins' administrative behaviors of higher education administrators inventory and Goleman's emotional and social competence inventory were conducted to test the differences. The manager behaviors of Istanbul University administrators are significantly higher than University of Helsinki administrators. The emotional competences of University of Helsinki administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of Istanbul University in the dimensions of self-awareness, self management, emotional selfcontrol, achievement orientation and positive outlook. The social competencies of University of Helsinki administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of Istanbul University in the dimensions of social awareness, empathy, and conflict management. On the other hand, the social competencies of Istanbul University administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of University of Helsinki in the dimensions of organizational awareness, coach and mentor, influence and teamwork. There is a significant positive relationship between the leadership behaviors and emotional and social competencies administrators in both Istanbul University and University of Helsinki. Significant differences are found between faculties and administrators about the administrative behaviors and emotional and social competences of administrators both at İstanbul University and University of Helsinki.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) was popularised in 1990s by Daniel Goleman’s bestselling book of the same name (Goleman 1996). EI has been criticised by scholars in the psychological community for lack of a clear definition or empirical evidence that it is anything more than a combination of already known cognitive and personality factors. Despite this controversy, there are many proponents of EI in higher education who highlight the folly of trying to separate the cognitive from the emotional. T...
C. Daisy Nambikkai; Dr. A.Veliappan
The present study aims to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and reasoning ability of the higher secondary students. Among the population, 724 samples of higher secondary students were selected randomly from Puducherry region. Findings of the study were i) significant difference is found between male and female higher secondary students in their reasoning ability in science on analogical reasoning, classification as reasoning, eclectic reasoning, deductive reasoning and ...
Mark Anthony Castrodale
Full Text Available In this article, the authors discuss friendship as a method of qualitative inquiry. After defining friendship and positing it as a kind of fieldwork, the methodological foundations of friendship as method are established (Tillmann-Healy, 2003. The purpose of this narrative woven autoethnographic study is to examine the role of friendship in describing disabling physical and attitudinal access barriers in a university setting. Friendship represents a critical analytic lens through which disabled/nondisabled individuals alike may examine their positions, understandings, regimes of practices, and particular knowledges. Friends —Mark and Dan — discuss their experiences of disablement and reflections on dis/ability. The authors draw from their experiences of friendship and disability in higher education and their allied identities to discuss and examine questions of access, disclosure, and inclusion.
Full Text Available Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students' academic success because it decreases the quality and quantity of learning while increasing the severity of negative outcomes in students’ lives. Research findings suggest that academic procrastination is closely related to motivation variables such as self-efficacy and self-regulated learning, and with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional Intelligence is the ability to assess, regulate, and utilize emotions. It has been found to be associated with academic self-efficacy and a variety of better outcomes, including academic performance. The purpose of the present study was to explore and provide an initial understanding to the relationships between emotional intelligence, academic procrastination and GPA, as mediated by academic selfefficacy. A convenience sampling of 287 college students was collected. Structural equation modeling analysis using AMOS was conducted to examine the mediation role of academic selfefficacy between emotional intelligence, procrastination and GPA. Findings indicated that Emotional intelligence has a negative indirect effect on academic procrastination and a positive indirect effect on academic performance. Further research is needed to explore the effect of emotional intelligence on academic procrastination and performance, and to further understand its implications for academic settings.
Soroa, Goretti; Aritzeta, Aitor; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa
Emotional creativity is defined as the ability to feel and express emotions in a new, effective and authentic way. There are currently no Basque-language self-report instruments to provide valid and reliable measures of this construct. Thus, this paper describes the process of adapting and validating the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI) for the Basque-speaking population. The sample was comprised of 594 higher education students (388 women and 206 men) aged between 18 and 32 years old (Mage = 20.47; SD = 2.48). The Basque version of the ECI was administered along with the TMMS-23, NEO PI-R, and PANAS. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the Basque ECI corroborated the original scale's three-factor structure (preparedness, novelty, and effectiveness/authenticity). Those dimensions showed acceptable indexes of internal consistency (α = .80, .83, and .83) and temporal stability (r = .70, .69, and .74). The study also provided some evidence of external validity (p emotional creativity and emotional intelligence, personality, affect, and sex. The Basque ECI can be regarded as a useful tool to evaluate perceived emotional creativity during the preparation and verification phases of the creative process.
Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S
Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Parrish, Dominique Rene
This paper reports on a case-study research investigation that sought to identify the relevance of emotional intelligence for effective higher education academic leadership. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, pre and post a leadership capacity development intervention, to gather broad data on participants' experiences, insights, and…
Eustaquio, William Rafael
As manifested by various studies conducted, the present state of Mathematics education in the teaching-learning process is relatively declining and the existing effort to identify emotional intelligence and mathematics competencies of Mathematics major student-teachers at Higher Education Institutions in Isabela is an attempt to help alleviate the…
Students and academics have always used different sources of knowledge to generate and to interpret academic and social behaviours, but it is asserted that the increasingly diverse environments of 21st century higher education lead to greater levels of complexity in learning, teaching and assessment and to a consequent shift in the ways in which…
Full Text Available Collective spectator communications such as oral presentations, movies, and storytelling performances are ubiquitous in human culture. This study investigated the effects of past viewing experiences and differences in expressive performance on an audience’s transportive experience into a created world of a storytelling performance. In the experiment, 60 participants (mean age = 34.12 yrs., SD = 13.18 yrs., range 18–63 yrs. were assigned to watch one of two videotaped performances that were played (1 in an orthodox way for frequent viewers and (2 in a modified way aimed at easier comprehension for first-time viewers. Eyeblink synchronization among participants was quantified by employing distance-based measurements of spike trains, Dspike and Dinterval (Victor & Purpura, 1997. The results indicated that even non-familiar participants’ eyeblinks were synchronized as the story progressed and that the effect of the viewing experience on transportation was weak. Rather, the results of a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the degrees of transportation could be predicted by a retrospectively reported humor experience and higher real-time variability (i.e., logarithmic transformed standard deviation of inter blink intervals during a performance viewing. The results are discussed from the viewpoint in which the extent of eyeblink synchronization and eyeblink-rate variability acts as an index of the inner experience of audience members.
Meirav Hen; Marina Goroshit
Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students' academic success because it decreases the quality and quantity of learning while increasing the severity of negative outcomes in students’ lives. Research findings suggest that academic procrastination is closely related to motivation variables such as self-efficacy and self-regulated learning, and with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional Intelligence is the ability to assess, regulate, an...
Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a severe distortion in the development of attachment, self, and emotion regulation. Study of children at high risk of developing BPD may inform precursors to BPD. In a low socioeconomic status sample of 30 children aged 4-7 whose mothers have BPD and 30 normative comparisons, representations of the caregiver-child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation were assessed with a story-stem completion measure. In contrast to comparisons and controlling for major depressive disorder, children whose mothers have BPD told stories with the following: (a) more parent-child role reversal, more fear of abandonment, and more negative mother-child and father-child relationship expectations; (b) more incongruent and shameful representations of the self; and (c) poorer emotion regulation indicated by more confusion of boundaries between fantasy and reality and between self and fantasy, more fantasy proneness, less narrative coherence, and marginally more intrusion of traumatic themes. In the sample as a whole, (a) a maladaptive caregiver-child relationship composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance and self-harm; (b) a maladaptive self-composite was associated with maternal self-harm; and (c) a maladaptive emotion regulation composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance, negative relationships, and self-harm. Results are discussed in terms of putative precursors to BPD and preventive interventions.
Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun
To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.
Näykki, Piia; Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.; Järvenoja, Hanna
This case study explores cognitive, motivational and socio-emotional challenges experienced in collaborative learning, how conflict emerges and what students’ emotional reactions and interpretations are. Collaborative work of 22 higher education students was followed during a three-month course.
Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mohammadreza; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA) dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI) is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored. Method During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI. Results Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. PMID:26834474
Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia
Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Kashdan, Todd B; Mishra, Anjali; Breen, William E; Froh, Jeffrey J
Previous work suggests women might possess an advantage over men in experiencing and benefiting from gratitude. We examined whether women perceive and react to gratitude differently than men. In Study 1, women, compared with men, evaluated gratitude expression to be less complex, uncertain, conflicting, and more interesting and exciting. In Study 2, college students and older adults described and evaluated a recent episode when they received a gift. Women, compared with men, reported less burden and obligation and greater gratitude. Upon gift receipt, older men reported the least positive affect when their benefactors were men. In Studies 2 and 3, women endorsed higher trait gratitude compared with men. In Study 3, over 3 months, women with greater gratitude were more likely to satisfy needs to belong and feel autonomous; gratitude had the opposite effect in men. The willingness to openly express emotions partially mediated gender differences, and effects could not be attributed to global trait affect. Results demonstrated that men were less likely to feel and express gratitude, made more critical evaluations of gratitude, and derived fewer benefits. Implications for the study and therapeutic enhancement of gratitude are discussed.
Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Mohammadreza Keshavarz,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored.Method: During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI.Results: Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. Keywords: test anxiety, emotional intelligence, students, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills
Yelle, Maria T; Stevens, Patricia E; Lanuza, Dorothy M
Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.
Maria T. Yelle
Full Text Available Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman’s concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients’ stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.
King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.
The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…
Palandri, Francesca; Benevolo, Giulia; Iurlo, Alessandra; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Carella, Angelo M; Paoli, Chiara; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Cilloni, Daniela; Andriani, Alessandro; Guarini, Attilio; Turri, Diamante; Elli, Elena Maria; Falcone, Antonietta; Anaclerico, Barbara; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Renzo, Nicola; Tiribelli, Mario; Zambello, Renato; Spinosa, Caterina; Ricco, Alessandra; Raucci, Letizia; Martino, Bruno; Annunziata, Mario; Pascale, Silvia; Liberati, Anna Marina; La Nasa, Giorgio; Maffioli, Margherita; Breccia, Massimo; Pugliese, Novella; Betti, Silvia; Giglio, Gianfranco; Cappuccio, Antonietta; Reale, Luigi
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by an aggressive clinical course, with disabling symptoms and reduced survival. Patients experience a severely impaired quality of life and their families face the upheaval of daily routines and high disease-related financial costs. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of Italian patients and their caregivers about living with MF and the burden of illness associated with MF. A quali-quantitative questionnaire and a prompted written narrative survey were administered to patients affected by primary or post-essential thrombocythemia/post-polycythaemia vera MF and their primary caregiver in 35 Italian haematological centres. In total, 287 questionnaires were returned by patients and 98 by caregivers, with 215 and 62, respectively, including the narrative. At the time of diagnosis, the most commonly expressed emotional states of patients were fear, distress and anger, confirming the difficulty of this phase. A high level of emotional distress was also reported by caregivers. Along the pathway of care, the ability to cope with the disease differed according to the quality of care received. The mean cost to each patient attributable to MF was estimated as €12,466 per year, with an estimated average annual cost of loss of income of €7774 per patient and €4692 per caregiver. Better understanding of the personal life of MF patients and their families could improve the relationships between health workers and patients, resulting in better focused healthcare pathways and more effective financial support to maintain patients in their social roles.
Maud, Catherine; Ryan, Joanne; McIntosh, Jennifer E; Olsson, Craig A
The neuropeptide Oxytocin (OXT) plays a central role in birthing, mother-infant bonding and a broad range of related social behaviours in mammals. More recently, interest has extended to epigenetic programming of genes involved in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This review brings together early findings in a rapidly developing field of research, examining relationships between DNA methylation (DNAm) of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) and social and emotional behaviour in human populations. A systematic search across Web of Knowledge/Science, Scopus, Medline and EMBASE captured all published studies prior to June 2017 examining the association between OXTR DNAm and human social and emotional outcomes. Search terms included 'oxytocin gene' or 'oxytocin receptor gene' and 'epigenetics' or 'DNA methylation'. Any article with a focus on social and emotional functioning was then identified from this set by manual review. Nineteen studies met eligibility criteria. There was considerable heterogeneity of study populations, tissue samples, instrumentation, measurement, and OXTR site foci. Only three studies examined functional consequences of OXTR DNAm on gene expression and protein synthesis. Increases in OXTR DNAm were associated with callous-unemotional traits in youth, social cognitive deficits in Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), rigid thinking in anorexia nervosa, affect regulation problems, and problems with facial and emotional recognition. In contrast, reductions in DNAm were associated with perinatal stress, postnatal depression, social anxiety and autism in children. Consistent with an emerging field of inquiry, there is not yet sufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the role of OXTR DNAm in human social and emotional behaviour. However, taken together, findings point to increased OXTR DNAm in general impairments in social, cognitive and emotional functioning, and decreased OXTR DNAm in specific patterns of impairment related to mood and anxiety
Tellis-James, Charlie; Fox, Mark
This research drew on positive psychology in order to offer an optimistic way of\\ud conceptualising the lives of young people who are often described as having ‘SEBD’\\ud (Social, emotional, behaviour difficulties), now SEMH (Social, emotional, mental\\ud health) in the new SEND Code of Practice (2014). Positive psychology places emphasis\\ud on: the future, strengths, resources and potential, and suggests that negative\\ud experiences can build positive qualities. A life path tool was used in or...
This paper aims to highlight the prominence and relevance attached by the Franco dictatorial regime to emotions and sentiments in primary education textbooks. The authors of school textbooks employed a singular writing style, which enabled them to permeate the regime's ideology within the primary education community and classroom. Overcoming the…
In this paper I will attempt to consider emotions in the context of three womens lives, whose passion for education brought them together and then tore them apart along axes of difference defined by race, class and age in apartheid South Africa. I am looking in particular into the correspondence between Lily Moya, Mabel Palmer, and Sibusisiwe…
Juan Pablo Barreyro
Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue examinar si los lectores generan inferencias emocionales durante la lectura de narraciones. Con este objetivo, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos. En el Experimento 1, 24 participantes leyeron dos cuentos populares alemanes, y realizaron una tarea de decisión léxica. Para realizar esta tarea, la lectura fue interrumpida en puntos predeterminados, y se presentaron palabras de prueba que representaban inferencias emocionales en dos condiciones: inmediatamente antes o inmediatamente después de las oraciones que requerían que el lector activase ese concepto. En el Experimento 2, 16 participantes leyeron las mismas oraciones utilizadas en el Experimento 1, pero en forma aislada. Luego de leer cada oración, los participantes realizaron la tarea de decisión léxica. Los resultados de ambos experimentos indicaron que los lectores generan inferencias emocionales, accediendo a su conocimiento previo general, cuando el texto lo requiere para proveer explicación suficiente a los acontecimientos descritos.The purpose of this study was to examine the generation of emotional inferences during the reading of narratives. Two experiments were run with this purpose. In Experiment 1, 24 participants read two German fables, and performed a lexical decision task. In order to perform this task, the texts were interrupted at predetermined points, and participants were presented with target words that represented emotional inferences in two conditions: immediately before or immediately after the sentences that required the reader to activate this concept. In Experiment 2, 16 participants read the same sentences used in Experiment 1, but in isolation. After reading each isolated sentence, participants performed the lexical decision task. Results from both experiments indicated that readers do generate emotional inferences, activating their background knowledge when the text demands it to obtain sufficient explanation for
Maria Claudia Coelho
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo examinar as emoções presentes em relatos de experiências de vitimização em segmentos das camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro. A proposta é explorar a fecundidade da vertente "contextualista" (Lutz & Abu Lughod 1990 da antropologia das emoções para a compreensão da violência, com foco na dimensão micropolítica dos discursos sobre as emoções ligadas à vitimização. Os dados analisados são um conjunto de oito entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com casais que passaram, marido e mulher, pela experiência de terem suas residências assaltadas enquanto estavam em casa. A análise está focada na recorrência de duas emoções presentes nas descrições que os entrevistados fazem de seus sentimentos em relação aos assaltantes: compaixão e desprezo. A emergência destas duas emoções, cujas relações com a hierarquia já foram apontadas pelas ciências sociais, é então interpretada como uma tentativa de restabelecer hierarquias que teriam sido ameaçadas pelos assaltos.This paper analyzes the emotions described in narratives of victimization among Rio de Janeiro's middle classes. It explores the so-called 'contextualist' trend (Lutz & Abu-Lughod 1990 in the anthropology of emotions as a means to understanding violence, focusing on the micropolitical dimension of emotion discourses on victimization. The data analyzed is derived from eight in-depth interviews with married couples who have been through the experience of having their residences assaulted while both of them were at home. The analysis focuses on the recurrence of two emotions in the interviewees' depictions of their feelings towards their assailants: sympathy and contempt. The emergence of these two emotions, whose relations to hierarchy have already been well documented by social scientists, is interpreted as an attempt to re-establish the hierarchies perceived to have been overturned by the assaults.
kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv.......kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv....
Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Geise, Aaron C; Roberts, Brent W; Robins, Richard W
The present research investigated the longitudinal relations between personality traits and narratives. Specifically, the authors examined how individual differences in 170 college students' narratives of personality change (a) were predicted by personality traits at the beginning of college, (b) related to actual changes and perceived changes in personality traits during college, and (c) related to changes in emotional health during college. Individual differences in narratives of personality trait change told in the 4th year of college fell into 2 dimensions: affective processing, characterized by positive emotions, and exploratory processing, characterized by meaning making and causal processing. Conscientious, open, and extraverted freshmen told exploratory stories of change as seniors. Emotionally healthy freshmen told stories of change that were high in positive affect. Both positive affective and exploratory stories corresponded to change in emotional stability and conscientiousness during college above and beyond the effects of perceived changes in these traits. In addition, both positive affective and exploratory narratives corresponded to increases in emotional health during college independent of the effects of changes in personality traits. These findings improve our understanding of how individuals conceptualize their changing identity over time.
Full Text Available Ever since the traditional criteria for medical decision-making capacity (understanding, appreciation, reasoning, evidencing a choice were formulated, they have been criticized for not taking sufficient account of emotions or values that seem, according to the critics and in line with clinical experiences, essential to decision-making capacity. The aim of this paper is to provide a nuanced and structured overview of the arguments provided in the literature emphasizing the importance of these factors and arguing for their inclusion in competence evaluations. Moreover, a broader reflection on the findings of the literature is provided. Specific difficulties of formulating and measuring emotional and valuational factors are discussed inviting reflection on the possibility of handling relevant factors in a more flexible, case-specific, and context-specific way rather than adhering to a rigid set of operationalized criteria.
Hermann, Helena; Trachsel, Manuel; Elger, Bernice S; Biller-Andorno, Nikola
Ever since the traditional criteria for medical decision-making capacity (understanding, appreciation, reasoning, evidencing a choice) were formulated, they have been criticized for not taking sufficient account of emotions or values that seem, according to the critics and in line with clinical experiences, essential to decision-making capacity. The aim of this paper is to provide a nuanced and structured overview of the arguments provided in the literature emphasizing the importance of these factors and arguing for their inclusion in competence evaluations. Moreover, a broader reflection on the findings of the literature is provided. Specific difficulties of formulating and measuring emotional and valuational factors are discussed inviting reflection on the possibility of handling relevant factors in a more flexible, case-specific, and context-specific way rather than adhering to a rigid set of operationalized criteria.
Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata
The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461
Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to extrapolate intricate relationships between autonomic indices of emotionality in predicting changes in transient as well as dispositional emotionality. Performance excellence in sports and games, particularly in soccer has been referred to as resultant of mental toughness or more specifically the aspect of emotional flexibility and hardiness of the athlete. One hundred thirty five high-achiever young-adult male competitive soccer players, who were residents of Kota Bharu region volunteered as participants. All of them were subjected to evaluation of inner psychobiological status (decomposed indices of phasic skin conductance activity – viz. orienting recovery time; rise time and skin conductance adaptation levels; assessment of projective analyses of unconscious core of emotionality (employing Rorschach Ink-Blot Test in the form of evaluation indices of impulsivity, irritability, integrity. Results however revealed corroborative relationships between psychobiological autonomic indices in predicting differential aspects of inner core emotionality. Multiple linear regression analyses were done to identify differential possibilities of direct, inverse, moderating and supportive relationships between decomposition indices of autonomic orienting activity related to cognitive-affective and affective-motivational aspects of sports behaviour. Analyses of autonomic activation and arousal modulation and various indices habituation paradigm indices were found as significant predictors of changes in dispositional emotional constellation observed in the athletes. Orienting latency was observed as the most significant contributor in influencing recovery from autonomic arousal (orienting recovery in predicting changes in emotional hardiness as well as in flexibility.
Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin
Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...
A. V. Ponachugin
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of psychological health of the faculty of the university, the causes and factors of the syndrome of emotional burnout of teachers are systematized. The signs characterizing the emergence of the syndrome of emotional burnout are revealed. Particular attention is paid to the methodology and results of the empirical study of predisposition to the syndrome. The presence of certain personal characteristics, predisposing to the formation and development of emotional burnout, was traced in the teachers of the university. It was revealed that the syndrome affects not only teachers, but also indirectly on the students of the educational institution. Dependence of the degree of severity of emotional burnout syndrome on age and work experience of the teacher is noted. It is determined that to confront the burnout the teaching staff of the university should possess, with the appropriate resources, internal and external variables that contribute to psychological stability in stressful situations.
I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer.......I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer....
We commonly feel a variety of emotional responses to works of fiction. In this thesis I propose to examine what we understand by the terms fictional and narrative, and to describe what sorts of narrator might be required within a narrative work. Of particular interest are interactive works of art, both narrative and non-narrative, and I provide a definition of what features a work should possess if it should properly be considered interactive. I discuss the notions of interactive narrative...
Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial
It is considered good pedagogical practice for undergraduate social science students to reflexively use their real-life experiences to illustrate concepts and theories, especially in relation to themes of social inequality and power. When teaching gender and sexuality, this can become problematic because of the emotional topics involved such as…
Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael
En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...
Geertz, Armin W.
Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...
van Leeuwen, L.; van den Putte, B.; Renes, R.J.; Leeuwis, C.
Previous research suggests that narrative engagement (NE) in entertainment-education (E-E) narratives reduces counterarguing, thereby leading to E-E impact on behavior. It is, however, unclear how different NE processes (narrative understanding, attentional focus, emotional engagement, narrative
历史叙述是指历史学家按照如实叙述的原则，写作历史著作的过程。无论是秉笔直书的原则，还是对史料的选择与甄别，历史叙述都是一项历史学家主观参与的实践活动。历史叙述中存在着历史学家个人的情感，反映了历史学家对历史人物的赞扬与批判，蕴含了历史学家个人的价值判断原则。历史学家在历史叙述中的主观性与个人情感，将影响主体对史料的选择，甚至影响所述史实的正误。历史学家通过历史叙述对历史人物的评价来传递个人的主观情感，进而教育与引导读者的行为。%The historical narrative is a process that the historians write their narrative historical works according the objective facts .Either the direct narrative according to the fact ,or the selection on the historical materials ,the historical narrative is a subjective activity that the historians take part in .The historian's personal emotion exists in the historical narrative ,reflects historian's praise or criticism on the history figures ,and implies their values and judgment principle .The historian's subjectivity and personal emotion in historical narrative may impact the choice of historical materials ,even affect the fact that the historians write true or false .By judging on the history figures in the historical narrative ,the historians express their individual subjective feelings ,even if guide and teach the reader's activities .
Narrative coaching is representative of the new wave – or third generation – of coaching practice . The theory and practice of narrative coaching takes into account the social and cultural conditions of late modern society, and must be seen as intertwined with them. Some initial conceptualizations...... of narrative coaching were developed by David Drake (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) in the USA and Australia, by Ho Law in the UK (Law, 2007a + b; Law & Stelter, 2009) and by Reinhard Stelter (2007, 2009, 2012, in preparation; Stelter & Law, 2010) in Denmark. In the following chapter the aim is to present coaching...... as a narrative-collaborative practice, an approach that is based on phenomenology, social constructionism and narrative theory. Seeing narrative coaching as a collaborative practice also leads to reflecting on the relationship between coach and coachee(s) in a new way, where both parts contribute to the dialogue...
McLean, Kate C; Breen, Andrea V
The present study examined narrative identity in adolescence (14-18 years) in terms of narrative content and processes of identity development. Age- and gender-related differences in narrative patterns in turning point memories and gender differences in the content and functions for sharing those memories were examined, as was the relationship between narrative patterns and self-esteem. The narrative patterns focused on were meaning-making (learning from past events) and emotionality of the narratives, specified as overall positive emotional tone and redemptive sequencing. Results showed an age-related increase in meaning-making but no gender differences in the degree of meaning-making. Results further showed that gender predicted self-esteem and that boys evidenced higher self-esteem. Emotionality also predicted self-esteem; this was especially true for redemption and for boys. In terms of telling functions, girls endorsed more relational reasons for telling memories than did boys. Results are discussed in terms of potential gendered and nongendered pathways for identity development in adolescence. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved
mechanisms associated with storytelling .2 This is in contrast to the actual use of narrative terminology used in U.S. military lexicon, which connotes a...A spoken or written account of connected events, a Story; (2) The narrated part of literary work, as distinct from dialogue; and (3) the practice or...difficult task as emotional scenes of violence and destruction move quickly from mobile phones to the news media.5 Although application of the story form
Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma
Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228
Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep
Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated whether expressing emotional states using a simple line drawing to represent a robot's face can serve to elicit altruistic behavior from humans. An experimental investigation was conducted in which human participants interacted with a humanoid robot whose facial expression was shown on an LCD monitor that was mounted as its head (Study 1. Participants were asked to play the ultimatum game, which is usually used to measure human altruistic behavior. All participants were assigned to be the proposer and were instructed to decide their offer within 1 min by controlling a slider bar. The corners of the robot's mouth, as indicated by the line drawing, simply moved upward, or downward depending on the position of the slider bar. The results suggest that the change in the facial expression depicted by a simple line drawing of a face significantly affected the participant's final offer in the ultimatum game. The offers were increased by 13% when subjects were shown contingent changes of facial expression. The results were compared with an experiment in a teleoperation setting in which participants interacted with another person through a computer display showing the same line drawings used in Study 1 (Study 2. The results showed that offers were 15% higher if participants were shown a contingent facial expression change. Together, Studies 1 and 2 indicate that emotional expression in simple line drawings of a robot's face elicits the same higher offer from humans as a human telepresence does.
