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Sample records for higher detection rates

  1. 3D versus 2D Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Higher Cancer Detection Rate in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Peltier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prostate cancer detection rates of extended 2D versus 3D biopsies and to further assess the clinical impact of this method in day-to-day practice. Methods. We analyzed the data of a cohort of 220 consecutive patients with no prior history of prostate cancer who underwent an initial prostate biopsy in daily practice due to an abnormal PSA and/or DRE using, respectively, the classical 2D and the new 3D systems. All the biopsies were done by a single experienced operator using the same standardized protocol. Results. There was no significant difference in terms of age, total PSA, or prostate volume between the two groups. However, cancer detection rate was significantly higher using the 3D versus the 2D system, 50% versus 34% (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference while comparing the 2 groups in term of nonsignificant cancer detection. Conclusion. There is reasonable evidence demonstrating the superiority of the 3D-guided biopsies in detecting prostate cancers that would have been missed using the 2D extended protocol.

  2. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  3. Rate based failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett Emery Trabun; Gamage, Thoshitha Thanushka; Bakken, David Edward

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure describes, in part, a system management component and failure detection component for use in a power grid data network to identify anomalies within the network and systematically adjust the quality of service of data published by publishers and subscribed to by subscribers within the network. In one implementation, subscribers may identify a desired data rate, a minimum acceptable data rate, desired latency, minimum acceptable latency and a priority for each subscription. The failure detection component may identify an anomaly within the network and a source of the anomaly. Based on the identified anomaly, data rates and or data paths may be adjusted in real-time to ensure that the power grid data network does not become overloaded and/or fail.

  4. CpG Oligonucleotide and Interleukin 2 stimulation enables higher cytogenetic abnormality detection rates than 12-o-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate in Asian patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL).

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    Liaw, Fiona Pui San; Lau, Lai Ching; Lim, Alvin Soon Tiong; Lim, Tse Hui; Lee, Geok Yee; Tien, Sim Leng

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to compare abnormality detection rates using DSP30 + IL2 and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Asian patients with B-CLL. Hematological specimens from 47 patients (29 newly diagnosed, 18 relapsed) were established as 72 h-DSP30 + IL2 and TPA cultures. Standard methods were employed to identify clonal aberrations by conventional cytogenetics (CC). The B-CLL fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel comprised ATM, CEP12, D13S25, and TP53 probes. DSP30 + IL2 cultures had a higher chromosomal abnormality detection rate (67 %) compared to TPA (44 %, p 0.05). Thirteen cases with abnormalities were found exclusively in DSP30 + IL2 cultures compared to one found solely in TPA cultures. DSP30 + IL2 cultures were comparable to the FISH panel in detecting 11q-, +12 and 17p- but not 13q-. It also has a predilection for 11q- bearing leukemic cells compared to TPA. FISH had a higher abnormality detection rate (84.1 %) compared to CC (66.0 %) with borderline significance (p = 0.051), albeit limited by its coverage. In conclusion, DSP30 + IL2 showed a higher abnormality detection rate. However, FISH is indispensable to circumvent low mitotic indices and detect subtle abnormalities.

  5. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis detects a much higher rate of thyroid tumors with clonal cytogenetic deviations of the main cytogenetic subgroups than conventional cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Norbert; Rippe, Volkhard; Laabs, Anne; Dittberner, Lea; Nimzyk, Rolf; Junker, Klaus; Rommel, Birgit; Kiefer, Yvonne; Belge, Gazanfer; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Sendt, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    In benign thyroid lesions, three main cytogenetic subgroups, characterized by trisomy 7 or structural aberrations involving either chromosomal region 19q13.4 or 2p21, can be distinguished by conventional cytogenetics (CC). As a rule, these aberrations seem to be mutually exclusive. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) analysis on benign as well as malignant thyroid neoplasias has been performed in the past, but rarely in combination with CC. In the present paper, we have analyzed 161 benign thyroid lesions both with CC and I-FISH on touch preparations by using a multi-target, triple-color FISH assay as well as dual-color break-apart probes for detection of the main cytogenetic subgroups. Within the samples, I-FISH detected tumors belonging to either of the subgroups more frequently than CC (23 vs. 11.4%), either due to small subpopulations of aberrant cells or to cryptic chromosomal rearrangements (three cases). Thus, I-FISH seems to be more sensitive than CC, particularly in the detection of subpopulations of cells harboring cytogenetic aberrations that may be overlooked by CC. In summary, I-FISH on touch preparations of benign thyroid lesions seems to be a favorable method for cytogenetic subtyping of thyroid lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Computed tomography hepatic arteriography has a hepatic falciform artery detection rate that is much higher than that of digital subtraction angiography and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT: Implications for planning 90Y radioembolization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmans, M.C., E-mail: mburgmans@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Too, C.W., E-mail: too.chow.wei@singhealth.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Kao, Y.H., E-mail: yung.h.kao@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Goh, A.S.W., E-mail: anthony.goh.s.w@sgh.com.sg [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Chow, P.K.H., E-mail: gsupc@singnet.com.sg [Department of General Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857 (Singapore); Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Center Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore 169610 (Singapore); Tan, B.S., E-mail: tan.bien.soo@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Tay, K.H., E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Lo, R.H.G., E-mail: richard.lo.h.g@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) detection rates of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) and to correlate HFA patency with complication rates of yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization. Material and methods: From August 2008 to November 2010, 79 patients (range 23–83 years, mean 62.3 years; 67 male) underwent pre-treatment DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA scintigraphy (planar/SPECT/CT) to assess suitability for radioembolization with 90Y resin microspheres. Thirty-seven patients were excluded from the study, because CTHA was performed with a catheter position that did not result in opacification of the liver parenchyma adjacent to the falciform ligament. DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT images and medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A patent HFA was detected in 22 of 42 patients (52.3%). The HFA detection rates of DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT were 11.9%, 52.3% and 13.3%, respectively (p < 0.0001). An origin from the segment 4 artery was seen in 51.7% of HFAs. Prophylactic HFA coil-embolization prior to 90Y microspheres infusion was performed in 2 patients. Of the patients who underwent radioembolization with a patent HFA, none developed supra-umbilical radiation dermatitis. One patient experienced epigastric pain attributed to post-embolization syndrome and was managed conservatively. Conclusion: The HFA detection rate of CTHA is superior to that of DSA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT. Complications related to non-target radiation of the HFA vascular territory rarely occur, even in patients undergoing radioembolization with a patent HFA.

  7. Computed tomography hepatic arteriography has a hepatic falciform artery detection rate that is much higher than that of digital subtraction angiography and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT: Implications for planning 90Y radioembolization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmans, M.C.; Too, C.W.; Kao, Y.H.; Goh, A.S.W.; Chow, P.K.H.; Tan, B.S.; Tay, K.H.; Lo, R.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) detection rates of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) and to correlate HFA patency with complication rates of yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization. Material and methods: From August 2008 to November 2010, 79 patients (range 23–83 years, mean 62.3 years; 67 male) underwent pre-treatment DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA scintigraphy (planar/SPECT/CT) to assess suitability for radioembolization with 90Y resin microspheres. Thirty-seven patients were excluded from the study, because CTHA was performed with a catheter position that did not result in opacification of the liver parenchyma adjacent to the falciform ligament. DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT images and medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A patent HFA was detected in 22 of 42 patients (52.3%). The HFA detection rates of DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT were 11.9%, 52.3% and 13.3%, respectively (p < 0.0001). An origin from the segment 4 artery was seen in 51.7% of HFAs. Prophylactic HFA coil-embolization prior to 90Y microspheres infusion was performed in 2 patients. Of the patients who underwent radioembolization with a patent HFA, none developed supra-umbilical radiation dermatitis. One patient experienced epigastric pain attributed to post-embolization syndrome and was managed conservatively. Conclusion: The HFA detection rate of CTHA is superior to that of DSA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT. Complications related to non-target radiation of the HFA vascular territory rarely occur, even in patients undergoing radioembolization with a patent HFA.

  8. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  9. Estimating diversification rates for higher taxa: BAMM can give problematic estimates of rates and rate shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Wiens, John J

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several articles have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates. Here, we use simulations to compare their performance. We found that BAMM yielded relatively weak relationships between true and estimated diversification rates. This occurred because BAMM underestimated the number of rates shifts across each tree, and assigned high rates to small clades with low rates. Errors in both speciation and extinction rates contributed to these errors, showing that using BAMM to estimate only speciation rates is also problematic. In contrast, the MS estimators (particularly using stem group ages), yielded stronger relationships between true and estimated diversification rates, by roughly twofold. Furthermore, the MS approach remained relatively accurate when diversification rates were heterogeneous within clades, despite the widespread assumption that it requires constant rates within clades. Overall, we caution that BAMM may be problematic for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Leak rate models and leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Leak detection may be carried out by a number of detection systems, but selection of the systems must be carefully adapted to the fluid state and the location of the leak in the reactor coolant system. Computer programs for the calculation of leak rates contain different models to take into account the fluid state before its entrance into the crack, and they have to be verified by experiments; agreement between experiments and calculations is generally not satisfactory for very small leak rates resulting from narrow cracks or from a closing bending moment

  11. Application of a conversion factor to estimate the adenoma detection rate from the polyp detection rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Francis, Dawn L

    2011-03-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality benchmark for colonoscopy. Many practices find it difficult to determine the ADR because it requires a combination of endoscopic and histologic findings. It may be possible to apply a conversion factor to estimate the ADR from the polyp detection rate (PDR).

  12. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  13. Leak rate measurements and detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.; Shack, W.J.; Claytor, T.

    1983-10-01

    A research program is under way to evaluate and develop improve leak detection systems. The primary focus of the work has been on acoustic emission detection of leaks. Leaks from artificial flaws, laboratory-generated IGSCCs and thermal fatigue cracks, and field-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) from reactor piping have been examined. The effects of pressure, temperature, and leak rate and geometry on the acoustic signature are under study. The use of cross-correlation techniques for leak location and pattern recognition and autocorrelation for source discrimination is also being considered

  14. Enabling Higher Data Rates for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Townes, S. A.; Lazio, J.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Kovalik, J. M.; Kuperman, I.; Sauder, J.; Liebrecht, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The data rate from deep space spacecraft has increased by more than 10 orders of magnitude since the first lunar missions in the 1960s. The demand for increased data rates has stemmed from the increasing sophistication of the science questions being addressed and the concomitant increase in the complexity of the missions themselves (from fly-by to orbit to land and rove). Projections for the next few decades suggest the demand for data rates for deep space missions will continue to increase by approximately one order of magnitude every decade, driven by these same factors. Achieving higher data rates requires a partnership between the spacecraft and the ground system. We describe a series of technology developments for flight telecommunications systems, both at radio frequency (RF) and optical, to enable spacecraft to transmit and receive larger data volumes. These technology developments include deployable high gain antennas for small spacecraft, re-programmable software-defined radios, and optical communication packages designed for CubeSat form factors. The intent is that these developments would provide enhancements in capability for both spacecraft-Earth and spacecraft-spacecraft telecommunications. We also describe the future planning for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which remains the prime conduit for data from all planetary science missions. Through a combination of new antennas and backends being installed over the next five years and incorporation of optical communications, the DSN aims to ensure that the historical improvements in data rates and volumes will continue for many decades. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  16. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

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    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Higher-Order Cyclostationarity Detection for Spectrum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Renard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have shown a growing interest in the concept of Cognitive Radios (CRs, able to access portions of the electromagnetic spectrum in an opportunistic operating way. Such systems require efficient detectors able to work in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR environments, with little or no information about the signals they are trying to detect. Energy detectors are widely used to perform such blind detection tasks, but quickly reach the so-called SNR wall below which detection becomes impossible Tandra (2005. Cyclostationarity detectors are an interesting alternative to energy detectors, as they exploit hidden periodicities present in man-made signals, but absent in noise. Such detectors use quadratic transformations of the signals to extract the hidden sine-waves. While most of the literature focuses on the second-order transformations of the signals, we investigate the potential of higher-order transformations of the signals. Using the theory of Higher-Order Cyclostationarity (HOCS, we derive a fourth-order detector that performs similarly to the second-order ones to detect linearly modulated signals, at SNR around 0 dB, which may be used if the signals of interest do not exhibit second-order cyclostationarity. More generally this paper reviews the relevant aspects of the cyclostationary and HOCS theory, and shows their potential for spectrum sensing.

  18. Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate

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    Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2011-01-01

    Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

  19. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems.

  20. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for beat-to-beat heart rate detection based on the ballistocardiographic (BCG) force signal from a subject standing on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear and does not require any sensors attached to the body because it uses the load cells in the scale. We have devised an approach to estimate the sensitivity and frequency response of three commercial weighing scales to assess their capability to detect the BCG force signal. Static sensitivities ranged from 490 nV V −1 N −1 to 1670 nV V −1 N −1 . The frequency response depended on the subject's mass but it was broad enough for heart rate estimation. We have designed an electronic pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits to sense heart-beat-related force variations of about 0.24 N. The signal-to-noise ratio of the main peaks of the force signal detected was higher than 30 dB. A Bland–Altman plot was used to compare the RR time intervals estimated from the ECG and BCG force signals for 17 volunteers. The error was ±21 ms, which makes the proposed technique suitable for short-term monitoring of the heart rate

  1. Graduation Rates and the Higher Education Demographic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, B. Tom; Thomas, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In his 1918 orienting work, The Higher Learning in America, Veblen highlights two primary aims of the higher education institution: (a) scientific and scholarly inquiry, and (b) the instruction of students (Veblen, 1918). As of 2006, this overarching mission remained intact. In contemporary literature, a common measure of the efficacy of the…

  2. ESTIMATING RETURN RATE OF HIGHER EDUCATION FUND IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenikhina V. A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Russian government pays great attention to the field of higher and postgraduate education. But in the Russian scientific literature there are gaps related to the effectiveness of the overall evaluation of the higher education sector. The article dwells upon the problem of interregional income spread of the Russian population. Empirical estimator of difference influence accounting for human capital accumulated in Russian regions on wage levels and maximum increase of total wage levels and population income for 2001-2011 is carried out. Higher education, exceeding the influence of accumulated volume of the main funds, has a great influence on income spread in Russian regions. Besides, increase of higher education fund in Russian regions contributes to the population’s wage increase and growth in income, but at the same time it decreases legal wages. Results of the study extend knowledge of the economics of education of the Russian Federation.

  3. Emotional Competence and Drop-Out Rates in Higher Education

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    Kingston, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the emotional competence of first year undergraduates enrolled on a high or low drop-out rate (HDR and LDR, respectively) course, at a newly established university within the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was…

  4. Student Ratings of Instruction in Turkish Higher Education

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    Nehir Sert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The end-of-term student evaluations have a twofold purpose: to provide information for administrators to make personnel decisions, and to help instructors to improve the quality of their teaching. The aim of this study is to investigate the ‘utility’ of the Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI. To that end, the concerns of the administrators, instructors and students regarding the use of the SRI in formative and summative evaluations are questioned. This study also investigates possible variables associated with the SRI: 1 what are the differences in ratings among the below-average, average and the above-average students? and 2 what is the correlation between the students’ grades and ratings? The participants of the study consisted of 5 administrators, 17 instructors and 292 students from the faculty of education of a foundation university in Ankara. A triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods was adopted. In the first phase, causal comparative and correlation research methods were implemented. In the second phase, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the SRI among the below-average, average and above-average students. The correlation between the student grades and the SRI was significant at a low level. The SRI were reportedly utilised to make teaching more effective and to make decisions when employing part-time personnel only. The permanent personnel were not affected by the SRI. Suggestions have been put forward to verify the usefulness of SRI.

  5. Development of materials for higher burn-up rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Anderko, K.

    1983-01-01

    The results obtained so far concerning both high-nickel austenitic steels (X10CrNiMoTiB10 25) and ferritic-martensitic steels (X18CrMoVNb12 1 corresponds to 1.4914) justify the expectations placed in these materials. Future R and D work will concentrate on high-nickel austenitic steels, in particular on in-pile residence time in the range of maximum cladding mean temperatures (He embrittlement), on confirmation of the fairly good swelling and creep behaviour to be obtained from neutron irradiation experiments as well as on material qualification and technology. As far the development in the field of martensitic steels the major question concerns the influence of neutron irradiation on the transient temperature. It is just as important and interesting to detect and describe the ruling in-pile creep mechanism in the 400 to 600 0 C range. Furthermore, questions on the fabrication and qualification of cladding tube boxes are also preeminent. (orig.) [de

  6. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  7. Detectability and detection rate of acute cerebral hemisphere infarcts on CT and diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Flacke, S.; Keller, E.; Textor, J.; Berlis, A.; Reul, J.; Schild, H.H.; Hartmann, A.; Solymosi, L.

    2000-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the detectability and detection rate of acute ischaemic cerebral hemisphere infarcts on CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). We investigated 32 consecutive patients with acute hemisphere stroke with unenhanced CT and DWI within 6 h of stroke onset. The interval between CT and DWI ranged from 15 to 180 min (mean 60 min). Infarct detectability on CT and DWI was determined by comparing the initial CT, DWI and later reference images in a consensus reading of five independent examiners. The ''true'' detection rate was assessed by analysing all single readings. Two patients had intracerebral haematomas on DWI and CT and were excluded. There were 27 patients with ischaemic infarcts; all were visible on DWI and proven by follow-up. DWI was negative in three patients without a final diagnosis of infarct (100 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity, χ 2 = 30, P 2 = 1.48, P = 0.224). With regard to the single readings (30 examinations x 5 examiners = 150 readings), 63 CT readings were true positive and 72 false negative (sensitivity 47 %, specificity 86 %, χ 2 = 2.88, P = 0.089). Of the DWI readings 128 were true positive and 7 false negative (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 87 %, χ 2 = 70.67, P < 0.0001). Interobserver agreement was substantial for CT (χ= 0.72, 95 % confidence interval, 0.6-0.84) and DWI (χ= 0.82, 95 % confidence interval, 0.46-1). Taken together, detectability and detection rate of acute (< 6 h) hemisphere infarcts are significantly higher with DWI than with CT. (orig.)

  8. Probability of detection of clinical seizures using heart rate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ivan; Manly, B F J

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate-based seizure detection is a viable complement or alternative to ECoG/EEG. This study investigates the role of various biological factors on the probability of clinical seizure detection using heart rate. Regression models were applied to 266 clinical seizures recorded from 72 subjects to investigate if factors such as age, gender, years with epilepsy, etiology, seizure site origin, seizure class, and data collection centers, among others, shape the probability of EKG-based seizure detection. Clinical seizure detection probability based on heart rate changes, is significantly (pprobability of detecting clinical seizures (>0.8 in the majority of subjects) using heart rate is highest for complex partial seizures, increases with a patient's years with epilepsy, is lower for females than for males and is unrelated to the side of hemisphere origin. Clinical seizure detection probability using heart rate is multi-factorially dependent and sufficiently high (>0.8) in most cases to be clinically useful. Knowledge of the role that these factors play in shaping said probability will enhance its applicability and usefulness. Heart rate is a reliable and practical signal for extra-cerebral detection of clinical seizures originating from or spreading to central autonomic network structures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The detection of higher-order acoustic transitions is reflected in the N1 ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Schröger, Erich; Horváth, János

    2018-01-30

    The auditory system features various types of dedicated change detectors enabling the rapid parsing of auditory stimulation into distinct events. The activity of such detectors is reflected by the N1 ERP. Interestingly, certain acoustic transitions show an asymmetric N1 elicitation pattern: whereas first-order transitions (e.g., a change from a segment of constant frequency to a frequency glide [c-to-g change]) elicit N1, higher-order transitions (e.g., glide-to-constant [g-to-c] changes) do not. Consensus attributes this asymmetry to the absence of any available sensory mechanism that is able to rapidly detect higher-order changes. In contrast, our study provides compelling evidence for such a mechanism. We collected electrophysiological and behavioral data in a transient-detection paradigm. In each condition, a random (50%-50%) sequence of two types of tones occurred, which did or did not contain a transition (e.g., c-to-g and constant stimuli or g-to-c and glide tones). Additionally, the rate of pitch change of the glide varied (i.e., 10 vs. 40 semitones per second) in order to increase the number of responding neural assemblies. The rate manipulation modulated transient ERPs and behavioral detection performance for g-to-c transitions much stronger than for c-to-g transitions. The topographic and tomographic analyses suggest that the N1 response to c-to-g and also to g-to-c transitions emerged from the superior temporal gyrus. This strongly supports a sensory mechanism that allows the fast detection of higher-order changes. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Arduino-based noise robust online heart-rate detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sangita; Pal, Saurabh; Mitra, Madhuchhanda

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces a noise robust real time heart rate detection system from electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An online data acquisition system is developed to collect ECG signals from human subjects. Heart rate is detected using window-based autocorrelation peak localisation technique. A low-cost Arduino UNO board is used to implement the complete automated process. The performance of the system is compared with PC-based heart rate detection technique. Accuracy of the system is validated through simulated noisy ECG data with various levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The mean percentage error of detected heart rate is found to be 0.72% for the noisy database with five different noise levels.