Terada, Kazunori; Takeuchi, Chikara
In the present study, we investigated whether expressing emotional states using a simple line drawing to represent a robot's face can serve to elicit altruistic behavior from humans. An experimental investigation was conducted in which human participants interacted with a humanoid robot whose facial expression was shown on an LCD monitor that was mounted as its head (Study 1). Participants were asked to play the ultimatum game, which is usually used to measure human altruistic behavior. All participants were assigned to be the proposer and were instructed to decide their offer within 1 min by controlling a slider bar. The corners of the robot's mouth, as indicated by the line drawing, simply moved upward, or downward depending on the position of the slider bar. The results suggest that the change in the facial expression depicted by a simple line drawing of a face significantly affected the participant's final offer in the ultimatum game. The offers were increased by 13% when subjects were shown contingent changes of facial expression. The results were compared with an experiment in a teleoperation setting in which participants interacted with another person through a computer display showing the same line drawings used in Study 1 (Study 2). The results showed that offers were 15% higher if participants were shown a contingent facial expression change. Together, Studies 1 and 2 indicate that emotional expression in simple line drawings of a robot's face elicits the same higher offer from humans as a human telepresence does.
Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)
The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.
Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia; Mansfield, Cade D.; Bourne, Stacia
Admonitions to tell one’s story in order to feel better reflect the belief that narrative is an effective emotion regulation tool. The present studies evaluate the effectiveness of narrative for regulating sadness and anger, and provide quantitative comparisons of narrative with distraction, reappraisal, and reexposure. The results for sadness (n = 93) and anger (n = 89) reveal that narrative is effective at down-regulating negative emotions, particularly when narratives place events in the past tense and include positive emotions. The results suggest that if people tell the “right” kind of story about their experiences, narrative reduces emotional distress linked to those experiences. PMID:26745208
Rasi, Päivi; Vuojärvi, Hanna
This study aims to develop asynchronous formative audio feedback practices for mobile learning in higher education settings. The development was conducted in keeping with the principles of design-based research. The research activities focused on an inter-university online course, within which the use of instructor audio feedback was tested,…
Dette pilotstudies ambition er at undersøge, hvordan og hvorfor narrative elementer lejlighedsvist aktiveres af aktører i deres kontakt med bibliotekarer i folkebiblioteker. Ved hjælp af en kulturanalytisk tilgang studeres forskellige aktørers narrative udvidelser af referenceinterviewet. Teoretisk....... Pilotstudiet bekræfter de 2 indledende antagelser: 1) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser, fordi de vælger at betone den mellemmenneskelige relation mellem aktør og bibliotekar, som om det var enhver anden social relation og derved ignorerer andre, mere repræsentative dele af bibliotekarernes...... funktioner. Og 2) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser i bestræbelserne på at legitimere egne sociale positioner og identitetsdannelse gennem kritisk refleksion over bibliotekarernes og folkebibliotekets institutionelle position og magt. Gennem den narrative udvidelse formår disse aktører...
Pickett, Scott M; Kurby, Christopher A
Experiential avoidance is a functional class of maladaptive strategies that contribute to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Although previous research has demonstrated group differences in the interpretation of aversive stimuli, there is limited work on the influence of experiential avoidance during the online processing of emotion. An experimental design investigated the influence of self-reported experiential avoidance during emotion processing by assessing emotion inferences during the comprehension of narratives that imply different emotions. Results suggest that experiential avoidance is partially characterized by an emotional information processing bias. Specifically, individuals reporting higher experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating negative emotion inferences, whereas individuals reporting lower experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating positive emotion inferences. Minimal emotional inference was observed for the non-bias affective valence. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of experiential avoidance as a cognitive vulnerability for psychopathology.
Full Text Available Latar belakang: Gangguan penglihatan berat dan kebutaan, belum menjadi prioritas masalah kesehatan di Indonesia, dapat menimbulkan gangguan mental emosional. Pada tulisan ini disajikan penilaian gangguan mental emosional yang berkaitan dengan gangguan penglihatan berat. Metode: Analisis ini menggunakan sebagian data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007. Subjek untuk keperluan analisis ini ialah yang berusia 15 tahun atau lebih. Gangguan mental emosional diukur dengan Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ 20. Subjek yang mungkin menderita gangguan mental emosional, jika hasil SRQ sebesar 6 atau lebih, dan sebaliknya. Tajam penglihatan ditentukan berdasarkan tes Snellen chart. Visus normal/ringan ialah 20/20 to 20/60, visus rendah ialah kurang dari 20/60-3/60, sedangkan buta dengan visus kurang dari 3/60 sampai 0/0. Hasil: Di antara 972,989 subjek data Rskesdas 2007 terdapat 46,7% (554,886 yang berusia 15 tahun atau lebih. Subjek yang menderita gangguan mental emosional sebesar 11,4% (63,279/554,886, prevalensi visus rendah sebesar 5,1% dan kebutaan 0,9%. Subjek yang menderita visus rendah dibandingkan subjek yang normal atau dengan gangguan tajam penglihatan ringan mempunyai 75% lebih besar menderita risiko gangguan mental emosional [risiko relatif (RRa=1,75; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,71-1,79]. Sedangkan subjek yang buta dibandingkan subjek yang normal atau dengan gangguan tajam penglihatan ringan mempunyai risiko 2,7 kali lipat menderita gangguan mental emosional (RRa= 2,69; 95% (CI=2.60-2.78. Kesimpulan: Subjek dengan gangguan penglihatan makin berat mempunyai risiko menderita gangguan mental emosional. Oleh karena itu subjek yang menderita gangguan penglihatan berat perlu diperhatikan mental emosionalnya. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:9-13 Abstract Background: Severe visual impairments are able to induce psychological stress, especially among adults, which may stimulate mental emotional disorder (MED. Eye health problems are not a
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Gregory, Robert J.; Mustata, Georgian T.
Adolescents sometimes cut themselves to relieve distress; however, the mechanism is unknown. Previous studies have linked self-injury to deficits in processing emotions symbolically through language. To investigate expressive language of adolescent cutters, the authors analyzed 100 narratives posted on the Internet. Most narratives (n = 66)…
Kristiansen, Claus Krogholm
The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples.......The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples....
Brandon Richard Ro
Full Text Available This study a identifies how people describe, characterize, and communicate in written form Extraordinary Architectural Experiences (EAE, and b expands the traditional qualitative approach to architectural phenomenology by demonstrating a quantitative method to analyze written narratives. Specifically, this study reports on the content analysis of 718 personal accounts of EAEs. Using a deductive, ‘theory-driven’ approach, these narratives were read, coded, and statistically analyzed to identify storyline structure, convincing power, and the relationship between subjective and objective experiential qualities used in the story-telling process. Statistical intercoder agreement tests were conducted to verify the reliability of the interpretations to approach the hard problem of “extraordinary aesthetics” in architecture empirically. The results of this study confirm the aesthetic nature of EAE narratives (and of told experiences by showing their higher dependence on external objective content (e.g., a building’s features and location rather than its internal subjective counterpart (e.g., emotions and sensations, which makes them more outwardly focused. The strong interrelationships and intercoder agreement between the thematic realms provide a unique aesthetic construct revealing EAE narratives as memorable, embodied, emotional events mapped by the externally focused content of place, social setting, time, and building features. A majority of EAE narratives were found to possess plot-structure along with significant relationships to objective-subjective content that further grounded their storylines. This study concludes that content analysis provides not only a valid method to understand written narratives about extraordinary architectural experiences quantitatively, but also a view as to how to map the unique nature of aesthetic phenomenology empirically.
Lundin, Robert M.; Bashir, Kiran; Bullock, Alison; Kostov, Camille E.; Mattick, Karen L.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Monrouxe, Lynn V.
The importance of emotions within medical practice is well documented. Research suggests that how clinicians deal with negative emotions can affect clinical decision-making, health service delivery, clinician well-being, attentiveness to patient care and patient satisfaction. Previous research has identified the transition from student to junior…
Durkin, Sarah; Bayly, Megan; Brennan, Emily; Biener, Lois; Wakefield, Melanie
Emotive anti-tobacco advertisements can increase quitting. Discrete emotion theories suggest evoking fear may be more effective than sadness; less research has focused on hope. A weekly cross-sectional survey of smokers and recent quitters (N = 7683) measured past-month quit attempts. The main predictor was level of exposure to four different types of anti-tobacco advertisements broadcast in the two months prior to quit attempts: advertisements predominantly evoking fear, sadness, hope, or evoking multiple negative emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, and/or sadness). Greater exposure to fear-evoking advertisements (OR = 2.16, p < .01) increased odds of making a quit attempt and showed similar effectiveness among those in lower and higher SES areas. Greater exposure to advertisements evoking multiple negative emotions increased quit attempts (OR = 1.70, p < .01), but interactions indicated this was driven by those in lower SES, but not higher SES areas. Greater exposure to hope-evoking advertisements enhanced effects of fear-evoking advertisements among those in higher SES, but not lower SES areas. Findings suggest to be maximally effective across the whole population avoid messages evoking sadness and use messages eliciting fear. If the aim is to specifically motivate those living in lower SES areas where smoking rates are higher, multiple negative emotion messages, but not hope-evoking messages, may also be effective.
Drus, Marina; Kozbelt, Aaron; Hughes, Robert R.
To what extent do more creative people process emotional information differently than less creative people? This study examined the role of emotion processing in creativity and its implications for the creativity-psychopathology association. A total of 117 participants performed a memory recognition task for negative, positive, and neutral words;…
Full Text Available This research paper aims at investigating the impact of emotional intelligence on teacher×³s job performance in the education sector of Pakistan. Sample size consists of 166 teachers from universities in the area of central Punjab, Pakistan. Theories of emotional intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer (1989â1990 were used as the conceptual framework and its relationship with the job performance of teachers was examined. Reliability and validity of variables was tested through measurement model of PLS-SEM. The result indicated that emotional intelligence has a significant impact on the teacher×³s job performance. Key research finding revealed that emotional self-awareness, self-confidence, achievement, developing others and conflict management have a positive and significant relationship with the teacher×³s job performance. Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Performance, Teachers, Pakistan
Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...
examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...
is presented to give a concrete example of this narrative, community psychological oriented intervention, a process which helps people to develop a sense of personal or cultural identity and an understanding of their doing as being in correspondence with their values and intentions. The overarching focus...
Murata, Aiko; Saito, Hisamichi; Schug, Joanna; Ogawa, Kenji; Kameda, Tatsuya
A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like "automatic" response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target's facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target's emotional state. In the first study we show that facial mimicry, assessed by facial electromyography, occurs more frequently when participants are specifically instructed to infer a target's emotional state than when given no instruction. In the second study, we replicate this effect using the Facial Action Coding System to show that participants are more likely to mimic facial expressions of emotion when they are asked to infer the target's emotional state, rather than make inferences about a physical trait unrelated to emotion. These results provide convergent evidence that the explicit goal of understanding a target's emotional state affects the degree of facial mimicry shown by the perceiver, suggesting moderation of reflex-like motor activities by higher cognitive processes.
universal dimensions of human life and cultural differences in a more and more mediatized global media culture. How do individuals and groups imagine each other in this new, global media culture, in what Appadurai (1996) has called a new post-national political world with an emerging diasporic public sphere......Cosmopolitan Narratives: Documentary Perspectives on Afghanistan Cosmopolitanism is a concept discussed in relation to globalization in contemporary societies by sociologists, anthropologists and media scholars (Beck 2006, Delanty 2006, Appadurai 1996). The concept indicates the dialectic between...... close others in our everyday life. But the media play an increasingly strong and important role in developing a cosmopolitan imaginary through narratives that bring us closer to the various distant, global others. Through migration those earlier distant others are also more and more mixed in our daily...
thought. Furthermore, it is argued that a central role in the structuring of this mental text is played by an overwhelming amount of brackets. The article suggests a categorisation of the different types of parenthetic remarks in the novel according to their function in the textual, would-be narrative...... construct, and concludes that Makanin's use of brackets in Andegraund, the most extensive use in his oeuvre so far, is crucial to the extreme processuality of the novel's text and its paradoxical, solipsistic addressivity. Udgivelsesdato: October...
Brom, Cyril; Bída, Michal; Gemrot, Jakub; Kadlec, Rudolf; Plch, Tomáš
We report on the progress we have achieved in development of Emohawk, a 3D virtual reality application with an emergent narrative for teaching high-school students and undergraduates the basics of virtual characters control, emotion modelling, and narrative generation. Besides, we present a new methodology, used in Emohawk, for purposeful authoring of emergent narratives of Façade's complexity. The methodology is based on massive automatic search for stories that are appealing to the audience whilst forbidding the unappealing ones during the design phase.
Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias
The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors - responsible for age-related differences in decision making - are additionally pointed out.
Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.
Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias
The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out. PMID:29270145
a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...
Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions.......Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions....
Reese, Elaine; Myftari, Ella; McAnally, Helena M; Chen, Yan; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona; Robertson, Sarah-Jane
This study explored links between narrative identity, personality traits, and well-being for 263 adolescents (age 12-21) from three New Zealand cultures: Māori, Chinese, and European. Turning-point narratives were assessed for autobiographical reasoning (causal coherence), local thematic coherence, emotional expressivity, and topic. Across cultures, older adolescents with higher causal coherence reported better well-being. Younger adolescents with higher causal coherence instead reported poorer well-being. Personal development topics were positively linked to well-being for New Zealand European adolescents only, and thematic coherence was positively linked to well-being for Māori adolescents only. Negative expressivity, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness were also linked to well-being. Implications of these cultural similarities and differences are considered for theories of narrative identity, personality, and adolescent well-being. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Bulbena, Antonio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Jaussaud, Roland
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility-type is the most common hereditary disorder of the connective tissue. The tissue fragility characteristic of this condition leads to multi-systemic symptoms in which pain, often severe, chronic, and disabling, is the most experienced. Clinical observations suggest that the complex patient with EDS hypermobility-type is refractory toward several biomedical and physical approaches. In this context and in accordance with the contemporary conceptualization of pain (biopsychosocial perspective), the identification of psychological aspects involved in the pain experience can be useful to improve interventions for this under-recognized pathology. Review of the literature on joint hypermobility and EDS hypermobility-type concerning psychological factors linked to pain chronicity and disability. A comprehensive search was performed using scientific online databases and references lists, encompassing publications reporting quantitative and qualitative research as well as unpublished literature. Despite scarce research, psychological factors associated with EDS hypermobility-type that potentially affect pain chronicity and disability were identified. These are cognitive problems and attention to body sensations, negative emotions, and unhealthy patterns of activity (hypo/hyperactivity). As in other chronic pain conditions, these aspects should be more explored in EDS hypermobility-type, and integrated into chronic pain prevention and management programs. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians should be aware that joint hypermobility may be associated with other health problems, and in its presence suspect a heritable disorder of connective tissue such as the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility-type, in which chronic pain is one of the most frequent and invalidating symptoms. It is necessary to explore the psychosocial functioning of patients as part of the overall chronic pain management in the EDS hypermobility
Panksepp, Jaak; Davis, Ken
In brain-based personality theory, two things seem certain: i) the evolved functional organization of our subcortical affective mind, and ii) the diverse potentials for developmental programming of our high cognitive minds (i.e., our initially empty - tabula rasa like - neocortical spaces are largely developmentally programed to manifest higher mental abilities). In considering these two global aspects of brain-mind functions, we can be confident that primal subcortical functions (e.g., the capacity for raw emotions/affects, evident in all vertebrate species) evolved. Indeed, ancient creatures such as lamprey eels, with whom we shared ancestry 560 million years ago, still posses most neural systems that are homologous to those that constitute our own primal affective capacities . Considering that primal emotional affects arise from such systems, there appears to be some remarkable continuity in our primal mental origins. The neural foundations of human emotional feelings, long neglected by academic psychology (for lack of empirical accessibility), may contain the rudimentary neuro-affective substrates of personality .
Armine Kotin Mortimer
Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.
Mellis, Alexandra M; Snider, Sarah E; Bickel, Warren K
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer. Individuals then completed a task of delay discounting and measures of affective response to narratives, as well as rating various narrative qualities such as personal relevance and vividness. Consistent with past research, narratives of negative income shock increased delay discounting compared to control narratives. No significant differences existed in delay discounting after self-generating compared to reading experimenter-provided narratives. Positive affect was lower and negative affect was higher in response to narratives of job loss, but affect measures did not differ based on whether narratives were experimenter-provided or self-generated. All narratives were rated as equally realistic, but self-generated narratives (whether negative or neutral) were rated as more vivid and relevant than experimenter-provided narratives. These results indicate that the content of negative income shock narratives, regardless of source, consistently drives short-term choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas
on the micro story level of storytelling structure (Begin-Middle-End). This paper describes the framework for a games writer in MMORPGs as a non-linear narrative, in which a gameplayer takes the role of a digital story writer in a magic cycle. It proposes an extended storytelling framework to a games writer....... The framework is developed based on 3 prior theoretical notions: the Story structure, Dramatic structure (Freytag's Pyramid), and Hero’s Journey model (Campbell). The story structure is founded by Aristotle in his Poetics (c. 335 BC), but is now considered the basis of digital narrative. Hero’s Journey model......-story and develops further to the multi-plot point structure. To analyze the gameplay data in this study, the emotional experience and learning content are considered for the plot investigation. This study is sets out to examine the assumption that, when players play games in a semiotic domain of visual grammar...
Recent work on the relation between narrative and selfhood has emphasized embodiment as an indispensable foundation for selfhood. This has occasioned an interesting debate on the relation between embodiment and narrative. In this paper, I attempt to mediate the range of conflicting intuitions......) strictly is or is not; rather, we need to see narrative as an attribute admitting of degrees. I suggest that the relation between narrative and embodiment should be seen along these lines, proposing three levels of the narrativity of embodied experiencing: 1) the unnarratable, 2) the narratable and 3...
Describes "impersonal narration," an approach that defends the concept of the cinematic narrator as a logical and pragmatic necessity. Compares this approach with existing theories of the cinematic narrator, addressing disagreements in the field of film narrative theory. (MM)
Smorti, Andrea; Fioretti, Chiara
This paper aims to reflect on the relation between autobiographical memory (ME) and autobiographical narrative (NA), examining studies on the effects of narrating on the narrator and showing how studying these relations can make more comprehensible both memory's and narrating's way of working. Studies that address explicitly on ME and NA are scarce and touch this issue indirectly. Authors consider different trends of studies of ME and NA: congruency vs incongruency hypotheses on retrieving, the way of organizing memories according to gist or verbatim format and their role in organizing positive and negative emotional experiences, the social roots of ME and NA, the rules of conversation based on narrating. Analysis of investigations leads the Authors to point out three basic results of their research. Firstly, NA transforms ME because it narrativizes memories according to a narrative format. This means that memories, when are narrated, are transformed in stories (verbal language) and socialised. Secondly, the narrativization process is determined by the act of telling something within a communicative situation. Thus, relational situation of narrating act, by modifying the story, modifies also memories. The Authors propose the RE.NA.ME model (RElation, NArration, MEmory) to understand and study ME and NA. Finally, this study claims that ME and NA refer to two different types of processes having a wide area of overlapping. This is due to common social, developmental and cultural roots that make NA to include part of ME (narrative of memory) and ME to include part of NA (memory of personal events that have been narrated).
This paper advances theorising around student geographies in higher education (HE). It extends recent work, which has problematised the primacy of social class and binary thinking about student mobilities, and presents local/non-local experiences and im/mobility as a defining dualism. Drawing on a qualitative longitudinal study of women's…
Eva Laass: Broken Taboos, Subjective Truths. Forms and Functions of Unreliable Narration in Contemporary American Cinema. A Contribution to Film NarratologyVolker Ferenz: Don’t believe his lies. The unreliable narrator in contemporary American cinema
The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…
Finney, Mark David
This dissertation focuses on the place of narrative in the transformational encounter that can take place between hearers of sermons and God. Chapter 1 surveys the history and development of contemporary scholarship related to narrative preaching. It argues that most homileticians consider narrative either as a way of structuring sermons, or as a…
Elson, David K.
This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…
The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…
Full Text Available The paper presents research conducted within the narrative psychology paradigm. Its main purpose was to explore the relationships between features of adolescents’ identity narratives and their assessments of family functioning and themselves as family members. The choice of subject was motivated by current reports on identity formation difficulties in adolescence. Adolescents’ narratives were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Associations between specific aspects of self-narratives and participants’ perceptions of how their families functioned and how they functioned in the family system were evaluated. The results confirm the hypothesized relationships between the features of adolescents’ narratives and evaluations of their families and self-assessments of their own functioning in those families. Multi-thematic, content-rich and positively evaluated self-narratives are associated with positive assessments of selected aspects of family functioning and adolescents’ own functioning within the family. The following aspects of family assessment are significant: affective expression, level of emotional involvement in the family, level of control, family role performance and communication. Important factors in the self-assessment were: sense of competence in family role performance, assessment of one’s communication, behavior control and affective expression.
Vyacheslav V. Volchik
Full Text Available This article addresses a range of questions associated with the occurrence of a new field of study – narrative economics, which is considered in the context of modern institutionalism. Pioneering works of R. Shiller, G. Akerlof and D. Snower spotlighted the importance of analyzing narratives and narrative influence when studying economic processes. In this paper, a qualitative study of narratives is seen through the prism of an answer to the question: «How do prescribed narratives influence institutions and change them? ». Narratives have much in common with institutions since very often, explicitly or implicitly, they contain value judgements about social interactions or normative aspects shaping behavioral patterns. The identification of dominating narratives enables us to understand better how institutions influence economic (social action. Repeated interactions among social actors are structured through understanding and learning the rules. Understanding of social rules comes from the language – we articulate and perceive the rules drawing on common narratives. Narratives and institutions are helpful when actors gain knowledge about various forms of social communication. Digital technologies, mass media and social networking sites facilitate the spread of narratives, values and beliefs; this process is characterized by increasing returns. Studying narratives and institutions is crucial for modern economic theory because it helps to improve qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing empirical evidence and enables researchers to understand complex economic processes.
Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educational levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44 = -3.6, P<0.001. Ten days later subjects were asked to remember the story and answer a multiple-choice questionnaire about it. The subjects who watched the arousing story had higher scores in the free recall measure (t (44 = -2.59, P<0.01. There were no differences between groups in the multiple-choice test of recognition memory (t (44 = 0.26. These findings confirm that an emotional arousing content enhances long-term declarative memory and indicate the possibility of applying this instrument to clinical samples of various cultural backgrounds.
Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pattengale, Nicholas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carvey, Bradley John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In cybersecurity forensics and incident response, the story of what has happened is the most important artifact yet the one least supported by tools and techniques. Existing tools focus on gathering and manipulating low-level data to allow an analyst to investigate exactly what happened on a host system or a network. Higher-level analysis is usually left to whatever ad hoc tools and techniques an individual may have developed. We discuss visual representations of narrative in the context of cybersecurity incidents with an eye toward multi-scale illustration of actions and actors. We envision that this representation could smoothly encompass individual packets on a wire at the lowest level and nation-state-level actors at the highest. We present progress to date, discuss the impact of technical risk on this project and highlight opportunities for future work.
Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Desmet, Pieter
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to designing games for serious contexts. In contrast to Serious Games we argue that learning is a too narrow focus for serious contexts and that simulation of real world problems ought to be supplemented with other design strategies that place greater...... emphasis on fiction and narratives. The approach is exemplified through three game prototypes designed to be played by an inmate and his child in a prison during visiting hours. By analyzing these game prototypes we demonstrate how a game can be structured around a narrative plot in three different ways....... Moreover, we discuss how narrative plots in a game may open up for developing player’s emotional experiences over time and grow social relationships between inmate and child. On the basis of our case analysis we discuss, in more detail, how our approach differs from Serious Games and we single out some key...
Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Desmet, Pieter
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to designing games for serious contexts. In contrast to Serious Games we argue that learning is a too narrow focus for serious contexts and that simulation of real world problems ought to be supplemented with other design strategies that place greater....... Moreover, we discuss how narrative plots in a game may open up for developing player’s emotional experiences over time and grow social relationships between inmate and child. On the basis of our case analysis we discuss, in more detail, how our approach differs from Serious Games and we single out some key...... emphasis on fiction and narratives. The approach is exemplified through three game prototypes designed to be played by an inmate and his child in a prison during visiting hours. By analyzing these game prototypes we demonstrate how a game can be structured around a narrative plot in three different ways...
Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Concina, Giulia; Sacchetti, Benedetto
Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine injection into the higher order auditory cortex Te2, on the remote emotional memories of either threat or incentive experiences in rats. We found that intra-Te2 nicotine injection decreased the fear-evoked responses to a tone previously paired with footshock. This effect was cue- and dose-specific and was not due to any interference with auditory stimuli processing, innate anxiety and fear processes, or with motor responses. Nicotine acts acutely in the presence of threat stimuli but it did not determine the permanent degradation of the fear-memory trace, since memories tested one week after nicotine injection were unaffected. Remarkably, nicotine did not affect the memory of a similar tone that was paired to incentive stimuli. We conclude from our results that nicotine, when acting acutely in the auditory cortex, relieves the fear charge embedded by learned stimuli. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Grodal, Torben Kragh
The article will analyze how action films use different emotional sources of arousal to create narrative tension and suspense in the PECMA flow i.e. the mental flow of perceptions that activate emotions, cognition and action as described in Grodal 2009. It will analyze how different emotions link...... to each other or contrast each other in the narrative flow that you metaphorically might call an emotion symphony. The flow may create a time-out experience due to the way in which the action-oriented flow recruits consciousness in full, similar to the way in which music creates flow experiences...
Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe
Expressions of emotions are pervasive in media, especially in movies. In this article, we focus on the emotional relationships of movie characters in narrative thought and emotional storytelling. Several studies examine emotion elicitation through movies, but there is a gap in scientific literature and in the practice to quantitatively consider emotions among the characters of a movie story, which in turn provide the basis of spectator emotion elicitation. Some might argument that the ultimat...
J. Woudenberg; L. Bobbink; E. Geurts; M. Pelzer; H. Degen-Nijeboer
This book is about narrative methods and narrative research. The word narrativity derives from the Latin word narrare, which means ‘to tell’. Narratives are present everywhere. They come in the form of fairy tales, drama, drawings, art, history, biography, myths and legends. Narratives can be found
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a canonical narrative arc, followed by a discussion of complex structures that extend beyond the canonical schema. This demands that the canonical arc be reconsidered as a generative schema whereby any narrative category can be expanded into a node in a tree structure. Narrative "pacing" is interpreted as a reflection of various patterns of this embedding: conjunction, left-branching trees, center-embedded constituencies, and others. Following this, diagnostic methods are proposed for testing narrative categories and constituency. Finally, we outline the applicability of this theory beyond sequential images, such as to film and verbal discourse, and compare this theory with previous approaches to narrative and discourse. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Musacchio Adorisio, Anna Linda
This article focuses on organizational remembering in banking. To provide an alternative to the repository image of memory in organization, organizational remembering is conceptualized as narrative, where narrative represents a way to organize the selection and interpretation of the past....... The narrative perspective deals with both the experiential and contextual nature of remembering by addressing concerns raised by critiques of organizational memory studies, namely, the subjective experience of remembering and the social and historical context in which remembering takes place. Antenarrative...... the narrative perspective reveals ruptures and ambiguities that characterize organizational remembering that would remain hidden in the organizational memory studies approach....
Full Text Available This paper examines shame in three narratives involving the social self and the evaluative perception of that self. The semiotic square is used for analysing some of the conceptualizations of shame and highlighting the structural relations of the shame phenomenon in narrative. The stance of this paper is that shame is a moral emotion which results from two main evaluative perceptions, involving moral sentiment and social reputation. In support of this claim, different aspects of shame are analysed in three types of narratives from different socio-cultural contexts.
Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe
Expressions of emotions are pervasive in media, especially in movies. In this article, we focus on the emotional relationships of movie characters in narrative thought and emotional storytelling. Several studies examine emotion elicitation through movies, but there is a gap in scientific literature and in the practice to quantitatively consider emotions among the characters of a movie story, which in turn provide the basis of spectator emotion elicitation. Some might argument that the ultimate purpose of a movie is to elicit emotions in the viewers; however, we are highlighting that the path to emotional stimulation entails emotions among the characters composing a narrative and manipulating to enable the effective elicitation of viewers' emotions. Here we provided and tested an effective quantitative method for analyzing these relationships in emotional networks, which allow for a clear understanding of the effects of story changes on movie perceptions and pleasantness.
Full Text Available Expressions of emotions are pervasive in media, especially in movies. In this article, we focus on the emotional relationships of movie characters in narrative thought and emotional storytelling. Several studies examine emotion elicitation through movies, but there is a gap in scientific literature and in the practice to quantitatively consider emotions among the characters of a movie story, which in turn provide the basis of spectator emotion elicitation. Some might argument that the ultimate purpose of a movie is to elicit emotions in the viewers; however, we are highlighting that the path to emotional stimulation entails emotions among the characters composing a narrative and manipulating to enable the effective elicitation of viewers’ emotions. Here we provided and tested an effective quantitative method for analyzing these relationships in emotional networks, which allow for a clear understanding of the effects of story changes on movie perceptions and pleasantness.
Sala, Maria Nives; Pons, Francisco; Molina, Paola
This study investigated the development of emotion regulation strategies as reflected in the narratives of children between the ages of 3 and 6 years. An experimental procedure based on story completion tasks was devised to elicit the emotion-related narratives of 69 preschool children. Coding of the narratives led to the observation of different emotion regulation strategies: Behavioural strategies, social support, and cognitive reappraisal. Several significant gender and age differences were identified in the use of these strategies. In addition, verbal skills, non-verbal intelligence, and emotion comprehension were found to be associated with use of the observed emotion regulation strategies, although only at specific ages. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions. We review a literature of functional motor abnormalities in ASC, following this with discussion of their neural correlates and aberrancies in language development, explaining how these might arise with reference to the typical formation of cell assemblies linking action and perceptual brain regions. This model gives rise to clear hypotheses regarding language comprehension, and we highlight a recent set of studies reporting differences in brain activation and behaviour in the processing of action-related and abstract-emotional concepts in individuals with ASC. At the neuroanatomical level, we discuss structural differences in long-distance frontotemporal and frontoparietal connections in ASC, such as would compromise information transfer between sensory and motor regions. This neurobiological model of action perception integration may shed light on the cognitive and social-interactive symptoms of ASC, building on and extending earlier proposals linking autistic symptomatology to motor disorder and dysfunction in action perception integration. Further investigating the contribution of motor dysfunction to higher cognitive and social impairment, we suggest, is timely and promising as it may advance both neurocognitive theory and the development of new clinical interventions for this population and others characterised by early and pervasive motor disruption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights
Doulougeri, Karolina; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony
Medical training can be a challenging and emotionally intense period for medical students. However the emotions experienced by medical students in the face of challenging situations and the emotion regulation strategies they use remains relatively unexplored. The aim of the present study was to explore the emotions elicited by memorable incidents reported by medical students and the associated emotion regulation strategies. Peer interviewing was used to collect medical students' memorable incidents. Medical students at both preclinical and clinical stage of medical school were eligible to participate. In total 104 medical students provided memorable incidents. Only 54 narratives included references to emotions and emotion regulation and thus were further analyzed. The narratives of 47 clinical and 7 preclinical students were further analyzed for their references to emotions and emotion regulation strategies. Forty seven out of 54 incidents described a negative incident associated with negative emotions. The most frequently mentioned emotion was shock and surprise followed by feelings of embarrassment, sadness, anger and tension or anxiety. The most frequent reaction was inaction often associated with emotion regulation strategies such as distraction, focusing on a task, suppression of emotions and reappraisal. When students witnessed mistreatment or disrespect exhibited towards patients, the regulation strategy used involved focusing and comforting the patient. The present study sheds light on the strategies medical students use to deal with intense negative emotions. The vast majority reported inaction in the face of a challenging situation and the use of more subtle strategies to deal with the emotional impact of the incident.
There is a strong tradition in psychology and philosophy, claiming that the self is a narrative construction. The paper examines this idea and concludes that the narrative self is not a viable theoretical construct, but that we should opt for an adjacent idea of a historical self. The aim is to e...
Poulsen, Jens Aage
Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen......Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen...
Aerts, Walter; Clubb, C.; Imam, S.
Narrative accounting disclosures are an integral part of the corporate financial reporting package. They are deemed to provide a view of the company “through the eyes of management”. The narratives represent management's construal of corporate events and are largely discretionary. Research in
Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe
According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…
Raises issues involved in the study and teaching of narrative, with reference to both literature and film. Considers the function of realism in narrative fiction and the teaching of theory and practice of those writers and filmmakers who have challenged the realist text by alternative strategies. (JMF)
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out…
In Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity, 16 internationally renowned scholars reflect on the nature and history of peoplehood and discuss how narratives inform national identities, public culture and academic historiography. The book is a timely contribution to the ongoing debate on belonging...
Tamura, Eileen H.
While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
I argue for a broad education in narratives as a way to address several problems found in moral psychology and social cognition. First, an education in narratives will address a common problem of narrowness or lack of diversity, shared by virtue ethics and the simulation theory of social cognition. Secondly, it also solves the "starting…
In this paper, the author aims to substantiate Freud's claim that neurotic illness creates gaps in autobiographical narratives in terms of the narrator's stating and inducing perspectives. He sketches out the role of narrative perspective and the joint taking of a shared perspective by analyst and patient in psychoanalytic therapy. He introduces four ways of representing perspectives in narratives. Three degrees of narrative distortion are exemplified by three excerpts from life narratives and explored in terms of narrative perspective representation. The most comprehensive perspective representation is achieved in the first example by explicitly stating the present perspective of the narrator as well as the past perspective of the story's protagonist by use of mental verbs. In the second narrative, exclusive use of linguistic forms for inducing the protagonist's perspective both overwhelms the narrator and gives the listener an incomplete picture of what happened. Inconsistent motives, denial of responsibility and omission of detail render the third narrative even more difficult to follow. The author discusses the clinical significance of this exploratory analysis of perspectives in narratives in terms of claiming responsibility for one's past action and of level of defence mechanisms, and by highlighting the emotional impact on listeners, which the author suggests is the stronger the more perspectives are left out. He discusses analogies to countertransference. The analysis of narrative perspectives offers an approach for systematic research in psychoanalytic practice.
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...
on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely......Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...
Herron, Mark A.
. The use of narratives of and by presidents in the White House can be seen as an essential part of the ceremonial role of the presidency. This use of narratives in epideictic speech has increased with modern day interests in the domestic life of the president, and the use of visual mass media......The dissertation Narrator-in-Chief: The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama seeks to show how the concept of “narrative” can be used in rhetorical criticism of presidential speeches, particularly when considering the speeches and the biographical text, Dreams from My Father (1995), of Barack Obama...... as a communication platform for the president. While this has been described as a negative development (Stuckey, 1991; Salmon, 2010) this dissertation argues that narrative rhetoric should not be seen only as a negative part of political rhetoric, but also as a possibly vital way to educate the audience on issues...
Tuckett, David; Nikolic, Milena
We propose conviction narrative theory (CNT) to broaden decision-making theory in order to better understand and analyse how subjectively means–end rational actors cope in contexts in which the traditional assumptions in decision-making models fail to hold. Conviction narratives enable actors to draw on their beliefs, causal models, and rules of thumb to identify opportunities worth acting on, to simulate the future outcome of their actions, and to feel sufficiently convinced to act. The framework focuses on how narrative and emotion combine to allow actors to deliberate and to select actions that they think will produce the outcomes they desire. It specifies connections between particular emotions and deliberative thought, hypothesising that approach and avoidance emotions evoked during narrative simulation play a crucial role. Two mental states, Divided and Integrated, in which narratives can be formed or updated, are introduced and used to explain some familiar problems that traditional models cannot. PMID:28804217
Tuckett, David; Nikolic, Milena
We propose conviction narrative theory (CNT) to broaden decision-making theory in order to better understand and analyse how subjectively means-end rational actors cope in contexts in which the traditional assumptions in decision-making models fail to hold. Conviction narratives enable actors to draw on their beliefs, causal models, and rules of thumb to identify opportunities worth acting on, to simulate the future outcome of their actions, and to feel sufficiently convinced to act. The framework focuses on how narrative and emotion combine to allow actors to deliberate and to select actions that they think will produce the outcomes they desire. It specifies connections between particular emotions and deliberative thought, hypothesising that approach and avoidance emotions evoked during narrative simulation play a crucial role. Two mental states, Divided and Integrated, in which narratives can be formed or updated, are introduced and used to explain some familiar problems that traditional models cannot.
Narrative pedagogy has been developed over the last decade in nursing as a means of complementing a conventional content and competency driven pedagogy. It focuses attention on the human experience of health care by deriving shared meanings from interpretation of stories. This allows students to explore the different perspectives of those involved. The emotional experiences of participants can be understood, conventional wisdom challenged and new knowledge emerge as students work together to construct their learning. Individual stories are embedded within the narrative and teachers have successfully used literature and film as narratives to help them explore the meaning of health care with students. Modern technology has opened up a new range of electronic narratives such as virtual simulation. These are considered and rejected as devices for a health care narrative due to their dehumanized and unrealistic nature. However it is argued that a multimedia online simulation of a typical neighbourhood can achieve the goal of providing a suitable narrative. Human actors replace avatars and real world settings replace gaming environments as the stories of people in this community are related and used to support narrative pedagogy. An example of such a narrative developed jointly in the UK and Canada is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benish-Weisman, Maya; Wu, Lisa M; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Redd, William H; Duhamel, Katherine N; Rini, Christine
Survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) have experienced a life threatening and potentially traumatic illness and treatment that make them vulnerable to long lasting negative psychological outcomes, including anxiety and depression. Nevertheless, studies show that overcoming cancer and its treatment can present an opportunity for personal growth and psychological health (reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression and high levels of emotional well-being) through resilience. However, research has not yet clarified what differentiates HSCT survivors who experience psychological growth from those who do not. By analyzing recovery narratives, we examined whether HSCT survivors' interpretation of their experiences helps explain differences in their post-treatment psychological health. Guided by narrative psychology theory, we analyzed the narratives of 23 HSCT survivors writing about their experience of cancer treatment. Psychological health was measured by: (1) emotional well-being subscale part of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT), (2) depression, and (3) anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Findings revealed a positive relation between psychological health and a greater number of redemption episodes (going from an emotionally negative life event to an emotionally positive one) as well as fewer negative emotional expressions. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS: Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, showing how narratives can inform interventions to assist cancer survivors with their psychological recovery.
Graaf, A.M.; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience -
Graaf, A. de; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience –
James T Kennedy
Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.
Ana Luiza de Quadros
invited to construct narratives about a fictitious situation in which they imagined themselves as teachers. The analysis of the reports was made by grouping the facts described under three categories: the preparation for approval in the admission exam, the classes taught, and the activities developed during the first four months of work. Results have shown that students pay less attention to the teaching activity and tend to value research and the activities that foster it. This shows that future professionals, even taking up the post of teachers, are more predisposed to act as researchers than to exercise the teaching activity. Such indication seems to be related to the demands made during the selection process for higher education teachers and to the current work situation in most universities, which evaluate qualitatively the intellectual production in the form of articles, whereas classes are evaluated in a more quantitative manner.
is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person’s own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through e.g. psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important...... role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing...
Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe
Narrative medicine strives toward a humanized form of medicine in which empathy and the ability to listen are developed with the same emphasis as scientific rigor. We hypothesize that the adoption of narrative medicine in dentistry would be an excellent method to cultivate the philosophy behind the emerging clinical concept of patient-centered dentistry. Reading literary works, reflective writing, and creative writing would sensitize practitioners to the daily lives of people, human uniqueness, and alterity. Narrative dentistry could lead to more empathic and self-aware practices, and improve dental professionals' observational abilities by making them more perceptive and more attentive to image, metaphor, and meaning. The introduction of narrative dentistry would enrich the clinical clerkship of dentists by bringing the often-missing humanities to the dental professional, academic, and scientific environment. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The dissertation, consisting of an introductory essay and four independent articles, provides phenomenological investigations into the relation between embodied selfhood and narrative. More precisely, it investigates this relation in regards to three specifying questions: (1) What is the relation...
This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)
Full Text Available The art of narrative stems from the art of rhetoric and modes of persuasion and in this meaning is understood not just as a form of entertainment but also as a tool of communication. Any narrative communicates and conveys a message. Narrative is an important aspect of culture and as a ubiquitous component of human communication is conveyed by different works of art (literature, music, painting, sculpture, and illustrates events, emotions, phenomena and occurrences. Narrative as a form of communication involves its participants, a teller and a receiver of the message. The relation and the distance between the participants of the narrative communication process may have a different configuration and presents different effect of closeness and distance in narrative. In this meaning narrative is not just the art of telling stories, but it serves various functions, it communicates information, expresses emotions and personal events, transmits morals and cultural knowledge, provides entertainment and also helps in many ways to depict thoughts and feelings, along with disclosing the beauty of language. Narrative knowledge and narrative perception of social and cultural processes, is one of the most natural ways for a human being to acquire and organize their knowledge about the world. The ability to create narratives leads to a better understanding of the surrounding reality, and significantly influences the interpretation of social and cultural relationships.
Themis Panagiotis Kaniklidou
Full Text Available This paper looks see how meaning is constructed in translated news texts about health and science and awards a narrative potential to unforced translation shifts, moving along the theoretical lines of Baker's Narrative Theory (2006. The thematic thread of health zooms in on “emotional frames” (Nabi, 2003 of risk and fear of human health that is narrated as being 'under attack’ by potentially dangerous diseases. Themes also orbit around schemas that promote hope and optimism about science represented as coming to the rescue of man from fear of the disease. The data consists of 21 pairs of English-Greek health news articles culled from the Greek newspapers I Kathimerini, To Vima and Ta Nea. Findings point towards translation as a process that employs lexicogrammatical and intrasentential configurations to a give emphasis to the risk or hope dimensions underlying a heath or science story, b enable the reflection or emergence of a cascade of public, conceptual and master narratives.
Christophe, Véronique; Delelis, Gérald; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean-Louis
This study provides new evidence of motives of secondary social sharing of emotions. In a retrospective study, 140 female (Mage = 29.4 yr., SD=12.8) and 116 male (M = 29.5 yr., SD = 13.1) participants were asked to recall a recent situation in which they had talked to a third person about a positive or negative, low or high intensity emotional narrative they had heard. 70% of the respondents reported having secondarily shared the reported event rapidly after the narration with several persons and at several times. Moreover, they not only described the event, the speaker's reaction and their own reactions, but also revealed the identity of their first confidant. Participants reported having spread the emotional narrative more widely in the high negative condition in order to seek emotional support and social comparison.
Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 7, Edition 1 May 2007. Page 1 of 9. The IPJP is ... The use of poetry and narrative as tools in qualitative research is explored. Poetry ... Poetry may be thought of as the emotional microchip, in .... creativity and vitality (Frankl, 1959). Attempts to ..... International Journal of Group.
This article questions how narrative writing is assessed, seeking to understand what we test, what we value, and why. It uses a single anomalous case that arose in the course of my recent PhD thesis to highlight the issues, asking if sufficient attention is being given to the value of emotional content in a piece of writing in comparison to its…
Rozich, Elizabeth S.
This autoethnographic narrative explores the challenges and successes of employing critical pedagogy in an eighth-grade history classroom. Using the threads of teacher, scholar, and individual, the author shares the intellectual and emotional progression through hope, frustration, humility, and growth that this endeavor demanded. Further, this…
Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya
People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa.
Fartoukh, Michael; Chanquoy, Lucile; Piolat, Annie
The aim of this study was to analyze the consequences of emotion during narrative writing in accordance with Hayes's model. In this model, motivation and affect have an important role during the writing process. Moreover, according to the emotion-cognition literature, emotions are thought to create interferences in working memory, resulting in an…
Shugart, Helene A
In this essay, I assess the narrative of obesity as articulated in representative contemporary mainstream media fare--namely, The Oprah Winfrey Show, The Biggest Loser, and Big Medicine. I contend that the emergent narrative of obesity across these programs signals a shift from the historically received narrative in light of its intersection with the concurrent culturally resonant narratives of addiction and self-actualization. In particular, the proposed "problem" and "solution" to obesity, both historically attributed to personal responsibility, appear to be shifting in favor of cultural explanations that describe obesity as symptomatic of and secondary to broader issues related to community, emotionality, and agency. This suggests novel cultural understandings, practices, and policies regarding the mounting "obesity epidemic."
Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Lillard, Angeline S.
Adults adopt the traits of characters in narratives, but little is known about whether children do so. In Study 1, 7- and 10-year-olds (N = 96) heard a 2.5-minute recording about a professor or cheerleader. Reporting higher engagement in the professor narrative related to more time playing with an analytical toy (a Rubik's cube), whereas reporting…
In this paper I offer a philosophical approach to the emotion ‘love’, as a response to more psychological approaches presupposed in ‘emotional intelligence’, ‘emotional literacy’ programmes, or how some Philosophy for Children practitioners interpret ‘caring thinking’. Martha Nussbaum’s philosophy of emotions expressed in her book Love’s Knowledge, and the complex arguments contained within it have been given a narrative context: the picturebook Frog in Love by Max Velthuijs. The narrative co...
Weber, Mareen; Webb, Christian A; Deldonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Weiner, Melissa R; Killgore, William D S
In modern society, people often fail to obtain the amount of sleep that experts recommend for good health and performance. Insufficient sleep can lead to degraded cognitive performance and alterations in emotional functioning. However, most people also acknowledge that on a regular basis they obtain more sleep than they subjectively perceive they need at a minimum to stave off performance decrements, a construct we describe as subjective 'sleep credit'. Few people would contest the notion that getting more sleep is better, but data on both behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of 'sleep credit' are surprisingly limited. We conducted a voxel-based morphometric study to assess cerebral grey matter correlates of habitually sleeping more than one's subjective requirements. We further tested whether these structural correlates are associated with perceived emotional intelligence and indices of psychopathology while controlling for age, gender, and total intracranial volume. In a sample of 55 healthy adults aged 18-45 years (28 males, 27 females), whole-brain multiple regression showed that habitual subjective 'sleep credit' was correlated positively with grey matter volume within regions of the left medial prefrontal cortex and right orbitofrontal gyrus. Volumes were extracted and regressed against self-report emotion and psychopathology indices. Only grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex cluster correlated with greater emotional intelligence and lower scores on several indices of psychopathology. Findings converge with previous evidence of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the relationship between sleep and emotional functioning, and suggest that behaviour and brain structure vary with habitual 'sleep credit'. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Ford, Sarah; Alkhedairy, Betul
Eighty girls and 64 boys (M= 6 years; 8 months, SD= .65) narrated a wordless picture book in mixed- or same-gender dyads. In mixed-gender as well as same-gender dyads, girls used more emotion explanations than did boys. Combined across dyad type, girls used more emotion labels than did boys. Girls used a higher proportion of collaborative speech acts than did boys in same-gender dyads, but girls and boys used the same amount in mixed-gender dyads. Whereas girls used a higher proportion of informing acts in mixed-gender dyads than did boys, boys used more than did girls in same-gender dyads. The findings support contextual models of gender and suggest that speaker as well as partner gender influence emotion expression and conversational style. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Kokanovic, Renata; Stone, Meredith
The core of this special issue of "Arts and Humanities in Higher Education" emerged from the "Broken Narratives and the Lived Body" conference held in 2016. The "Broken Narrative" essays included in this issue open up a critical space for understanding and theorising illness narratives that defy a conventional…
Steinhardt, Joseph; Shapiro, Michael A
Narrative messages are increasingly popular in health and risk campaigns, yet gain/loss framing effects have never been tested with such messages. Three experiments examined framing in narrative messages. Experiment 1 found that only the character's decision, not framing, influenced judgments about characters in a narrative derived from a prospect theory context. Experiment 2 found that a framing effect that occurred when presented in a decision format did not occur when the same situation was presented as a narrative. Using a different story/decision context, Experiment 3 found no significant difference in preference for surgery over radiation therapy in a narrative presentation compared to a non-narrative presentation. The results suggest that health and risk campaigns cannot assume that framing effects will be the same in narrative messages and non-narrative messages. Potential reasons for these differences and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Ruslan Vyacheslavovich Kostrigin
Full Text Available Purpose. The article examines the influence of socio-cultural space of educational institution on the formation and manifestation of mental and emotional characteristics of students. The authors present the social culture of the University educational space as a socio-cultural environment, significant living space, which is in the process of formation of a student personality. Methodology. The basis of the research is the fundamental principles of modern psychology on the social conditioning of personality development in activity, communication and vocational training, the modern ideas of humanistic psychology and pedagogy, the system-structural approach to the analysis of the personality, the role of education and vocational training in its development were the methodological and theoretical basis of the work. Results. The results of this research consist of the fact that the authors represent the range of types of project activities with its potential enable to shape moral consciousness, value orientation, and sustainable world view, related to the solution of life issues. The conclusion has been made about a direct relationship of quality of educational space and the manifestation of psycho-emotional characteristics of students and development and self-development of emotional sphere of personality. Practical implications. The results of the study can be applied in the sphere of education, work with the students, and for the work of psychological pedagogical services.
Coulter, Cathy A.
The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…
Popova, Yanna B
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
Yanna B. Popova
Full Text Available This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
Narratives may be easy to come by, but not everything is worth narrating. What merits a narrative? Here, I follow the lead of narratologists and literary theorists, and focus on one particular proposal concerning the elements of a story that make it narrative-worthy. These elements correspond to features of the natural world addressed by the historical sciences, where narratives figure so prominently. What matters is contingency. Narratives are especially good for representing contingency and accounting for contingent outcomes. This will be squared with a common view that narratives leave no room for chance. On the contrary, I will argue, tracing one path through a maze of alternative possibilities, and alluding to those possibilities along the way, is what a narrative does particularly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calleja, Gordon; Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) 2009 Conference
This paper explores the contentious notion of experiential narrative and proposes the first step in a narrative framework for game environment. It argues for a shift in emphasis from story-telling, the dominant mode of narrative in literature and cinema, to story generation. To this effect the paper forwards a perspective on experiential narrative that is grounded in the specific qualities of the game. This avoids the over-generalization that tends to accompany discussions of experiential nar...
This talk will focus on cognitive processes between conscious and subconscious awareness in order to present a slightly different definition of narrative. Rather than simply accepting that narrative is a conscious selection of stories subject to bias, I will argue that biases are the primary structure of narrative and that their success is explained in painfully simple terms.
design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI...
Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne
Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Special Relativity – An Exoteric Narrative ! S R Madhu Rao. Classroom Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 61-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/01/0061-0066 ...
(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...
Hansen, Per Krogh
to the position of A. Nünning. In the final section, a four-category taxonomy for the different textual strategies that establishes unreliable narration is suggested. The headlines for the taxonomy are intranarrational unreliability, internarrational unreliability, intertextual unreliability, and extratextual...
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited BATTLE OF NARRATIVES...from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2012 Author: Lars Ruth Approved by: Prof. Sean F. Everton Thesis Advisor Dr. Hy...are more important than are others. For example, for some, social security and taxes are very important while gun control and LGBT are not. For
Zinchenko, Artyom; Obermeier, Christian; Kanske, Philipp; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A
Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. Participants categorized either spoken vowels (cognitive task) or their emotional valence (emotional task) and ignored the visual stimulus dimension. Behaviorally, a positive target showed no influence on cognitive conflict processing, but impeded emotional conflict processing. In the emotional task, response time conflict costs were higher for positive than for neutral targets. In the EEG, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the P200 and N200 ERP components in emotional but not in cognitive conflict processing. In the emotional conflict task, the P200 and N200 conflict effect was larger for emotional than neutral targets. Thus, our results show that emotion affects conflict processing differently as a function of conflict type and emotional valence. This suggests that there are conflict- and valence-specific mechanisms modulating executive control.