  11. Detection limit for rate fluctuations in inhomogeneous Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Toshiaki; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Estimations of an underlying rate from data points are inevitably disturbed by the irregular occurrence of events. Proper estimation methods are designed to avoid overfitting by discounting the irregular occurrence of data, and to determine a constant rate from irregular data derived from a constant probability distribution. However, it can occur that rapid or small fluctuations in the underlying density are undetectable when the data are sparse. For an estimation method, the maximum degree of undetectable rate fluctuations is uniquely determined as a phase transition, when considering an infinitely long series of events drawn from a fluctuating density. In this study, we analytically examine an optimized histogram and a Bayesian rate estimator with respect to their detectability of rate fluctuation, and determine whether their detectable-undetectable phase transition points are given by an identical formula defining a degree of fluctuation in an underlying rate. In addition, we numerically examine the variational Bayes hidden Markov model in its detectability of rate fluctuation, and determine whether the numerically obtained transition point is comparable to those of the other two methods. Such consistency among these three principled methods suggests the presence of a theoretical limit for detecting rate fluctuations.

  12. Detection limit for rate fluctuations in inhomogeneous Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Toshiaki; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Estimations of an underlying rate from data points are inevitably disturbed by the irregular occurrence of events. Proper estimation methods are designed to avoid overfitting by discounting the irregular occurrence of data, and to determine a constant rate from irregular data derived from a constant probability distribution. However, it can occur that rapid or small fluctuations in the underlying density are undetectable when the data are sparse. For an estimation method, the maximum degree of undetectable rate fluctuations is uniquely determined as a phase transition, when considering an infinitely long series of events drawn from a fluctuating density. In this study, we analytically examine an optimized histogram and a Bayesian rate estimator with respect to their detectability of rate fluctuation, and determine whether their detectable-undetectable phase transition points are given by an identical formula defining a degree of fluctuation in an underlying rate. In addition, we numerically examine the variational Bayes hidden Markov model in its detectability of rate fluctuation, and determine whether the numerically obtained transition point is comparable to those of the other two methods. Such consistency among these three principled methods suggests the presence of a theoretical limit for detecting rate fluctuations.

  13. Fault Detection Using the Zero Crossing Rate | Osuagwu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method of fault detection based on the zero crossing rate of the signal, Z1, and the zero crossing rate of the first order difference signal. Z2, is presented. It is shown that the parameter pair (Z1, Z2) possesses adequate discriminating potential to classify a signature as good or defective. The parameter pair also carries ...

  14. Rate modulation detection thresholds for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, Tim; McKay, Colette; McDermott, Hugh

    2018-02-01

    The perception of temporal amplitude modulations is critical for speech understanding by cochlear implant (CI) users. The present study compared the ability of CI users to detect sinusoidal modulations of the electrical stimulation rate and current level, at different presentation levels (80% and 40% of the dynamic range) and modulation frequencies (10 and 100 Hz). Rate modulation detection thresholds (RMDTs) and amplitude modulation detection thresholds (AMDTs) were measured and compared to assess whether there was a perceptual advantage to either modulation method. Both RMDTs and AMDTs improved with increasing presentation level and decreasing modulation frequency. RMDTs and AMDTs were correlated, indicating that a common processing mechanism may underlie the perception of rate modulation and amplitude modulation, or that some subject-dependent factors affect both types of modulation detection.

  15. DOUBLE COMPACT OBJECTS. III. GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE DETECTION RATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominik, Michal; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Berti, Emanuele [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); O’Shaughnessy, Richard [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology, and Astrophysics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mandel, Ilya [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fryer, Christopher [CCS-2, MSD409, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holz, Daniel E. [Enrico Fermi Institute, Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pannarale, Francesco [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-20

    The unprecedented range of second-generation gravitational-wave (GW) observatories calls for refining the predictions of potential sources and detection rates. The coalescence of double compact objects (DCOs)—i.e., neutron star–neutron star (NS–NS), black hole–neutron star (BH–NS), and black hole–black hole (BH–BH) binary systems—is the most promising source of GWs for these detectors. We compute detection rates of coalescing DCOs in second-generation GW detectors using the latest models for their cosmological evolution, and implementing inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform models in our signal-to-noise ratio calculations. We find that (1) the inclusion of the merger/ringdown portion of the signal does not significantly affect rates for NS–NS and BH–NS systems, but it boosts rates by a factor of ∼1.5 for BH–BH systems; (2) in almost all of our models BH–BH systems yield by far the largest rates, followed by NS–NS and BH–NS systems, respectively; and (3) a majority of the detectable BH–BH systems were formed in the early universe in low-metallicity environments. We make predictions for the distributions of detected binaries and discuss what the first GW detections will teach us about the astrophysics underlying binary formation and evolution.

  16. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.45, open-quotes Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,close quotes was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, open-quotes Leak Before Break Evaluation Proceduresclose quotes where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break

  17. A Compound Detection System Based on Ultrasonic Flow Rate and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hui WANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new detection system for monitoring gas concentration and flow rate. Velocity difference of ultrasonic wave in bi-directional propagation in measured gas is recorded and utilized for computing the online gas concentration and flow rate. Meanwhile, the temperature compensation, return signal processing and error analysis algorithms are applied to improve the accuracy. The experimental results show that, compared with the single sensor measurement of gas flow rate or concentration, the proposed detection system with lower cost and higher accuracy can be applied in the occasion which needs simultaneous monitoring of gas concentration and flow rate.

  18. BIRDNEST: Bayesian Inference for Ratings-Fraud Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hooi, Bryan; Shah, Neil; Beutel, Alex; Gunnemann, Stephan; Akoglu, Leman; Kumar, Mohit; Makhija, Disha; Faloutsos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Review fraud is a pervasive problem in online commerce, in which fraudulent sellers write or purchase fake reviews to manipulate perception of their products and services. Fake reviews are often detected based on several signs, including 1) they occur in short bursts of time; 2) fraudulent user accounts have skewed rating distributions. However, these may both be true in any given dataset. Hence, in this paper, we propose an approach for detecting fraudulent reviews which combines these 2 app...

  19. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  20. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adenoma detection rate varies greatly during colonoscopy training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Sascha C.; Klanderman, Robert B.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is considered the most important quality indicator for colonoscopy and varies widely among colonoscopists. It is unknown whether the ADR of gastroenterology consultants can already be predicted during their colonoscopy training. To evaluate the ADR of fellows in

  2. EUROCAT website data on prenatal detection rates of congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Boyd, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The EUROCAT website www.eurocat-network.eu publishes prenatal detection rates for major congenital anomalies using data from European population-based congenital anomaly registers, covering 28% of the EU population as well as non-EU countries. Data are updated annually. This information can be

  3. Novel Method For Low-Rate Ddos Attack Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistokhodova, A. A.; Sidorov, I. D.

    2018-05-01

    The relevance of the work is associated with an increasing number of advanced types of DDoS attacks, in particular, low-rate HTTP-flood. Last year, the power and complexity of such attacks increased significantly. The article is devoted to the analysis of DDoS attacks detecting methods and their modifications with the purpose of increasing the accuracy of DDoS attack detection. The article details low-rate attacks features in comparison with conventional DDoS attacks. During the analysis, significant shortcomings of the available method for detecting low-rate DDoS attacks were found. Thus, the result of the study is an informal description of a new method for detecting low-rate denial-of-service attacks. The architecture of the stand for approbation of the method is developed. At the current stage of the study, it is possible to improve the efficiency of an already existing method by using a classifier with memory, as well as additional information.

  4. EUROCAT website data on prenatal detection rates of congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The EUROCAT website www.eurocat-network.eu publishes prenatal detection rates for major congenital anomalies using data from European population-based congenital anomaly registers, covering 28% of the EU population as well as non-EU countries. Data are updated annually. This information can be us...

  5. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  6. Detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer and malignant melanoma - Influence of some factors on detection success rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafta, O.; Safarcika, K.; Stepien, A.

    2004-01-01

    missed in 31 patients (the success rate of dye 77.9 %). Detection rate with three radiopharmaceuticals was similar in both groups of patients. The higher number of detected sentinel lymph nodes per patient was using NANOCOLL. Our findings suggest that simultaneous use of all three methods - scintigraphy, isosulfan blue dye, and gamma probe should be employed for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. (author)

  7. A higher chest compression rate may be necessary for metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; You, Je Sung; Cho, Young Soon; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol

    2012-01-01

    Metronome guidance is a simple and economical feedback system for guiding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, a recent study showed that metronome guidance reduced the depth of chest compression. The results of previous studies suggest that a higher chest compression rate is associated with a better CPR outcome as compared with a lower chest compression rate, irrespective of metronome use. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that a lower chest compression rate promotes a reduction in chest compression depth in the recent study rather than metronome use itself. One minute of chest compression-only CPR was performed following the metronome sound played at 1 of 4 different rates: 80, 100, 120, and 140 ticks/min. Average compression depths (ACDs) and duty cycles were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, and the values in the absence and presence of metronome guidance were compared. Both the ACD and duty cycle increased when the metronome rate increased (P = .017, metronome rates of 80 and 100 ticks/min were significantly lower than those for the procedures without metronome guidance. The ACD and duty cyle for chest compression increase as the metronome rate increases during metronome-guided CPR. A higher rate of chest compression is necessary for metronome-guided CPR to prevent suboptimal quality of chest compression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate detection: Probabilistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.

    1993-01-01

    This is the second in series of three papers generated from studies on nuclear pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate detection. This paper focuses on the development of novel probabilistic models for stochastic performance evaluation of degraded nuclear piping systems. It was accomplished here in three distinct stages. First, a statistical analysis was conducted to characterize various input variables for thermo-hydraulic analysis and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, such as material properties of pipe, crack morphology variables, and location of cracks found in nuclear piping. Second, a new stochastic model was developed to evaluate performance of degraded piping systems. It is based on accurate deterministic models for thermo-hydraulic and fracture mechanics analyses described in the first paper, statistical characterization of various input variables, and state-of-the-art methods of modem structural reliability theory. From this model. the conditional probability of failure as a function of leak-rate detection capability of the piping systems can be predicted. Third, a numerical example was presented to illustrate the proposed model for piping reliability analyses. Results clearly showed that the model provides satisfactory estimates of conditional failure probability with much less computational effort when compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. The probabilistic model developed in this paper will be applied to various piping in boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor plants for leak-rate detection applications

  9. Vastus Lateralis Motor Unit Firing Rate Is Higher in Women With Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Alessio; Hunt, Michael A; Hodges, Paul W; Garland, S Jayne

    2018-05-01

    To compare neural drive, determined from motor unit firing rate, in the vastus medialis and lateralis in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Women (N=56) 19 to 35 years of age, including 36 with patellofemoral pain and 20 controls. Not applicable. Participants sustained an isometric knee extension contraction at 10% of their maximal voluntary effort for 70 seconds. Motor units (N=414) were identified using high-density surface electromyography. Average firing rate was calculated between 5 and 35 seconds after recruitment for each motor unit. Initial firing rate was the inverse of the first 3 motor unit interspike intervals. In control participants, vastus medialis motor units discharged at higher rates than vastus lateralis motor units (P=.001). This was not observed in women with patellofemoral pain (P=.78) because of a higher discharge rate of vastus lateralis compared with control participants (P=.002). No between-group differences were observed for vastus medialis (P=.93). Similar results were obtained for the initial motor unit firing rate. These findings suggest that women with patellofemoral pain have a higher neural drive to vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis, which may be a contributor of the altered patellar kinematics observed in some studies. The different neural drive may be an adaptation to patellofemoral pain, possibly to compensate for decreased quadriceps force production, or a precursor of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Doppler Radar Vital Signs Detection Method Based on Higher Order Cyclostationary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhibin; Zhao, Duo; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-26

    Due to the non-contact nature, using Doppler radar sensors to detect vital signs such as heart and respiration rates of a human subject is getting more and more attention. However, the related detection-method research meets lots of challenges due to electromagnetic interferences, clutter and random motion interferences. In this paper, a novel third-order cyclic cummulant (TOCC) detection method, which is insensitive to Gaussian interference and non-cyclic signals, is proposed to investigate the heart and respiration rate based on continuous wave Doppler radars. The k -th order cyclostationary properties of the radar signal with hidden periodicities and random motions are analyzed. The third-order cyclostationary detection theory of the heart and respiration rate is studied. Experimental results show that the third-order cyclostationary approach has better estimation accuracy for detecting the vital signs from the received radar signal under low SNR, strong clutter noise and random motion interferences.

  11. Does the Economic Crisis Have an Influence on the Higher Education Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…

  12. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables—e.g. health care services—will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  13. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables - e.g. health care services - will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  14. Why do younger women have higher breast cancer recurrence rates after breast-conserving surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Masakazu; Miyayama, Haruhiko; Okazaki, Shinji; Kai, Chiharu; Ozaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing breast cancer recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is an important issue. The main factors contributing to such recurrence are positive margins, absence of radiotherapy and young age. To investigate the clinical significance of age in breast-conserving surgery, we examined the relationship between clinicopathological findings or outcome and age, especially young age. The cases were divided into three groups by age; 35 years old or less, 36-50y.o. and 51y.o. or higher. Between April 1989 and March 2003, 743 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery. There were 49 patients aged 35 years old or less (6.6%). Younger age significantly correlated with positive surgical margin, lymph node metastases, higher proliferative activity, negative estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR), larger tumor size, and shorter nipple-tumor distances. Although younger patients had a higher recurrence rate irrespective of radiotherapy, margin status had an impact on recurrence rate. Thus, the reason young age was a significant factor for breast recurrence after breast-conserving surgery was that young patients frequently had numerous risk factors such as positive margin, higher proliferative activity, positive nodes, negative ER/PgR and larger tumor. However, negative surgical margins could reduce recurrence rates even in young women. These results suggest that more suitable criteria and strategies may be needed for young patients with breast cancer. (author)

  15. Effect of recall rate on earlier screen detection of breast cancers based on the Dutch performance indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, J.D.M.; Karssemeijer, N.; Hendriks, J.H.C.L.; Groenewoud, J.H.; Fracheboud, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Koning, H.J. de; Holland, R.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recall rate (i.e., the rate at which mammographically screened women are recalled for additional assessment) in the Dutch breast screening program (0.89% in 2000 for subsequent examinations) is the lowest worldwide, with possible consequences including higher rates of late-detected

  16. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pewes was higher than on day-17. Loss of embryos by day 30 was high (calm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pewes had higher insulin (32.0 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; P=0.013) and lower leptin (1.18 μg/l±0.04 SEM; P=0.002) concentrations than calm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect

  17. A Comparative Study of Data Mining Algorithms for High Detection Rate in Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast growth and tradition of the internet over the last decades, the network security problems are increasing vigorously. Humans can not handle the speed of processes and the huge amount of data required to handle network anomalies. Therefore, it needs substantial automation in both speed and accuracy. Intrusion Detection System is one of the approaches to recognize illegal access and rare attacks to secure networks. In this proposed paper, Naive Bayes, J48 and Random Forest classifiers are compared to compute the detection rate and accuracy of IDS. For experiments, the KDD_NSL dataset is used.

  18. Splenectomy is associated with higher infection and pneumonia rates among trauma laparotomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kelly A; Connelly, Christopher R; Hart, Kyle D; Schreiber, Martin A; Watters, Jennifer M

    2017-05-01

    Splenectomy increases lifetime risk of thromboembolism (VTE) and is associated with long-term infectious complications, primarily, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). Our objective was to evaluate risk of VTE and infection at index hospitalization post-splenectomy. Retrospective review of all patients who received a laparotomy in the NTDB. Propensity score matching for splenectomy was performed, based on ISS, abdominal abbreviated injury score >3, GCS, sex and mechanism. Major complications, VTE, and infection rates were compared. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate splenectomy-associated complications. 93,221 laparotomies were performed and 17% underwent splenectomy. Multiple logistic regression models did not demonstrate an association between splenectomy and major complications (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p = 0.25) or VTE (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.96-1.14, p = 0.33). Splenectomy was independently associated with infection (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14, p = 0.045). Subgroup analysis of patients with infection demonstrated that splenectomy was most strongly associated with pneumonia (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.57, p Splenectomy is not associated with higher overall complication or VTE rates during index hospitalization. However, splenectomy is associated with a higher rate of pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  20. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  2. Higher order constraints on the Higgs production rate from fixed-target DIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints of fixed-target DIS data in fits of parton distributions including QCD corrections to next-to-next-to leading order are studied. We point out a potential problem in the analysis of the NMC data which can lead to inconsistencies in the extracted value for α s (M Z ) and the gluon distribution at higher orders in QCD. The implications for predictions of rates for Standard Model Higgs boson production at hadron colliders are investigated. We conclude that the current range of excluded Higgs boson masses at the Tevatron appears to be much too large. (orig.)

  3. Strain rate effects in nuclear steels at room and higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, G. E-mail: george.solomos@jrc.it; Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Pizzinato, V.; Viaccoz, B

    2004-04-01

    An investigation of strain rate, temperature and size effects in three nuclear steels has been conducted. The materials are: ferritic steel 20MnMoNi55 (vessel head), austenitic steel X6CrNiNb1810 (upper internal structure), and ferritic steel 26NiCrMo146 (bolting). Smooth cylindrical tensile specimens of three sizes have been tested at strain rates from 0.001 to 300 s{sup -1}, at room and elevated temperatures (400-600 deg. C). Full stress-strain diagrams have been obtained, and additional parameters have been calculated based on them. The results demonstrate a clear influence of temperature, which amounts into reducing substantially mechanical strengths with respect to RT conditions. The effect of strain rate is also shown. It is observed that at RT the strain rate effect causes up shifting of the flow stress curves, whereas at the higher temperatures a mild downshifting of the flow curves is manifested. Size effect tendencies have also been observed. Some implications when assessing the pressure vessel structural integrity under severe accident conditions are considered.