Wisdom and narrative: Dealing with complexity and judgement in translator education. ... This article explores wisdom as concept to guide translator education in institutions of higher education. It uses the work ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Huang, Chien-Da; Liao, Kuo-Chen; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Lii, Shu-Chung; Kuo, Han-Pin; Yeh, San-Jou; Lee, Shih-Tseng
Western medicine is an evidence-based science, whereas Chinese medicine is more of a healing art. To date, there has been no research that has examined whether students of Western and Chinese medicine differentially engage in, or benefit from, educational activities for narrative medicine. This study fills a gap in current literature with the aim of evaluating and comparing Western and Chinese Medicine students' perceptions of narrative medicine as an approach to learning empathy and professionalism. An initial 10-item questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale was developed to assess fifth-year Western medical (MS) and traditional Chinese medical (TCMS) students' perceptions of a 4-activity narrative medicine program during a 13-week internal medicine clerkship. Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken. The response rate was 88.6% (412/465), including 270 (65.5%) MSs and 142 (34.5%) TCMSs, with a large reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.934). Three factors were extracted from 9 items: personal attitude, self-development/reflection, and emotional benefit, more favorable in terms of enhancement of self-development/reflection. The perceptions of narrative medicine by scores between the two groups were significantly higher in TCMSs than MSs in all 9-item questionnaire and 3 extracted factors. Given the different learning cultures of medical education in which these student groups engage, this suggests that undertaking a course in Chinese medicine might enhance one's acceptance to, and benefit from, a medical humanities course. Alternatively, Chinese medicine programmes might attract more humanities-focused students.
Korhonen, Olli; Oduor, Michael; Isomursu, Minna
and self-monitoring are common for activity and emotion tracking applications, and lately there has been interest also in the use of narratives. Consequently, in this study we evaluate through a qualitative study how narratives are used to motivate physical activity. We analyze both user and system......Technology supporting motivation for physical activity has been a common theme for researchers and companies during the last decade. Mobile devices and applications with diverse features provide novel and personalized ways to motivate users for healthier lifestyles. Features like goal orientation...
Habermas, Tilmann; Berger, Nadine
Narratives of emotional experiences are widely assumed to reflect how well the speaker has coped with them. Some cross-sectional studies have suggested that well-being and absence of psychopathology correlate with more elaborate and coherent narratives of negative events. Other studies, on the other hand, suggest that retelling and coping render narratives shorter, more cognitive, and explicitly evaluative. To test this latter hypothesis, 30 young women narrated five events eliciting anger, sadness, anxiety, pride and happiness from the past week, and retold the same events three months later. After three months, narratives contained fewer attempts to solve the complication, and evaluations became more global and impersonal. Negative narratives were framed better and re-evaluated positively. Unexpectedly, narrative clauses did not decrease, nor did evaluations shift from past to present. Ways to better differentiate effects of memory and retelling from mere effects of coping are suggested. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
Full Text Available Peer-reviewed publications focusing on climate change are growing exponentially with the consequence that the uptake and influence of individual papers varies greatly. Here, we derive metrics of narrativity from psychology and literary theory, and use these metrics to test the hypothesis that more narrative climate change writing is more likely to be influential, using citation frequency as a proxy for influence. From a sample of 732 scientific abstracts drawn from the climate change literature, we find that articles with more narrative abstracts are cited more often. This effect is closely associated with journal identity: higher-impact journals tend to feature more narrative articles, and these articles tend to be cited more often. These results suggest that writing in a more narrative style increases the uptake and influence of articles in climate literature, and perhaps in scientific literature more broadly.
Hillier, Ann; Kelly, Ryan P; Klinger, Terrie
Peer-reviewed publications focusing on climate change are growing exponentially with the consequence that the uptake and influence of individual papers varies greatly. Here, we derive metrics of narrativity from psychology and literary theory, and use these metrics to test the hypothesis that more narrative climate change writing is more likely to be influential, using citation frequency as a proxy for influence. From a sample of 732 scientific abstracts drawn from the climate change literature, we find that articles with more narrative abstracts are cited more often. This effect is closely associated with journal identity: higher-impact journals tend to feature more narrative articles, and these articles tend to be cited more often. These results suggest that writing in a more narrative style increases the uptake and influence of articles in climate literature, and perhaps in scientific literature more broadly.
Marin, Kelly A; Rotondo, Elena K
The longitudinal study aims to expand what is known about the costs and benefits of narrating stressful experiences by exploring changes in rumination within the narrative process and comparing it to changes in self-reflection. Rumination (e.g., brooding, self-criticism, and negative emotions) and self-reflection were measured in stress narratives of 56 college students. There were several goals: (1) examine changes in narrative rumination and narrative self-reflection over 3 days of writing, (2) examine the relations among the changes in narrative rumination variables and narrative self-reflection and (3) examine how changes in narrative rumination and narrative self-reflection relate to multiple measures of psychological functioning. Overall, individuals increased self-reflection over the 3-day writing task. Individuals who increased ruminative brooding across the 3 days of writing showed lower ego identity development (short term and long term) and self-esteem (short term), while increased self-criticism was positively correlated with identity distress (short term). Implications of the different aspects of narrative rumination, specifically in the context of stressful experiences, are discussed.
Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.
on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...
can be implemented for increasing the lesson effectiveness and for collective creating digital stories. Methodological background for using and creating pedagogical narratives, in particular in the module “Linguistic personology” is a theory of digital humanizing of education and narrative-digital approach. Analysis of the results of initial work on a book proves that postgraduate students have learnt to express their own position to the phenomenon, take care of ethical dimension and educational positive sensory-emotional atmosphere based on made and widespread digital biographical narratives.
Drukteinis, Albert M
Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
What are the links between narrative theories and computing? Narrative works are countless in the digital world: narrative hypertext and hypermedia, interactive fiction, video games, blogs, location-based narrative, etc. They not only form new analytical objects for narrative theories, but also may extend existing narrative theories. One specific type of digital narratives, AI-based Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN), plays a special role in this landscape because it makes use of narrative t...
Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed "aversion" to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to the damage illness does to identity and life-trajectory. Underlying these alleged benefits are two key presuppositions: that it is the whole of one's life that is narratively unified, and that one's identity is inextricably bound up with narrative. By letting go of these assumptions, illness narrative advocates can respond to the challenges of narrative aversions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr
I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the expressions used to refer to the experience of immersive in narrative games. The starting point is a review of the meanings associated with the suspension of disbelief in literature, cinema and television, challenging the myth of the naïve audience that cannot distinguish between representation and reality. Two characteristics of interactive media narratives – the possibility of agency and the disparities between hardware and software interfaces – reveal the active nature of the audience’s involvement with media representations. It is proposed that, in the case of games, this ability, which allows for simultaneous actions in the world of games and in the real world, is better described as a performance of belief.
Bo, Inger Glavind
I kapitlet gennemgås en socialkonstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer. I kapitlet vil jeg gennemgå centrale teoretiske pointer, der samlet set er grundlæggende for en social konstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer for herved at udfolde forståelsen af den narrative tilgang og desuden...... tydeliggøre, hvordan tilgangen er forbundet med en særlig forståelse af identitetsskabelse. Der er tale om pointer der almindeligvis forbindes med ”små fortællinger” i form af længere identitetsfortællinger og narrative interviews. Kapitlet gennemgår således centrale inspirationskilder og teoretiske pointer...
This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...
Betsch, Cornelia; Ulshöfer, Corina; Renkewitz, Frank; Betsch, Tilmann
Health-related information found on the Internet is increasing and impacts patient decision making, e.g. regarding vaccination decisions. In addition to statistical information (e.g. incidence rates of vaccine adverse events), narrative information is also widely available such as postings on online bulletin boards. Previous research has shown that narrative information can impact treatment decisions, even when statistical information is presented concurrently. As the determinants of this effect are largely unknown, we will vary features of the narratives to identify mechanisms through which narratives impact risk judgments. An online bulletin board setting provided participants with statistical information and authentic narratives about the occurrence and nonoccurrence of adverse events. Experiment 1 followed a single factorial design with 1, 2, or 4 narratives out of 10 reporting adverse events. Experiment 2 implemented a 2 (statistical risk 20% vs. 40%) × 2 (2/10 vs. 4/10 narratives reporting adverse events) × 2 (high vs. low richness) × 2 (high vs. low emotionality) between-subjects design. Dependent variables were perceived risk of side-effects and vaccination intentions. Experiment 1 shows an inverse relation between the number of narratives reporting adverse-events and vaccination intentions, which was mediated by the perceived risk of vaccinating. Experiment 2 showed a stronger influence of the number of narratives than of the statistical risk information. High (vs. low) emotional narratives had a greater impact on the perceived risk, while richness had no effect. The number of narratives influences risk judgments can potentially override statistical information about risk.
Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup
Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education...... side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students’ sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students’ social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study...... demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students’ choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students’ interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more...
De Silveira, Cybèle; Habermas, Tilmann
Adolescence is a passage from dependence to adult responsibility. Alongside identity development, social-cognitive development, and the ability to construct a life story, adolescents become increasingly aware of both their potential responsibility in an expanded sphere of life and of complex, contextual influences on their lives. This was partially tested in a cross-sectional study, both in terms of linguistic means and content expressed in life narratives. Indicators were defined for narrative agency, grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points, and tested for age differences in relative frequencies in 102 life narratives from age groups of 8, 12, 16, and 20 years, balanced for gender. Narrative grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points increased throughout adolescence. The relative frequency of narrative agency, in contrast, remained constant across age groups. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent development of narrative identity.
Full Text Available Narrative is one of many qualitative methodologies that can be brought to bear in collecting and analysing data and reporting results, though it is not as frequently used as say in case studies. This article provides a window into its use, from the perspective of a researcher who has used it consistently over the past decade to examine early career researcher experience – doctoral students, and those who have completed their degrees and are advancing their careers. This experience has contributed to a robust understanding of the potential of narrative, as well as its limitations. This paper first lays out the broad landscape of narrative research and then makes transparent the thinking, processes and procedures involved in the ten-year narrative study including the potential for creativity that narrative invites. The goal is to engage other researchers to consider exploring the use of narrative – if it aligns with their epistemological stance.
Ana Cláudia Peres
Full Text Available The city is a place of encounters. Journalism often appropriates raw facts and statistic data in order to narrate it. However, there are many ways to understand the urban experience within the field, through accounts that go beyond technical rationality. This paper attempts to understand journalistic narratives as producers of meaning and the city as a text, as proposed by Michel de Certeau. Therefore, we investigate narratives about the city in the magazine piauí as a starting point to examine discursive strategies that by combining the real and the poetic expand the fact, produce dialogues and expose other possible types of journalism. Above all, we aim to provide a reflection on the place that journalism occupies today within the field of knowledge, within an epistemological perspective that considers the material and symbolic, factual and emotional, ethical and aesthetic contexts.
Lane, Andrew M; Wilson, Mathew
The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between trait emotional intelligence and emotional state changes over the course of an ultra-endurance foot race covering a route of approximately 175 miles (282 km) and held in set stages over six days. A repeated measures field design that sought to maintain ecological validity was used. Trait emotional intelligence was defined as a relatively stable concept that should predict adaptive emotional states experienced over the duration of the race and therefore associate with pleasant emotions during a 6-stage endurance event. Thirty-four runners completed a self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence before the event started. Participants reported emotional states before and after each of the six races. Repeated measures ANOVA results showed significant variations in emotions over time and a main effect for trait emotional intelligence. Runners high in self-report trait emotional intelligence also reported higher pleasant and lower unpleasant emotions than runners low in trait emotional intelligence. Findings lend support to the notion that trait emotional intelligence associates with adaptive psychological states, suggesting that it may be a key individual difference that explains why some athletes respond to repeated bouts of hard exercise better than others. Future research should test the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance trait emotional intelligence and examine the attendant impact on emotional responses to intense exercise during multi-stage events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane
Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Afanador, Adalberto Amaya
At present, the clinical simulation has been incorporated into medical school curriculum. It is considered that the simulation is useful to develop skills, and as such its diffusion. Within the acquisition of skills, meaningful learning is an essential emotional component for the student and this point is essential to optimize the results of the simulation experience. Narrative description on the subject of simulation and the degree of "emotionality." The taxonomy is described for the types of clinical simulation fidelity and correlates it with the degree of emotionality required to achieve significant and lasting learning by students. It is essential to take into account the student's level of emotion in the learning process through simulation strategy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Vandekerckhove, M; Van Hecke, W; Quirin, M; De Mey, J
Current research on emotion shows an increasing interest in the neuronal correlates of emotion regulation (ER). While previous research on ER has focused on gray matter correlates, this study represents the first exploratory study on white matter integrity and brain networks of ER. Responding to the gap between cognitive and affective approaches of ER, pertaining to some of the daily emotional stressors, the present study investigates a complementary experiential approach such as 'Emotional approach' or the tendency to affectively acknowledge, understand and express emotional experience (cf. Stanton et al., 2000). Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI-MRI) measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) evaluated dispositional ER in a group of 21 women with (1) a 'high emotional approach' (HEA) (N = 11) and (2) a 'low emotional approach' (LEA) (N= 10). HEA exhibited more FA of the cingulum supporting emotion processing and regulation, whereas LEA showed a higher FA in the right corticospinal tracts supporting automatic action tendencies and, together with a higher FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), cognitive control tasks and monitoring of emotion. LEA also correlated with a significant increase in MD in the body (p. = 0.05) and in the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). A higher FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (IFL) may indicate higher visual- affective integration within emotion processing, whereas more MD in the body and splenium of the CC may decrease the interhemispheric integration of emotional information within emotion processing and regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hansen, Per Krogh
Per Krogh Hansen brings attention to one of the most discussed narratological concepts in recent years, the ‘unreliable narrator’. In the article »The Dynamics of Unreliable Narration«, Hansen is considering to what extent the question of authorial control or intention is relevant when analysing...... and interpreting unreliable narrators. In the first part of the article, he questions this claimed essentiality of an authorial agent from three different angles: One concerning the border between diegetic and extradiegetic issues. Another with specific focus on unreliable simultaneous narration (first person......, present tense). And a third with attention paid to the role of unreliable narrators in factual narratives. In the article, he proposes a model for describing the different dynamic roles the authorial agent, as well as the empirical reader, plays in different forms of unreliable narration. Here, terms like...
Full Text Available This thematic issue addresses how strategic narratives affect international order. Strategic narratives are conceived of as stories with a political purpose or narratives used by political actors to affect the behavior of others. The articles in this issue address two significant areas important to the study of international relations: how strategic narratives support or undermine alliances, and how they affect norm formation and contestation. Within a post-Cold War world and in the midst of a changing media environment, strategic narratives affect how the world and its complex issues are understood. This special issue speaks to the difficulties associated with creating creative and committed international cooperation by noting how strategic narratives are working to shape the Post-Cold War international context.
Full Text Available The article presents the different types of narratives in marketing communications. Presented essence of thesignr in the narrative, the power of myth, power of archetype and consistency of monomith in marketing. It is discussed on the advertising message perceived through the prism of commercial semiotics. The strength of the narrative is presented in the context of storytelling. The paper also presents a case study of marketing communications.
Costa, Sandra; Brunete, Alberto; Bae, Byung-Chull; Mavridis, Nikolaos
In order to create effective storytelling agents three fundamental questions must be answered: first, is a physically embodied agent preferable to a virtual agent or a voice-only narration? Second, does a human voice have an advantage over a synthesised voice? Third, how should the emotional trajectory of the different characters in a story be related to a storyteller's facial expressions during storytelling time, and how does this correlate with the apparent emotions on the faces of the list...
Mordhorst, Mads; Schwarzkopf, Stefan
’ of the 1970s. It then compares the different conceptualisations of narrative analysis that have emerged in historical research and in management and organisational studies. Finally, this introduction points out various ways in which business history can become enriched if its practitioners become more aware......This article, and the special issue that it introduces, encourages business historians to reflect on the narrative nature of the work they produce. The articles provides an overview of how and why narratives came to occupy such a prominent status during the linguistic and narrative ‘turns...
Singer, Jefferson A; Blagov, Pavel; Berry, Meredith; Oost, Kathryn M
An integrative model of narrative identity builds on a dual memory system that draws on episodic memory and a long-term self to generate autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories related to critical goals in a lifetime period lead to life-story memories, which in turn become self-defining memories when linked to an individual's enduring concerns. Self-defining memories that share repetitive emotion-outcome sequences yield narrative scripts, abstracted templates that filter cognitive-affective processing. The life story is the individual's overarching narrative that provides unity and purpose over the life course. Healthy narrative identity combines memory specificity with adaptive meaning-making to achieve insight and well-being, as demonstrated through a literature review of personality and clinical research, as well as new findings from our own research program. A clinical case study drawing on this narrative identity model is also presented with implications for treatment and research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…
This article aims to make explicit the evolving ecology of ideas in the field of community music and higher education that are particular to a context yet transferable across respective fields of enquiry--music education, community music, music therapy and community music therapy. This is contextualized in two ways: (1) through a consideration of…
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students' comprehension during Physical Education lesson: narration versus animation with concurrent narration, during teaching shot put event. Thirty primary school children (boys and girls volunteered to participate in this study. In experiment students listened (narration and viewed (animation with narration the presentation of two shot putting styles. A problem-solving and a retention test were used to evaluate students' comprehension. Results showed that students' comprehension was better when shot putting styles were presented through a mixed model (animation and narration group than a single (narration. The animation with concurrent narration group performed better than the narration group, in problem-solving (M = 4.91, SD = 1.36 and in retention test (M = 5.98, SD = 1.28 t(28 = 1.89 p<0.01. An instructional implication is that pictures with words is more effective way of teaching when they occur continuingly in time, than only words during Physical Education lesson.
This article is a tribute to Michael White, co-founder of narrative therapy, who passed away on 5 April 2008. Michael White and David Epston founded a substantial and ground-breaking psychological movement based on narrative therapy. Michael touched with dignity and changed for the better the lives of thousands.
Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene
This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Vieira, Suzane de Alencar
This research presents a dramatic approach to the Cesium-137 Radiological Event. The event, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The ethnography’s output follows a theoretical experiment with the notions of drama and event. In order to better understand the pattern of this event, I analyzed narratives such as romances, arts, photographs, news, documentaries, films, academic bibliography and stories that emerged from the research field. I argue that the narratives politicize the discourses of victimization and the suffering experience. The dramatic form of narratives and symbols concentrates on emotions and promotes the emotional commitment of the subjects on the trial. The drama articulates the relationship between the narratives and the event and creates a tactful space that arouses the recognition of victims through the narrative form and the suffering language. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. (author)
This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…
Bavelas, J B; Coates, L; Johnson, T
A collaborative theory of narrative story-telling was tested in two experiments that examined what listeners do and their effect on the narrator. In 63 unacquainted dyads (81 women and 45 men), a narrator told his or her own close-call story. The listeners made 2 different kinds of listener responses: Generic responses included nodding and vocalizations such as "mhm." Specific responses, such as wincing or exclaiming, were tightly connected to (and served to illustrate) what the narrator was saying at the moment. In experimental conditions that distracted listeners from the narrative content, listeners made fewer responses, especially specific ones, and the narrators also told their stories significantly less well, particularly at what should have been the dramatic ending. Thus, listeners were co-narrators both through their own specific responses, which helped illustrate the story, and in their apparent effect on the narrator's performance. The results demonstrate the importance of moment-by-moment collaboration in face-to-face dialogue.
Reese, Elaine; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie; Wang, Qi; McAnally, Helena
Adolescents' intergenerational narratives--the stories they tell about their mothers' and fathers' early experiences--are an important component of their identities (Fivush & Merrill, 2016; Merrill & Fivush, 2016). This study explored adolescents' intergenerational narratives across cultures. Adolescents aged 12 to 21 from 3 cultural…
Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune; Arief, Mohammed
In this article we explore some of the methodological problems related to characterizing cognitive aspects of involvement with interactive narratives using well known EEG/ERP techniques. To exemplify this, we construct an experimental EEG-ERP set-up with an interactive narrative that considers th...
Bagozzi, R.P.; Belschak, F.; Verbeke, W.
Emotional wisdom is defined as a set of seven dimensions of basic skills and meta-narratives concerning how to regulate emotions within specific domains in such a way that the individual's and firm's well-being are tied together. Using operationalizations of emotional wisdom for salespersons from a
Greenberg, Leslie S.
A view of human functioning is presented in which functioning is seen as integrating head and heart, emotion and reason, in a process by which people are constantly making sense of their lived emotional experience to form narratives of told experience. Because much of the processing involved in the generation of emotional experience occurs…
Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy
Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)
Helmich, Esther; Diachun, Laura; Joseph, Radha; LaDonna, Kori; Noeverman-Poel, Nelleke; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra
ContextDealing with emotions is critical for medical trainees' professional development. Taking a sociocultural and narrative approach to understanding emotions, we studied complex clinical situations as a specific context in which emotions are evoked and influenced by the social environment. We
Roddy, Chantal; Rickard, Nikki; Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity Anne
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients face unique identity challenges associated with physical limitations, higher comorbid depression, increased suicidality and reduced subjective well-being. Post-injury identity is often unaddressed in subacute rehabilitation environments where critical physical and functional rehabilitation goals are prioritized. Therapeutic songwriting has demonstrated prior efficacy in promoting healthy adjustment and as a means of expression for post-injury narratives. The current study sought to examine the identity narratives of therapeutic songwriting participants. Case-series analysis of the individual identity trajectories of eight individuals. Subacute rehabilitation facility, Victoria, Australia. Eight individuals with an SCI; 7 males and 1 female. Six-week therapeutic songwriting intervention facilitated by a music therapist to promote identity rehabilitation. Identity, subjective well-being and distress, emotional state. Three participants demonstrated positive trajectories and a further three showed negative trajectories; remaining participants were ambiguous in their response. Injury severity differentiated those with positive trajectories from those with negative trajectories, with greater injury severity apparent for those showing negative trends. Self-concept also improved more in those with positive trajectories. Core demographic variables did not however meaningfully predict the direction of change in core identity or wellbeing indices. Identity-focused songwriting holds promise as a means of promoting healthy identity reintegration. Further research on benefits for those with less severe spinal injuries is warranted.
Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann
Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...... for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but as a spiritual practice as well. For some individuals this may be true to an even higher extent than in established religious institutions....
Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; Çelik, Fatma
From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of emotional intelligence and emotional schema in marital satisfaction among women. A sample of 200 married women (100 employed and 100 household women was selected randomly and completed measures of emotional schemas, emotional intelligence, and marital satisfaction. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that attention and clarity components of emotional intelligence are significant predictors of most marital satisfaction dimensions. Also, blame, agreement, simplistic view of emotions and higher values towards emotional schemas predicted different dimensions of marital satisfaction. Based on the findings it can be concluded that the emotional intelligence and effective emotional schema play a key role in marital satisfaction.
Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa
Seemingly trivial social talk provides fertile ground for emotion sharing (a narrator and audience's realization that they experience the same emotional response toward a target), which in turn creates a coalition between the narrator and the audience, configures the narrator and audience's relationship with the target, and coordinates their target-directed action. In this article, the authors use 4 studies to investigate this thesis. In Studies 1 and 2--where participants rated scenarios in which narrators told them anecdotes--the authors found that when there was emotion sharing (a) participants were more bonded with narrators, (b) the narrator and audience's relationship with the target (as reflected in action tendencies) was determined by the emotionality of the anecdotes, and (c) they coordinated their target-directed actions. Study 3 demonstrated that this effect was indeed due to emotion sharing. Study 4 provided behavioral evidence for the effects of emotion sharing using a 2-person trust game. Together, these studies reveal that the everyday act of social talk is a powerful act that is able to shape the social triad of the narrator, the audience, and the social target, with powerful consequences for social structure and group action. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas
digital narrative and game play as means for self-report. In so doing it integrate play, communication and measurement in one and the same device. First it gives 4-6 year old hospitalized children an opportunity to learn how to cope with their own emotional reactions to medical treatment through game play......This paper explores how emotion research may inform the design of a playful interactive tool for emotion measurement and communication, called Child Patient Game (CPgame) that has been developed for paediatric patients at a Danish hospital. The CPgame differs from other instruments in that it uses...
Full Text Available This article describes the methodology and the outcomes of an empirical study of conflict narratives. The narratological analysis deployed narratological categories in the structuralist tradition based on Genette and was conducted with the help of the text annotation tool CATMA. The analysis aimed at covering as many narratological phenomena as possible by establishing 14 fields of narratological phenomena that were annotated in a corpus of 39 factual narratives about situations at the workplace with and without conflicts. The evaluation of approximately 28,000 annotations brought to light a series of interrelations between narratological phenomena and the presence or absence of conflicts in the narratives. Additionally, this approach led to the identification of some oversights of narrative theory by detecting hitherto unnoticed interrelations among narratological concepts.
Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei
"Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.
Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie
This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy
Full Text Available Counter-terrorist practitioners and policy makers appear to be very interested in narrative. They often describe the worldview of violent Islamist groups and movements as the ‘jihadi narrative’, while their efforts to confront terrorist propaganda are usually labelled as ‘counter-narrative’ or ‘alternative narrative’. However, while the counter-narrative approach has gained widespread acceptance in governments, think-tanks and civil society organisations, it is built on very shaky theoretical and empirical foundations. Some valuable theoretical contributions to the study of violent extremist narrative have been made by psychologists in particular, but there is one discipline which is conspicuous by its absence from the field: literary studies. This paper makes a case for the value of studying violent extremist narratives as narratives in the literary sense. By employing the tools and techniques of literary criticism, violent extremist communication can be revealed as not only potentially persuasive, but also creative and aesthetically appealing: terrorists inspire their followers, they don’t merely persuade them. Understanding the creative sources of this inspiration is vital if counter-narrative is to succeed in presenting an alternative to the propaganda of violent extremist groups.