  4. Higher Growth Rate of Branch Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Associates With Worrisome Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Argiriadi, Pamela; Lee, Karen; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bagiella, Emilia; Lucas, Aimee L; Kim, Michelle Kang; Kumta, Nikhil A; Nagula, Satish; Sarpel, Umut; DiMaio, Christopher J

    2018-03-11

    or invasive cancers. BD-IPMNs that developed worrisome features were associated with a significantly higher rate of growth than lesions with low-risk features. Low risk BD-IPMNs that grow more than 2.5 mm/year might require surveillance. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, John [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Molecular and Radiological Biosciences Building, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We propose a radiation detection system which generates its own discrete sampling distribution based on past measurements of background. The advantage to this approach is that it can take into account variations in background with respect to time, location, energy spectra, detector-specific characteristics (i.e. different efficiencies at different count rates and energies), etc. This would therefore be a 'machine learning' approach, in which the algorithm updates and improves its characterization of background over time. The system would have a 'learning mode,' in which it measures and analyzes background count rates, and a 'detection mode,' in which it compares measurements from an unknown source against its unique background distribution. By characterizing and accounting for variations in the background, general purpose radiation detectors can be improved with little or no increase in cost. The statistical and computational techniques to perform this kind of analysis have already been developed. The necessary signal analysis can be accomplished using existing Bayesian algorithms which account for multiple channels, multiple detectors, and multiple time intervals. Furthermore, Bayesian machine-learning techniques have already been developed which, with trivial modifications, can generate appropriate decision thresholds based on the comparison of new measurements against a nonparametric sampling distribution. (authors)

  6. Direct inference of SNP heterozygosity rates and resolution of LOH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been increasingly utilized to investigate somatic genetic abnormalities in premalignancy and cancer. LOH is a common alteration observed during cancer development, and SNP assays have been used to identify LOH at specific chromosomal regions. The design of such studies requires consideration of the resolution for detecting LOH throughout the genome and identification of the number and location of SNPs required to detect genetic alterations in specific genomic regions. Our study evaluated SNP distribution patterns and used probability models, Monte Carlo simulation, and real human subject genotype data to investigate the relationships between the number of SNPs, SNP HET rates, and the sensitivity (resolution for detecting LOH. We report that variances of SNP heterozygosity rate in dbSNP are high for a large proportion of SNPs. Two statistical methods proposed for directly inferring SNP heterozygosity rates require much smaller sample sizes (intermediate sizes and are feasible for practical use in SNP selection or verification. Using HapMap data, we showed that a region of LOH greater than 200 kb can be reliably detected, with losses smaller than 50 kb having a substantially lower detection probability when using all SNPs currently in the HapMap database. Higher densities of SNPs may exist in certain local chromosomal regions that provide some opportunities for reliably detecting LOH of segment sizes smaller than 50 kb. These results suggest that the interpretation of the results from genome-wide scans for LOH using commercial arrays need to consider the relationships among inter-SNP distance, detection probability, and sample size for a specific study. New experimental designs for LOH studies would also benefit from considering the power of detection and sample sizes required to accomplish the proposed aims.

  7. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  8. Rabies Vaccination: Higher Failure Rates in Imported Dogs than in those Vaccinated in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Nodari, E; Alonso, S; Mancin, M; De Nardi, M; Hudson-Cooke, S; Veggiato, C; Cattoli, G; De Benedictis, P

    2017-03-01

    The current European Union (EU) legislation decrees that pets entering the EU from a rabies-infected third country have to obtain a satisfactory virus-neutralizing antibody level, while those moving within the EU require only rabies vaccination as the risk of moving a rabid pet within the EU is considered negligible. A number of factors driving individual variations in dog vaccine response have been previously reported, including a high rate of vaccine failure in puppies, especially those subject to commercial transport. A total of 21 001 observations collected from dogs (2006-2012) vaccinated in compliance with the current EU regulations were statistically analysed to assess the effect of different risk factors related to rabies vaccine efficacy. Within this framework, we were able to compare the vaccination failure rate in a group of dogs entering the Italian border from EU and non-EU countries to those vaccinated in Italy prior to international travel. Our analysis identified that cross-breeds and two breed categories showed high vaccine success rates, while Beagles and Boxers were the least likely to show a successful response to vaccination (88.82% and 90.32%, respectively). Our analysis revealed diverse performances among the commercially available vaccines, in terms of serological peak windows, and marked differences according to geographical area. Of note, we found a higher vaccine failure rate in imported dogs (13.15%) than in those vaccinated in Italy (5.89%). Our findings suggest that the choice of vaccine may influence the likelihood of an animal achieving a protective serological level and that time from vaccination to sampling should be considered when interpreting serological results. A higher vaccine failure in imported compared to Italian dogs highlights the key role that border controls still have in assessing the full compliance of pet movements with EU legislation to minimize the risk of rabies being reintroduced into a disease-free area.

  9. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  10. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  13. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  14. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul; Park, Jaehong; Jeong, Haedo

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO 3 ) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H 2 O 2 ) and complexing agent (citric acid; C 6 H 8 O 7 ) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H 2 O 2 -citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H 2 O 2 at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  15. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  16. Higher Rates of DZ Twinning in a Twenty-First Century Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Corley, Robin P; Heath, Andrew C; Iacono, William G; Neale, Michael C; Hewitt, John K

    2017-09-01

    The Colorado Twin Registry is a population based registry initiated in 1984 with the involvement of the Colorado Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Recruitment includes birth cohorts several years prior to 1984 and all subsequent years. As part of a recent evaluation of Colorado birth records for the years 2006 through 2008 we became aware of a shifting trend in the proportion of MZ and DZ twins in the Colorado population. Historically (Bulmer 1970 The biology of twinning in man, Clarendon, Oxford) we have expected a 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 ratio of MZ, same-sex DZ and opposite sex DZ twins in Caucasian populations. An excess of MZ pairs in most studies was assumed to be due to selection bias. Somewhat more recently, Hur et al.(1995 Behav Genet 25, 337-340) provided evidence that the DZ twinning rate was falling and that therefore selection bias was not the reason for higher MZ enrollment in most twin studies. They suggested that twin researchers might consider strategies to over-enroll DZ pairs to maximize statistical power. In contrast, we now find that of the 3217 twin births in Colorado from 2006 to 2008 with identified sex information the MZ rate is estimated at only 22%, and we have corroborating reports from other states of similar estimates. These were calculated applying Weinberg's rule which assumes an equal birth rate for same sex and opposite sex DZ pairs so that the proportion of MZ in a sample is the proportion of same sex (MM + FF) minus the proportion of opposite-sex (MF, FM). We explore factors, such as an increase in the proportion of non-Caucasian parents and an increase in average maternal age, which may contribute to this shift.

  17. Higher Education Support Services and Graduation Rates of Structured Education Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Seth

    2017-01-01

    The 1st-year retention rate of the Structured Education Program (SEP) is 90%, yet the 6-year graduation rate of SEP students is 29%. The gap between SEP 1st-year retention and graduation rates is the problem that this study addressed. The low graduation rate of SEP students is an important issue because graduation rates are used to measure the…

  18. Poor glycemic control of diabetes mellitus is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhyun Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM on prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,368 men who underwent prostate biopsy at our institution. We divided our biopsy population into three groups according to their history of DM, and their Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level: a no-DM (DM- group; a good glycemic control (DM+GC group (HbA1c <6.5%; and a poor glycemic control (DM+PC group (HbA1c ≥6.5%. For sub-analyses, the DM+PC group was divided into a moderately poor glycemic control (DM+mPC group (6.5≤ HbA1c <7.5% and a severely poor glycemic control (DM+sPC group (HbA1c ≥7.5%.Among 1,368 men, 338 (24.7% had a history of DM, and 393 (28.7% had a positive biopsy. There was a significant difference in prostatic specific antigen density (PSAD (P = 0.037 and the frequency of abnormal DRE findings (P = 0.031 among three groups. The occurrence rate of overall prostate cancer (P<0.001 and high-grade prostate cancer (P = 0.016 also presented with a significantly difference. In the multivariate analysis, the DM+PC group was significantly associated with a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection in biopsy subjects compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.313, P = 0.001 but the DM+PC group was not associated with a higher rate of high-grade (Gleason score ≥7 diseases detected during the biopsy (OR = 1.297, P = 0.376. However, in subgroup analysis, DM+sPC group was significantly related to a higher risk of high-grade diseases compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.446, P = 0.048.Poor glycemic control of DM was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection, including high-grade disease, in the biopsy population.

  19. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  20. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborowski Maciej

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

  1. Removal of boron(III) by N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives with higher adsorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Toshio; Mihara, Nobutake; Yamada, Kouji; Nambu, Nobuyoshi; Itoh, Osamu; Doi, Takao; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    To obtain adsorbents for boron(III) derived from a natural polymer, two forms (powder and fiber) of N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were newly synthesized. After the graft polymerization of two forms of cellulose with vinyl monomer having epoxy groups, the N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were obtained by the reaction of the grafted cellulose with N-methylglucamine. The adsorption capacities of the cellulose derivatives for boron(III) were the same levels as that of a commercially available N-methylglucamine-type polystyrene resin. However, the cellulose derivatives adsorbed boron(III) more quickly than the polystyrene resin. The adsorption and desorption of boron(III) with a column method using the cellulose fiber were achieved at a higher flow rate than that using the polystyrene resin. In addition, the boron(III), adsorbed on the cellulose fiber column, was quantitatively recovered with dilute hydrochloric acid in 20- and 200-fold increased concentrations. Consequently, it was found that the cellulose derivatives were superior to the polystyrene resin as adsorbents for boron(III) for treatment of a large quantity of wastewater

  2. Wavelet-based higher-order neural networks for mine detection in thermal IR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertlein, Brian A.; Liao, Wen-Jiao

    2000-08-01

    An image processing technique is described for the detection of miens in RI imagery. The proposed technique is based on a third-order neural network, which processes the output of a wavelet packet transform. The technique is inherently invariant to changes in signature position, rotation and scaling. The well-known memory limitations that arise with higher-order neural networks are addressed by (1) the data compression capabilities of wavelet packets, (2) protections of the image data into a space of similar triangles, and (3) quantization of that 'triangle space'. Using these techniques, image chips of size 28 by 28, which would require 0(109) neural net weights, are processed by a network having 0(102) weights. ROC curves are presented for mine detection in real and simulated imagery.

  3. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    that disconnection of the REED system resulted to much lower (48 and 83% for glucose and xylose, respectively) sugars consumption rates and consequently lower butyric acid production rates. It was also noticeable that continuous operation, even without the REED system, resulted to higher glucose consumption rates...

  4. Hotspot detection using image pattern recognition based on higher-order local auto-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shimon; Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Ogawa, Ryuji; Ichikawa, Hirotaka; Takahata, Kazuhiro; Miyairi, Masahiro; Kotani, Toshiya; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Kei; Saito, Tamaki; Mimotogi, Shoji; Inoue, Soichi; Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Takumi; Murakawa, Masahiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Eiichi; Otsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Below 40nm design node, systematic variation due to lithography must be taken into consideration during the early stage of design. So far, litho-aware design using lithography simulation models has been widely applied to assure that designs are printed on silicon without any error. However, the lithography simulation approach is very time consuming, and under time-to-market pressure, repetitive redesign by this approach may result in the missing of the market window. This paper proposes a fast hotspot detection support method by flexible and intelligent vision system image pattern recognition based on Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation. Our method learns the geometrical properties of the given design data without any defects as normal patterns, and automatically detects the design patterns with hotspots from the test data as abnormal patterns. The Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation method can extract features from the graphic image of design pattern, and computational cost of the extraction is constant regardless of the number of design pattern polygons. This approach can reduce turnaround time (TAT) dramatically only on 1CPU, compared with the conventional simulation-based approach, and by distributed processing, this has proven to deliver linear scalability with each additional CPU.

  5. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. METHODS Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical para...

  6. Structural damage detection using higher-order finite elements and a scanning laser vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Si

    In contrast to conventional non-destructive evaluation methods, dynamics-based damage detection methods are capable of rapid integrity evaluation of large structures and have received considerable attention from aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering communities in recent years. However, the identifiable damage size using dynamics-based methods is determined by the number of sensors used, level of measurement noise, accuracy of structural models, and signal processing techniques. In this thesis we study dynamics of structures with damage and then derive and experimentally verify new model-independent structural damage detection methods that can locate small damage to structures. To find sensitive damage detection parameters we develop a higher-order beam element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, bending moments, and shear forces at all nodes, and a higher-order rectangular plate element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, and bending and twisting moments at all nodes. These two elements are used to study the dynamics of beams and plates. Results show that high-order spatial derivatives of high-frequency modes are important sensitive parameters that can locate small structural damage. Unfortunately the most powerful and popular structural modeling technique, the finite element method, is not accurate in predicting high-frequency responses. Hence, a model-independent method using dynamic responses obtained from high density measurements is concluded to be the best approach. To increase measurement density and reduce noise a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to provide non-contact, dense, and accurate measurements of structural vibration velocities. To avoid the use of structural models and to extract sensitive detection parameters from experimental data, a brand-new structural damage detection method named BED (Boundary-Effect Detection) is developed for pinpointing damage locations using Operational

  7. Higher USA State Resident Neuroticism Is Associated With Lower State Volunteering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2017-12-01

    Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates. Study 3 showed state resident percentages engaged in other social behaviors involving more familiarity and fewer demands than formal volunteering related to state volunteering rates but not to neuroticism. In Study 4, state resident neuroticism largely accounted statistically for relations between state volunteering rates and state population density, collectivism, social capital, Republican preference, and well-being. This research is the first to show that state resident neuroticism is a potent predictor of state volunteering rates.

  8. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence A. Hamrick

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocating academic financial resources to optimize graduation rates

  9. A novel hardware implementation for detecting respiration rate using photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinable, Joseph; Jones, Peter; Thamrin, Cindy; McEwan, Alistair

    2017-07-01

    Asthma is a serious public health problem. Continuous monitoring of breathing may offer an alternative way to assess disease status. In this paper we present a novel hardware implementation for the capture and storage of a photoplethysmography (PPG) signal. The LED duty cycle was altered to determine the effect on respiratory rate accuracy. The oximeter was mounted to the left index finger of ten healthy volunteers. The breathing rate derived from the oximeter was validated against a nasal airflow sensor. The duty cycle of a pulse oximeter was changed between 5%, 10% and 25% at a sample rate of 500 Hz. A PPG signal and reference signal was captured for each duty cycle. The PPG signals were post processed in Matlab to derive a respiration rate using an existing Matlab toolbox. At a 25% duty cycle the RMSE was <;2 breaths per minute for the top performing algorithm. The RMSE increased to over 5 breaths per minute when the duty cycle was reduced to 5%. The power consumed by the hardware for a 5%, 10% and 25% duty cycle was 5.4 mW, 7.8 mW, and 15 mW respectively. For clinical assessment of respiratory rate, a RSME of <;2 breaths per minute is recommended. Further work is required to determine utility in asthma management. However for non-clinical applications such as fitness tracking, lower accuracy may be sufficient to allow a reduced duty cycle setting.

  10. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  11. Cooperation schemes for rate enhancement in detect-and-forward relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2010-05-01

    To improve the spectral efficiency of "Detect-and-Forward" (DetF) half-duplex relaying in fading channels, we propose a cooperation scheme where the relay uses a modulation whose order is higher than the one at the source. In a new common framework, we show that the proposed scheme offers considerable gains - in terms of achievable information rates - compared to the conventional DetF relaying schemes for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal source/relay cooperation. This allows us to propose an adaptive cooperation scheme based on the maximization of the information rate at the destination which needs to observe only the average signal-to-noise ratios of direct and relaying links. ©2010 IEEE.

  12. Narrow Band Imaging Enhances the Detection Rate of Penetration and Aspiration in FEES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienstedt, Julie C; Müller, Frank; Nießen, Almut; Fleischer, Susanne; Koseki, Jana-Christiane; Flügel, Till; Pflug, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Narrow band imaging (NBI) is widely used in gastrointestinal, laryngeal, and urological endoscopy. Its original purpose was to visualize vessels and epithelial irregularities. Based on our observation that adding NBI to common white light (WL) improves the contrast of the test bolus in fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), we now investigated the potential value of NBI in swallowing disorders. 148 FEES images were analyzed from 74 consecutive patients with swallowing disorders, including 74 with and 74 without NBI. All images were evaluated by four dysphagia specialists. Findings were classified according to Rosenbek's penetration-aspiration scale modified for evaluating these FEES images. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined as well as observer confidence. A better visualization of the bolus is the main advantage of NBI in FEES. This generally leads to sharper optical contrasts and better detection of small bolus quantities. Accordingly, NBI enhances the detection rate of penetration and aspiration. On average, identification of laryngeal penetration increased from 40 to 73% and of aspiration from 13 to 24% (each p dysphagia evaluation and shortening FEES evaluation time. It leads to a markedly higher detection rate of pathological findings. The significantly better intra- and inter-rater reliability argues further for a better overall reproducibly of FEES interpretation.

  13. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Florence A. Hamrick; John H. Schuh; Mack C. Shelley

    2004-01-01

    This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity) and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures) into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocat...

  14. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  15. Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K N; Petry, N M; Bickel, W K

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.

  16. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnoy, David, E-mail: david.portnoy@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the 'threat' set of

  17. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the 'threat' set of spectra

  18. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra

  19. Dedicated Barrett's surveillance sessions managed by trained endoscopists improve dysplasia detection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Joanne; Wilson, Patrick; Walker, Giles; Blaker, Paul; DeMartino, Sabina; O'Donohue, John; Reffitt, David; Lanaspre, Effie; Chang, Fuju; Meenan, John; Dunn, Jason M

    2017-06-01

    Background and study aim  Barrett's esophagus (BE)-associated dysplasia is an important marker for risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and an indication for endoscopic therapy. However, BE surveillance technique is variable. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dedicated BE surveillance lists on dysplasia detection rate (DDR). Patients and methods  This was a prospective study of patients undergoing BE surveillance at two hospitals - community (UHL) and upper gastrointestinal center (GSTT). Four endoscopists (Group A) were trained in Prague classification, Seattle protocol biopsy technique, and lesion detection prior to performing BE surveillance endoscopies at both sites, with dedicated time slots or lists. The DDR was then compared with historical data from 47 different endoscopists at GSTT and 24 at UHL (Group B) who had undertaken Barrett's surveillance over the preceding 5-year period. Results  A total of 729 patients with BE underwent surveillance endoscopy between 2007 and 2012. There was no significant difference in patient age, sex, or length of BE between the two groups. There was a significant difference in detection rate of confirmed indefinite or low grade dysplasia and high grade dysplasia (HGD)/EAC between the two groups: 18 % (26 /142) Group A vs. 8 % (45/587) in Group B ( P  < 0.001). Documentation of Prague criteria and adherence to the Seattle protocol was significantly higher in Group A. Conclusion  This study demonstrated that a group of trained endoscopists undertaking Barrett's surveillance on dedicated lists had significantly higher DDR than a nonspecialist cohort. These findings support the introduction of dedicated Barrett's surveillance lists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Higher speciation and lower extinction rates influence mammal diversity gradients in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Krishnapriya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-02-04

    Little is known about the patterns and correlates of mammal diversity gradients in Asia. In this study, we examine patterns of species distributions and phylogenetic diversity in Asia and investigate if the observed diversity patterns are associated with differences in diversification rates between the tropical and non-tropical regions. We used species distribution maps and phylogenetic trees to generate species and phylogenetic diversity measures for 1° × 1° cells across mainland Asia. We constructed lineage-through-time plots and estimated diversification shift-times to examine the temporal patterns of diversifications across orders. Finally, we tested if the observed gradients in Asia could be associated with geographical differences in diversification rates across the tropical and non-tropical biomes. We estimated speciation, extinction and dispersal rates across these two regions for mammals, both globally and for Asian mammals. Our results demonstrate strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients of species and phylogenetic diversity with Southeast Asia and the Himalayas showing highest diversity. Importantly, our results demonstrate that differences in diversification (speciation, extinction and dispersal) rates between the tropical and the non-tropical biomes influence the observed diversity gradients globally and in Asia. For the first time, we demonstrate that Asian tropics act as both cradles and museums of mammalian diversity. Temporal and spatial variation in diversification rates across different lineages of mammals is an important correlate of species diversity gradients observed in Asia.

  2. Implementing a Multiplexed System of Detectors for Higher Photon Counting Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, and M. L. Rastello, “Theoretical aspects of photon number measurement,” Metrologia , vol. 37, pp. 613-616, 2000. [19] http...source heralding efficiency and detection effi- ciency metrology at 1550 nm using periodically poled lithium niobate,” Metrologia , vol. 43, pp. S56-S60...2006. Valentina Schettini received her master degree in Physics at the University La Sapienza of Rome in 2003. In 2004 and 2005 she had a research

  3. Vigorous physical activity predicts higher heart rate variability among younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard; McBerty, Victoria; Zaky, Adam; Gianotti, Melino

    2017-06-14

    Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prospective cardiovascular health. We tested intensity and duration of weekly physical activity as predictors of heart rate variability in young adults. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were calculated based on 5-min resting electrocardiograms collected from 82 undergraduate students. Hours per week of both moderate and vigorous activity were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In regression analyses, hours of vigorous physical activity, but not moderate activity, significantly predicted greater time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability. Adjusted for weekly frequency, greater daily duration of vigorous activity failed to predict HRV indices. Future studies should test direct measurements of vigorous activity patterns as predictors of autonomic function in young adulthood.

  4. Reducing Error Rates for Iris Image using higher Contrast in Normalization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu Ghali, Abdulrahman; Jamel, Sapiee; Abubakar Pindar, Zahraddeen; Hasssan Disina, Abdulkadir; Mat Daris, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Iris recognition system is the most secured, and faster means of identification and authentication. However, iris recognition system suffers a setback from blurring, low contrast and illumination due to low quality image which compromises the accuracy of the system. The acceptance or rejection rates of verified user depend solely on the quality of the image. In many cases, iris recognition system with low image contrast could falsely accept or reject user. Therefore this paper adopts Histogram Equalization Technique to address the problem of False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) by enhancing the contrast of the iris image. A histogram equalization technique enhances the image quality and neutralizes the low contrast of the image at normalization stage. The experimental result shows that Histogram Equalization Technique has reduced FRR and FAR compared to the existing techniques.

  5. Rate of detection of advanced neoplasms in proximal colon by simulated sigmoidoscopy vs fecal immunochemical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique; Álvarez, Cristina; Bujanda, Luis; Cubiella, Joaquín; Salas, Dolores; Lanas, Angel; Carballo, Fernando; Morillas, Juan Diego; Hernández, Cristina; Jover, Rodrigo; Hijona, Elizabeth; Portillo, Isabel; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Hernández, Vicent; Martínez-Turnes, Alfonso; Menéndez-Villalva, Carlos; González-Mao, Carmen; Sala, Teresa; Ponce, Marta; Andrés, Mercedes; Teruel, Gloria; Peris, Antonio; Sopeña, Federico; González-Rubio, Francisca; Seoane-Urgorri, Agustín; Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Pozo, Àngels; Pellisé, Maria; Balaguer, Francesc; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, José; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Carrillo-Palau, Marta; de la Vega-Prieto, Mariola; Iglesias, Rosario; Amador, Javier; Blanco, José Manuel; Sastre, Rocio; Ferrándiz, Juan; González-Hernández, Ma José; Andreu, Montserrat; Bessa, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    We compared the ability of biennial fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and one-time sigmoidoscopy to detect colon side-specific advanced neoplasms in a population-based, multicenter, nationwide, randomized controlled trial. We identified asymptomatic men and women, 50-69 years old, through community health registries and randomly assigned them to groups that received a single colonoscopy examination or biennial FIT. Sigmoidoscopy yield was simulated from results obtained from the colonoscopy group, according to the criteria proposed in the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial for colonoscopy referral. Patients who underwent FIT and were found to have ≥75 ng hemoglobin/mL were referred for colonoscopy. Data were analyzed from 5059 subjects in the colonoscopy group and 10,507 in the FIT group. The main outcome was rate of detection of any advanced neoplasm proximal to the splenic flexure. Advanced neoplasms were detected in 317 subjects (6.3%) in the sigmoidoscopy simulation group compared with 288 (2.7%) in the FIT group (odds ratio for sigmoidoscopy, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.93-2.70; P = .0001). Sigmoidoscopy also detected advanced distal neoplasia in a higher percentage of patients than FIT (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-3.10; P = .0001). The methods did not differ significantly in identifying patients with advanced proximal neoplasms (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.76; P = .44). This was probably due to the lower performance of both strategies in detecting patients with proximal lesions (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 19.1% of patients and FIT in 14.9% of patients) vs distal ones (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 86.8% of patients and FIT in 33.5% of patients). Sigmoidoscopy, but not FIT, detected proximal lesions in lower percentages of women (especially those 50-59 years old) than men. Sigmoidoscopy and FIT have similar limitations in detecting advanced proximal neoplasms, which depend on patients' characteristics

  6. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  7. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Tulp, I.Y.M.; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  8. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  9. Honest signaling in trust interactions: smiles rated as genuine induce trust and signal higher earning opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Centorrino, S.; Djemai, E.; Hopfensitz, A.; Milinski, M.; Seabright, P.

    2015-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that smiles perceived as honest serve as a signal that has evolved to induce cooperation in situations requiring mutual trust. Potential trustees (84 participants from Toulouse, France) made two video clips averaging around 15 seconds for viewing by potential senders before the latter decided whether to ‘send’ or ‘keep’ a lower stake (4 euros) or higher stake (8 euros). Senders (198 participants from Lyon, France) made trust decisions with respect to the recorded clips....

  10. Surgical site infection and transfusion rates are higher in underweight total knee arthroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manrique, MD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that UW TKA patients have a higher likelihood of developing SSI and requiring blood transfusions. The specific reasons are unclear, but we conjecture that it may be related to decreased wound healing capabilities and low preoperative hemoglobin. Investigation of local tissue coverage and hematologic status may be beneficial in this patient population to prevent SSI. Based on the results of this study, a prospective evaluation of these factors should be undertaken.

  11. Relationship of detection rate of PET cancer screening examinees and risk factors. Analysis of background of examinees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Koji; Uno, Kimiichi; Arai, Masami; Matsuura, Masaaki; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Momose, Toshimitsu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening is performed widely in Japan as opportunistic screening, but no study has focused on the correlation with various cancer risk factors and the seeking bias of examinees and cancer detection rate. Analyzing our large series of PET cancer screening data, correlations with cancer detection rates according to general cancer risk factors and PET detection survey were reviewed, and the selection bias of the medical examinees was determined. 19189 examinees who underwent PET cancer screening were enrolled. Using logistic-regression analysis, we analyzed correlations between smoking history/drinking history/cancer family history and detection rates of thyroid cancer/breast cancer/colorectal cancer/lung cancer, which are the main malignancies detected in PET cancer screening. In addition, we evaluated seeking bias of examinees, analyzing correlations between the presence of cancer risk factors and prior screening checkups at other institutions to our PET cancer screening using a matched case-control study. Cancer detection rates by FDG-PET were 1.17% (224/19189), being much higher than those of standard cancer mass screenings. In males, statistically significant correlations were seen between lung cancer and smoking, and between prostate cancer and a family history of prostate cancer, but not between the detection rates of three other types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer) and other cancer risk factors. In females, detection rates of four types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer/breast cancer) were significantly higher in the examinees without cancer risks, and subgroup analysis according to types of cancer did not indicate significant correlations either. The matched case-control study evaluating seeking bias indicated that a significant proportion of the examinees with cancer risks had undergone prior cancer screening at other institutions. Our study indicated that there was

  12. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Sangwook; Jeon, Moongu

    2009-12-11

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter-beat intervals by way of Poincare plot. We tried to design an

  13. Detection rate of prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Need for undertaking prostate biopsies for detection of prostate cancer is often decided on the basis of serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA. Aim: To evaluate the case detection rate of prostate cancer among patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS on the basis of PSA levels and to assess the scope of prostate biopsy in these patients. Setting and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The clinical and histopathological data of 922 patients presenting with LUTS in the last five years was obtained from the medical record section. They had been screened for prostate cancer using PSA and /or digital rectal examination examination followed by confirmation with prostate biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used: Detection rate and receiver operating characteristic curve were performed using SPSS 16 and Medcalc softwares. Results: The detection rate of prostate cancer according to the PSA levels was 0.6%, 2.3%, 2.5%, 34.1% and 54.9% in the PSA range of 0-4, 4-10, 10-20, 20-50 and> 50 ng/ml, respectively. Maximum prostate cancer cases were detected beyond a PSA value of 20 ng/ml whereas no significant difference in the detection rate was observed in the PSA range of 0-4, 4-10 and 10-20 ng/ml. Conclusion: A low detection rate of prostate cancer observed in the PSA range of 4-20 ng/ml in LUTS patients indicates the need for use of higher cutoff values of PSA in such cases. Therefore we recommend a cutoff of 20 ng/ml of PSA for evaluation of detection rate of prostate cancer among patients presenting with LUTS.

  14. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  15. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  16. PET-CT detection rate of primary breast cancer lesions. Correlation with the clinicopathological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Fukuma, Eisuke

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and forty lesions of primary breast cancer underwent positron emission tomography (PET)-CT between June 2006 and May 2007. The PET-CT detection rate of primary breast cancer lesions was 72.1%. The detection rate was 52.1% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm, 92.8% for invasive breast cancers >20 mm, and these results were significant. In the present study, no significant relationship was observed between tumor types, however, invasive lobular carcinoma showed a lower detection rate, 58.3%. The PET-CT results were not significantly affected by either estrogen and progesterone receptors or distant metastasis. A significant correlation regarding the detection rate of PET-CT was found with HER2 status, tumor grade, and axillary lymph node status. The detection rate was 100% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm when the interval between prior diagnostic Mammotome biopsies and PET-CT was less than 3 weeks, 18.8% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm when the interval was more than 3 weeks, and these results were significant. Mammotome biopsies may therefore affect the detection rate of PET-CT. Invasive cancers ≤20 mm showed a low detection rate, therefore, it is considered to be insufficient to use PET-CT for the detection of early breast cancer. (author)

  17. Correction to the count-rate detection limit and sample/blank time-allocation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    A common form of count-rate detection limits contains a propagation of uncertainty error. This error originated in methods to minimize uncertainty in the subtraction of the blank counts from the gross sample counts by allocation of blank and sample counting times. Correct uncertainty propagation showed that the time allocation equations have no solution. This publication presents the correct form of count-rate detection limits. -- Highlights: •The paper demonstrated a proper method of propagating uncertainty of count rate differences. •The standard count-rate detection limits were in error. •Count-time allocation methods for minimum uncertainty were in error. •The paper presented the correct form of the count-rate detection limit. •The paper discussed the confusion between count-rate uncertainty and count uncertainty

  18. Religious affiliation and psychiatric morbidity in Brazil: higher rates among evangelicals and spiritists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Marín-León, Leticia; Botega, Neury José; Berti De Azevedo Barros, Marilisa; Bosco De Oliveira, Helenice

    2008-11-01

    To verify the association between the prevalence of mental symptoms and excessive alcohol intake with religious affiliation, church attendance and personal religiosity. A household survey of 515 adults randomly sampled included the WHO SUPRE-MISS questionnaire, SRQ-20 and AUDIT. Weighted prevalences were estimated and logistic analyses were performed. Minor psychiatric morbidity was greater among Spiritists and Protestants/ Evangelicals than in Catholics and in the ;no-religion' group. The latter had a greater frequency of abusive alcohol drinking pattern and Protestants/Evangelicals showed lower drinking patterns. Although belonging to Protestant/Evangelical churches in Brazil may inhibit alcohol involvement it seems to be associated to a higher frequency of depressive symptoms. Processes of seeking relief in new religious affiliations among sub-groups with previous minor psychiatric symptoms may probably occur in the Brazilian society.

  19. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    in the period from 1992 to 2010 in the DPIA database were identified and patient records were reviewed manually. RESULTS: The compensation awarded for the 18-year period totalled 18,147,202 DKK with 41% of patient claims being recognised. Out of 180 surgically treated patients, 79 received a total compensation...... of 14,051,377 DKK, median 47,637 (range: 5,000-3,577,043). Of 114 non-surgically treated patients, 40 received 3,715,224 DKK in compensation, with a median amount of 35,788 DKK (range: 5,000-830,073). CONCLUSION: Compensation after surgical treatment was 3.8 times higher than compensation after non......-surgical treatment. It is noteworthy that 34.5% of patients had an overlooked diagnosis which underlines the importance of a correct primary diagnosis. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  20. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lead Burden as a Factor for Higher Complication Rate in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kolibash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 [n=168]; Group C: ≥5 [n=16]. Prespecified inhospital and long-term follow-up events were compared. Mortality rates were obtained from Social Security Death Index. Median follow-up was 2 years. Results: Baseline age, gender and race demographics were similar among the three groups. Increasing lead burden was associated with more adverse periprocedural events (A: 3.4%, B: 10.1%, C: 25.0%; P=0.031 and long-term device-related events (A: 1.7%, B: 13.0%, C: 18.8%; P=0.031. Device-related readmissions increased in frequency as lead burden increased (A: 3.5%, B: 18.5%, C: 37.5%; P=0.002. Combined periprocedural and late events also increased with more redundant leads (A: 5.2%, B: 23.2%, C: 44.0%; P=0.001. Total major events were infrequent (3.3%. There was no procedure-related mortality. Long-term all-cause mortality was not significantly different (A: 17.2%, B: 23.8%, C: 25.0%; P=0.567. Conclusions: Greater lead burden was associated with increased number of periprocedural and long-term minor events. It did not significantly impact major events or mortality.

  2. An integrated approach for a higher success rate in mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncelj

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the importance of balanced management of hard and soft key success factors, combining the economic logic of corporate performance and human capital through an integrated approach to mergers and acquisitions. The study, based on a questionnaire and interviews, suggests that the achievement level ofmergers and acquisitions’ objectives of acquiring companies in Slovenia should be comparable to findings of similar studies; namely, the objectives that drove the deal were met only half the time. The results indicate that five hard success factors – a professional target search and due diligence, a realistic assessment of synergies, theright mix of financial sources, a detailed post-acquisition integration plan already prepared in the pre-deal phase and its speedy implementation – and five soft success factors – a new “combined” organizational culture, a competent management team, innovative employees, efficient and consistent communication and a creative business environment – are becoming increasingly relevant. Even though they differ in their importance for individual companies in the sample, they are all considered essential to increasing the success rate of corporate combinations

  3. Sex-role reversal of a monogamous pipefish without higher potential reproductive rate in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2007-12-07

    In monogamous animals, males are usually the predominant competitors for mates. However, a strictly monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus exceptionally exhibits a reversed sex role. To understand why its sex role is reversed, we measured the adult sex ratio and the potential reproductive rate (PRR), two principal factors influencing the operational sex ratio (OSR), in a natural population of southern Japan. The adult sex ratio was biased towards females throughout the breeding season, but the PRR, which increased with water temperature, did not show sexual difference. We found that an alternative index of the OSR (Sf/Sm: sex ratio of 'time in') calculated from the monthly data was consistently biased towards females. The female-biased OSR associated with sex-role reversal has been reported in some polyandrous or promiscuous pipefish, but factors biasing the OSR differed between these pipefish and C. haematopterus. We concluded that the similar PRR between the sexes in C. haematopterus does not confer reproductive benefit of polygamous mating on either sex, resulting in strict monogamous mating, and its female-biased adult sex ratio promotes female-female competition for a mate, resulting in sex-role reversal.

  4. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  5. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...

  6. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  7. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  8. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D Sorani

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense

  10. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorani, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT) from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense, mutualistic

  11. Use of Selective Fungal Culture Media Increases Rates of Detection of Fungi in the Respiratory Tract of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gina; Miller, Heather B; Allgood, Sarah; Lee, Richard; Lechtzin, Noah; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing the rates of detection for clinically important fungi (CIF), defined as Aspergillus , Scedosporium , and Trichosporon species and Exophiala dermatitidis , in CF sputa using standard bacterial and selective fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain heart infusion (BHI) agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin. We described the prevalence of these fungi in an adult CF population. A total of 487 CF respiratory samples were collected from 211 unique participants. CIF were detected in 184 (37.8%) samples. Only 26.1% of CIF-positive samples were detected in bacterial culture medium, whereas greater rates of detection for fungi were found in IMA (65.8%; P culture media and longer incubation periods yielded higher rates of detection for CIF in CF sputum samples compared with that detected in bacterial culture medium, resulting in an underdetection of fungi by bacterial culture alone. The prevalence of fungi in CF may be better estimated by using selective fungal culture media, and this may translate to important clinical decisions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Adenoma Detection Rate in Gastroenterology Fellowship Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Robert J; Oza, Sveta Shah; Tapper, Elliot B; Kothari, Darshan; Sheth, Sunil G

    2016-10-01

    Current guidelines suggest that a gastroenterology fellow in training needs to perform 140 colonoscopies to achieve competency. Data are limited regarding adenoma detection rate (ADR) in fellowship. To assess how fellow ADR correlates with number of colonoscopies performed. We performed a retrospective study examining consecutive colonoscopies performed by gastroenterology fellows. Fellow ADR before and after the 140 procedure benchmark was compared to colonoscopies performed by attending only with whom these fellows trained. A threshold for ideal procedure count was performed using ROC analysis. We analyzed 2021 average-risk colonoscopies performed by 10 gastroenterology fellows under the supervision of an attending physician. When fellows had performed 140 colonoscopies under attending supervision (p = 0.02). The ADR of fellows who had performed >140 colonoscopies under attending supervision was greater than that of attending-only colonoscopies (36 vs. 25 %, p 325 (male patients) and 539 (female patients) colonoscopies was determined to be ideal for achieving adequate ADR based on ROC analysis. Our data suggest that ADR increases after fellows perform >140 colonoscopies under attending supervision, and thereafter surpasses the ADR of attending-only colonoscopies. Some of the differences may be driven by detection of small adenomas. The findings of this study suggest that a higher threshold for number of colonoscopies performed under attending supervision may be needed to achieve adequate ADR during fellowship prior to independent practice.

  13. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  14. Concerns and perceptions immediately following Superstorm Sandy: ratings for property damage were higher than for health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    Governmental officials, health and safety professionals, early responders, and the public are interested in the perceptions and concerns of people faced with a crisis, especially during and immediately after a disaster strikes. Reliable information can lead to increased individual and community preparedness for upcoming crises. The objective of this research was to evaluate concerns of coastal and central New Jersey residents within the first 100 days of Superstorm Sandy's landfall. Respondents living in central New Jersey and Jersey shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm, with shore residents having higher evacuation rates (47% vs. 13%), more flood waters in their homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs. 6 days), and longer periods without Internet (29 vs. 6 days). Ratings of concerns varied both among and within categories as a function of location (central vs. coastal New Jersey), stressor level (ranging from 1 to 3 for combinations of power outages, high winds, and flooding), and demographics. Respondents were most concerned about property damage, health, inconveniences, ecological services, and nuclear power plants in that order. Respondents from the shore gave higher ratings to the concerns within each major category, compared to those from central Jersey. Four findings have implications for understanding future risk, recovery, and resiliency: (1) respondents with the highest stressor level (level 3) were more concerned about water damage than others, (2) respondents with flood damage were more concerned about water drainage and mold than others, (3) respondents with the highest stressor levels rated all ecological services higher than others, and (4) shore respondents rated all ecological services higher than central Jersey residents. These data provide information to design future preparedness plans, improve resiliency for future severe weather events, and reduce public health risk.

  15. Time-Frequency Analysis of Terahertz Radar Signals for Rapid Heart and Breath Rate Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massar, Melody L

    2008-01-01

    We develop new time-frequency analytic techniques which facilitate the detection of a person's heart and breath rates from the Doppler shift the movement of their body induces in a terahertz radar signal...