This article analysed the different narratives implied in Philemon by utilising the narrative therapeutic approach, as developed by Epston and White (1990). A dominant narrative (the harsh treatment of slaves in the early Christian environment) and a challenging narrative (a more humane conduct of slaves) were clearly ...
Frank, Lauren B; Murphy, Sheila T; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Increasingly, health communication practitioners are exploring the use of narrative storytelling to convey health information. For this study, a narrative film was produced to provide information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer prevention. The storyline centered on Lupita, a young woman recently diagnosed with HPV who informs her family about HPV and the availability of the HPV vaccine for her younger sister. The objective was to examine the roles of identification with characters and narrative involvement (made up of three dimensions: involvement, perceived relevance, and immersion) on perceived response efficacy, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility to HPV and behavior (discussing the HPV vaccine with a health care provider). A random sample of 450 European American, Mexican American, and African American women between the ages of 25 and 45 years, living in the Los Angeles area, was surveyed by phone before, 2 weeks after, and 6 months after viewing the film. The more relevant women found the narrative to their own lives at 2 weeks, the higher they perceived the severity of the virus and the perceived response efficacy of the vaccine to be. Also at 2 weeks, identifying with characters was positively associated with perceived susceptibility to HPV but negatively associated with perceived severity. At 6 months, identification with specific characters was significantly associated with perceived threat and behavior. These findings suggest that different aspects of narrative health messages should be manipulated depending on the specific beliefs and behaviors being targeted. Implications for narrative message design are discussed.
Karandashev, Victor; Clapp, Stuart
Romantic love has been explored by writers for centuries revealing multiple emotions and feelings related to this phenomenon. Scientific efforts to understand love began in the mid-twentieth century and greatly advanced the topic in the past few decades. Several instruments measuring love were developed. They are still, however, limited in their scope. The purpose of our study was to explore love's emotional complexity through discourse analysis of romantic narratives and apply the constructs identified in those narratives to the reality of love relationships. In the first study, the discourse analysis of quotes selected from a representative sample of romantic narratives lead to a comprehensive set of items measuring the variety of love constructs. Second and third studies, utilizing 498 participants of various ages, empirically explored the diversity of love constructs and their architecture. The study brought many constructs to the arena of love research. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed depicting these dimensions in varying models. Mental representations of love structures varied depending on the participants' mental complexity and other factors.
Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay
Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.
Jul 1, 2017 ... conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia‟s .... protection without being subject to human competition and exploitation. ..... guard was retrenched as part of the SAP process leaving the reserve ...
Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...... learning experience during which radical career decisions are taken, and how support structures may work to the detriment of such learning and of the principles behind flexicurity. The article points to a reconceptualisation of transitions as important learning opportunities during which (more) adequate...
"Teen drama" television programs use sexual scripts that provide a framework for narrating virginity loss (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). Drawing on the work of Carpenter (2005), this study identifies the following sexual scripts in virginity-loss narratives: (a) the abstinence script, which places a high value on virginity and emphasizes delaying virginity loss; (b) the urgency script, which defines virginity as a stigma and virginity loss as necessary to maintain social status and affirm gendered identity; and (c) the management script, which suggests teenagers' sexual behavior is inevitable and focuses on managing the physical, social, and emotional risks associated with virginity loss. Reliance on different scripts resulted in varied meanings of virginity, characteristics of the storylines, consequences of virginity loss, and implications for sexually healthy messages. The narratives included positive components, such as contraception use and portrayals of consensual sex, but also contained problematic elements, such as a lack of female desire and underrepresentation of racial, ethnic, and sexual minority characters. This article suggests that an analysis of the sexual scripts used in virginity-loss narratives provides insight into both the messages about virginity provided to teenagers as well as the social construction of the multiple meanings of virginity.
Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D.; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars
Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels ...
In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...
Krenzen, Anette Elisabeth
Rapporten er en del af kandidatspeciale, der empirisk undersøger børns narrative kompetencer i skolestarten på Egumsvejens skole i Fredericia samt tilknyttede børneinstitutioner.......Rapporten er en del af kandidatspeciale, der empirisk undersøger børns narrative kompetencer i skolestarten på Egumsvejens skole i Fredericia samt tilknyttede børneinstitutioner....
De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.
J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....
Bundgaard, Peer; Østergaard, Svend
This text has two parts. In the first section we intend to define the narrative schema—the canonical plot structure—as a symbolic form in Ernst Cassirer’s sense of the term. This basically implies that the narrative schema is not an invariant higher order combinatorial form, but may itself...... be subject to variations in view of yielding specific meaning effects. This is because the production and reception of a narrative is a dynamic process where physical forces, modal forces and intentions set up a space of possibilities for the narrative trajectory. We therefore propose a determination...... of the narrative schema in terms of “force dynamics.” In the next section we proceed to an analysis of Ernst Hemingway’s A Very Short Storyin order to illustrate this point. We lay down the main elements of its remarkable, if not simply outstanding both narrative and semantic-configurational structure: its plot...
Full Text Available The research work done by the author investigates a phenomenological field—the subjective experience of chronic illness and disability—by means of a specific research instrument, the autobiographical narrative interview. It focuses on the concept of narrative identity and its empirical substrate in the scientifically generated texts. Narrative identity is regarded as a situated, pragmatic, autoepistemic and interactive activity drawing on culturally transmitted narrative conventions which is performed within the research context. We have been working with a systematic analytic approach which covers interactive and contextual aspects of the interview situation as well as rhetoric and positioning strategies in the act of telling. Other research questions concern the concept of "narrative coping" and the comparison of partner's narratives on problems of illness and disability, especially on scrutinizing aspects of identity and alterity (self and other in the texts. This work can be understood as combining aspects of the research domains of narratology, identity and coping on the background of a qualitative methodology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002189
Denniston, Charlotte; Molloy, Elizabeth; Rees, Charlotte E
Although communication with patients is essential to health care, education designed to develop patient-centred communication often ignores patients' voices. Patient stories may offer a means to explore patient experiences to inform patient-centred communication skills education design. Our research questions were: (i) What are the features of patients' health care communication narratives? (ii) What differences exist between patient narratives evaluated as positive and those evaluated as negative? (iii) How do patients narrate emotion in their narratives? This interpretivist research was underpinned by social constructionism. We employed a narrative approach to design an online questionnaire that was advertised to patients in the community. Analysis of the stories that were generated involved analysis of what was written (i.e. framework analysis) and of how it was written (i.e. attending to linguistic features). Participants shared 180 written narratives about previous health care professional (HCP) communication interactions. Narratives commonly included those of female patients seeking help for musculoskeletal or psychological concerns, which most frequently had occurred within the previous 6 months with male general practitioners in community settings. Framework analysis revealed four key themes: (i) patient actions during consultations; (ii) patient actions afterwards; (iii) lasting legacy, and (iv) interpersonal factors. Patients in narratives evaluated as positive actively engaged during and after interactions, had ongoing positive relationships with HCPs and felt valued in these relationships. Patients in narratives evaluated as negative were either passive or active during the interaction, but mostly failed to return to the HCP and felt devalued in their interaction. Further analysis of the linguistic features of select narratives revealed rich constructions of positive and negative emotions emphasising the lasting legacies of these interactions. Analysis
Page, Timothy; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Verbovaya, Olga
The central focus of this study was the perceptions of emotional security among 64 elementary school-aged children exposed to the hurricanes that affected the US Gulf Coast in 2005. Specifically, we examined the representational qualities of attachment, exploration, and caregiving as assessed with a narrative story-stem task in relation to…
Borchardt, Viola; Krause, Anna L.; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Nolte, Tobias; Lord, Anton R.; Walter, Martin
Introduction: To understand the interplay between affective social information processing and its influence on mental states we investigated changes in functional connectivity (FC) patterns after audio exposure to emotional biographic narratives. Methods: While lying in the 7T MR scanner, 23 male
The reader is taken on a journey spanning some 30 years devoted to the author's involvement in practicing, teaching and studying peace education. The core concept in this journey is active "bystandership," which implies the capacity to disengage from our ethnocentric narratives and perceptions and to face the emotional challenges of…
Adami, Rebecca; Hållander, Marie
In this article, we explore the role of film in educational settings and argue that testimony and narrative are dependent upon each other for developing ethical judgments. We use the film "12 Angry Men" to enhance our thesis that the emotional response that sometimes is intended in using film as testimonies in classrooms requires a…
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John
Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed. PMID:26690668
Borochowitz, Dalit Yassour
Constructing a life story is a need shared by all humans to give their lives meaning and coherence. This article explores some of the narrative devices that batterers use to achieve a sense of coherence when telling their stories and justifying their violent behavior. A central theme that emerged from these stories centered on the men's perception of their wives as the embodiment of their own emotions and inner world. Two narrative strategies were identified in this context: (a) The construction of a "couple narrative" that focused on an idealized marital relationship rather than "allowing" the wife her story and (b) constructing a story around the theme of "she's not the same woman I married," which portrays the wife as "a shrew" and the violence as an attempt to discipline her. The stories of 18 batterers were used for this analysis, and two narratives were used to illustrate these strategies.
Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena
Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed.
Fleischmann, Amos; Fleischmann, Rafael Haim
In this article we explore the impact of a diagnosis of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on coping among diagnosed adults. We use grounded theory to examine 71 biographical narratives, self-published on the Internet by adults with ADHD. The findings illuminate a three-stage temporal continuum. During the first stage, the narrators suffered from lack of self-confidence accompanied by functional difficulties, stress, and guilt feelings. During the second stage, which began after the diagnosis, they began to believe in their ability to lead meaningful and more manageable lives. During the third stage, an additional effect of the diagnosis emerged: the narrators' realization or belief that ADHD might affect them for the better. Some narrators stated that their traits as persons with ADHD helped them to cope better than others unaffected by this syndrome. Consequently, those who have an ADHD diagnosis seem able to defeat unnecessary negative emotions and self-blame.
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W.; Cramond, Paige M.; Kirk, Cecilia; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine; MacKinnon, Melanie
Purpose: Few tools are available to examine the narrative speaking ability of adolescents. Hence, the authors designed a new narrative task and sought to determine whether it would elicit a higher level of syntactic complexity than a conversational task in adolescents with typical language development. Method: Forty adolescents (M[subscript age] =…
Aldrich, Naomi J.; Brooks, Patricia J.
This study investigated children's narrative evaluations about jealousy in relation to performance on a higher-order perspective-taking task and assessments of receptive vocabulary and nonverbal intelligence. Eighty children (5;0-11;11) narrated a wordless picture book about a jealous frog, answered probe questions about the plot, and generated a…
Green, Melanie C; Clark, Jenna L
A growing body of research suggests that smoking portrayals in movies influence adolescent tobacco use. However, the mechanism for this influence remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on narrative transportation theory, particularly as applied to movies and smoking. We propose that this theory can provide a valuable framework for guiding research on the role of entertainment media in smoking and other addictive behaviors. We review empirical work on transportation theory and highlight the psychological mechanisms underlying transportation effects. 'Transportation into narrative worlds' refers to cognitive, emotional and imagery engagement into a narrative (including movies and entertainment media). We link this work with research on the effects of movie smoking. Research suggests that individuals who are more highly transported into narratives show greater attitude, belief and behavior change. Transportation effects work through reducing counterarguing, creating connections (identification and liking) with characters and increasing perceptions of realism and emotional involvement. We propose several future directions and research challenges for applying a transportation framework to the issue of entertainment media effects on smoking and tobacco disparities. Understanding factors contributing to transportation may provide a more nuanced view of who will be affected by movie smoking, and understanding the psychological processes underlying narrative persuasion may guide intervention efforts. Narrative transportation theory suggests that individuals' cognitive, emotional and imagery immersion in a narrative is a key mechanism of attitude, belief and behavior change. This theory provides a potentially generative and psychologically grounded framework for increasing knowledge about the boundary conditions and processes underlying the effects of entertainment media on tobacco use. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for
Kim, Kidong; Jeong, Suyeon; Lee, Kyogu; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha; Lee, Joo Yun; Kim, Yekyung; Yoo, Sooyoung; Doh, Gippeum
Summary Objectives We aimed to determine the characteristics of quantitative metrics for nursing narratives documented in electronic nursing records and their association with hospital admission traits and diagnoses in a large data set not limited to specific patient events or hypotheses. Methods We collected 135,406,873 electronic, structured coded nursing narratives from 231,494 hospital admissions of patients discharged between 2008 and 2012 at a tertiary teaching institution that routinely uses an electronic health records system. The standardized number of nursing narratives (i.e., the total number of nursing narratives divided by the length of the hospital stay) was suggested to integrate the frequency and quantity of nursing documentation. Results The standardized number of nursing narratives was higher for patients aged 70 years (median = 30.2 narratives/day, interquartile range [IQR] = 24.0–39.4 narratives/day), long (8 days) hospital stays (median = 34.6 narratives/day, IQR = 27.2–43.5 narratives/day), and hospital deaths (median = 59.1 narratives/day, IQR = 47.0–74.8 narratives/day). The standardized number of narratives was higher in “pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium” (median = 46.5, IQR = 39.0–54.7) and “diseases of the circulatory system” admissions (median = 35.7, IQR = 29.0–43.4). Conclusions Diverse hospital admissions can be consistently described with nursing-document-derived metrics for similar hospital admissions and diagnoses. Some areas of hospital admissions may have consistently increasing volumes of nursing documentation across years. Usability of electronic nursing document metrics for evaluating healthcare requires multiple aspects of hospital admissions to be considered. PMID:27901174
In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime. 14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering. Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...
Now that digital technology has accessed the Z-space in cinema, narrative artistry is at a loss. Motion picture professionals no longer can readily resort to familiar tools. A new language and new linguistics for Z-axis storytelling are necessary. After first examining the roots of monocular thinking in painting, prior modes of visual narrative in twodimensional cinema obviating true binocular stereopsis can be explored, particularly montage, camera motion and depth of field, with historic examples. Special attention is paid to the manner in which monocular cues for depth have been exploited to infer depth on a planar screen. Both the artistic potential and visual limitations of actual stereoscopic depth as a filmmaking language are interrogated. After an examination of the historic basis of monocular thinking in visual culture, a context for artistic exploration of the use of the z-axis as a heightened means of creating dramatic and emotional impact upon the viewer is illustrated.
Purbaning Tyas, Prias Hayu
The research aims to obtain an overview of the effectiveness of the narrative approach in counseling Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) to manage emotions. The approach used in this study is a quantitative approach using a quasi-experimental methods. The study design used is one group pretest-posttest design using purposive sampling technique. The samples were 6 students who score low emotion management. The instrument used in the form of guidelines for the interview to express emotion ...
As a great poet in British Romanticism.Wordsworth is not the practioner of an artistic craft designed tO satisfy "taste" of a literary connoisseur.He is,instead."a man speaking to men" with his uniqueness in emotion.This paper tempts to demonstrate how Wordsworth conveys emotion with poetic language.Wordsworthian "emotion recollected in tranquility" is simple,pure and genuine,which is the true art in wordsworth's poems.
This study has explored the related teaching of "narrative creation" and "narrative reading". For this study, I hypothesized as follows. There is "the method of narrative" in "narrative creation" and "narrative reading" as a common element. By this related teaching that used "the method of narrative" as a common element, children’s ability of "narrative creation" and "narrative reading" will increase. As a result of this study, the following conclusions were obtained. Children surely make use...
Kreuter, Matthew W; Green, Melanie C; Cappella, Joseph N; Slater, Michael D; Wise, Meg E; Storey, Doug; Clark, Eddie M; O'Keefe, Daniel J; Erwin, Deborah O; Holmes, Kathleen; Hinyard, Leslie J; Houston, Thomas; Woolley, Sabra
Narrative forms of communication-including entertainment education, journalism, literature, testimonials, and storytelling-are emerging as important tools for cancer prevention and control. To stimulate critical thinking about the role of narrative in cancer communication and promote a more focused and systematic program of research to understand its effects, we propose a typology of narrative application in cancer control. We assert that narrative has four distinctive capabilities: overcoming resistance, facilitating information processing, providing surrogate social connections, and addressing emotional and existential issues. We further assert that different capabilities are applicable to different outcomes across the cancer control continuum (e.g., prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship). This article describes the empirical evidence and theoretical rationale supporting propositions in the typology, identifies variables likely to moderate narrative effects, raises ethical issues to be addressed when using narrative communication in cancer prevention and control efforts, and discusses potential limitations of using narrative in this way. Future research needs based on these propositions are outlined and encouraged.
Barraza, Jorge A; Alexander, Veronika; Beavin, Laura E; Terris, Elizabeth T; Zak, Paul J
Emotionally laden narratives are often used as persuasive appeals by charitable organizations. Physiological responses to a narrative may explain why some people respond to an appeal while others do not. In this study we tested whether autonomic and hormonal activity during a narrative predict subsequent narrative influence via charitable giving. Participants viewed a brief story of a father's experience with his 2-year-old son who has terminal cancer. After the story, participants were presented with an opportunity to donate some of their study earnings to a related charity. Measures derived from cardiac and electrodermal activity, including HF-HRV, significantly predicted donor status. Time-series GARCH models of physiology during the narrative further differentiated donors from non-donors. Moreover, cardiac activity and experienced concern were found to covary from moment-to-moment across the narrative. Our findings indicate that the physiological response to a stimulus, herein a narrative, can predict influence as indexed by stimulus-related behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Sharon L
Storytelling is intrinsic to human beings, and stories can explain events, stances taken and actions engaged in. When experience is represented as story it can become more organised and be used for analysis, critique and learning. Experience is important in nursing, as it is in many other practice-based professions, and it can contribute much to nurses' learning. Through a process of sharing and engaging with the author's personal stories, this article encourages nurses to begin to organise their own experiences in story form for use in learning and as part of their personal and professional development.
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Liraz, Revital
The study aimed to examine the extent to which the use of drawing prior to narrative description increases the richness of the narrative given by children who are exposed to a succession of negative life events. The sample consisted of study and comparison groups (60 children: 27 boys, 33 girls), ranging in age from 9 to 14, whose fathers were addicted to drugs. The study group was asked to first 'draw your life in the shadow of your father's addiction to drugs', then verbally describes 'your life under the shadow of an addicted father'; the comparison group was asked only the latter. Following evaluation of drawings and narratives by two judges, analysis of variance between the groups' narratives revealed that when children were first asked to draw, their narratives were more detailed and more revealing of emotions compared to children who were asked only to verbally describe their lives, whereas expressions of resistance and splitting were more apparent in the comparison group.
Saxbe, Darby E; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Borofsky, Larissa A; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
Complex social emotions involve both abstract cognitions and bodily sensations, and individuals may differ on their relative reliance on these. We hypothesized that individuals' descriptions of their feelings during a semi-structured emotion induction interview would reveal two distinct psychological styles-a more abstract, cognitive style and a more body-based, affective style-and that these would be associated with somatosensory neural activity. We examined 28 participants' open-ended verbal responses to admiration- and compassion-provoking narratives in an interview and BOLD activity to the same narratives during subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Consistent with hypotheses, individuals' affective and cognitive word use were stable across emotion conditions, negatively correlated and unrelated to reported emotion strength in the scanner. Greater use of affective relative to cognitive words predicted more activation in SI, SII, middle anterior cingulate cortex and insula during emotion trials. The results suggest that individuals' verbal descriptions of their feelings reflect differential recruitment of neural regions supporting physical body awareness. Although somatosensation has long been recognized as an important component of emotion processing, these results offer 'proof of concept' that individual differences in open-ended speech reflect different processing styles at the neurobiological level. This study also demonstrates SI involvement during social emotional experience.
Manners, Ian James; Murray, Philomena
the construction and application of an analytical framework drawing on different theoretical perspectives. This framework is then applied to six European integration narratives to demonstrate the value of a narrative approach. The article concludes that narrative analysis provides a means of understanding both EU......, the Nobel Prize and the search for a ‘new narrative for Europe’ demonstrate that the processes of European integration are always narrated as sense-making activities – stories people tell to make sense of their reality. This article argues in favour of a narrative approach to European integration through...
Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter
The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.
Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas
beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...
Gonzalez, Deborah Oliveira; Cáceres, Ana Manhani; Bento-Gaz, Ana Carolina Paiva; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria
To verify the use of conjunctions in narratives, and to investigate the influence of stimuli's complexity over the type of conjunctions used by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development. Participants were 40 children (20 with typical language development and 20 with SLI) with ages between 7 and 10 years, paired by age range. Fifteen stories with increasing of complexity were used to obtain the narratives; stories were classified into mechanical, behavioral and intentional, and each of them was represented by four scenes. Narratives were analyzed according to occurrence and classification of conjunctions. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions, with significant decrease in the use of conjunctions in the discourse of SLI children. The use of conjunctions varied according to the type of narrative: for coordinative conjunctions, both groups differed only between intentional and behavioral narratives, with higher occurrence in behavioral ones; for subordinate conjunctions, typically developing children's performance did not show differences between narratives, while SLI children presented fewer occurrences in intentional narratives, which was different from other narratives. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions; however, typically developing children presented more conjunctions than SLI children. The production of children with SLI was influenced by stimulus, since more complex narratives has less use of subordinate conjunctions.
This article explores wisdom as concept to guide translator education in institutions of higher education. It uses the work of Paul Baltes to posit wisdom as the orchestration of mind and virtue for the common good. Wisdom then signifies the outcome of translator education. Narrative is a mode of communication that is able to ...
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Bond, Jennifer Lauren
Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...
Conlan, Owen; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Hampson, Cormac; Lawless, Séamus; O'keeffe, Ian
This article describes the narrative approach to personalisation. This novel approach to the generation of personalised adaptive hypermedia experiences employs runtime reconciliation between a personalisation strategy and a number of contextual models (e.g. user and domain). The approach also advocates the late binding of suitable content and services to the generated personalised pathway resulting in an interactive composition that comprises services as well as content. This article provides a detailed definition of the narrative approach to personalisation and showcases the approach through the examination of two use-cases: the personalised digital educational games developed by the ELEKTRA and 80Days projects; and the personalised learning activities realised as part of the AMAS project. These use-cases highlight the general applicability of the narrative approach and how it has been applied to create a diverse range of real-world systems.
Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce activity systems as a methodological tool in narrative inquiry to gain a holistic understanding of socially shared experiences from an examination of documents. The research question was how can qualitative researchers use activity systems as a tool for engaging in narrative inquiry of socially shared experiences to uncover new meanings by constructing a story? In this article, we share a sample analysis of our experience relying on documents and media as a form of narrative to begin to understand the socially shared human activity associated with net neutrality and its potential impact on U.S. residents. We end this article with reflections of lessons learned from our activity systems guided story construction process.
Narrative pedagogy is an approach to midwifery education which can promote strategies for teaching and learning which effectively prepare graduates for the complex nature of midwifery practice. Knowledge and skills are fundamental to midwifery practice, but knowing about how to use them is the art of practice. Teaching and learning midwifery skills and competencies is straight forward in comparison to teaching and learning about the art of midwifery, yet both are essential for safe practice. Narrative pedagogy may be one way that enhances undergraduate midwifery students' learning about the art of practice.
Sabini, John; Green, Melanie C
In three studies (total N = 619), the authors tested an evolutionary hypothesis: Men are more bothered by sexual than emotional infidelity, whereas the reverse is true of women. More diverse samples (in age) and measures than is typical were used. In Study 1, the authors found across gender, sample, and method that sexual infidelity was associated with anger and blame, but emotional infidelity was associated with hurt feelings. The evolutionary effect was replicated with undergraduates but not with the nonstudent sample. In Study 2, narrative scenarios were used; it was found that nonstudent men and women were more hurt and upset by emotional infidelity but were made angrier by sexual infidelity. In Study 3, using Likert-type scales, scenarios, and a nonstudent sample, it was found that both genders were more upset, hurt, and angrier about sexual than emotional transgressions when rating one kind without hearing the opposite type. The implications for how emotional responses evolved are discussed.
Great attention has been given so far to cerebellar control of posture and of skilled movements despite the well-demonstrated interconnections between the cerebellum and the autonomic nervous system. Here is a review of the link between these two structures and a report on the recently acquired evidence for its involvement in the world of emotions. In rodents, the reversible inactivation of the vermis during the consolidation or the reconsolidation period hampers the retention of the fear memory trace. In this region, there is a long-term potentiation of both the excitatory synapses between the parallel fibres and the Purkinje cells and of the feed-forward inhibition mediated by molecular layer interneurons. This concomitant potentiation ensures the temporal fidelity of the system. Additional contacts between mossy fibre terminals and Golgi cells provide morphological evidence of the potentiation of another feed-forward inhibition in the granular layer. Imaging experiments show that also in humans the cerebellum is activated during mental recall of emotional personal episodes and during learning of a conditioned or unconditioned association involving emotions. The vermis participates in fear learning and memory mechanisms related to the expression of autonomic and motor responses of emotions. In humans, the cerebellar hemispheres are also involved at a higher emotional level. The importance of these findings is evident when considering the cerebellar malfunctioning in psychiatric diseases like autism and schizophrenia which are characterized behaviourally by emotion processing impairments.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... This paper argues that the Setswana storytelling session is a highly participatory event. The paper ... Keywords: performance, storytelling, narrator, audience, narrative, Setswana ...
Deconstruction of conservative cinematic narratives on women's identity: an urging ... of regular but infamous dictates of culture and gender themes in film narratives. ... film criticism, women filmmakers, manipulation, Stereotype, deconstruction ...
Azmitia, Margarita; Ittel, Angela; Radmacher, Kimberley
Gender and self-esteem provide lenses through which early and late adolescents construct their narratives of ideal and actual friendships. These narratives provide a unique window into the dynamics of adolescents' friendships during school transitions.
Lammers, J.; Proulx, T.
Two experiments show that writing chronological autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism, defined as an ideology of resistance to social change. When writing chronological autobiographical narratives, we hypothesized that people would re-experience the events of their life in a
Abstract This research draws on ideas about emotion-related appraisal tendencies to generate and test novel propositions about intergroup emotions. First, emotion elicited by outgroup category activation can be transferred to an unrelated stimulus (incidental emotion effects). Second, people predisposed toward an emotion are more prejudiced toward groups that are likely to be associated with that emotion. D...