  16. Opportunistic mammography screening provides effective detection rates in a limited resource healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Yew-Ching; Tan, Gie-Hooi; Taib, Nur Aishah; Rahmat, Kartini; Westerhout, Caroline Judy; Fadzli, Farhana; See, Mee-Hoong; Jamaris, Suniza; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2015-05-15

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women world-wide. In low and middle income countries, where there are no population-based mammographic screening programmes, late presentation is common, and because of inadequate access to optimal treatment, survival rates are poor. Mammographic screening is well-studied in high-income countries in western populations, and because it has been shown to reduce breast cancer mortality, it has become part of the healthcare systems in such countries. However the performance of mammographic screening in a developing country is largely unknown. This study aims to evaluate the performance of mammographic screening in Malaysia, a middle income country, and to compare the stage and surgical treatment of screen-detected and symptomatic breast cancer. A retrospective review of 2510 mammograms performed from Jan to Dec 2010 in a tertiary medical centre is carried out. The three groups identified are the routine (opportunistic) screening group, the targeted (high risk) screening group and the diagnostic group. The performance indicators of each group is calculated, and stage at presentation and treatment between the screening and diagnostic group is analyzed. The cancer detection rate in the opportunistic screening group, targeted screening group, and the symptomatic group is 0.5 %, 1.25 % and 26 % respectively. The proportion of ductal carcinoma in situ is 23.1 % in the two screening groups compared to only 2.5 % in the diagnostic group. Among the opportunistic screening group, the cancer detection rate was 0.2 % in women below 50 years old compared to 0.65 % in women 50 years and above. The performance indicators are within international standards. Early-staged breast cancer (Stage 0-2) were 84.6 % in the screening groups compared to 61.1 % in the diagnostic group. From the results, in a setting with resource constraints, targeted screening of high risk individuals will give a higher yield, and if more resources are

  17. Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem radiography: detection rates and implications for practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Calder, Alistair D. [NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Kiho, Liina [Camelia Botnar Laboratories Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Paediatric Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Camelia Botnar Laboratories Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Paediatric Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem plain radiography allows for the diagnosis and assessment of skeletal dysplasias, fractures and other bony abnormalities. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic yield of this practice. We identified 1,027 cases performed in a single institution over a 21/2-year period, including babygrams (whole-body examinations) and full skeletal surveys. Images were reported prior to autopsy in all cases. Radiology findings were cross-referenced with the autopsy findings using an autopsy database. We scored each case from 0 to 4 according to the level of diagnostic usefulness. The overall abnormality rate was 126/1,027 (12.3%). There was a significantly higher rate of abnormality when a skeletal survey was performed (18%) rather than a babygram (10%; P < 0.01); 90% (665/739) of babygrams were normal. Of the 74 abnormal babygrams, we found 33 incidental non-contributory cases, 19 contributory, 20 diagnostic, and 2 false-positive cases. There were only 2 cases out of 739 (0.27%) in whom routine post-mortem imaging identified potentially significant abnormalities that would not have been detected if only selected imaging had been performed. A policy of performing selected, rather than routine, foetal post-mortem radiography could result in a significant cost saving. Routine post-mortem paediatric radiography in foetuses and neonates is neither diagnostically useful nor cost-effective. A more evidence-based, selective protocol should yield significant cost savings. (orig.)

  18. Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem radiography: detection rates and implications for practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Calder, Alistair D.; Kiho, Liina; Taylor, Andrew M.; Sebire, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    Routine perinatal and paediatric post-mortem plain radiography allows for the diagnosis and assessment of skeletal dysplasias, fractures and other bony abnormalities. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic yield of this practice. We identified 1,027 cases performed in a single institution over a 21/2-year period, including babygrams (whole-body examinations) and full skeletal surveys. Images were reported prior to autopsy in all cases. Radiology findings were cross-referenced with the autopsy findings using an autopsy database. We scored each case from 0 to 4 according to the level of diagnostic usefulness. The overall abnormality rate was 126/1,027 (12.3%). There was a significantly higher rate of abnormality when a skeletal survey was performed (18%) rather than a babygram (10%; P < 0.01); 90% (665/739) of babygrams were normal. Of the 74 abnormal babygrams, we found 33 incidental non-contributory cases, 19 contributory, 20 diagnostic, and 2 false-positive cases. There were only 2 cases out of 739 (0.27%) in whom routine post-mortem imaging identified potentially significant abnormalities that would not have been detected if only selected imaging had been performed. A policy of performing selected, rather than routine, foetal post-mortem radiography could result in a significant cost saving. Routine post-mortem paediatric radiography in foetuses and neonates is neither diagnostically useful nor cost-effective. A more evidence-based, selective protocol should yield significant cost savings. (orig.)

  19. Adaptive heart rate-based epileptic seizure detection using real-time user feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Cooman, Thomas; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Automated seizure detection in a home environment has been of increased interest the last couple of decades. Heart rate-based seizure detection is a way to detect temporal lobe epilepsy seizures at home, but patient-independent algorithms showed to be insufficiently accurate due to the high patient...... with incorrect user feedback, making it ideal for implementation in a home environment for a seizure warning system....

  20. Minimum Symbol Error Rate Detection in Single-Input Multiple-Output Channels with Markov Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Minimum symbol error rate detection in Single-Input Multiple- Output(SIMO) channels with Markov noise is presented. The special case of zero-mean Gauss-Markov noise is examined closer as it only requires knowledge of the second-order moments. In this special case, it is shown that optimal detection...

  1. Impact of the use of an endorectal coil for 3 T prostate MRI on image quality and cancer detection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlitza, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Thörmer, Gregor; Schaudinn, Alexander; Linder, Nicolas; Garnov, Nikita; Horn, Lars-Christian; Minh, Do Hoang; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to assess the impact of an additional endorectal coil on image quality and cancer detection rate within the same patients. At a single academic medical center, this transversal study included 41 men who underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T using surface coils only or in combination with an endorectal coil in the same session. Two blinded readers (A and B) randomly evaluated all image data in separate sessions. Image quality with respect to localization and staging was rated on a five-point scale. Lesions were classified according to their prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) score version 1. Standard of reference was provided by whole-mount step-section analysis. Mean image quality scores averaged over all localization-related items were significantly higher with additional endorectal coil for both readers (p < 0.001), corresponding staging-related items were only higher for reader B (p < 0.001). With an endorectal coil, the rate of correctly detecting cancer per patient was significantly higher for reader B (p < 0.001) but not for reader A (p = 0.219). The numbers of histologically confirmed tumor lesions were rather similar for both settings. The subjectively rated 3-T image quality was improved with an endorectal coil. In terms of diagnostic performance, the use of an additional endorectal coil was not superior.

  2. Higher Magnitude Cash Payments Improve Research Follow-up Rates Without Increasing Drug Use or Perceived Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    In a prior study (Festinger et al., 2005) we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n ≅ 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion. PMID:18395365

  3. Using a higher criticism statistic to detect modest effects in a genome-wide study of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In high-dimensional studies such as genome-wide association studies, the correction for multiple testing in order to control total type I error results in decreased power to detect modest effects. We present a new analytical approach based on the higher criticism statistic that allows identification of the presence of modest effects. We apply our method to the genome-wide study of rheumatoid arthritis provided in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Problem 1 data set. There is evidence for unknown bias in this study that could be explained by the presence of undetected modest effects. We compared the asymptotic and empirical thresholds for the higher criticism statistic. Using the asymptotic threshold we detected the presence of modest effects genome-wide. We also detected modest effects using 90th percentile of the empirical null distribution as a threshold; however, there is no such evidence when the 95th and 99th percentiles were used. While the higher criticism method suggests that there is some evidence for modest effects, interpreting individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms with significant higher criticism statistics is of undermined value. The goal of higher criticism is to alert the researcher that genetic effects remain to be discovered and to promote the use of more targeted and powerful studies to detect the remaining effects. PMID:20018032

  4. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  5. Exploiting Higher Order and Multi-modal Features for 3D Object Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita

    that describe object visual appearance such as shape, colour, texture etc. This thesis focuses on robust object detection and pose estimation of rigid objects using 3D information. The thesis main contributions are novel feature descriptors together with object detection and pose estimation algorithms....... The initial work introduces a feature descriptor that uses edge categorisation in combination with a local multi-modal histogram descriptor in order to detect objects with little or no texture or surface variation. The comparison is performed with a state-of-the-art method, which is outperformed...... of the methods work well for one type of objects in a specific scenario, in another scenario or with different objects they might fail, therefore more robust solutions are required. The typical problem solution is the design of robust feature descriptors, where feature descriptors contain information...

  6. The Detection and Correction of Bias in Student Ratings of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Thomas; Hess, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    A Rasch model was used to detect and correct bias in Likert rating scales used to assess student perceptions of college teaching, using a database of ratings. Statistical corrections were significant, supporting the model's potential utility. Recommendations are made for a theoretical rationale and further research on the model. (Author/MSE)

  7. Theoretical and computational study of the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate from hydrogen to higher-Z gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Adamczak, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stoilov, Mihail [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Vacchi, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-23

    The recent PSI Lamb shift experiment and the controversy about proton size revived the interest in measuring the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen as an alternative possibility for comparing ordinary and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy data on proton electromagnetic structure. This measurement critically depends on the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to heavier gases in the epithermal range. The available data provide only qualitative information, and the theoretical predictions have not been verified. We propose a new method by measurements of the transfer rate in thermalized target at different temperatures, estimate its accuracy and investigate the optimal experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Method for measuring the energy dependence of muon transfer rate to higher-Z gases. • Thermalization and depolarization of muonic hydrogen studied by Monte Carlo method. • Optimal experimental conditions determined by Monte Carlo simulations. • Mathematical model and for estimating the uncertainty of the experimental results.

  8. Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rodney A; Kim, Helen; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E; Singh, Vineeta; Johnston, S Claiborne; Ko, Nerissa U; Achrol, Achal S; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Young, William L

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether increased neuroimaging use is associated with increased brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) detection, we examined detection rates in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of northern California between 1995 and 2004. We reviewed medical records, radiology reports, and administrative databases to identify BAVMs, intracranial aneurysms (IAs: subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and unruptured aneurysms), and other vascular malformations (OVMs: dural fistulas, cavernous malformations, Vein of Galen malformations, and venous malformations). Poisson regression (with robust standard errors) was used to test for trend. Random-effects meta-analysis generated a pooled measure of BAVM detection rate from 6 studies. We identified 401 BAVMs (197 ruptured, 204 unruptured), 570 OVMs, and 2892 IAs (2079 SAHs and 813 unruptured IAs). Detection rates per 100 000 person-years were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6) for BAVMs, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.3) for OVMs, and 10.3 (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.7) for IAs. Neuroimaging utilization increased 12% per year during the time period (PIAs (PIAs (P4) per 100 000 person-years, without heterogeneity between studies (P=0.25). Rates for BAVMs, OVMs, and IAs in this large, multiethnic population were similar to those in other series. During 1995 to 2004, a period of increasing neuroimaging utilization, we did not observe an increased rate of detection of unruptured BAVMs, despite increased detection of unruptured IAs.

  9. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  10. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  11. A Compound Detection System Based on Ultrasonic Flow Rate and Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-Hui WANG; Fang MU; Li-Feng WEI

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new detection system for monitoring gas concentration and flow rate. Velocity difference of ultrasonic wave in bi-directional propagation in measured gas is recorded and utilized for computing the online gas concentration and flow rate. Meanwhile, the temperature compensation, return signal processing and error analysis algorithms are applied to improve the accuracy. The experimental results show that, compared with the single sensor measurement of gas flow rate or conce...

  12. Link Between RI-ISI and Inspection Qualification: Relationship between Defect Detection Rate and Margin of Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Barrie; Goujon, Sophie; Whittle, John

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative risk-informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) requires a quantitative measurement of inspection effectiveness if the risk change associated with an inspection is to be determined. Knowing the probability of detection (POD) as a function of defect depth (through wall dimension) would provide ideal information. However the main in-service inspection method for nuclear plant is ultrasonics, for which defect detection capability depends on a wide variety of parameters besides defect depth, such as defect orientation, roughness, location, shape etc. In recognition of this the European approach to inspection qualification is generally based on some combination of technical justification, and practical trials on a relatively limited number of defects. This inspection qualification process involves demonstrating that defects of concern will generate responses in excess of the specified recording level or noise, depending on the inspection. It is not currently designed to quantify the probability with which defects will be detected. The work described in this report has been performed in order to help address the problem of how the information generated during inspection qualification can be used as an input for RI-ISI. The approach adopted has been to recognise that as the defect response increases above the recording or noise level, the probability of detecting defects is likely to increase. The work therefore involved an investigation of the relationship between POD (strictly speaking defect detection rate) and margin of detection. It involved blind manual and automated ultrasonic trials on artificial defects in test plates designed to generate a range of signal responses. The detection rate for defects which provided signals at a particular level above noise or above a recording level was then measured. A relationship between defect detection rate and margin of detection has been established based on these trials. In addition to establishing a stronger link

  13. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, E; Korevaar, J C; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F

    2008-08-01

    An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical parameters of 111 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with 114 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus placebo. The data for age, BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and plasma testosterone were available in all women, 2 h glucose in 80% of women and homeostatic model assessment for assessing insulin sensitivity (HOMA) in 50% of women. Of the women who were allocated to the metformin group, 44 women (40%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. In the placebo group, 52 women (46%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. There was a significantly different chance of an ongoing pregnancy for metformin versus placebo between subgroups based on age and WHR (P = 0.014). There was a positive effect of metformin versus placebo on pregnancy rate in older women (>or=28 years) with a high WHR, a negative effect of metformin versus placebo in young women (Metformin may be an effective addition to clomifene citrate in infertile women with PCOS, especially in older and viscerally obese patients.

  14. Cost and detection rate of glaucoma screening with imaging devices in a primary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Anton,1–4 Monica Fallon,3,5 Francesc Cots,2 María A Sebastian,6 Antonio Morilla-Grasa,4 Sergi Mojal,3 Xavier Castells2 1Medicine School, Universidad Internacional de Cataluña, 2Servei d’Estudies, Parc de Salut Mar, 3Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas (IMIM, 4Glaucoma Department, Instituto Catalán de Retina (ICR, 5Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 6Centro de Atención Primaria Larrard, Barcelona, Spain Purpose: To analyze the cost and detection rate of a screening program for detecting glaucoma with imaging devices. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a glaucoma screening program was applied in a population-based sample randomly selected from a population of 23,527. Screening targeted the population at risk of glaucoma. Examinations included optic disk tomography (Heidelberg retina tomograph [HRT], nerve fiber analysis, and tonometry. Subjects who met at least 2 of 3 endpoints (HRT outside normal limits, nerve fiber index ≥30, or tonometry ≥21 mmHg were referred for glaucoma consultation. The currently established (“conventional” detection method was evaluated by recording data from primary care and ophthalmic consultations in the same population. The direct costs of screening and conventional detection were calculated by adding the unit costs generated during the diagnostic process. The detection rate of new glaucoma cases was assessed. Results: The screening program evaluated 414 subjects; 32 cases were referred for glaucoma consultation, 7 had glaucoma, and 10 had probable glaucoma. The current detection method assessed 677 glaucoma suspects in the population, of whom 29 were diagnosed with glaucoma or probable glaucoma. Glaucoma screening and the conventional detection method had detection rates of 4.1% and 3.1%, respectively, and the cost per case detected was 1,410 and 1,435€, respectively. The cost of screening 1 million inhabitants would be 5.1 million euros and would allow

  15. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Zaman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that our fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods using smartphone reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series data from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively.

  16. Obesity detection rate among primary school students in the People's Republic of China: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yue-long Jin,* Ling-ling Ding,* Ying-shui Yao, Xiu-li Song, Hui Tang, Lian-ping He, Yan ChenFaculty of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Wannan Medical College, Anhui, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Obesity has become a major public health problem worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is rising alarmingly among children and adolescents in the People's Republic of China, with an estimated 120 million now in the obese range. It is estimated that 8% of children in the People's Republic of China are obese and 12% are overweight.Methods: Eligible papers on the prevalence of obesity among primary school students in the People's Republic of China and published between 2006 and 2011 were retrieved from PubMed and from online Chinese periodicals, ie, the full-text databases of VIP, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wan Fang. Meta-Analyst software was used to collate and analyze the detection rates cited in the papers retrieved.Results: After evaluation of the quality of the papers, 25 were finally included, giving a total sample population size for investigation of obesity of 219,763, in which 28,121 cases were detected. Meta-analysis showed that the combined obesity detection rate was 10.4% (95% confidence interval 8.6–12.6 among primary school students in the People's Republic of China, with a higher detection rate in boys (12.6% than in girls (7.2%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in the north (11.8% than in the south (9.5%, east (11.6%, and mid-west (8.0% regions. Obesity defined according to the World Health Organization weight-for-height standard (14.3% was higher than that using age-specific and gender-specific cutoff points for body mass index (9.0%.Conclusion: Our meta-analysis found an obesity prevalence rate of 10.4%, which does not seem as high as previous reports of childhood obesity rates in other countries. However, the prevalence of childhood

  17. Internet addiction detection rate among college students in the People's Republic of China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yao-Jun; Zheng, Tong; Wang, Yan-Qiu; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yan; Yao, Ying-Shui

    2018-01-01

    With the development of economy and technology, the Internet is becoming more and more popular. Internet addiction has gradually become a serious issue in public health worldwide. The number of Internet users in China has reached 731 million, with an estimated 24 million adolescents determined as having Internet addiction. In this meta-analysis, we attempted to estimate the prevalence of Internet addiction among College Students in the People's Republic of China in order to improve the mental health level of college students and provide evidence for the prevention of Internet addiction. Eligible articles about the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in China published between 2006 and 2017 were retrieved from online Chinese periodicals, the full-text databases of Wan Fang, VIP, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, as well as PubMed. Stata 11.0 was used to perform the analyses. A total of 26 papers were included in the analyses. The overall sample size was 38,245, with 4573 diagnosed with Internet addiction. The pooled detection rate of Internet addiction was 11% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9-13%) among college students in China. The detection rate was higher in male students (16%) than female students (8%). The Internet addiction detection rate was 11% (95% CI 8-14%) in southern areas, 11% (95% CI 7-14%) in northern areas, 13% (95% CI 8-18%) in eastern areas and 9% (95% CI 8-11%) in the mid-western areas. According to different scales, the Internet addiction detection rate was 11% (95% CI 8-15%) using the Young scale and 9% (95% CI 6-11%) using the Chen scale respectively. Cumulative meta analysis showed that the detection rate had a slight upward trend and gradually stabilized in the last 3 years. The pooled Internet addiction detection rate of Chinese college students in out study was 11%, which is higher than in some other countries and strongly demonstrates a worrisome situation. Effective measures should be taken to prevent

  18. [Detection rates of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with different ethnicities in Xinjiang Uigur areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Li, Xiaomei; Tao, Jing; Ma, Yitong; Yang, Yining; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Xie, Xiang; Yang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the detection rates of overweight and obesity among Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents in Xinjiang. Random samples were used to analyze the detection rates on overweight and obesity based on data from Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years from 3 regions-Hetian, Kashi and Fuhai prefectures in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Anthropometric data including weight and height was collected. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index [BMI, weight (kg)/height (m²)] cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC)aged 7-14 years. The present study was performed in 11 894 Han, Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years. The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 5.6% and 2.9% respectively, which the difference between male and female was significant (χ² = 39.765, P overweight and obesity rate showed differences, with detection rate of overweight among Kazakh students was 12.0% , higher than the other ethnic groups. The obesity detection rate was 7.2% among Han students, which was the highest of the three ethnic groups, with differences statistically significant(χ² = 363.885, P overweight and obesity decreased with increasing age in various ethnic groups, showing a clear downward trend, with the peak at 7-9 year-olds and the difference was statistically significant(χ² = 101.479, P overweight and obesity among children and adolescents were significantly lower in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region than the national average level, with differences also seen in different ethnic, gender and age groups.

  19. Technological advances for improving adenoma detection rates: The changing face of colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Sauid; Siau, Keith; Harrison, Elizabeth; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Hoffman, Arthur; Gross, Seth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Neumann, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer. Over 90% follow an adenoma-to-cancer sequence over many years. Colonoscopy is the gold standard method for cancer screening and early adenoma detection. However, considerable variation exists between endoscopists' detection rates. This review considers the effects of different endoscopic techniques on adenoma detection. Two areas of technological interest were considered: (1) optical technologies and (2) mechanical technologies. Optical solutions, including FICE, NBI, i-SCAN and high definition colonoscopy showed mixed results. In contrast, mechanical advances, such as cap-assisted colonoscopy, FUSE, EndoCuff and G-EYE™, showed promise, with reported detections rates of up to 69%. However, before definitive recommendations can be made for their incorporation into daily practice, further studies and comparison trials are required. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  1. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  3. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transfer metatarsalgia (TM is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV. Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS group, and the others were classified as the control (CN group (53 feet. The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9. According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery.

  4. LASER: A Maximum Likelihood Toolkit for Detecting Temporal Shifts in Diversification Rates From Molecular Phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Rabosky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of species origination and extinction can vary over time during evolutionary radiations, and it is possible to reconstruct the history of diversification using molecular phylogenies of extant taxa only. Maximum likelihood methods provide a useful framework for inferring temporal variation in diversification rates. LASER is a package for the R programming environment that implements maximum likelihood methods based on the birth-death process to test whether diversification rates have changed over time. LASER contrasts the likelihood of phylogenetic data under models where diversification rates have changed over time to alternative models where rates have remained constant over time. Major strengths of the package include the ability to detect temporal increases in diversification rates and the inference of diversification parameters under multiple rate-variable models of diversification. The program and associated documentation are freely available from the R package archive at http://cran.r-project.org.

  5. Shilling attack detection for recommender systems based on credibility of group users and rating time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Qu, Qiang; Zeng, Jun; Cheng, Tian

    2018-01-01

    Recommender systems are vulnerable to shilling attacks. Forged user-generated content data, such as user ratings and reviews, are used by attackers to manipulate recommendation rankings. Shilling attack detection in recommender systems is of great significance to maintain the fairness and sustainability of recommender systems. The current studies have problems in terms of the poor universality of algorithms, difficulty in selection of user profile attributes, and lack of an optimization mechanism. In this paper, a shilling behaviour detection structure based on abnormal group user findings and rating time series analysis is proposed. This paper adds to the current understanding in the field by studying the credibility evaluation model in-depth based on the rating prediction model to derive proximity-based predictions. A method for detecting suspicious ratings based on suspicious time windows and target item analysis is proposed. Suspicious rating time segments are determined by constructing a time series, and data streams of the rating items are examined and suspicious rating segments are checked. To analyse features of shilling attacks by a group user's credibility, an abnormal group user discovery method based on time series and time window is proposed. Standard testing datasets are used to verify the effect of the proposed method.

  6. Interference of detection rate of lumbar disc herniation by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Nak-Yong; An, Seong Dae; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective study. The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation.

  7. Obese Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes have higher basal metabolic rates than non-diabetic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (pBMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences.

  8. Factors influencing variation in physician adenoma detection rates: a theory-based approach for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Louise; Hunkeler, Enid M; Jensen, Christopher D; Michie, Susan; Lee, Jeffrey K; Doubeni, Chyke A; Zauber, Ann G; Levin, Theodore R; Quinn, Virginia P; Corley, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to improve physician adenoma detection rates for colonoscopy have generally not been successful, and there are little data on the factors contributing to variation that may be appropriate targets for intervention. We sought to identify factors that may influence variation in detection rates by using theory-based tools for understanding behavior. We separately studied gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses at 3 Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers to identify potentially modifiable factors relevant to physician adenoma detection rate variability by using structured group interviews (focus groups) and theory-based tools for understanding behavior and eliciting behavior change: the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation behavior model; the Theoretical Domains Framework; and the Behavior Change Wheel. Nine factors potentially associated with adenoma detection rate variability were identified, including 6 related to capability (uncertainty about which types of polyps to remove, style of endoscopy team leadership, compromised ability to focus during an examination due to distractions, examination technique during withdrawal, difficulty detecting certain types of adenomas, and examiner fatigue and pain), 2 related to opportunity (perceived pressure due to the number of examinations expected per shift and social pressure to finish examinations before scheduled breaks or the end of a shift), and 1 related to motivation (valuing a meticulous examination as the top priority). Examples of potential intervention strategies are provided. By using theory-based tools, this study identified several novel and potentially modifiable factors relating to capability, opportunity, and motivation that may contribute to adenoma detection rate variability and be appropriate targets for future intervention trials. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection and Modeling of Non-Tidal Oceanic Effects on the Earth's Rotation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, S. L.; Chao, Y.; Dickey, J. O.; Gegout, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sub-decadal changes in the Earth's rotation rate, and hence in the length-of-day (LOD), are largely controlled by variations in atmospheric angular momentum. Results from two oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), forced by observed wind stress and heat flux for the years 1992-1994, show that ocean current and mass distribution changes also induce detectable LOD variations.

  10. Leadership training to improve adenoma detection rate in screening colonoscopy: A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Kaminski (Michal); J. Anderson (John); R.M. Valori (Roland ); E. Kraszewska (Ewa); M. Rupinski (Maciej); J. Pachlewski (Jacek); E. Wronska (Ewa); M. Bretthauer (Michael); S. Thomas-Gibson (Siwan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J. Regula (J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Suboptimal adenoma detection rate (ADR) at colonoscopy is associated with increased risk of interval colorectal cancer. It is uncertain how ADR might be improved. We compared the effect of leadership training versus feedback only on colonoscopy quality in a countrywide

  11. Low-Rate DDoS Attack Detection Using Expectation of Packet Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-rate Distributed Denial-of-Service (low-rate DDoS attacks are a new challenge to cyberspace, as the attackers send a large amount of attack packets similar to normal traffic, to throttle legitimate flows. In this paper, we propose a measurement—expectation of packet size—that is based on the distribution difference of the packet size to distinguish two typical low-rate DDoS attacks, the constant attack and the pulsing attack, from legitimate traffic. The experimental results, obtained using a series of real datasets with different times and different tolerance factors, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed measurement. In addition, extensive experiments are performed to show that the proposed measurement can detect the low-rate DDoS attacks not only in the short and long terms but also for low packet rates and high packet rates. Furthermore, the false-negative rates and the adjudication distance can be adjusted based on the detection sensitivity requirements.

  12. A visible light imaging device for cardiac rate detection with reduced effect of body movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaotian; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin

    2014-09-01

    A visible light imaging system to detect human cardiac rate is proposed in this paper. A color camera and several LEDs, acting as lighting source, were used to avoid the interference of ambient light. From people's forehead, the cardiac rate could be acquired based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. The template matching method was used after the capture of video. The video signal was discomposed into three signal channels (RGB) and the region of interest was chosen to take the average gray value. The green channel signal could provide an excellent waveform of pulse wave on the account of green lights' absorptive characteristics of blood. Through the fast Fourier transform, the cardiac rate was exactly achieved. But the research goal was not just to achieve the cardiac rate accurately. With the template matching method, the effects of body movement are reduced to a large extent, therefore the pulse wave can be detected even while people are in the moving state and the waveform is largely optimized. Several experiments are conducted on volunteers, and the results are compared with the ones gained by a finger clamped pulse oximeter. The contrast results between these two ways are exactly agreeable. This method to detect the cardiac rate and the pulse wave largely reduces the effects of body movement and can probably be widely used in the future.

  13. Detectability of changes in cosmic-ray counting rate measured with the Liulin detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malusek, A.; Kubancak, J.; Ambrozova, I.

    2011-05-01

    Experimental data are needed to improve and validate models predicting the dynamics of solar particle events because the mechanisms of processes leading to the acceleration of solar energetic particles are not yet fully understood. The aim of this work was to examine whether the spectrometer of deposited energy, Liulin, positioned at the Lomnický štít mountain observatory can collect such data. Decision thresholds and detection limits for the increase or decrease in the average number of particles detected by Liulin were determined for a period in February 2011. The changes in counts corresponding to the decision thresholds and detection limits relative to the average number of detected particles were about 17% and 33%, respectively. The Forbush decrease with a maximum change of about 6.8%, which started on February 18, was detectable neither during the 10-minute acquisition time nor during any other, longer period. Statistical analysis showed that an acquisition time about 7 hours would be needed to detect a 5% decrease. As this time was shorter than the duration of the Forbush decrease (about 56 hours), we theorize that the current placement of the Liulin detector inside a living room shielded by a thick concrete ceiling may have had an adverse impact on the detectability of the the cosmic ray counting rate decrease. To test this hypothesis, we recommend positioning the Liulin detector outside the main observatory building.. (author)

  14. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans TEMRIN; Johanna NORDLUND; Mikael RYING; Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-01-01

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies.However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-59, 2011].

  15. Training in Using Earplugs or Using Earplugs with a Higher than Necessary Noise Reduction Rating? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salmani Nodoushan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is one of the most common occupational diseases and the second most common cause of workers' claims for occupational injuries. Objective: Due to high prevalence of NIHL and several reports of improper use of hearing protective devices (HPDs, we conducted this study to compare the effect of face-to-face training in effective use of earplugs with appropriate NRR to overprotection of workers by using earplugs with higher than necessary noise reduction rating (NRR. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 150 workers referred to occupational medicine clinic were randomly allocated to three arms—a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with no training in appropriate use of the device; a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with training; another group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 30, with no training. Hearing threshold was measured in the study groups by real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT method. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand clinical trials Registry, number ACTRN00363175. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants was 28±5 (range: 19–39 years. 42% of participants were female. The mean noise attenuation in the group with training was 13.88 dB, significantly higher than those observed in other groups. The highest attenuation was observed in high frequencies (4, 6, and 8 kHz in the group with training. Conclusion: Training in appropriate use of earplugs significantly affects the efficacy of earplugs—even more than using an earplug with higher NRR.

  16. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  17. The Offer of Advanced Imaging Techniques Leads to Higher Acceptance Rates for Screening Colonoscopy - a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Heinz; Gallitz, Julia; Hable, Robert; Vieth, Michael; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Riemann, Jurgen Ferdinand; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy plays a fundamental role in early diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer and requires public and professional acceptance to ensure the ongoing success of screening programs. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess whether patient acceptance rates to undergo screening colonoscopy could be improved by the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Overall, 372 randomly selected patients were prospectively included. A standardized questionnaire was developed that inquired of the patients their knowledge regarding advanced imaging techniques. Second, several media campaigns and information events were organized reporting about advanced imaging techniques, followed by repeated evaluation. After one year the evaluation ended. At baseline, 64% of the patients declared that they had no knowledge about new endoscopic methods. After twelve months the overall grade of information increased significantly from 14% at baseline to 34%. The percentage of patients who decided to undergo colonoscopy because of the offer of new imaging methods also increased significantly from 12% at baseline to 42% after 12 months. Patients were highly interested in the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Knowledge about these techniques could relatively easy be provided using local media campaigns. The offer of advanced imaging techniques leads to higher acceptance rates for screening colonoscopies.

  18. Non-English speakers attend gastroenterology clinic appointments at higher rates than English speakers in a vulnerable patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L.; Kushel, Margot B.; Inadomi, John M.; Yee, Hal F.

    2009-01-01

    Goals We sought to identify factors associated with gastroenterology clinic attendance in an urban safety net healthcare system. Background Missed clinic appointments reduce the efficiency and availability of healthcare, but subspecialty clinic attendance among patients with established healthcare access has not been studied. Study We performed an observational study using secondary data from administrative sources to study patients referred to, and scheduled for an appointment in, the adult gastroenterology clinic serving the safety net healthcare system of San Francisco, California. Our dependent variable was whether subjects attended or missed a scheduled appointment. Analysis included multivariable logistic regression and classification tree analysis. 1,833 patients were referred and scheduled for an appointment between 05/2005 and 08/2006. Prisoners were excluded. All patients had a primary care provider. Results 683 patients (37.3%) missed their appointment; 1,150 (62.7%) attended. Language was highly associated with attendance in the logistic regression; non-English speakers were less likely than English speakers to miss an appointment (adjusted odds ratio 0.42 [0.28,0.63] for Spanish, 0.56 [0.38,0.82] for Asian language, p gastroenterology clinic appointment, not speaking English was most strongly associated with higher attendance rates. Patient related factors associated with not speaking English likely influence subspecialty clinic attendance rates, and these factors may differ from those affecting general healthcare access. PMID:19169147

  19. Detecting subsurface fluid leaks in real-time using injection and production rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Huerta, Nicolas J.

    2017-12-01

    CO2 injection into geologic formations for either enhanced oil recovery or carbon storage introduces a risk for undesired fluid leakage into overlying groundwater or to the surface. Despite decades of subsurface CO2 production and injection, the technologies and methods for detecting CO2 leaks are still costly and prone to large uncertainties. This is especially true for pressure-based monitoring methods, which require the use of simplified geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the pressure behavior as well as background noise affecting pressure measurements. In this study, we propose a method to detect the time and volume of fluid leakage based on real-time measurements of well injection and production rates. The approach utilizes analogies between fluid flow and capacitance-resistance modeling. Unlike other leak detection methods (e.g. pressure-based), the proposed method does not require geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the behavior that often carry significant sources of uncertainty; therefore, with our approach the leak can be detected with greater certainty. The method can be applied to detect when a leak begins by tracking a departure in fluid production rate from the expected pattern. The method has been tuned to detect the effect of boundary conditions and fluid compressibility on leakage. To highlight the utility of this approach we use our method to detect leaks for two scenarios. The first scenario simulates a fluid leak from the storage formation into an above-zone monitoring interval. The second scenario simulates intra-reservoir migration between two compartments. We illustrate this method to detect fluid leakage in three different reservoirs with varying levels of geological and structural complexity. The proposed leakage detection method has three novelties: i) requires only readily-available data (injection and production rates), ii) accounts for fluid compressibility and boundary effects, and iii) in addition to

  20. Device to detect the presence of a pure signal in a discrete noisy signal measured at an average rate of constant noise with a probability of false detection lower than one predeterminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poussier, E.; Rambaut, M.

    1986-01-01

    Detection consists of a measurement of a counting rate. A probability of wrong detection is associated with this counting rate and with an average estimated rate of noise. Detection consists also in comparing the wrong detection probability to a predeterminated rate of wrong detection. The comparison can use tabulated values. Application is made to corpuscule radiation detection [fr

  1. Ways to be different: Foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly wintering shorebird compared with a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 deg of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: C. p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N) and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (∼40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioral, physiological and sensory aspects of foraging and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. C. p. ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10–14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis probably resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the metabolic capacities of the two subspecies, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioral or sensory aspects.

  2. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  3. The clinical significance of detection to heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-rong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the change of heart rate deceleration capacity ( DC and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and its relationship with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods: DC, LVEF, time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were measured in 66 patients with CHF and 34 healthy adults (control group by using 24h Holter recordings and Echocardiography. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals( SDNN, squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals ( RMSSD,low frequency power( LFn and high frequency power( HFn and the changes of LVEF were compared between  the two groups,the relationship between DC,LVEF and HRV were studied in patients with CHF. Results: The median value of DC in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than that in control group( 3.1 ± 2.4 ms vs 7.2 ± 1.3 ms,P <0.01.Incidence of abnormal DC in the CHF group was 57.5%,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01.The HRV index, including SDNN、RMSSD、LFn、HFn, in the CHF group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P < 0.01. Significant positive correlation between HRV index and LVEF were confirmed (P < 0.01. Conclusions: DC and HRV index are lower in patients with CHF and have a good correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  4. Universal design of a microcontroller and IoT system to detect the heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwamahoro, Raphael; Mushikiwabeza, Alexie; Minani, Gerard; Mohan Murari, Bhaskar

    2017-11-01

    Heart rate analysis provides vital information of the present condition of the human body. It helps medical professionals in diagnosis of various malfunctions of the body. The limitation of vision impaired and blind people to access medical devices cause a considerable loss of life. In this paper, we intended to develop a heart rate detection system that is usable for people with normal and abnormal vision. The system is based on a non-invasive method of measuring the variation of the tissue blood flow rate by means of a photo transmitter and detector through fingertip known as photoplethysmography (PPG). The signal detected is firstly passed through active low pass filter and then amplified by a two stages high gain amplifier. The amplified signal is feed into the microcontroller to calculate the heart rate and displays the heart beat via sound systems and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). To distinguish arrhythmia, normal heart rate and abnormal working conditions of the system, recognition is provided in different sounds, LCD readings and Light Emitting Diodes (LED).

  5. Measurement of the modification and interference rate of urinary albumin detected by size-exclusion HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markó, Lajos; Molnár, Gergő Attila; Wagner, Zoltán; Szijártó, István; Mérei, Ákos; Wittmann, István; Böddi, Katalin; Szabó, Zoltán; Matus, Zoltán; Kőszegi, Tamás; Nagy, Géza

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of the excretion of urinary albumin (albuminuria) is an important and well-established method to assess clinical outcomes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been introduced to measure albuminuria. Using this method, it was found that commonly used immunological methods do not measure a fraction of urinary albumin. Some authors presumed that the reason of immuno-unreactivity is the modification of urinary albumin; some others presumed that the difference is merely because of interference. In order to decide this question, we established an HPLC method equipped with tandem UV and fluorescent detection to assess the changes in the detectability of albumin with the rate of modification. For this measurement, differently modified forms of albumin were used. Urine samples of diabetic patients were also measured to find a potential connection between the modification rate and clinical parameters. Secondly, we have established a reversed phase HPLC method to assess the interference rate. We conclude that albumin modification does not affect immunoreactivity. The modification rate of urinary albumin in diabetic patients showed a correlation with renal function. The interference rate of the albumin peak was found to be 12.7% on average, which does not explain the difference between the two methods

  6. Invariance of the bit error rate in the ancilla-assisted homodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yuhsuke; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the minimum achievable bit error rate of the discrimination of binary coherent states with the help of arbitrary ancillary states. We adopt homodyne measurement with a common phase of the local oscillator and classical feedforward control. After one ancillary state is measured, its outcome is referred to the preparation of the next ancillary state and the tuning of the next mixing with the signal. It is shown that the minimum bit error rate of the system is invariant under the following operations: feedforward control, deformations, and introduction of any ancillary state. We also discuss the possible generalization of the homodyne detection scheme.

  7. Reaction rate constant of HO2+O3 measured by detecting HO2 from photofragment fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, E. R.; Suto, Masako; Lee, Long C.; Coffey, Dewitt, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A room-temperature discharge-flow system investigation of the rate constant for the reaction 'HO2 + O3 yields OH + 2O2' has detected HO2 through the OH(A-X) fluorescence produced by photodissociative excitation of HO2 at 147 nm. A reaction rate constant of 1.9 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the -15th cu cm/molecule per sec is obtained from first-order decay of HO2 in excess O3; this agrees well with published data.

  8. Is interstellar detection of higher members of the linear radicals CnCH and CnN feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Mclean, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Rotational constants and dipole moments for linear-chain radicals CnCH and CnN are estimated using a combinatiaon of ab initio molecular orbital calculations and observed data on the starting members of the series. CnCH with n = 0-5 have been observed by radioastronomy in carbon-rich interstellar clouds; higher members of the series have 2Pi ground states with large dipole moments and are strong candidates for observation. CN and C3N have also been observed by radioastronomy; higher members of the series, with the possible exception of C5N, have 2Pi ground states with near-zero dipole moments making their interstellar detection hopeless under present observational conditions. C5N can be a strong candidate only if it has a 2Sigma ground state, and best computations so far indicate that this is not the case.