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…
Su, I-Ru; Chou, Yi-Chun
Most of the research on second language (L2) narratives has focused on whether or how L2 learners carry their L1 narrative styles into L2 narration; few studies have explored whether L2 learners' knowledge of the L2 also in turn affects their L1 narrative performance. The present study attempted to probe the issue of cultural transfer in narrative…
Mages, Wendy K.
This article proposes a cognitive theory of how drama affects two aspects of language development: narrative comprehension and narrative production. It is a theoretical model that explicitly posits the role of the imagination in drama's potential to enhance the development of both narrative comprehension and narrative production. (Contains 2…
Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen
Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...... for estimating such emotional brand equity is presented and findings from two successive studies of more than 100 brands are reported. It demonstrates how changes that occur between two years are explainable in terms of factors identifiable in the markets, and that the measures otherwise are stable over time...
Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Hirsh, Jacob B.
Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. PMID:25659515
Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D; Hirsh, Jacob B
Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
Nafziger, Jacinta; DeKruyf, Lorraine
This article introduces narrative counseling concepts and techniques for professional school counselors. The authors provide a case study of narrative school counseling with an elementary student struggling with selective mutism. Examples also demonstrate how a narrative approach could be used at elementary, middle, and high school levels within…
In this paper, I give an account of the ways in which narratives and identities change over space and time. I give an account of a mobile and changing human subject, one who does not simply express or represent her- or himself through narrative, but is constructed and reconstructed through narrative. I draw on Paul Ricoeur's concepts of "narrative…
The work of Carol Berkenkotter and others who have expanded the realm of personal narrative studies over the past several decades would not have been possible without the pioneering efforts of those who first brought the study of narrative to nonliterary discourses. By revisiting what personal narratives were to these pioneers-working outward from…
available to him, but it is interrupted by yet another unforeseen event: an earthquake which buries him alive in the sotterraneo where he lives. The story, and with it, the manuscript Tommaso has been composing, ends with the death of the narrator: a triple ending, where writing, narration and narrato coincide. The narrator is ...
Principles of a mobile gps-enabled gis acting as a tourist information system are discussed and exemplified with special focus on the narrative aspects of tourist guidance. Flexible adaptation to user movements is accomplished by providing information about objects that the user passes as well...
This essay reconsiders the importance of performativity to scholarship on life writing by exploring the potential of Eve Sedgwick's concept of the periper-formative utterance for reading queer life narratives. Taking the documentary Tarnation (2003) as an example, I argue that a range of life
The book welcomes proposals for chapter contributions on a wide array of topics related to the narratological notion of counter-narratives. By way of example, the topic has hitherto been treated by disciplines and subjects such as literature studies, organization studies, corporate communication...
Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.
Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....
The conception of the good life in theoretical texts and adult learners' written narratives depicts well-being in terms of aesthetic experiences, values, existential experiences, autonomy, and significant others. Future prospects for adult education as legislative practice, as therapy and as commitment are derived from the discussion. (SK)
Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder
The neoliberal restructuring of the welfare state has changed the conditions for teacher practice. Teachers’ narratives have been collected in the western part of Denmark. They give insight in teacher practice and how teachers’ conditions for working have changed. 3 themes are discussed to illust...
Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo
We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...
Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth
Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...
Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael
Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions.
Vasilyev, Igor A.
Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.
Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak
We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.
Fisher, Hadar; Atzil-Slonim, Dana; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Peri, Tuvia
Emotional experience during psychotherapy is considered a core mechanism of change. Yet the sheer experience itself may not necessarily be beneficial; instead, the trajectories of emotional experience need to be explored as possible predictors of treatment outcomes. This study investigated whether clients' pre-treatment levels of emotion regulation and symptoms predicted patterns of session-to-session change in emotional experience. We also explored which patterns better predict clients' improvement in emotion regulation and symptoms from pre- to post treatment. One-hundred and seven clients undergoing psychodynamic psychotherapy completed questionnaires on their symptoms and emotion regulation at pre- and post- treatment. They also reported their level of emotional experience at the end of each session. Pre-treatment symptoms and difficulties in emotion regulation predicted greater instability in emotional experience. Higher mean levels of emotional experience during treatment were associated with an improvement in emotion regulation, and greater stability during treatment was associated with improvement in emotion regulation and symptoms. These findings lend weight to the idea that experiencing emotion in the therapeutic environment has significant implications for clients' ability to manage their emotions outside the session. However, emotions experienced in an unstable manner within therapy are associated with poorer outcomes. Clinical and methodological significance of this article: Therapists can benefit from observing the patterns and not only the level of their clients' emotional experiences. The identification of clients' difficulties early in treatment may help therapists guide clients through the delicate process of carefully attending to their emotions.
van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H
Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.
Forsner, Maria; Jansson, Lilian; Söderberg, Anna
Fear can be problematic for children who come into contact with medical care. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being afraid when in contact with medical care, as narrated by children 7-11 years old. Nine children participated in the study, which applied a phenomenological hermeneutic analysis methodology. The children experienced medical care as "being threatened by a monster," but the possibility of breaking this spell of fear was also mediated. The findings indicate the important role of being emotionally hurt in a child's fear to create, together with the child, an alternate narrative of overcoming this fear.
Karkabi, Khaled; Wald, Hedy S; Cohen Castel, Orit
Reflective capacity is integral to core healthcare professional practice competencies. Reflection plays a central role in teacher education as reflecting on teaching behaviours with critical analysis can potentially improve teaching practice. The humanities including narrative and the visual arts can serve as a valuable tool for fostering reflection. We conducted a multinational faculty development workshop aiming to enhance reflective capacity in medical educators by using a combination of abstract paintings and narratives. Twenty-three family physicians or physicians-in-training from 10 countries participated in the workshop. Qualitative assessment of the workshop showed that the combined use of art and narrative was well received and perceived as contributing to the reflective exercise. Participants generally felt that viewing abstract paintings had facilitated a valuable mood transformation and prepared them emotionally for the reflective writing. Our analysis found that the following themes emerged from participants’ responses: (1) narratives from different countries are similar; (2) the use of art helped access feelings; (3) viewing abstract paintings facilitated next steps; (4) writing reflective narratives promoted examination of educational challenges, compassion for self and other, and building an action plan; and (5) sharing of narrative was helpful for fostering active listening and appreciating multiple perspectives. Future research might include comparing outcomes for a group participating in arts–narrative-based workshops with those of a control group using only reflective narrative or in combination with figurative art, and implementing a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of assessment. PMID:24273319
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
Madeira, Filipa; Arriaga, Patrícia; Adrião, Joana; Lopes, Ricardo; Esteves, Francisco
In recent years, research on the psychology of gaming has examined the negative and positive outcomes of playing video games. Thus far, a variety of affective phenomena have been investigated. In this chapter we will continue this exploration by examining the emotions elicited by the act of playing video games. Because the study of emotions must rely on different type of methods, including subjective self-reports (e.g., description of feelings), neuropsychophysiological measurements ...
Pluta, A; Ulatowska, H; Gawron, N; Sobanska, M; Lojek, E
The present study aims at elucidating the impact of stroke on psychosocial functioning of stroke survivors. Data were investigated using interpretative thematic analysis of illness stories produced by 29 patients. Eight themes emerged from the data: Medical Information; Interpersonal Changes; Cognitive, Physical and Emotional Functioning; Strategies of Coping; Social Support; and Information Irrelevant to the Question. The most frequent organization of the themes followed the course of medical intervention and rehabilitation. Narrations of individual patients varied in terms of the presence of particular themes, the amount of information on each topic and organization. The results suggest that the analysis of non-guided illness narratives can be effectively used to identify the thematic areas important to individual stroke patients. The thematic content analysis of stroke stories can allow health professionals to better understand the patient's state of knowledge related to illness as well as his or her socio-psychological functioning which may be useful in the course of planning further assessment and rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Experience of illness and life changes following stroke should be recognized as central to the provision of targeted rehabilitation. To understand the subjective perspective a content analysis of the content narrative is recommended. Our study highlights seven general thematic categories that may be regarded as key. The categories may be useful for clinicians to help individuals to clarify their main concerns following a stroke.
Edwards, Sharon Lorraine
To offer dramatic poetry as representing findings from narrative research that is more accessible. This article is drawn from the author's doctorate work on how students' stories about their 'clinical' experiences can aid learning. Nursing students' stories of clinical practice experiences when engaged in the care of patients represented as dramatic poetry. Qualitative analytical approaches in narrative data analysis to provide a review of student stories from a variety of perspectives. This article illustrates a method for converting story data to poetry. It suggests that a range of audiences can learn from nursing students' stories of clinical practice when translated into dramatic poetry. Audiences can come close to understanding what students are experiencing in practice when engaged in the care of patients and learning from their practice experiences, when these experiences are expressed as dramatic poetry. Representing findings from narrative research as dramatic poetry can help audiences engage with nursing students' experiences at an emotional level. Enabling researchers and readers to become immersed in the poem transforming their understanding of what the students have learned.
van Krieken, Kobie; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José
Current research on identification with narrative characters poses two problems. First, although identification is seen as a dynamic process of which the intensity varies during reading, it is usually measured by means of post-reading questionnaires containing self-report items. Second, it is not clear which linguistic characteristics evoke identification. The present paper proposes that an interdisciplinary framework allows for more precise manipulations and measurements of identification, which will ultimately advance our understanding of the antecedents and nature of this process. The central hypothesis of our Linguistic Cues Framework is that identification with a narrative character is a multidimensional experience for which different dimensions are evoked by different linguistic cues. The first part of the paper presents a literature review on identification, resulting in a renewed conceptualization of identification which distinguishes six dimensions: a spatiotemporal, a perceptual, a cognitive, a moral, an emotional, and an embodied dimension. The second part argues that each of these dimensions is influenced by specific linguistic cues which represent various aspects of the narrative character's perspective. The proposed relations between linguistic cues and identification dimensions are specified in six propositions. The third part discusses what psychological and neurocognitive methods enable the measurement of the various identification dimensions in order to test the propositions. By establishing explicit connections between the linguistic characteristics of narratives and readers' physical, psychological, and neurocognitive responses to narratives, this paper develops a research agenda for future empirical research on identification with narrative characters.
van Krieken, Kobie; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José
Current research on identification with narrative characters poses two problems. First, although identification is seen as a dynamic process of which the intensity varies during reading, it is usually measured by means of post-reading questionnaires containing self-report items. Second, it is not clear which linguistic characteristics evoke identification. The present paper proposes that an interdisciplinary framework allows for more precise manipulations and measurements of identification, which will ultimately advance our understanding of the antecedents and nature of this process. The central hypothesis of our Linguistic Cues Framework is that identification with a narrative character is a multidimensional experience for which different dimensions are evoked by different linguistic cues. The first part of the paper presents a literature review on identification, resulting in a renewed conceptualization of identification which distinguishes six dimensions: a spatiotemporal, a perceptual, a cognitive, a moral, an emotional, and an embodied dimension. The second part argues that each of these dimensions is influenced by specific linguistic cues which represent various aspects of the narrative character’s perspective. The proposed relations between linguistic cues and identification dimensions are specified in six propositions. The third part discusses what psychological and neurocognitive methods enable the measurement of the various identification dimensions in order to test the propositions. By establishing explicit connections between the linguistic characteristics of narratives and readers’ physical, psychological, and neurocognitive responses to narratives, this paper develops a research agenda for future empirical research on identification with narrative characters. PMID:28751875
It is often emphasised that persons diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show difficulties in understanding their own psychological states. In this article, I argue that from a phenomenological perspective, BPD can be understood as an existential modality in which the embodied self is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person's own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through, e.g., psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing the quality of narrativity to experiences, thereby familiarising the moods, affects, and responses that otherwise govern 'from behind'. Finally, I propose that the idea of a narrative appropriation of embodied self-alienness is also relevant to the much-debated question of personal responsibility in BPD, particularly as this question plays out in psychotherapeutic contexts where a narrative self-appropriation may facilitate an increase in sense of autonomy and reduce emotions of guilt and shame.
This paper examines emotional expression experienced by female principals in the Arab school system in Israel over their managerial careers--role-related emotions that they choose to express or repress before others. I employed narrative methodology, interviewing nine female principals from the Arab school system to investigate expression of…
Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.
Understanding and recognition of emotions relies on emotion concepts, which are narrative structures (scripts) specifying facial expressions, causes, consequences, label, etc. organized in a temporal and causal order. Scripts and their development are revealed by examining which components better tap which concepts at which ages. This study…
white dove. But the question remains : is God’s emotional profile, in this paraliturgical, proto-literary work, permeable to fresh emotions, ready to change the divine plans under the “spur” of the moment, or is there a different framework for the representation of the affective conduct of this particular character? If love is said to shape the profile of the Christian God, how can an emotional disorder fit in this exemplary piece of narrative? Is it a higher form of emotional (already literary order?
The author proposes a new model for the assessment of decision-making capacity based on the principles of narrative medicine. The narrative method proposed by the author addresses the hidden power realtionships implicit in the current model of capacity assessment. Sample cases are reviewed using the traditional model in comparison with the narrative model. Narrative medicine provides an effective model for the assessment of decision-making capacity. Deficiencies in the traditional model capacity assessment can be effectively addressed using narrative strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Musacchio Adorisio, Anna Linda
In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative......-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in favor of an interpretive view that could remain sensitive to the production and reproduction of meaning by the actors involved....
Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Curran, H Valerie
Benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs have repeatedly been shown to impair episodic memory for emotionally neutral material in humans. However, their effect on memory for emotionally laden stimuli has been relatively neglected. We sought to investigate the effects of the benzodiazepine, lorazepam, and the anticholinergic, scopolamine, on incidental episodic memory for neutral and emotional components of a narrative memory task in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled independent group design was used with 48 healthy volunteers to examine the effects of these drugs on emotional and neutral episodic memory. As expected, the emotional memory advantage was retained for recall and recognition memory under placebo conditions. However, lorazepam and scopolamine produced anterograde recognition memory impairments on both the neutral and emotional components of the narrative, although floor effects were obtained for recall memory. Furthermore, compared with placebo, recognition memory for both central (gist) and peripheral (detail) aspects of neutral and emotional elements of the narrative was poorer after either drug. Benzodiazepine-induced GABAergic enhancement or scopolamine-induced cholinergic hypofunction results in a loss of the enhancing effect of emotional arousal on memory. Furthermore, lorazepam- and scopolamine-induced memory impairment for both gist (which is amygdala dependent) and detail raises the possibility that their effects on emotional memory do not depend only on the amygdala. We discuss the results with reference to potential clinical/forensic implications of processing emotional memories under conditions of globally impaired episodic memory.
Rozhnov, V E
The concept of emotional stress psychotherapy (ESP) is based on the theoretical understanding of mental process as a system of cross-potentiating synergism of consciousness and the unconscious. Therefore, one can regard this kind of treatment as an appeal to the spiritual components of personality arousing its need of self-perfectioning. Owing to this, ESP turns the demands and higher interests creating a personality dominant to oppose the illness with ensuing depression and apathy. In a sense, this method is a qualitative contrast to S. Freud's psychoanalysis digging in the dark compartments of the soul. As a result of treatment of thousands of neurotic patients and those with psychosomatic disorders and alcoholism, the following techniques of ESP were elaborated: rational, shaped as a socratic dialogue; hypnosuggestive comprising individual or collective hypnosis, extremely loaded with emotions; autosuggestive like mental self-regulation and autogenic training filled with specific emotions.
Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.
The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…
Rouhiainen, Leena; Hamalainen, Soili
This paper looks into the significance emotions and feelings can have in a collaborative dance-making process. This is done by introducing a narrative based on a dance pedagogy student's writings. They contain observations of her experiences on being the facilitating choreographer in a dance-making process involving a cross-artistic group of…
Strien, T. van
Purpose of the Review: Eating in response to negative emotions (EE) may be an explanatory factor of the weight regain of many dieters. This narrative review presents evidence on possible causes of EE and the association of EE with depression and obesity and discusses implications of these findings
Branch, William T; Frankel, Richard
We sought to identify and define "highly humanistic" formation narratives, and understand how these events described, together with a reflective learning process, the professional development of physicians in a longitudinal faculty development program. Qualitative analysis of twenty highly humanistic appreciative inquiry narratives selected from a total of 124 written by faculty members at the beginning and end of an eighteen month program at eight medical schools. [9,10] We employed the immersion/crystallization method of Borkan  to capture the rich meanings and emotional depth of the twenty narratives. Highly humanistic formation narratives described emotionally charged events in which the faculty writers provided humanistic care that went beyond what they had previously thought themselves capable of; benefited the patient, family or faculty member to a major extent; and reaffirmed or strengthened their professional values. Highly humanistic formation narratives were clustered at the end of our eighteen month curriculum. Participation in faculty development for humanism may have increased the numbers of highly humanistic events by sensitizing and motivating faculty members to meet their patients' emotional needs. Our paper describes a process whereby faculty members may achieve growth in their capacities to meet patients' needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uddholm, Mats; Nilsson, Bo
involving music therapists or music educators, such as: with clients, students, children, elder people; among nurses, deacons, social workers, preschools teachers or care assistants. The field of Music and Health is not necessarily about illness or care, but can as well be understood as an aspect of quality......Narratives about music and health Dr Bo Nilsson, Kristianstad University, Sweden Dr Mats Uddholm, University College Nordjylland, Denmark Music is used in many professional contexts that are not associated with music therapy or music education in a traditional sense. How do professionals...... in different contexts use music and how do they describe their thoughts about music in their professional work? Those are the main questions in our study focusing on narratives about music and health in professional relations. In a pilot study six strategically chosen participants from Sweden and Denmark...
Bailey, P H
Many nurse-researchers using qualitative strategies have been concerned with assuring quality in their work. The early literature reveals that the concepts of validity and reliability, as understood from the positivist perspective, are somehow inappropriate and inadequate when applied to interpretive research. More recent literature suggests that because of the positivist and interpretive paradigms are epistemologically divergent, the transfer of quality criteria from one perspective to the other is not automatic or even reasonable. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to clarify what the terms quality, trustworthiness, credibility, authenticity, and goodness mean in qualitative research findings. The process of assuring quality, validation, in qualitative research will be discussed within the context of the interpretive method, narrative analysis. A brief review of quality in narrative analysis nursing research will also be presented.
Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Kronlid, David
and fiction. By opposing the classic anthropocentric ontological split between human (discourse) and object, fiction and Reality, OOO opens up for a new understanding of the role of narratives as independent objects on the same scale as grains of sand, universities, axolotls and planets. In short...... of speed, acceleration, the rhythm of technogenic moving and mooring, which can be translated into an understanding of our own movements and moorings through life and how we engage with new things, such as mediating new information through a certain pace, rhythm, movement, acceleration, slowing down....... This fictive/Real example of a narrative object illustrates that regardless of the metaphysical status of what/who we encounter in education and throughout life, if this experience becomes meaningful to us, we are navigating around them, towards them, and enmesh with them in the same principle ways...
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...
Principles of a mobile gps-enabled gis acting as a tourist information system are discussed and exemplified with special focus on the narrative aspects of tourist guidance. Flexible adaptation to user movements is accomplished by providing information about objects that the user passes as well......-study of H.C. Andersen's residences in Copenhagen...
Ambler, Tim; Neely, Andrew
Companies are being pressed to be more transparent in their annual reporting and, at the same time,interest is moving from the formal accounts to the narrative sections, partly in response to the increasing importance of the intangible assets not on the balance sheet. The paper sets out the changes in UK requirements, ummarised in a Framework provided by the Worshipful Company of Marketors, and company practice. The two weakest areas in relation to the Accounting Standards B...
Jacobus J. (Jakkie Strachan
Full Text Available As an Afrikaner man doing research on ubuntu, what are the possibilities for meaningful research? In this article, some aspects of the difficulties and possibilities that may be encountered in such a research programme will be explored. Within a postmodern worldview, and framed within postfoundational practical theology, social-constructionism, a narrative hermeneutic metaphor and autoethnography will be used as tools to explore some difficulties and possibilities of such a research undertaking.
van Dusseldorp, Loes R L C; van Meijel, Berno K G; Derksen, Jan J L
The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. The emotional intelligence of 98 Dutch nurses caring for psychiatric patients is reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory within a cross-sectional research design. The mean level of emotional intelligence of this sample of professionals is statistically significant higher than the emotional intelligence of the general population. Female nurses score significantly higher than men on the subscales Empathy, Social Responsibility, Interpersonal Relationship, Emotional Self-awareness, Self-Actualisation and Assertiveness. No correlations are found between years of experience and age on the one hand and emotional intelligence on the other hand. The results of this study show that nurses in psychiatric care indeed score above average in the emotional intelligence required to cope with the amount of emotional labour involved in daily mental health practice. The ascertained large range in emotional intelligence scores among the mental health nurses challenges us to investigate possible implications which higher or lower emotional intelligence levels may have on the quality of care. For instance, a possible relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the quality of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship or the relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the manner of coping with situations characterised by a great amount of emotional labour (such as caring for patients who self-harm or are suicidal). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This paper aims to tackle the subtle relation between autobiographical narratives and identity construction, from a non essentialist conception of identity. In a perspective that articulates philosophy of language, psychoanalysis, semiotics and literary critique, we posit the concept of biographical space as an analytical instrument to make a critical update of the reconfiguration of identities and subjectivities in contemporary culture, marked by the predominance of the biographical, the private and a kind of "public intimacy". This look is more symptomatic than descriptive: it intends to account for the rise of auto/biographical narratives and life-stories, from canonic genres to their multiple derivations in the media, social networks and the most diverse artistic practices, a phenomenon that seems to reaffirm the notion of narrative identities by Ricoeur. Our analysis here, from an ethic, aesthetic and political point of view, will focus on two visual arts experiences that have recently taken place for the first time in Buenos Aires: Christian Boltanski's and Tracey Emin's, solo exhibitions, each of them with a different biographical approach.
Full Text Available In this article, I look back in an art/research experiment of convening an exhibition of women artists and inviting them to a round-table discussion in the context of a sociological conference. The artists who took part in this event had been previously interviewed for a feminist research project, entitled "In the Fold Between Life and Art, a Genealogy of Women Artists". The conference exhibition gave the artists the opportunity to appear to an academic audience and present their work while the round-table discussion created a forum for a narrative event where all women were invited to recount stories of becoming an artist. In looking at this event I want to explore questions around the possibilities and limitations of narratives in microsociological inquiries. In following trails of ARENDT's theorisation of stories, I explore connections and tensions between social, political and cultural entanglements in narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501193
Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.
Gilkison, Andrea; Giddings, Lynne; Smythe, Liz
Health professional educators have long grappled with how to teach the more elusive art of practice alongside the science (a term that encompasses the sort of professional knowledge that can be directly passed on). A competent practitioner is one who knows when, how and for whom to apply knowledge and skills, thereby making the links between theory and practice. They combine art and science in such a way that integrates knowledge with insight. This participatory hermeneutic study explored the experience of teachers and students of implementing a narrative-centred curriculum in undergraduate midwifery education. It revealed that when real life narratives were central to the learning environment, students' learning about the art of midwifery practice was enhanced as they learned about midwifery decisions, reflected on their own values and beliefs and felt an emotional connection with the narrator. Further, art and science became melded together in the context specific wisdom of practice (phronesis).
Czibor, Andrea; Vincze, Orsolya; Bereczkei, Tamas
This study explored the reasons and motives underlying the decisions of individuals with strong Machiavellian attitudes (High Machs). One hundred and fifty undergraduate students completed the Mach-IV test, and their contributions to, financial success in and narrative reports of a public goods game were analysed. High Machs contributed less to the public good and gained more benefit than Low Machs. Analysis of the narrative reports showed that High Machs used significantly fewer verbs referring to emotional involvement and first person plural verb forms, than did Low Machs. This study confirmed previous findings that High Machs have a cool and rational character and a proself orientation and showed that their lack of group orientation may account for their low cooperation in social dilemmas. The results of narrative content analysis provide a new perspective on the motives and values behind High Machs' decisions and success in different fields of social life. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
The author's purpose in this article is to describe the effectiveness of video-cued narrative reflection as a research approach for accessing relational, practice-based, and lived understandings. Video-cued narrative reflection provides moment-by-moment access to tacit experience. The immediate nature of the videotape captures emotional nuances, embodied perceptions, spatial influences, relational understandings, situational factors, and temporal manifestations. By watching videotaped interactions, participants are able to re-collect, re-experience, and interpret their life world. Video-cued narrative reflection allows participants to be simultaneously engaged and reflective while describing significant understandings. By inserting audiotaped reflective commentary of participants into the original videotape transcript, contextual meanings can be located and articulated more easily. Although not appropriate for all types of research, this approach offers promise for certain studies.
The past 10-15 years have seen a rapid increase in the study of narrative across all the social sciences. It is sometimes assumed that narrative has the same meaning irrespective of the context in which it is expressed. This article considers different levels of narrative analysis within health psychology. Specifically, it considers the character of health and illness narratives as a function of the personal, interpersonal, positional and societal levels of analysis. At the personal level of analysis narratives are portrayed as expressions of the lived experience of the narrator. At the interpersonal level of analysis the narrative is one that is co-created in dialogue. At the positional level of analysis the analysis considers the differences in social position between the narrator and the listener. The societal level of analysis is concerned with the socially shared stories that are characteristic of certain communities or societies. The challenge is to articulate the connections between these different levels of narrative analysis and to develop strategies to promote emancipatory narratives.
Full Text Available This essay argues for narrative competence as an underlying skill neglected in educational policy makers’ calls for enhanced literacy through improved reading, writing, numeracy and working with digital technology. This argument is presented in three parts. First, a genealogy of the narrative is presented by looking at understandings of narratives with respect to changes in technology and socio-cultural relations. Three technological forms of the narrative are examined: the oral, written and image based narrative. Second, revisiting Bernstein, narrative competency is connected to pedagogic practice. The focus is upon code recognition and the rhythm of narrative in a classroom context. Third, a proposal is made to develop narrative competence as a research programme capable of exploring literacy in an age of open learning. The core assertion of this essay is that when narrative is understood in a multi-directional, multi-voiced and multi-punctual sense, opportunities are created for a pedagogic practice that is in tune with the demands placed upon youth and their relationship to changing technologies. This makes the exploration of connections between narrative competence, pedagogic practice and technology the central focus of this essay.