  9. Is interstellar detection of higher members of the linear radicals CnCH and CnN feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Mclean, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Rotational constants and dipole moments for linear-chain radicals CnCH and CnN are estimated using a combinatiaon of ab initio molecular orbital calculations and observed data on the starting members of the series. CnCH with n = 0-5 have been observed by radioastronomy in carbon-rich interstellar clouds; higher members of the series have 2Pi ground states with large dipole moments and are strong candidates for observation. CN and C3N have also been observed by radioastronomy; higher members of the series, with the possible exception of C5N, have 2Pi ground states with near-zero dipole moments making their interstellar detection hopeless under present observational conditions. C5N can be a strong candidate only if it has a 2Sigma ground state, and best computations so far indicate that this is not the case. 20 refs

  10. Individual polyp detection rate in routine daily endoscopy practice depends on case-mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffeld, R J L F; Liberov, B; Dekkers, P E P

    2015-07-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR), a marker of endoscopic quality, is confounded by selection bias. It is not known what the ADR is in normal daily practice. To study the polyp detection rate (PDR) in different endoscopists in the course of years. All consecutive endoscopies of the colon done in 11 years were included. Endoscopies in the regular surveillance programme after polyp removal and after surgery because of colorectal cancer or diverticular disease were scored separately. The number of yearly procedures per endoscopist and presence of polyps, anastomoses, surveillance and cancer were noted. In the period of 11 years, 14,908 consecutive endoscopies of colon and rectum were done by four endoscopists. Two endoscopists had a significantly lower PDR than the other two (p case-mix of patients presented for endoscopy. This result debates the use of the ADR as quality indicator for individual endoscopists.

  11. Double symbol error rates for differential detection of narrow-band FM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper evaluates the double symbol error rate (average probability of two consecutive symbol errors) in differentially detected narrow-band FM. Numerical results are presented for the special case of MSK with a Gaussian IF receive filter. It is shown that, not unlike similar results previously obtained for the single error probability of such systems, large inaccuracies in predicted performance can occur when intersymbol interference is ignored.

  12. Non-contact detection of cardiac rate based on visible light imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huishi; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a non-contact method to detect human cardiac rate at a distance. This detection is based on the general lighting condition. Using the video signal of human face region captured by webcam, we acquire the cardiac rate based on the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy theory. In this paper, the cardiac rate detecting method is mainly in view of the blood's different absorptivities of the lights various wavelengths. Firstly, we discompose the video signal into RGB three color signal channels and choose the face region as region of interest to take average gray value. Then, we draw three gray-mean curves on each color channel with time as variable. When the imaging device has good fidelity of color, the green channel signal shows the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy information most clearly. But the red and blue channel signals can provide more other physiological information on the account of their light absorptive characteristics of blood. We divide red channel signal by green channel signal to acquire the pulse wave. With the passband from 0.67Hz to 3Hz as a filter of the pulse wave signal and the frequency spectrum superimposed algorithm, we design frequency extracted algorithm to achieve the cardiac rate. Finally, we experiment with 30 volunteers, containing different genders and different ages. The results of the experiments are all relatively agreeable. The difference is about 2bmp. Through the experiment, we deduce that the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy theory based on visible light can also be used to detect other physiological information.

  13. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    .06). The regional and distant failure rate was not related to HPV/p16 positivity or histologic differentiation of ACA; however, HIV positivity appeared to be associated with a higher recurrence rate and worse recurrence-free survival.

  14. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark ( Isurus oxyrinchus ) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates ( F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. A High Performance Impedance-based Platform for Evaporation Rate Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Lee, Pee-Yew; Chen, Cheng-You; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2016-10-17

    This paper describes the method of a novel impedance-based platform for the detection of the evaporation rate. The model compound hyaluronic acid was employed here for demonstration purposes. Multiple evaporation tests on the model compound as a humectant with various concentrations in solutions were conducted for comparison purposes. A conventional weight loss approach is known as the most straightforward, but time-consuming, measurement technique for evaporation rate detection. Yet, a clear disadvantage is that a large volume of sample is required and multiple sample tests cannot be conducted at the same time. For the first time in literature, an electrical impedance sensing chip is successfully applied to a real-time evaporation investigation in a time sharing, continuous and automatic manner. Moreover, as little as 0.5 ml of test samples is required in this impedance-based apparatus, and a large impedance variation is demonstrated among various dilute solutions. The proposed high-sensitivity and fast-response impedance sensing system is found to outperform a conventional weight loss approach in terms of evaporation rate detection.

  16. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3

  17. A burst-mode photon counting receiver with automatic channel estimation and bit rate detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hemonth G.; DeVoe, Catherine E.; Fletcher, Andrew S.; Gaschits, Igor D.; Hakimi, Farhad; Hamilton, Scott A.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Ingwersen, John G.; Kaminsky, Richard D.; Moores, John D.; Scheinbart, Marvin S.; Yarnall, Timothy M.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a multi-rate burst-mode photon-counting receiver for undersea communication at data rates up to 10.416 Mb/s over a 30-foot water channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of burst-mode photon-counting communication. With added attenuation, the maximum link loss is 97.1 dB at λ=517 nm. In clear ocean water, this equates to link distances up to 148 meters. For λ=470 nm, the achievable link distance in clear ocean water is 450 meters. The receiver incorporates soft-decision forward error correction (FEC) based on a product code of an inner LDPC code and an outer BCH code. The FEC supports multiple code rates to achieve error-free performance. We have selected a burst-mode receiver architecture to provide robust performance with respect to unpredictable channel obstructions. The receiver is capable of on-the-fly data rate detection and adapts to changing levels of signal and background light. The receiver updates its phase alignment and channel estimates every 1.6 ms, allowing for rapid changes in water quality as well as motion between transmitter and receiver. We demonstrate on-the-fly rate detection, channel BER within 0.2 dB of theory across all data rates, and error-free performance within 1.82 dB of soft-decision capacity across all tested code rates. All signal processing is done in FPGAs and runs continuously in real time.

  18. Loss of Excitation Detection in Doubly Fed Induction Generator by Voltage and Reactive Power Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is one of the most popular technologies used in wind power systems. With the growing use of DFIGs and increasing power system dependence on them in recent years, protecting of these generators against internal faults is more considered. Loss of excitation (LOE event is among the most frequent failures in electric generators. However, LOE detection studies heretofore were usually confined to synchronous generators. Common LOE detection methods are based on impedance trajectory which makes the system slow and also prone to interpret a stable power swing (SPS as a LOE fault. This paper suggests a new method to detect the LOE based on the measured variables from the DFIG terminal. In this combined method for LOE detection, the rate of change of both the terminal voltage and the output reactive power are utilized and for SPS detection, the fast Fourier transform (FFT analysis of the output instantaneous active power has been used. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using Matlab/Simulink interface for various power capacities and operating conditions. The results proved the method's quickness, simplicity and security.

  19. HPV detection rate in saliva may depend on the immune system efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamopoulou, Maria; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Panis, Vassilis; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedreich W; Yapijakis, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been established as a major etiological factor of anogenital cancer. In addition, HPV has also been implicated in oral carcinogenesis but its detection rates appear to be highly variable, depending on the patient population tested, the molecular methodology used, as well as the type of oral specimen investigated. For example, saliva is an oral fluid that may play a role in HPV transmission, although the detection rates of the virus are lower than tissue. Recent evidence has indicated that HPV-related pathology is increased in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. In order to investigate whether the presence of different HPV types in saliva depends on immune system efficiency, oral fluid samples of patients with oral cancer and without any known immune deficiency were compared with those of HIV-positive individuals. Saliva samples were collected from 68 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 34 HIV seropositive individuals. HPV DNA sequences were detected by L1 concensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequencing for HPV typing. HPV DNA was detected in 7/68 (10.3%) of the oral cancer patients and in 12/34 (35.3%) of the HIV-positive individuals, a highly significant difference (p = 0.006; odds ratio 4.753; 95% confidence interval 1.698-13.271). Among HPV-positive samples, the prevalence of HPV types associated with high oncogenic risk was similar in oral cancer and HIV-positive cases (71.4% and 66.7%, respectively). In both groups, the most common HPV type was high-risk 16 (50% and 42.8%, respectively). Although a similar pattern of HPV high-risk types was detected in oral cancer and HIV-positive cases, the quantitative detection of HPV in saliva significantly depended on immune system efficiency. Furthermore, the significantly increased detection rates of HPV in saliva of HIV-positive individuals may be

  20. Higher-Order Statistics for the Detection of Small Objects in a Noisy Background Application on Sonar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amate

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An original algorithm for the detection of small objects in a noisy background is proposed. Its application to underwater objects detection by sonar imaging is addressed. This new method is based on the use of higher-order statistics (HOS that are locally estimated on the images. The proposed algorithm is divided into two steps. In a first step, HOS (skewness and kurtosis are estimated locally using a square sliding computation window. Small deterministic objects have different statistical properties from the background they are thus highlighted. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on the results is studied in the case of Gaussian noise. Mathematical expressions of the estimators and of the expected performances are derived and are experimentally confirmed. In a second step, the results are focused by a matched filter using a theoretical model. This enables the precise localization of the regions of interest. The proposed method generalizes to other statistical distributions and we derive the theoretical expressions of the HOS estimators in the case of a Weibull distribution (both when only noise is present or when a small deterministic object is present within the filtering window. This enables the application of the proposed technique to the processing of synthetic aperture sonar data containing underwater mines whose echoes have to be detected and located. Results on real data sets are presented and quantitatively evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves.

  1. Developing a Digital Medicine System in Psychiatry: Ingestion Detection Rate and Latency Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Deborah; Rohatagi, Shashank; Zhao, Cathy; Hatch, Ainslie; Docherty, John P; Peters-Strickland, Timothy S

    2016-09-01

    A digital medicine system (DMS) has been developed to measure and report adherence to an atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in psychiatric patients. The DMS consists of 3 components: ingestible sensor embedded in a medication tablet, wearable sensor, and secure mobile and cloud-based applications. An umbrella study protocol was designed to rapidly assess the technical performance and safety of the DMS in multiple substudies to guide the technology development. Two sequential substudies enrolled 30 and 29 healthy volunteers between March-April 2014 and February-March 2015, respectively, to assess detection accuracy of the ingestible sensor by the DMS and the latency period between ingestion and detection of the ingestion by the wearable sensor or the cloud-based server. The first substudy identified areas for improvement using early versions of the wearable sensor and the mobile application. The second substudy tested updated versions of the components and showed an overall ingestion detection rate of 96.6%. Mean latency times for the signal transmission were 1.1-1.3 minutes (from ingestion to the wearable sensor detection) and 6.2-10.3 minutes (from the wearable sensor detection to the server detection). Half of transmissions were completed in < 2 minutes, and ~90% of ingestions were registered by the smartphone within 30 minutes of ingestion. No serious adverse events, discontinuations, or clinically significant laboratory/vital signs findings were reported. The DMS implementing modified versions of the smartphone application and the wearable sensor has the technical capability to detect and report tablet ingestion with high accuracy and acceptable latency time. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02091882. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Early detection of pharmacovigilance signals with automated methods based on false discovery rates: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ismaïl; Thiessard, Frantz; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise; Kreft-Jais, Carmen; Bégaud, Bernard; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale

    2012-06-01

    Improving the detection of drug safety signals has led several pharmacovigilance regulatory agencies to incorporate automated quantitative methods into their spontaneous reporting management systems. The three largest worldwide pharmacovigilance databases are routinely screened by the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval of proportional reporting ratio (PRR₀₂.₅), the 2.5% quantile of the Information Component (IC₀₂.₅) or the 5% quantile of the Gamma Poisson Shrinker (GPS₀₅). More recently, Bayesian and non-Bayesian False Discovery Rate (FDR)-based methods were proposed that address the arbitrariness of thresholds and allow for a built-in estimate of the FDR. These methods were also shown through simulation studies to be interesting alternatives to the currently used methods. The objective of this work was twofold. Based on an extensive retrospective study, we compared PRR₀₂.₅, GPS₀₅ and IC₀₂.₅ with two FDR-based methods derived from the Fisher's exact test and the GPS model (GPS(pH0) [posterior probability of the null hypothesis H₀ calculated from the Gamma Poisson Shrinker model]). Secondly, restricting the analysis to GPS(pH0), we aimed to evaluate the added value of using automated signal detection tools compared with 'traditional' methods, i.e. non-automated surveillance operated by pharmacovigilance experts. The analysis was performed sequentially, i.e. every month, and retrospectively on the whole French pharmacovigilance database over the period 1 January 1996-1 July 2002. Evaluation was based on a list of 243 reference signals (RSs) corresponding to investigations launched by the French Pharmacovigilance Technical Committee (PhVTC) during the same period. The comparison of detection methods was made on the basis of the number of RSs detected as well as the time to detection. Results comparing the five automated quantitative methods were in favour of GPS(pH0) in terms of both number of detections of true signals and

  3. Automatic optimisation of gamma dose rate sensor networks: The DETECT Optimisation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, K.B.; Müller, T.O.; Astrup, Poul

    2014-01-01

    of the EU FP 7 project DETECT. It evaluates the gamma dose rates that a proposed set of sensors might measure in an emergency and uses this information to optimise the sensor locations. The gamma dose rates are taken from a comprehensive library of simulations of atmospheric radioactive plumes from 64......Fast delivery of comprehensive information on the radiological situation is essential for decision-making in nuclear emergencies. Most national radiological agencies in Europe employ gamma dose rate sensor networks to monitor radioactive pollution of the atmosphere. Sensor locations were often...... source locations. These simulations cover the whole European Union, so the DOT allows evaluation and optimisation of sensor networks for all EU countries, as well as evaluation of fencing sensors around possible sources. Users can choose from seven cost functions to evaluate the capability of a given...

  4. Respiration rate detection based on intensity modulation using plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Zawawi Mohd; Ziran Nurul Sufia, Nor; Hadi, Manap

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of respiration rate measurement via a simple intensity-based optical fiber sensor using optical fiber technology. The breathing rate is measured based on the light intensity variation due to the longitudinal gap changes between two separated fibers. In order to monitor the breathing rate continuously, the output from the photodetector conditioning circuit is connected to a low-cost Arduino kit. At the sensing point, two optical fiber cables are positioned in series with a small gap and fitted inside a transparent plastic tube. To ensure smooth movement of the fiber during inhale and exhale processes as well as to maintain the gap of the fiber during idle condition, the fiber is attached firmly to a stretchable bandage. This study shows that this simple fiber arrangement can be applied to detect respiration activity which might be critical for patient monitoring.

  5. Respiration rate detection based on intensity modulation using plastic optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anwar Zawawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of respiration rate measurement via a simple intensity-based optical fiber sensor using optical fiber technology. The breathing rate is measured based on the light intensity variation due to the longitudinal gap changes between two separated fibers. In order to monitor the breathing rate continuously, the output from the photodetector conditioning circuit is connected to a low-cost Arduino kit. At the sensing point, two optical fiber cables are positioned in series with a small gap and fitted inside a transparent plastic tube. To ensure smooth movement of the fiber during inhale and exhale processes as well as to maintain the gap of the fiber during idle condition, the fiber is attached firmly to a stretchable bandage. This study shows that this simple fiber arrangement can be applied to detect respiration activity which might be critical for patient monitoring.

  6. Improved detection rate of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using an extended examination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D; Tudorache, S; Comanescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Cotarcea, S; Novac, L; Cernea, N; Antsaklis, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the potential of first-trimester sonography in the detection of fetal abnormalities using an extended protocol that is achievable with reasonable resources of time, personnel and ultrasound equipment. This was a prospective two-center 2-year study of 5472 consecutive unselected pregnant women examined at 12 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks. Women were examined using an extended morphogenetic ultrasound protocol that, in addition to the basic evaluation, involved a color Doppler cardiac sweep and identification of early contingent markers for major abnormalities. The prevalence of lethal and severe malformations was 1.39%. The first-trimester scan identified 40.6% of the cases detected overall and 76.3% of major structural defects. The first-trimester detection rate (DR) for major congenital heart disease (either isolated or associated with extracardiac abnormalities) was 90% and that for major central nervous system anomalies was 69.5%. In fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT), the first-trimester DR for major anomalies was 96%, and in fetuses with normal NT it was 66.7%. Most (67.1%) cases with major abnormalities presented with normal NT. A detailed first-trimester anomaly scan using an extended protocol is an efficient screening method to detect major fetal structural abnormalities in low-risk pregnancies. It is feasible at 12 to 13 + 6 weeks with ultrasound equipment and personnel already used for routine first-trimester screening. Rate of detection of severe malformations is greater in early- than in mid-pregnancy and on postnatal evaluation. Early heart investigation could be improved by an extended protocol involving use of color Doppler. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rating the Effectiveness of Fishery Closures With Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Boat Detection Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Elvidge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fishery closures are widely used to promote the sustainability of fish stocks. Fishery agencies typically have very little data relevant to planning closure enforcement actions and evaluating the effectiveness of closures, due in part to the vast expanse and remote nature of many closures. In some cases the effectiveness of closures can be evaluated using data from GPS based beacons, such as Automatic Identification System (AIS or Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS installed on fishing boats. In fisheries where few boats are equipped with AIS or VMS, the rating of closures relies on other data sources capable of detecting or inferring fishing activity. One such source comes from low light imaging data collected by the NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, which can detect fishing boats using lights to attract catch. This is a widely used practice in Asia and several other regions. NOAA has developed an automatic system for reporting the locations of VIIRS boat detections with a nominal 4 h temporal latency. VIIRS boat detection alerts are running for more than 900 fishery closures in the Philippines, with email and SMS transmission modes. These alerts are being actively used in the Philippines to plan enforcement actions and there is a growing list of apprehensions that occurred based on tip-offs from VIIRS. The VIIRS boat detection archive extends back to April 2012. A VIIRS closure index (VCI has been developed to rate the effectiveness of closures on monthly increments in terms of a percentage. The VCI analysis was performed on three types of closures: an ad hoc fishery closure associated with a toxic industrial discharge, a seasonal fishery closure and a permanent closure in restricted coastal waters. The VCI results indicate that it is possible to rank the effectiveness of different closure, year-to-year differences in compliance levels, and to identify closure encroachments which may warrant additional enforcement effort.