Burger, Lisa K.; Miller, Peggy J.
Investigated personal storytelling among young working-class and middle-class children, observing them at home at age 2; age 6 and 3; and under-one year. Analysis of generic properties, narrative content, and emotion talk revealed a complex configuration of similarities and differences. Differentiation between working-class and middle-class…
Haas, Brian W; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M
The ability to identify the cause of another person's emotional reaction is an important component associated with improved success of social relationships and survival. Although many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in emotion recognition, very little is currently known regarding the processes involved during emotion attribution decisions. Research on complementary "emotion understanding" mechanisms, including empathy and theory of mind, has demonstrated that emotion understanding decisions are often made through relatively emotion- or cognitive-based processing streams. The current study was designed to investigate the behavioral and brain mechanisms involved in emotion attribution decisions. We predicted that dual processes, emotional and cognitive, are engaged during emotion attribution decisions. Sixteen healthy adults completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to characterize individual differences in tendency to make emotion- versus cognitive-based interpersonal decisions. Participants then underwent functional MRI while making emotion attribution decisions. We found neuroimaging evidence that emotion attribution decisions engage a similar brain network as other forms of emotion understanding. Further, we found evidence in support of a dual processes model involved during emotion attribution decisions. Higher scores of personal distress were associated with quicker emotion attribution decisions and increased anterior insula activity. Conversely, higher scores in perspective taking were associated with delayed emotion attribution decisions and increased prefrontal cortex and premotor activity. These findings indicate that the making of emotion attribution decisions relies on dissociable emotional and cognitive processing streams within the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M
This study tests whether a personal narrative can persuade people to value comparative data on physician quality. We conducted an online experiment with 850 adults. One group viewed a cartoon narrative on physician quality variation, another saw text on physician quality variation, and there was a control group. Study participants hypothetically selected a physician from a display of four physicians. The top-quality physician was furthest away and most expensive. We conducted multivariate models examining the relationship between experimental group and choice of the top-quality physician. There was no overall relationship between narrative or text information and choice of the highest quality physician. Among higher numerate participants, however, those who viewed the narrative had odds 2.7 times higher of selecting the top-quality physician compared with the control group. Personal narratives can persuade higher numerate people to consider quality when selecting physicians.
Lopes, Paulo N; Brackett, Marc A; Nezlek, John B; Schütz, Astrid; Sellin, Ina; Salovey, Peter
Two studies found positive relationships between the ability to manage emotions and the quality of social interactions, supporting the predictive and incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In a sample of 118 American college students (Study 1), higher scores on the managing emotions subscale of the MSCEIT were positively related to the quality of interactions with friends, evaluated separately by participants and two friends. In a diary study of social interaction with 103 German college students (Study 2), managing emotions scores were positively related to the perceived quality of interactions with opposite sex individuals. Scores on this subscale were also positively related to perceived success in impression management in social interactions with individuals of the opposite sex. In both studies, the main findings remained statistically significant after controlling for Big Five personality traits.
This article analyses and theorises the practice of biographical storytelling of HIV-positive AIDS activists in South Africa. Combining research in illness narratives, studies of emotions in social activism and analysis of global health institutions in Africa, I explore how biographical self-narrations are deployed to facilitate access to resources and knowledge and thus acquire material and symbolic value. I illustrate my argument through the analysis of the case of an AIDS activist who became a professional biographical storyteller. Based on the analysis which I claim to represent wider dynamics in human-rights-based health activism in the Global South, I propose the concept of narrative economies by which I mean the set of exchange relationships within which biographical self-narrations circulate and produce social value for individuals and organisations. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Kniazev, G G; Mitrofanova, L G; Bocharov, A V
Emotional intelligence-related differences in oscillatory responses to emotional facial expressions were investigated in 48 subjects (26 men and 22 women) in age 18-30 years. Participants were instructed to evaluate emotional expression (angry, happy and neutral) of each presented face on an analog scale ranging from -100 (very hostile) to + 100 (very friendly). High emotional intelligence (EI) participants were found to be more sensitive to the emotional content of the stimuli. It showed up both in their subjective evaluation of the stimuli and in a stronger EEG theta synchronization at an earlier (between 100 and 500 ms after face presentation) processing stage. Source localization using sLORETA showed that this effect was localized in the fusiform gyrus upon the presentation of angry faces and in the posterior cingulate gyrus upon the presentation of happy faces. At a later processing stage (500-870 ms) event-related theta synchronization in high emotional intelligence subject was higher in the left prefrontal cortex upon the presentation of happy faces, but it was lower in the anterior cingulate cortex upon presentation of angry faces. This suggests the existence of a mechanism that can be selectively increase the positive emotions and reduce negative emotions.
Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław
We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli.
The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.
Full Text Available This article is a proposal of identity research through its process and narrative character. As a starting point I present a definition of identity understood as the whole life process of finding identification. Next I present my own model of auto/biography-narrative research inspired by hermeneutic and phenomenological traditions of thinking about experiencing reality. I treat auto/biography-narrative research as a means of exploratory conduct, based on the narrator’s biography data, also considering the researcher’s autobiographical thought. In the final part of the article I focus on showing the narrative structure of identity and autobiography. I emphasise this relation in definitions qualifying autobiography as written life narration and identity as a narration of autobiography.
Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume
Narratives of being ‘a good teacher’: everyday life, morality and teachers’ narratives in a Kenyan village This paper explores how Kenyan school teachers narrate and practise professional work in their everyday lives in an educational context shaped by global and local narratives of education...... or her ideas about the world, which is used to organise experiences (Høyen, 2016). The study also draws on everyday life learning (Schütz, 1973; Heller, 1984) and the social anthropology of morality (Kleinman, 1992) to explore how teachers’ narrative learning comprises processes that are not only...... in western Kenya provided a framework for observing how teachers’ narratives as professionals became mediated through sociocultural forces and everyday life in school, at home and during their spare time. Empirically, the study explores four school teachers and their unique and diverse understandings of what...
Kurby, Christopher A; Asiala, Lillian K E; Mills, Steven R
The perception of event structure in continuous activity is important for everyday comprehension. Although the segmentation of experience into events is a normal concomitant of perceptual processing, previous research has shown age differences in the ability to perceive structure in naturalistic activity, such as a movie of someone washing a car. However, past research has also shown that older adults have a preserved ability to comprehend events in narrative text, which suggests that narrative may improve the event processing of older adults. This study tested whether there are age differences in event segmentation at the intersection of continuous activity and narrative: narrative film. Younger and older adults watched and segmented a narrative film, The Red Balloon, into coarse and fine events. Changes in situational features, such as changes in characters, goals, and objects predicted segmentation. Analyses revealed little age-difference in segmentation behavior. This suggests the possibility that narrative structure supports event understanding for older adults.
schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema.......This paper aims at establishing the origin of the narrative schema in the perception of intentional movements. The distinction between mechanical and intentional movements is vital for human beings, and the narrative schema, which is underpinned by this distinction, is therefore a basic cognitive...... principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...
Larkey, Linda; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth; DiFulvio, Gloria; Gubrium, Aline
Digital storytelling workshops are increasingly being used to capture lived experiences and develop/disseminate health promotion messages for vulnerable and marginalized populations. Thirty female Latina teens of varied sexual/parity status produced digital stories of significant life experiences in a group context and then viewed and evaluated them using the Narrative Quality Assessment Tool. This tool was used to examine participants' experience of emotional engagement and identification with each story as well as a single-item indicator of desire to "do something in my community" related to the story. Emotional engagement was moderately strong; identification scores were neutral relative to the stories. Emotional engagement was strongly, significantly related to "desire to act in my community," while identification was not related. Emotional engagement should be considered an important factor to incorporate in the production of digital stories for purposes of developing interest in social action beyond the digital storytelling workshop.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...
O'Toole, Mia S; Zachariae, Robert; Mennin, Douglas S
Individuals with social anxiety disorder have often been considered inflexible in their emotion regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate emotion regulation flexibility in socially anxious individuals in response to two contextual factors, namely different levels of emotion intensity and emotion type. A daily diary approach was employed, investigating emotion regulation (i.e., experiential avoidance, expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal) in college students scoring high (N = 62; HSA) and low (N = 52; LSA) on social anxiety. Results revealed that HSAs were found to use more experiential avoidance than LSAs, especially at higher levels of negative intensity. The use of this emotion regulation strategy appeared to be driven by guilt, nervousness, and sadness. There were no between-group differences concerning the other strategies in response to varying levels of emotional intensity. Together, the results provide evidence for inflexible emotion regulation in HSAs, reflected in an unwillingness to experience negative emotions.
Debbie J. Pope
Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.
van der Leeuw, Renée M.; Overeem, Karlijn; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
Physicians involved in residency training often receive feedback from residents on their teaching. Research shows that learners value narrative feedback, but knowledge of the frequency and determinants of narrative feedback in teaching performance evaluation is lacking. This study aims to
Vanina Belén Canavire
Latin American publishing market, in this article we provide clues that can help understand the mass consumption of the genre. Focusing on reading as a communication phenomenon itself – the interaction that occurs between text and reader to cognitive, physical, and emotional –, it is possible to identify the ways in which the reader recognizes the experiential narratives featuring in the texts. Finally, one can note a reading that affects, that moves, that “hits”, a reading that mobilizes emotions and body sensations.
Hatavara, Mari Annukka; Mildorf, Jarmila
This article discusses the recent trends in Fictionality Studies and argues for a point of view focusing more on the narrative dimension of fictionality than on the fictive story content. With the analysis of two case studies, where a non-fictional third person narrator represents the experience...... with other minds travel between fictional and nonfictional narratives, and between stories artistically designed and those occurring in conversational or documentary environments....
By coining the term “unreliable narrator” Wayne Booth hypothesized another agent in his model besides the author, the implicit author, to explain the double coding of narratives where a distorted view of reality and the exposure of this distortion are presented simultaneously. The article deals with the applicability of the concept in visual narratives. Since unreliability is traditionally considered to be intertwined with first person narratives, it works through subjective mediators. Accord...
Narrative embedding is a common narrative structural device. Genette (1980, 1988) distinguished among various diegetic levels to explain the discrete narrative levels in embedded narratives and he defined metalepsis as the deliberate disturbing or breaking of narrative boundaries. Metalepsis, described by Malina (2002) as a mutinous narrative…
Caine, Vera; Estefan, Andrew; Clandinin, D. Jean
In the 25 years since narrative inquiry emerged as a social science research methodology, it has been rapidly taken up in the social sciences. In what is sometimes called a "narrative revolution," researchers with diverse understandings have co-opted the concept of narrative inquiry and used narrative inquiry or narrative research to…
and forms the war narrative that would ultimately serve as the motivation for the American people to engage in the worthy, and thus desirable...the British had to pay for their service. This reinforced a perception at the time that the British soldiers lacked motivation . This was seen in common...patriotism geared towards attaining revenge. For example, theater audiences would emotionally react by weeping and stamping their feet and then cheer
principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...... schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema....
Full Text Available By coining the term “unreliable narrator” Wayne Booth hypothesized another agent in his model besides the author, the implicit author, to explain the double coding of narratives where a distorted view of reality and the exposure of this distortion are presented simultaneously. The article deals with the applicability of the concept in visual narratives. Since unreliability is traditionally considered to be intertwined with first person narratives, it works through subjective mediators. According to scholarly literature on the subject, the narrator has to be strongly characterized, or in other words, anthropomorphized. In the case of film, the main problem is that the narrator is either missing or the narration cannot be attributed entirely to them. There is a medial rupture where the apparatus mediates the story instead of a character’s oral or written discourse. The present paper focuses on some important but overlooked questions about the nature of cinematic storytelling through a re-examination of |the lying flashback in Alfred Hitchcock's Stage Fright. Can a character-narrator control the images the viewer sees? How can the filmic image still be unreliable without having an anthropomorphic narrator? How useful is the term focalization when we are dealing with embedded character-narratives in film?
It is quite reasonable to claim that narratives can include, explain and recreate science and that this means of science communication is generally popular. This idea seems to be supported by the fact that many contemporary authors who include science as a theme in their work receive a good reception among the public (at least in Britain). Novels like Fermat's Last Theorem by Simon Singh, Longitude by Dava Sobel and Neuromancer by William Gibson stayed on the best seller lists for weeks. Plays like Copenhagen by Michael Frayn, Arcadia by Tom Stoppard, Oxigen by Carl Djerassi and Ronald Hoffmann, Diary of a steak by Deborah Levy as well as Blue heart by Caryl Churchill enjoyed complete sell-outs in London and other cities in Britain. The explanation for this popularity seems to be that narratives are amusing, attractive, and interesting. Therefore, we can maintain that they are popular. But are they also a long-lasting way of transmitting knowledge? Do people remember scientific information conveyed by this means better than they remember the traditional formats like paradigmatic textbooks? These are questions that need to be addressed. To understand how narratives organize, represent and convey information, it is an important task to evaluate the advantages that this media offers for the communication of science. Narratives include several characteristics that make them memorable, understandable, enjoyable and a good way to present and communicate knowledge. Some of these attributes are achieved through narrative structures, including literary devices. In this research I discuss how the general public is familiar with the narrative structure of a story, how schemas for these narrative structures allow identification, induce emotions and promote understanding - important elements for the learning and memory process. I also look at how individually the narrative resources (or literary devices), in addition to their aesthetic value, can also work as mnemonic
Zhu, Nan; Cai, Yong-hua; Sun, Fa-wei; Yang-yang, Yi-fan
Although researchers generally subscribe to the opinion that emotions play a critical role in cognition, very few (see Niedenthal, Halberstadt, & Innes-Ker, 1999) have examined the specific interaction between the emotional state of the perceiver and the emotional meaning of stimuli in conceptual categorization - an important aspect of "higher-level" cognition. Niedenthal et al. (1999) advanced a fine-grained theory of emotional response categorization, arguing that emotional states increase the tendency to categorize concepts into a predictable set of emotional response categories characterized by the common, distinct emotional responses elicited by the concepts. Based on the pioneering work of Niedenthal et al., we further argued that (1) the specific emotion experienced by the individual should selectively facilitate the categorization of concepts associated with the same emotion, (2) both in terms of category inclusion and category exclusion, and (3) this facilitation effect should not be contingent on the awareness of the emotional state. In three experiments, participants were induced to experience different emotional states through movies or a facial-feedback manipulation. They judged whether or not a target concept belonged to the same category as the two comparison concepts. Some of the concept triads shared emotional associations, while others didn't. Results showed that emotive participants had a greater tendency than those in a neutral mood to group concepts according to their emotional associations, and to distinguish concepts with different emotional associations. They were also more efficient in categorizing concepts that had specific emotional meaning corresponding to their own emotional state than to other emotional concepts. Furthermore, participants posing a disgust expression without their knowledge showed higher tendency to categorize concepts according to their relevance to disgust. Implications and potential applications of the findings were
The purpose of this study is to assess issues that arise in the context of epistemological claims in narrative educational research by means of narrative analysis and epistemological evaluation. The research questions which guided the study were: 1) To what extent is epistemology considered by narrative educational researchers?; 2) What issues do…
Miller, Peggy J.; Chen, Eva Chian-Hui; Olivarez, Megan
Although very young children are unable to formulate a personal narrative of the life course, their everyday lives are steeped in narratives. Drawing on ethnographic studies in diverse sociocultural worlds, we argue that the early years of life form a vital preamble to the personal narrative. In this phase of life, the universal predisposition to…
Lim, T.; Louchart, S.; Suttie, N.; Baalsrud Hauge, J.; Stanescu, I.A.; Ortiz, I.M.; Moreno-Ger, P.; Bellotti, F.; Brandao Carvalho, M.; Earp, J.; Ott, M.; Arnab, S.; Berta, R.; Göbel, S.; Wiemeyer, J.
Narratives are used to construct and deconstruct the time and space of events. In games, as in real life, narratives add layers of meaning and engage players by enhancing or clarifying content. From an educational perspective, narratives are a semiotic conduit for evoking critical thinking skills
Coulter, Cathy A.; Smith, Mary Lee
Narrative research has become part of the landscape of education inquiry, yet its theory and practice are still debated and evolving. This article addresses the construction of narratives using literary elements common to nonfiction and fiction writings. The authors discuss these elements and use four narratives to illustrate them. They address…
Wirtz, John G; Kulpavaropas, Supathida
To test the effect of narrative messages and gain- and loss-framed messages on persuasive outcomes with a sample of Hispanic adults. A 2 (message type: narrative, non-narrative) × 2 (message frame: gain-framed, loss-framed) between subjects posttest only. Data were collected at 2 outdoor festivals in West Texas. Participants were a convenience sample of 72 Hispanic adults (mean age, 40.6 years). Main outcome measures were message engagement, message relevance, attitude toward message, healthy eating intention, and physical activity intention. Data analysis included analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. There was no significant difference between narrative and non-narrative messages. Gain-framed messages were rated more positively, whereas loss-framed messages were considered more engaging and also produced higher intentions to eat healthy and to become physically active. The interaction between message type and message framing was not significant. Loss-framed messages produced the unanticipated effect of higher message engagement and higher intention. This finding suggests that messages emphasizing losses associated with unhealthy eating and lack of physical activity may be more effective when targeting Hispanic adults than messages emphasizing potential gains. The lack of difference between narrative and non-narrative messages suggests there is no disadvantage to using narratives, but also no advantage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaver, Joan L; Woods, Nancy F
Our overall aim-through a narrative review-is to critically profile key extant evidence of menopause-related sleep, mostly from studies published in the last decade. We searched the database PubMed using selected Medical Subject Headings for sleep and menopause (n = 588 articles). Using similar headings, we also searched the Cochrane Library (n = 1), Embase (n = 449), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (n = 163), Web of Science (n = 506), and PsycINFO (n = 58). Articles deemed most related to the purpose were reviewed. Results were articulated with interpretive comments according to evidence of sleep quality (self-reported) and sleep patterns (polysomnography and actigraphy) impact as related to reproductive aging and in the context of vasomotor symptoms (VMS; self-reported), vasomotor activity (VMA) events (recorded skin conductance), depressed mood, and ovarian hormones. Predominantly, the menopausal transition conveys poor sleep beyond anticipated age effects. Perceptions of sleep are not necessarily translatable from detectable physical sleep changes and are probably affected by an emotional overlay on symptoms reporting. Sleep quality and pattern changes are mostly manifest in wakefulness indicators, but sleep pattern changes are not striking. Likely contributing are VMS of sufficient frequency/severity and bothersomeness, probably with a sweating component. VMA events influence physical sleep fragmentation but not necessarily extensive sleep loss or sleep architecture changes. Lack of robust connections between perceived and recorded sleep (and VMA) could be influenced by inadequate detection. There is a need for studies of women in well-defined menopausal transition stages who have no sleep problems, accounting for sleep-related disorders, mood, and other symptoms, with attention to VMS dimensions, distribution of VMS during night and day, and advanced measurement of symptoms and physiologic manifestations.
Barnes, Jennifer L; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon
People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties with mentalizing, empathy, and narrative comprehension. A new test of social and narrative cognition, the Moral Dilemmas Film Task, was developed to probe individuals' spontaneous understanding of naturalistic film scenes. Twenty-eight individuals with ASC and 28 neurotypical controls, matched for age, sex, and IQ, watched four short emotionally charged film clips each depicting a moral dilemma, and were asked to write about what they had seen. Individuals with ASC produced significantly shorter film-based narratives and showed a smaller bias for mental states over objects in their narratives than controls. A significant correlation was found between verbal IQ and the level of mentalizing in film narratives for the ASC group, but not the control group, while the reverse pattern was found with a measure of self-reported cognitive and affective empathy. These results suggest that to the extent that both groups succeed in viewing moral dilemmas in terms of mental content, they do so in different ways, with individuals with ASC using verbal scaffolding to increase their ability to draw meaning from social scenes. The well-established empathy deficit in ASC extends to spontaneous interpretation of moral dilemmas. This new film task has the potential to assay different aspects of how the social world is represented differently in ASC, including during moral comprehension.
Pereles, Laurie; Jackson, Roberta; Rosenal, Tom; Nixon, Lara
To determine the value of adding a patient narrative to the clinical assessment of falls in the elderly. Qualitative study of interviews. A fall prevention clinic in Calgary, Alta. Fifteen older adults on a wait list for assessment by the fall clinic and the physiotherapists who assessed them. Participants' stories were audiorecorded and later transcribed and summarized. Stories were collected using open-ended questions, first inviting participants to tell the interviewer about themselves, and then the circumstances of their falls and their reflections on them. In a subsequent visit, transcriptions or summaries were returned to patients for member checking. Narratives were read and analyzed by all 4 investigators using a narrative approach and a close-reading technique. With the patients' additional consent, stories were shared with the fall prevention team for their insights and reactions. Interviews with physiotherapists were audiorecorded and transcribed. The narrative analysis provided new insights into the attitudes about and perceptions of the causes of falls, their effects, and rehabilitation. Close reading exposed presentation of self, locus of control, and underlying social and emotional issues. The addition of patient narratives to clinical assessments offers clinicians an understanding of patients' perspectives, which can be used to better engage patients in rehabilitation. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan R; Serlin, Gayle; George, Ann
The current study examines narratives elicited using a wordless picture book, focusing on language used to describe the characters' thoughts and emotions (i.e., internal state language, ISL). The sample includes 21 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 24 typically developing controls, matched on children's gender, IQ, as well as receptive and expressive vocabulary. This research had three major findings. First, despite equivalent performance on standardized language assessments, the volume of children's narratives (i.e., the number of utterances and words, the range of unique verbs and adjectives) was lower in children with ASD than in typically developing controls. Second, after controlling for narrative volume, the narratives of children with ASD were less likely to reference the characters' emotions than was the case for typically developing controls. Finally, our results revealed a specific association between children's use of emotion terms and their performance on a battery of experimental tasks evaluating children's Theory of Mind abilities. Implications for our understanding of narrative deficits in ASD as well as interventions that use narrative as a context for improving social comprehension are discussed.
Hart, Curtis W
Creative nonfiction and the illness narrative are recently identified approaches to literary expression. They are particularly well suited to the genre of memoir where psychological issues such as mourning and attachment and loss may be explored. The recent memoirs of Sue Erikson Bloland and Honor Moore fulfill the description of creative nonfiction. They offer their readers an opportunity to explore with them the theological and existential issues of revelation, reconciliation, and forgiveness. This paper was first presented for the Working Group on Psychoanalysis and the Arts of the Richardson Research Seminar in the History of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College.
Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L
The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of the data, as well as presenting a quantitative interdisciplinary approach to analyze such open-source data in the context of health narratives. We collected 669,136 tweets referring to vaccination from February 1 to March 9, 2015. These tweets were analyzed to identify key terms, connections among such terms, retweet patterns, the structure of the narrative, and connections to the geographical space. The data analysis captures the anatomy of the themes and relations that make up the discussion about vaccination in Twitter. The results highlight the higher impact of stories contributed by news organizations compared to direct tweets by health organizations in communicating health-related information. They also capture the structure of the antivaccination narrative and its terms of reference. Analysis also revealed the relationship between community engagement in Twitter and state policies regarding child vaccination. Residents of Vermont and Oregon, the two states with the highest rates of non-medical exemption from school-entry vaccines nationwide, are leading the social media discussion in terms of participation. The interdisciplinary study of health-related debates in social media across the cyber-physical debate nexus leads to a greater understanding of public concerns, views, and responses to health-related issues. Further coalescing such capabilities shows promise towards advancing health communication, thus supporting the design of more effective strategies that take into account the complex
Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian
Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of narrative and non-narrative risk communication about sunbed use on ease of imagination and feelings of cancer risk. A total of 233 female sunbed users in the general Dutch population were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a narrative message (i.e., personal testimonial), a non-narrative cognitive message (i.e., factual risk information using cognitive-laden words), or a non-narrative affective message (i.e., factual risk information using affective-laden words). Ease of imagination and feelings of risk were assessed directly after the risk information was given (T1). Three weeks after the baseline session, feelings of risk were measured again (T2). The results revealed that sunbed users who were exposed to narrative risk information could better imagine themselves developing skin cancer and reported higher feelings of skin cancer risk at T1. Moreover, ease of imagination mediated the effects of message type on feelings of risk at T1 and T2. The findings provide support for the effects of narrative risk communication in influencing feelings of cancer risk through ease of imagination. Cancer prevention programmes may therefore benefit from including narrative risk information. Future research is important to investigate other mechanisms of narrative information and their most effective content and format. What is already known on this subject? Evidence is growing for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours. Narratives have increasingly been considered as an effective format for persuasive risk messages and studies have shown narrative risk communication to be effective in influencing cognitive risk beliefs. What does this study add? Increasing understanding of how feelings of cancer
Langlois, Judith H.
An overview of the content of the From Another Perspective collection on emotion and emotion regulation is provided. The lead article identifies fundamental issues of definition and the commentaries represent varying theoretical and methodological perspectives on emotion and emotion regulation. Together, the articles discuss the promises and…
Full Text Available This study investigated the enactment of professional agency in an emotionally troubled work context emerging from a conflicted relationship between the professional and the work organization. Narrative interviews with Finnish educators were utilized. The findings indicate that the enactment of agency was in part framed by the educators’ rational interpretations of the relationship between themselves and their employer, plus their work history and future prospects. However, it was simultaneously embedded with contradictory emotions, such as a sense of being undervalued, fear, and a sense of empowerment. Within this framework, multifaceted professional agency was enacted particularly via leaving the organization. This was also a means of upholding one’s professional identity and resisting the organization’s work practices. The paper contributes to the theorizing of professional agency, particularly regarding its emotional dimension, and elaborates the significance of an emotional relationship between professionals and their organizations.Keywords: career, educators, emotions, meaningful work, narrative research, professional agency, professional identity
Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124
Full Text Available Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+ and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1 connector emotions (e.g., joy, which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2 provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude, which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3 distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment, which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore what is performed in students’ and teachers’ actions in physical education practice in terms of “didactic irritations,” through an analysis of YouTube clips from 285 PE lessons from 27 different countries. Didactic irritations are occurrences that Rønholt describes as those demanding “didactic, pedagogical reflections and discussions, which in turn could lead to alternative thinking and understanding about teaching and learning.” Drawing on Barad’s ideas of performativity to challenge our habitual anthropocentric analytical gaze when looking at educational visual data, and using narrative construction, we also aim to give meaning to actions, relations, and experiences of the participants in the YouTube clips. To do this, we present juxtaposing narratives from teachers and students in terms of three “didactic irritations”: (a stories from a track, (b, stories from a game, and (c, stories from a bench. The stories re-present events-of-moving in the data offering insights into embodied experiences in PE practice, making students’ as well as teachers’ actions in PE practice understandable.
Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon
Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.
Full Text Available This article is a more general "companion" to the subsequent, Brian ROBERTS (2011 "Interpreting Photographic Portraits: Autobiography, Time Perspectives and Two School Photographs". The article seeks to add to the growing awareness of the importance of visual materials and methods in qualitative social research and to give an introduction to the "photographic self image"—self-portraits and portraits. It focuses on time and memory, including the experiential associations (in consciousness and the senses that the self engenders, thus linking the "visual" (photographic and "auto/biographical". The article attempts to "map" a field—the use of portraiture within social science—drawing on narrative and biographical research, on one side, and photographic portraiture, on the other. In supporting the use of photography in qualitative research it points to the need for researchers to have a greater knowledge of photographic (and art criticism and cognisance of photographic practices. The article does not intend to give a definitive account of photographic portraiture or prescribe in detail how it may be used within social science. It is an initial overview of the development and issues within the area of photographic portraiture and an exploration of relevant methodological issues when images of individuals are employed within social science—so that "portraiture" is better understood and developed within biographical and narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110263
Ntourou, Katerina; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A
This study experimentally investigated behavioral correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation and their relation to speech (dis)fluency in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not (CWNS) stutter during emotion-eliciting conditions. Participants (18 CWS, 14 boys; 18 CWNS, 14 boys) completed two experimental tasks (1) a neutral ("apples and leaves in a transparent box," ALTB) and (2) a frustrating ("attractive toy in a transparent box," ATTB) task, both of which were followed by a narrative task. Dependent measures were emotional reactivity (positive affect, negative affect), emotion regulation (self-speech, distraction) exhibited during the ALTB and the ATTB tasks, percentage of stuttered disfluencies (SDs) and percentage of non-stuttered disfluencies (NSDs) produced during the narratives. Results indicated that preschool-age CWS exhibited significantly more negative emotion and more self-speech than preschool-age CWNS. For CWS only, emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., distraction, self-speech) during the experimental tasks were predictive of stuttered disfluencies during the subsequent narrative tasks. Furthermore, for CWS there was no relation between emotional processes and non-stuttered disfluencies, but CWNS's negative affect was significantly related to nonstuttered disfluencies. In general, present findings support the notion that emotional processes are associated with childhood stuttering. Specifically, findings are consistent with the notion that preschool-age CWS are more emotionally reactive than CWNS and that their self-speech regulatory attempts may be less than effective in modulating their emotions. The reader will be able to: (a) communicate the relevance of studying the role of emotion in developmental stuttering close to the onset of stuttering and (b) describe the main findings of the present study in relation to previous studies that have used different methodologies to investigate the role of emotion in developmental
Bruna, O.; Avetisyan, H.; Holub, J.
This paper deals with textual emotion classification which gained attention in recent years. Emotion classification is used in user experience, product evaluation, national security, and tutoring applications. It attempts to detect the emotional content in the input text and based on different approaches establish what kind of emotional content is present, if any. Textual emotion classification is the most difficult to handle, since it relies mainly on linguistic resources and it introduces many challenges to assignment of text to emotion represented by a proper model. A crucial part of each emotion detector is emotion model. Focus of this paper is to introduce emotion models used for classification. Categorical and dimensional models of emotion are explained and some more advanced approaches are mentioned.
Conclusions: Male sport climbers used the recognition and understanding of emotional states to solve problems for success in climbing and characterize their higher level of overall emotional intelligence in a better way. Sport climbers of both sexes had average levels of acceptance of emotion and empathy. This means that climbers of both sexes were characterized by low levels of other emotional experiences and the use of emotional experiences in prospective activities.
Mastering Emotions: The Emotional Politics of Slavery explores how the emotions and affective norms of the Antebellum South were conditioned upon and constructed through the institution of slavery. Though slavery is a subject wrought with emotion, there has been no focus in recent historical scholarship on the affective dimensions of slavery. Studies in the history of emotion have also largely ignored slavery. My intervention in these fields reveals the ways that both slaveholders and slaves ...
Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta
This study focuses on the concept Managing Emotions from Emotional Intelligence (I.E.), (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), also identified as Emotional Regulation (Bisquerra, 2000), to obtain recognition and practical use of this concept, through the use of Emotional Fitness charts (Bimbela-Pedrola, 2008), to develop these abilities and manage emotions in contexts of practical life. Objective: To train preschool teachers, as well as primary and lower secondary sc...
Firstly, we analyse the design of this sociolinguistics unit within the framework of theories of narrative and multicultural education. Secondly, we analyse three language biographies produced by students in this course in terms of student learning, identity issues and sociolinguistic themes. The narratives provided an ...
Landau, Dana; Drori, Israel; Terjesen, Siri
This article explores the cultural narratives through which members of organizations define legitimacy during prolonged periods of change. We view legitimacy work as a cultural practice and interpretive process that takes the form of organizational narratives. We show how the shifting configurations
Compares narrative approaches to Kohlberg's theory of moral development along five dimensions: values relevance, legitimacy, universality, rationality, and commensurability. Argues that, contrary to Kohlberg's theory, narrative approaches may lead to contradiction in epistemology, nihilism in moral choices, and opportunism in relationships.…
Çirakli, Mustafa Zeki
The present paper explores the implications of parallel narrative structure in Paul Harding's "Tinkers" (2009). Besides primarily recounting the two sets of parallel narratives, "Tinkers" also comprises of seemingly unrelated fragments such as excerpts from clock repair manuals and diaries. The main stories, however, told…
Full Text Available As fighting between Russian backed rebels and government forces is taking place in eastern Ukraine, it is all the more apparent the existing political divide that exists in the country. The complex history of being subjugated by surrounding countries and major resettlements of Ukrainians is testing the country in a major way. Historically, emphasis on understanding the Soviet Union was focused on the Soviet perspective — the Soviet narratives, and most recently on reemerging Russia. As a result, little attention is placed on Ukraine’s history. In order to understand the Ukrainian identity, it’s necessary to know the narratives that encompass Ukraine’s history. As freedom and liberty exemplifies American identity and ideology, the history of Ukraine also contains a system of stories that support Ukrainian culture. This paper, the first chapter of my dissertation, details the sources I’ve used to develop my methodology for understanding and analyzing narratives. As I began my research I soon realized the complexity of narratives leading me to explore the elements contained in narratives such as story, plot, character, archetypes, and the Hero’s Journey or Monomyth. I will explain how I understand the meaning of narrative and master narrative, supported by relevant sources, and conclude with the methodology I will use for analysis of the master narratives that envelope the major historical events of Ukraine
Manners, Ian James; Murray, Philomena
of the forerunner to the current EU we ask if this noble narrative of war and peace, which is at the heart of European integration, at an end. We argue that this principled account is likely to remain just one of several narratives of European integration, but with its reputation somewhat tarnished. Fresh...
Christopher R Stones
Oct 2, 2014 ... ... analysis. Likewise, it is argued that Ricoeur's work on narrativity and narrative ... method of Husserl's static phenomenological analysis .... the possibility of description in a qualitative research ... theoretical perspective, assumption, hypothesis, and so on” .... every case the noetic constitution of the object is.
Mønsted, Troels; Reddy, Madhu; Bansler, Jørgen P.
that displays narrative rather than scientific characteristics. While the qualities of the medical record as a repository of information or as a coordinative tool are well known, the role it plays in the unfolding of narratives in medical reasoning is less discussed. This paper examines this issue through...
Marini, Andrea; Galetto, Valentina; Zampieri, Elisa; Vorano, Lorenza; Zettin, Marina; Carlomagno, Sergio
Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS less than 8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants…
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The application of narrative scenarios in engineering or socio-technical systems provides an important link between general ideas and specification of technical system requirements. The chapter explores how the narrative approach can enrich the scenario 'skeleton. In addition, criteria are sugges...
Rynearson, E. K.
This essay outlines the dynamics of retelling the violent death of a loved one and the narrative "dilemma" of vulnerable family members fixated on retelling. To counter this fixation, the author presents a mythic retelling of violent death (the Myth of Theseus) as narrative basis for developing a restorative retelling. The essay begins by…
Gaydos, H Lea
This paper explores the need for and nature of personal narratives and their relevance to nursing practice. It proposes that the co-creative aesthetic process can be used to understand and co-create personal narratives through an emphasis on self-defining memories and metaphor. Many authors in nursing and other human sciences have recognized the need for and importance of personal narrative, its relationship to aesthetic knowing and its value in qualitative research and in practice. The role of memory and metaphor in the creation of meaning in personal narratives, however, has not been sufficiently explored in nursing literature. The nature of personal narrative is explored, focusing on the way meaning is created from self-defining memories using metaphor. Then, the importance of personal narratives in nursing practice is considered, followed by discussion about how meaning in personal narratives may be co-created between clients and nurses using an aesthetic process developed by the author. The co-creative aesthetic process is an example of nursing as art and can be used to co-create personal narratives in practice. The experience of co-creating a self story with a nurse can be healing, as the self story is heard by a caring person, memories are understood in new ways, and the self story is both confirmed and recreated.
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune
In this article we define various aspects, or parameters, of interactive narrative systems and present them as a framework that can help authors, creators and designers to conceive, analyze, or prioritize the narrative goals of a given system. We start by defining the Author-Audience distance (AA...
Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
This paper will introduce and discuss a new model for understanding the relation between narrative and games, by looking at the narrative quality of game mechanics. First, a review of the terms ”Narrative” and ”Game Mechanics” is made, and defined in this context, before a literature review, base...
Losh, Molly; Gordon, Peter C
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by serious difficulties with the social use of language, along with impaired social functioning and ritualistic/repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, 2013). While substantial heterogeneity exists in symptom expression, impairments in language discourse skills, including narrative (or storytelling), are universally observed in autism (Tager-Flusberg et al. in Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 335-364, 2005). This study applied a computational linguistic tool, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), to objectively characterize narrative performance in high-functioning individuals with autism and typically-developing controls, across two different narrative contexts that differ in the interpersonal and cognitive demands placed on the narrator. Results indicated that high-functioning individuals with autism produced narratives comparable in semantic content to those produced by controls when narrating from a picture book, but produced narratives diminished in semantic quality in a more demanding narrative recall task. This pattern is similar to that detected from analyses of hand-coded picture book narratives in prior research, and extends findings to an additional narrative context that proves particularly challenging for individuals with autism. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of LSA as a quantitative, objective, and efficient measure of narrative ability.
Full Text Available This article explores the representation of animal issues in Taiwanese newspaper. By investigating the effects of boundary-making and emotional politics of the narratives, the authors aim to grasp the evolvement of the narrative strategies of animal issues. The research mainly looks at local journalism from 1950 to 2014, in which the alteration of the use of words and topics related to animals are displayed, and selects reports representative of such vicissitudes as subjects of narrative analysis. Our results show that the narrative strategy of the animal issues in newspapers gradually turned toward the invocation of more complicated emotions. Moreover, with the growing attention that Taiwanese society pays to animal issues, the emotionalized strategy of communication also stimulates the cohesion of public consensus on such issues. As substantiated by the industrial and epidemic domains of animal-related narratives, where the security of human society still surpasses the ethical care for animals, animals of discrete species provoke either anxiety or sympathy, thus manifesting a differentiated emotionalized tendency.
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that digital tools provide opportunities for new storytelling techniques. To take full advantage of the new media resources and to establish an innovative news narrative structure, the existing research limit and the relationship between narrative and the media were examined. This paper progresses from a discussion on the narrative structure to how the plot of a story is influenced by its discourse, and then to how different media characteristics can change the structure and voice of the involved narrative. A new narrative structure that can be used to explore the hypertext and interactivity of Internet news is described. Finally, this paper discusses the cultivation of news storytelling in the digital age.
Full Text Available The current study investigated the interactive effects of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation (AER and primed emotion regulation strategy on skin conductance level (SCL and heart rate during provoked anger. The study was a 2 × 2 [AER tendency (expression vs. control × priming (expression vs. control] between subject design. Participants were assigned to two groups according to their performance on an emotion regulation-IAT (differentiating automatic emotion control tendency and automatic emotion expression tendency. Then participants of the two groups were randomly assigned to two emotion regulation priming conditions (emotion control priming or emotion expression priming. Anger was provoked by blaming participants for slow performance during a subsequent backward subtraction task. In anger provocation, SCL of individuals with automatic emotion control tendencies in the control priming condition was lower than of those with automatic emotion control tendencies in the expression priming condition. However, SCL of individuals with automatic emotion expression tendencies did no differ in the automatic emotion control priming or the automatic emotion expression priming condition. Heart rate during anger provocation was higher in individuals with automatic emotion expression tendencies than in individuals with automatic emotion control tendencies regardless of priming condition. This pattern indicates an interactive effect of individual differences in AER and emotion regulation priming on SCL, which is an index of emotional arousal. Heart rate was only sensitive to the individual differences in AER, and did not reflect this interaction. This finding has implications for clinical studies of the use of emotion regulation strategy training suggesting that different practices are optimal for individuals who differ in AER tendencies.
Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud
The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits.
Cavazza, Marc; Smith, Cameron; Charlton, Daniel; Crook, Nigel; Boye, Johan; Pulman, Stephen; Moilanen, Karo; Pizzi, David; de La Camara, Raul Santos; Turunen, Markku
Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) are poised to constitute a specific category within persuasive systems, in particular through their ability to support affective dialogue. One possible approach consists in using ECA as virtual coaches or personal assistants and to make persuasion part of a dialogue game implementing specific argumentation or negotiation features. In this paper, we explore an alternative framework, which emerges from the long-term development of ECA as "Companions" supporting free conversation with the user, rather than task-oriented dialogue. Our system aims at influencing user attitudes as part of free conversation, albeit on a limited set of topics. We describe the implementation of a Companion ECA to which the user reports on his working day, and which can assess the user's emotional attitude towards daily events in the office, trying to influence such attitude using affective strategies derived from a narrative model. This discussion is illustrated through examples from a first fully-implemented prototype.
Full Text Available Do narratives shape how humans process other minds or do they presuppose an existing theory of mind? This study experimentally investigated this problem by assessing subject responses to systematic alterations in the genre, levels of intentionality, and linguistic complexity of narratives. It showed that the interaction of genre and intentionality level are crucial in determining how narratives are cognitively processed. Specifically, genres that deployed evolutionarily familiar scenarios (relationship stories were rated as being higher in quality when levels of intentionality were increased; conversely, stories that lacked evolutionary familiarity (espionage stories were rated as being lower in quality with increases in intentionality level. Overall, the study showed that narrative is not solely either the origin or the product of our intuitions about other minds; instead, different genres will have different-even opposite-effects on how we understand the mind states of others.
Full Text Available Traditionally, the exploration of the impact of trauma on trauma survivors in South Africa has been focused mainly on the bio-psychosocial aspects. The bio-psychosocial approach recognises that trauma affects people biologically, socially and psychologically. In this article, the author explores a holistic understanding of the effects of trauma on people from communities historically affected by political violence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a participatory action research design (PAR as a way of working through trauma, a longitudinal study was conducted in Pietermaritzburg from 2009–2013. At the end of the study, life narratives were documented and published. The textual analysis of these life narratives reveals that, besides the bio-psychosocial effects that research participants experienced during and after the trauma, they also sustained moral and spiritual injuries. Trauma took its toll in their lives emotionally, psychologically, spiritually, morally and in their relationships with themselves, others and God. From these findings, the author argues that the bio-psychosocial approach is incomplete for understanding the holistic effects of trauma on the whole person. Therefore, he recommends the integration of the moral and spiritual aspects of trauma to come up with a holistic model of understanding the effects of trauma on traumatised individuals. The holistic model will enhance the treatment, healing and recovery of trauma survivors. This, in turn, will alleviate the severe disruption of many aspects of psychological functioning and well-being of trauma survivors caused by the effects of trauma.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L
Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.
Desmet, P.M.A.; Guiza Caicedo, D.; Van Hout, M.
Emotions experienced in response to hotel services were examined with an online questionnaire. The study resulted in 348 cases of hotel service emotions. The frequency of reported pleasant emotions was similar to the frequency of reported unpleasant emotions. Often reported pleasant emotions were
Arenas F, Javier F.
All human society has depended on the energy to subsist and to evolve. Because of this, the industrial revolution can be seen as the result of an environmental crisis after the deforestation in Europe. Nevertheless,at the present time, petroleum is expending so that there have appeared alternative to maintain the energetic system that the world has being using since the XVIII century. The present text exposes arguments that have been raised so much to defend their implementation as a dedicated industry that will produce bioagrocombustibles, like those employees against it. For these expositions the author uses different perspectives, like the economic, political, legal and physical. It is a narration in first person of the Sun, as well as of the human conscience that exposes the mentioned arguments and intents a different approach, less technician, to a problematic that concerns to all the people of the planet.
Full Text Available This article forms part of a study which was inspired by the ever-growing need for significance expressed both by my life coaching and pastoral therapy clients as well as the need for existential meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study reflected on a life that matters with a group of co-researchers in a participatory action research relationship. The study has been positioned within pastoral theology and invited the theological discourse into a reflection of existential meaning. Adopting a critical relational constructionist epistemology, the research was positioned within a postmodern paradigm. The implications for meaning and research were explored and described. This article tells the story of how spirituality was positioned in the narratives of meaning by my fellow researchers.
of genre and are written not by the victims but by ‘spectators’, political or human rights agents, historians or literary writers who are in a distanced position from the actual slavery. In order to understand the role of sentimentalism in slave narratives, I will discuss the sentimental novel by Gertrudis...... Gómez de Avellaneda: Sab (the Cuban/Spanish equivalent of Uncle Tom’s Cabin), written between 1836 and 1839 and published 1841 in Spain. I will argue that the sentimentalism of Sab is of a revolutionary kind, based in a conception of natural law and that its aim is a radical transformation of social...... hierarchies. The paper will be divided into three parts: 1. First I will discuss what sentimentalism is and its relation to politics and especially abolitionism in the 19th century. 2. Then I will analyze Sab’s genre trying to establish the different functions of sentimentality, discussing the tragic modes...
Lasiter, Sue; Marchiondo, Lisa; Marchiondo, Kathleen
Academic incivility remains a problem on college campuses. Nursing research has refocused from student impropriety to aberrant faculty behaviors. Our original study using the Nursing Education Environment Survey showed that 133 of 152 student participants experienced uncivil treatment. Latent, inductive content analysis was undertaken to analyze narratives about their "worst experience" of negative faculty behavior. Four categories were identified: "In front of someone," "Talked to others about me," "Made me feel stupid," and "I felt belittled." Incivility had a profound effect on students and is problematic because it increases already significant academic pressure; it interferes with learning and safe clinical performance; it is contrary to caring, a central nursing concept; and it decreases program satisfaction and retention. Few nursing schools have civility policies for faculty behavior. Formal procedures that promote professional interaction should be crafted and implemented. Equally important is creating ways for nursing students to document incivility without fear of retaliation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Machado showed a fascination with homeopathic medicine, an indirect form of treatment that uses agents to stimulate reactions similar to the symptoms of the condition to be cured. Several of the author’s texts show a pattern of projects realized by indirect means, by "like curing like", which suggests a homeopathic logic in Machado’s worldview. Certain narrators, such as those inMemórias póstumas de Brás Cubas, Dom Casmurro, and in short stories such as "O segredo do bonzo" and "Adão e Eva", are notable for denouncing themselves, that is, for undermining their own validity. This curious situation has implications for Machado’s overall project, which seems more interested in posing questions than providing answers. It also suggests a particular relationship with the reader, which affords as much independence as possible.
GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson
Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.
Full Text Available This study looks at demonstrative descriptions, regarding them as text-deictic procedures which contribute to weave discourse reference. Text deixis is thought of as a metaphorical referential device which maps the ground of utterance onto the text itself. Demonstrative expressions with textual antecedent-triggers, considered as the most important text-deictic units, are identified in a narrative corpus consisting of J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan and its translation into Catalan. Some linguistic and discourse variables related to DemNPs are analysed to characterise adequately text deixis. It is shown that this referential device is usually combined with abstract nouns, thus categorising and encapsulating (non-nominal complex discourse entities as nouns, while performing a referential cohesive function by means of the text deixis + general noun type of lexical cohesion.
Hansen, Mette Sanne; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
for decision makers to systematically test several different outputs of possible solutions in order to prepare for future consequences. The CSA can be a way to evaluate risks and address possible unforeseen problems in a more methodical way than either guessing or forecasting. This paper contributes...... to the decision making in operations and production management by providing new insights into modelling and simulation based on the combined narrative and numerical simulation approach as a tool for strategy making. The research question asks, “How can the CSA be applied in a practical context to support strategy...... making?” The paper uses a case study where interviews and observations were carried out in a Danish corporation. The CSA is a new way to address decision making and has both practical value and further expands the use of strategic simulation as a management tool....
López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Gummerum, Michaela
Emotion goals lie at the heart of emotion regulation, as people have to first decide what emotions they want to feel before engaging in emotion regulation. Given that children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) are characterized by exhibiting difficulties in emotion regulation, studying whether they display similar or different emotion goals compared to typically developing (TD) children may provide insightful information. Thirty AS and 30 TD children (10-12 years) reported about their general (i.e., how they want to feel in general) and contextualized (i.e., how they want to feel when confronting vs. collaborating with someone) emotion goals, and about their difficulties in emotion regulation through questionnaires. Results showed that both groups did not differ in their general emotional goals and in their contextualized emotion goals for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed from TD children in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. These emotion goals predicted their difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour. The obtained results support the need to further study emotion goals as an aspect of emotion dysregulation, namely the difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour when experiencing different emotions. AS and TD children did not differ in their general emotion goals. AS and TD children did not vary in their preferences for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. Understanding emotion goals might help practitioners to develop better interventions. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map out - by analysing the film Son of Saul, but also by its comparison with two other films dealing with the topic, Himmelkommando and The Grey Zone, the narrative mechanism that satisfies the complex ethical and aesthetical demands imposed by the theme of Sonderkommando as the particular episode of the Holocaust. The key element of the narrative structure is the construction of the Levi’s “dead and drowned” witness who “resurrected” through the narrative intervention becomes the only reliable and credible narrator of the historical trauma. The prerequisite for his emergence is the narration and representation of the death which makes but also solves the traumatised - understood as multiple, fragmented, opposed - identities of the members of the special squad. Their entangled identity involves the simultaneous presence of a victim, perpetrator, witness and the authentic narrator of the trauma of the death camp. The death of the perpetrator is the condition sina qua non for the emergence of the figure of the victim-witness narrator but also for making of narrative which overcomes the initial trauma of the Holocaust. The detailed analysis of the film Son of Saul confirms and identifies these narratives as the modernist narration of the post-traumatic film.
Full Text Available With its capacity to unharness the power of narrative to promote meaning-making of lived experience, narrative inquiry is developing as a credible approach to research in several areas in the field of language teaching (Johnson, 2006. This article tells the story of two narrative researchers working in language teacher education who engaged in a collaborative narrative inquiry as both participants and inquirers, in order to learn more about narrative inquiry. The ‘bounded’ nature of their inquiry design provided a feasible way for them to explore their focus of research (i.e. their learning about narrative inquiry, and led them, through an iterative and reflexive process of analysing their narrative data, to formulate what they believe are essential ingredients of principled narrative inquiry work. Four narrative inquiry variables became the scaffolding which enabled them to answer their research questions, and are offered here as a heuristic for teaching practitioners, whether they be teachers, teacher educators or researchers, to guide them in narrative inquiries into their own work.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. METHOD: Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing. RESULTS: The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. CONCLUSION: Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.
Vanheule, Stijn; Hauser, Stuart T
The transcripts of semistructured clinical interviews with forty psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were subjected to narrative analysis in an effort to map the logic of their explanations as they spontaneously talked about helplessness experiences, and to determine how helplessness is embedded in broader story lines. Three types of narrative composition were discerned, and are discussed by means of excerpts from the interviews. In a first and predominant type of narrative, a disturbing confrontation with another is pivotal: the other's intentions are obscure; this frightens the narrator, who does not know what to do. Helplessness arises as a direct result of not knowing how to manage the "unbearable riddle" of the other's intentions. In the second, more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is embedded in an account of emptiness and boredom. The protagonist relates enduring experiences of emptiness due to loss and the suffering consequent on it. In the third, also more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is framed in a context of failure: the protagonist adheres to strict standards, feels he or she has fallen short, and concludes that he or she is a failure. Only the first type of narrative is significantly related to the psychiatric diagnoses of mood disorder and major depression.
Full Text Available Personality disorders (PDs are marked by significant disturbances in the way of experiencing oneself, others and the world around. Yet there is paucity of research on the nature of emotional experiences in these disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether and how emotional experience of individuals with ten distinct forms of PDs distinguished in DSM differs from those without PDs. The study was conducted via the Internet on a large nonclinical sample (N = 3509. Participants were administered a PDs measure and a performance task assessing three features of emotional experiences: emotional sensitivity, the valence of experienced emotions and the profile of five components constituting an emotion. As predicted, PDs sufferers experienced emotions differently from controls. Results demonstrated that individuals with all PDs were more receptive to emotional elicitation and displayed higher negative emotionality and a deficiency in the affective component of experienced emotions.