  8. International comparisons of preterm birth: higher rates of late preterm birth are associated with lower rates of stillbirth and neonatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonkova, S; Sabr, Y; Butler, B; Joseph, K S

    2012-12-01

    To examine international rates of preterm birth and potential associations with stillbirths and neonatal deaths at late preterm and term gestation. Ecological study. Canada, USA and 26 countries in Europe. All deliveries in 2004. Information on preterm birth (Statistics Canada, the EURO-PERISTAT project and the National Center for Health Statistics. Pearson correlation coefficients and random-intercept Poisson regression were used to examine the association between preterm birth rates and gestational age-specific stillbirth and neonatal death rates. Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated after adjustment for maternal age, parity and multiple births. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths ≥ 32 and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation. International rates of preterm birth (births. Preterm birth rates at 32-36 weeks were inversely associated with stillbirths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) of gestation and inversely associated with neonatal deaths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86) of gestation. Countries with high rates of preterm birth at 32-36 weeks of gestation have lower stillbirth and neonatal death rates at and beyond 32 weeks of gestation. Contemporary rates of preterm birth are indicators of both perinatal health and obstetric care services. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  9. Direct SUSY dark matter detection-theoretical rates due to the spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergados, J D

    2004-01-01

    The recent WMAP data have confirmed that exotic dark matter together with the vacuum energy (cosmological constant) dominate in the flat Universe. Thus direct dark matter detection, consisting of detecting the recoiling nucleus, is central to particle physics and cosmology. Supersymmetry provides a natural dark matter candidate, the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). The relevant cross sections arise out of two mechanisms: (i) the coherent mode, due to the scalar interaction and (ii) the spin contribution arising from the axial current. In this paper we will focus on the spin contribution, which is expected to dominate for light targets. For both modes it is possible to obtain detectable rates, but in most models the expected rates are much lower than the present experimental goals. So one should exploit two characteristic signatures of the reaction, namely the modulation effect and in directional experiments the correlation of the event rates with the sun's motion. In standard non-directional experiments the modulation is small, less than 2 per cent. In the case of the directional event rates we would like to suggest that the experiments exploit two features of the process, which are essentially independent of the SUSY model employed, namely: (1) the forward-backward asymmetry, with respect to the sun's direction of motion, is very large and (2) the modulation is much larger, especially if the observation is made in a plane perpendicular to the sun's velocity. In this case the difference between maximum and minimum can be larger than 40 per cent and the phase of the earth at the maximum is direction dependent

  10. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J. C.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to

  11. Fetal QRS detection and heart rate estimation: a wavelet-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Rute; Rocha, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João

    2014-01-01

    Fetal heart rate monitoring is used for pregnancy surveillance in obstetric units all over the world but in spite of recent advances in analysis methods, there are still inherent technical limitations that bound its contribution to the improvement of perinatal indicators. In this work, a previously published wavelet transform based QRS detector, validated over standard electrocardiogram (ECG) databases, is adapted to fetal QRS detection over abdominal fetal ECG. Maternal ECG waves were first located using the original detector and afterwards a version with parameters adapted for fetal physiology was applied to detect fetal QRS, excluding signal singularities associated with maternal heartbeats. Single lead (SL) based marks were combined in a single annotator with post processing rules (SLR) from which fetal RR and fetal heart rate (FHR) measures can be computed. Data from PhysioNet with reference fetal QRS locations was considered for validation, with SLR outperforming SL including ICA based detections. The error in estimated FHR using SLR was lower than 20 bpm for more than 80% of the processed files. The median error in 1 min based FHR estimation was 0.13 bpm, with a correlation between reference and estimated FHR of 0.48, which increased to 0.73 when considering only records for which estimated FHR > 110 bpm. This allows us to conclude that the proposed methodology is able to provide a clinically useful estimation of the FHR. (paper)

  12. Increased Cancer Detection Rate and Variations in the Recall Rate Resulting from Implementation of 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis into a Population-based Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Shambavi; Phillips, Jordana; Dialani, Vandana; Fein-Zachary, Valerie J.; Prakash, Seema; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Mehta, Tejas S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the recall and cancer detection rates (CDRs) at screening with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with those at screening with two-dimensional (2D) mammography and to evaluate variations in the recall rate (RR) according to patient age, risk factors, and breast density and among individual radiologists at a single U.S. academic medical center. Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant prospective study with a retrospective cohort included 85 852 asymptomatic women who presented for breast cancer screening over a 3-year period beginning in 2011. A DBT unit was introduced into the existing 2D mammography screening program, and patients were assigned to the first available machine. Ten breast-subspecialized radiologists interpreted approximately 90% of the examinations. RRs were calculated overall and according to patient age, breast density, and individual radiologist. CDRs were calculated. Single and multiple mixed-effect logistic regression analyses, χ2 tests, and Bonferroni correction were utilized, as appropriate. Results The study included 5703 (6.6%) DBT examinations and 80 149 (93.4%) 2D mammography examinations. The DBT subgroup contained a higher proportion of patients with risk factors for breast cancer and baseline examinations. DBT was used to detect 54.3% more carcinomas (+1.9 per 1000, P < .0018) than 2D mammography. The RR was 7.51% for 2D mammography and 6.10% for DBT (absolute change, 1.41%; relative change, –18.8%; P < .0001). The DBT subgroup demonstrated a significantly lower RR for patients with extremely or heterogeneously dense breasts and for patients in their 5th and 7th decades. Conclusion Implementing DBT into a U.S. breast cancer screening program significantly decreased the screening RR overall and for certain patient subgroups, while significantly increasing the CDR. These findings may encourage more widespread adoption and reimbursement of DBT and facilitate improved patient

  13. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  14. Study of higher hydrocarbon production during ethylacetylene pyrolysis using laser-generated vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.; Pfefferle, L. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-04-19

    Higher hydrocarbon formation during the pyrolysis of ethylacetylene in a microjet reactor was studied by vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. At the wavelength employed, this ionization technique allows for the simultaneous detection of both stable and intermediate polyatomic species with ionization potentials below 10.49 eV, including most hydrocarbons with two or more carbon atoms. Minimal fragmentation simplifies the determination of parent species and allows identification of probable reaction pathways involving hydrocarbon radicals as well as stable species. The pyrolysis of ethylacetylene was carried out in the fast-flow microjet reactor (residence times 1-2 ms) at temperatures from 300 to 1,600 K.

  15. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  16. A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique Using Average Rate of Voltage Change and Real Power Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The mainly used islanding detection techniques may be classified as active and passive techniques. Passive techniques don't perturb the system but they have larger nondetection znes, whereas active techniques have smaller nondetection zones but they perturb the system. In this paper, a new hybrid...... technique is proposed to solve this problem. An average rate of voltage change (passive technique) has been used to initiate a real power shift (active technique), which changes the eal power of distributed generation (DG), when the passive technique cannot have a clear discrimination between islanding...

  17. [Detection of a higher incidence of pathologic somatic findings in globus sensation by use of high frequency cinematography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, C; Wuttge-Hannig, A; Bockmeyer, M

    1987-07-01

    Since December 1984 303 patients have undergone examination in our Multidisciplinary Consultation Service for Swallowing Disorders; 117 of them were suffering from typical globus symptoms. We were able to increase the yield of detection of organic lesions by use of the technique of 35 mm film cineradiography with a rate of 50 frames/s. Frame-by-frame analysis and computer-assisted evaluation showed that 80% of the patients with globus symptoms suffered from one or more underlying organic diseases, which could often be treated later with success. We found an increased incidence of early hypopharyngeal diverticula, webs, and motility disorders of the upper esophageal sphincter often associated with gastro-esophageal reflux or weakness of the pharyngeal wall. Cineradiography proved to be a very important tool in the analysis of the pharyngeal swallow in globus pharyngis.

  18. Comparison of detectable bleeding rates of radiopharmaceuticals for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in sheep using a closed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owunwanne, A.; Sadek, S.; Yacoub, T.; Awdeh, M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Surgery)

    1989-06-01

    The closed experimental animal model system was used to compare the detectable gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding rates of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs and {sup 99m}Tc tin colloid in sheep. The three radiopharmaceuticals were used to detect the upper GI bleeding sites at rates of 0.57 and 0.25 ml/min. At the lower bleeding rate of 0.1 ml/min, both {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs were successful in detecting the bleeding site. At the lowest rate of 0.07 ml/min only {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was successful in detecting the bleeding site. The results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA is the most useful {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical for detecting the upper GI bleeding site at the slowest bleeding rate studied. (orig.).

  19. Comparison of detectable bleeding rates of radiopharmaceuticals for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in sheep using a closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owunwanne, A.; Sadek, S.; Yacoub, T.; Awdeh, M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Al-Wafai, I.; Vallgren, S.

    1989-01-01

    The closed experimental animal model system was used to compare the detectable gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding rates of 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-RBCs and 99m Tc tin colloid in sheep. The three radiopharmaceuticals were used to detect the upper GI bleeding sites at rates of 0.57 and 0.25 ml/min. At the lower bleeding rate of 0.1 ml/min, both 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-RBCs were successful in detecting the bleeding site. At the lowest rate of 0.07 ml/min only 99m Tc-DTPA was successful in detecting the bleeding site. The results indicate that 99m Tc-DTPA is the most useful 99m Tc radiopharmaceutical for detecting the upper GI bleeding site at the slowest bleeding rate studied. (orig.) [de

  20. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  1. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  2. A method of detection of respiration rate on Android using UWB Impulse Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring respiration rate is important because it can help to detect and prevent abnormal respiratory rates that can lead to cardiac arrest and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nowadays, most medical measurement and monitoring devices are either invasive or wired but people are hesitant to attach physiological sensors to their body. In this study, we investigated whether real-time medical measurement of breathing using Novelda’s Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio (IR-UWB–which does not need to be attached to the human body and is also non-invasive–is possible on Android. Experimental results obtained were found to be comparable to those of a commercial healthcare device.

  3. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  4. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  5. Trauma centers with higher rates of angiography have a lesser incidence of splenectomy in the management of blunt splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecci, Louis M; Jeremitsky, Elan; Smith, R Stephen; Philp, Frances

    2015-10-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI) is well-established. Angiography (ANGIO) has been shown to improve success rates with NOM. Protocols for NOM are not standardized and vary widely between centers. We hypothesized that trauma centers that performed ANGIO at a greater rate would demonstrate decreased rates of splenectomy compared with trauma centers that used ANGIO less frequently. A large, multicenter, statewide database (Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation) from 2007 to 2011 was used to generate the study cohort of patients with BSI (age ≥ 13). The cohort was divided into 2 populations based on admission to centers with high (≥13%) or low (Splenectomy rates were then compared between the 2 groups, and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of splenectomy (failed NOM) were also performed. The overall rate of splenectomy in the entire cohort was 21.0% (1,120 of 5,333 BSI patients). The high ANGIO group had a lesser rate of splenectoy compared with the low ANGIO group (19% vs 24%; P splenectomy compared with low ANGIO centers (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI 0.58-0.80; P splenectomy rates compared with centers with lesser rate of ANGIO. Inclusion of angiographic protocols for NOM of BSI should be considered strongly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonlinear detection for a high rate extended binary phase shift keying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Qing; Wu, Le-Nan

    2013-03-28

    The algorithm and the results of a nonlinear detector using a machine learning technique called support vector machine (SVM) on an efficient modulation system with high data rate and low energy consumption is presented in this paper. Simulation results showed that the performance achieved by the SVM detector is comparable to that of a conventional threshold decision (TD) detector. The two detectors detect the received signals together with the special impacting filter (SIF) that can improve the energy utilization efficiency. However, unlike the TD detector, the SVM detector concentrates not only on reducing the BER of the detector, but also on providing accurate posterior probability estimates (PPEs), which can be used as soft-inputs of the LDPC decoder. The complexity of this detector is considered in this paper by using four features and simplifying the decision function. In addition, a bandwidth efficient transmission is analyzed with both SVM and TD detector. The SVM detector is more robust to sampling rate than TD detector. We find that the SVM is suitable for extended binary phase shift keying (EBPSK) signal detection and can provide accurate posterior probability for LDPC decoding.

  7. Nonlinear Detection for a High Rate Extended Binary Phase Shift Keying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Nan Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm and the results of a nonlinear detector using a machine learning technique called support vector machine (SVM on an efficient modulation system with high data rate and low energy consumption is presented in this paper. Simulation results showed that the performance achieved by the SVM detector is comparable to that of a conventional threshold decision (TD detector. The two detectors detect the received signals together with the special impacting filter (SIF that can improve the energy utilization efficiency. However, unlike the TD detector, the SVM detector concentrates not only on reducing the BER of the detector, but also on providing accurate posterior probability estimates (PPEs, which can be used as soft-inputs of the LDPC decoder. The complexity of this detector is considered in this paper by using four features and simplifying the decision function. In addition, a bandwidth efficient transmission is analyzed with both SVM and TD detector. The SVM detector is more robust to sampling rate than TD detector. We find that the SVM is suitable for extended binary phase shift keying (EBPSK signal detection and can provide accurate posterior probability for LDPC decoding.

  8. Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: Turning confounding variables into useful knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Bjorn; Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Transect surveys without some means of estimating detection probabilities generate population size indices prone to bias because survey conditions differ in time and space. Knowing what causes such bias can help guide the collection of relevant survey covariates, correct the survey data, anticipate situations where bias might be unacceptably large, and elucidate the ecology of target species. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate confounding variables for gecko (primarily Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris) counts on 220-m-long transects surveyed at night, primarily for snakes, on 9,475 occasions. Searchers differed in gecko detection rates by up to a factor of six. The worst and best headlamps differed by a factor of at least two. Strong winds had a negative effect potentially as large as those of searchers or headlamps. More geckos were seen during wet weather conditions, but the effect size was small. Compared with a detection nadir during waxing gibbous (nearly full) moons above the horizon, we saw 28% more geckos during waning crescent moons below the horizon. A sine function suggested that we saw 24% more geckos at the end of the wet season than at the end of the dry season. Fluctuations on a longer timescale also were verified. Disturbingly, corrected data exhibited strong short-term fluctuations that covariates apparently failed to capture. Although some biases can be addressed with measured covariates, others will be difficult to eliminate as a significant source of error in longterm monitoring programs.

  9. A Comparative Survey of Methods for Remote Heart Rate Detection From Frontal Face Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Remotely measuring physiological activity can provide substantial benefits for both the medical and the affective computing applications. Recent research has proposed different methodologies for the unobtrusive detection of heart rate (HR using human face recordings. These methods are based on subtle color changes or motions of the face due to cardiovascular activities, which are invisible to human eyes but can be captured by digital cameras. Several approaches have been proposed such as signal processing and machine learning. However, these methods are compared with different datasets, and there is consequently no consensus on method performance. In this article, we describe and evaluate several methods defined in literature, from 2008 until present day, for the remote detection of HR using human face recordings. The general HR processing pipeline is divided into three stages: face video processing, face blood volume pulse (BVP signal extraction, and HR computation. Approaches presented in the paper are classified and grouped according to each stage. At each stage, algorithms are analyzed and compared based on their performance using the public database MAHNOB-HCI. Results found in this article are limited on MAHNOB-HCI dataset. Results show that extracted face skin area contains more BVP information. Blind source separation and peak detection methods are more robust with head motions for estimating HR.

  10. Heart Rate Detection Using Microsoft Kinect: Validation and Comparison to Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Ennio; Agostinelli, Angela; Belli, Alberto; Burattini, Laura; Cippitelli, Enea; Fioretti, Sandro; Pierleoni, Paola; Ricciuti, Manola; Sbrollini, Agnese; Spinsante, Susanna

    2017-08-02

    Contactless detection is one of the new frontiers of technological innovation in the field of healthcare, enabling unobtrusive measurements of biomedical parameters. Compared to conventional methods for Heart Rate (HR) detection that employ expensive and/or uncomfortable devices, such as the Electrocardiograph (ECG) or pulse oximeter, contactless HR detection offers fast and continuous monitoring of heart activities and provides support for clinical analysis without the need for the user to wear a device. This paper presents a validation study for a contactless HR estimation method exploiting RGB (Red, Green, Blue) data from a Microsoft Kinect v2 device. This method, based on Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM), Photoplethysmography (PPG) and Videoplethysmography (VPG), can achieve performance comparable to classical approaches exploiting wearable systems, under specific test conditions. The output given by a Holter, which represents the gold-standard device used in the test for ECG extraction, is considered as the ground-truth, while a comparison with a commercial smartwatch is also included. The validation process is conducted with two modalities that differ for the availability of a priori knowledge about the subjects' normal HR. The two test modalities provide different results. In particular, the HR estimation differs from the ground-truth by 2% when the knowledge about the subject's lifestyle and his/her HR is considered and by 3.4% if no information about the person is taken into account.

  11. Cardiac arrhythmia detection using combination of heart rate variability analyses and PUCK analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahananto, Faizal; Igasaki, Tomohiko; Murayama, Nobuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents cardiac arrhythmia detection using the combination of a heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and a "potential of unbalanced complex kinetics" (PUCK) analysis. Detection performance was improved by adding features extracted from the PUCK analysis. Initially, R-R interval data were extracted from the original electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings and were cut into small segments and marked as either normal or arrhythmia. HRV analyses then were conducted using the segmented R-R interval data, including a time-domain analysis, frequency-domain analysis, and nonlinear analysis. In addition to the HRV analysis, PUCK analysis, which has been implemented successfully in a foreign exchange market series to characterize change, was employed. A decision-tree algorithm was applied to all of the obtained features for classification. The proposed method was tested using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and had an overall classification accuracy of 91.73%. After combining features obtained from the PUCK analysis, the overall accuracy increased to 92.91%. Therefore, we suggest that the use of a PUCK analysis in conjunction with HRV analysis might improve performance accuracy for the detection of cardiac arrhythmia.

  12. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L(-1) lactate thresholds). The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity

  13. Low-Complexity Variable Frame Rate Analysis for Speech Recognition and Voice Activity Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    present a low-complexity and effective frame selection approach based on a posteriori signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) weighted energy distance: The use of an energy distance, instead of e.g. a standard cepstral distance, makes the approach computationally efficient and enables fine granularity search......Frame based speech processing inherently assumes a stationary behavior of speech signals in a short period of time. Over a long time, the characteristics of the signals can change significantly and frames are not equally important, underscoring the need for frame selection. In this paper, we......, and the use of a posteriori SNR weighting emphasizes the reliable regions in noisy speech signals. It is experimentally found that the approach is able to assign a higher frame rate to fast changing events such as consonants, a lower frame rate to steady regions like vowels and no frames to silence, even...

  14. Non-Invasive Detection of Respiration and Heart Rate with a Vehicle Seat Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wusk, Grace; Gabler, Hampton

    2018-05-08

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a seat sensor designed for occupant classification from a production passenger vehicle to measure an occupant’s respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) in a laboratory setting. Relaying occupant vital signs after a crash could improve emergency response by adding a direct measure of the occupant state to an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) system. Data was collected from eleven participants with body weights ranging from 42 to 91 kg using a Ford Mustang passenger seat and seat sensor. Using a ballistocardiography (BCG) approach, the data was processed by time domain filtering and frequency domain analysis using the fast Fourier transform to yield RR and HR in a 1-min sliding window. Resting rates over the 30-min data collection and continuous RR and HR signals were compared to laboratory physiological instruments using the Bland-Altman approach. Differences between the seat sensor and reference sensor were within 5 breaths per minute for resting RR and within 15 beats per minute for resting HR. The time series comparisons for RR and HR were promising with the frequency analysis technique outperforming the peak detection technique. However, future work is necessary for more accurate and reliable real-time monitoring of RR and HR outside the laboratory setting.

  15. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  16. Rate adaptive multilevel coded modulation with high coding gain in intensity modulation direct detection optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yongjun; Rao, Lan; Ullah, Rahat; Zhao, Feng; Li, Deng'ao

    2018-02-01

    A rate-adaptive multilevel coded modulation (RA-MLC) scheme based on fixed code length and a corresponding decoding scheme is proposed. RA-MLC scheme combines the multilevel coded and modulation technology with the binary linear block code at the transmitter. Bits division, coding, optional interleaving, and modulation are carried out by the preset rule, then transmitted through standard single mode fiber span equal to 100 km. The receiver improves the accuracy of decoding by means of soft information passing through different layers, which enhances the performance. Simulations are carried out in an intensity modulation-direct detection optical communication system using MATLAB®. Results show that the RA-MLC scheme can achieve bit error rate of 1E-5 when optical signal-to-noise ratio is 20.7 dB. It also reduced the number of decoders by 72% and realized 22 rate adaptation without significantly increasing the computing time. The coding gain is increased by 7.3 dB at BER=1E-3.

  17. A Robust Motion Artifact Detection Algorithm for Accurate Detection of Heart Rates From Photoplethysmographic Signals Using Time-Frequency Spectral Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Duy; Salehizadeh, S M A; Noh, Yeonsik; Chong, Jo Woon; Cho, Chae Ho; McManus, Dave; Darling, Chad E; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2017-09-01

    recently developed in our laboratory. The proposed TifMA algorithm consistently provided higher detection rates than the other three methods, with accuracies greater than 95% for all data. Moreover, our algorithm was able to pinpoint the start and end times of the MNA with an error of less than 1 s in duration, whereas the next-best algorithm had a detection error of more than 2.2 s. The final, most challenging, dataset was collected to verify the performance of the algorithm in discriminating between corrupted data that were usable for accurate HR estimations and data that were nonusable. It was found that on average 48% of the data segments were found to have MNA, and of these, 38% could be used to provide reliable HR estimation.

  18. Are Cancer incidence Rates Among Present And Past Workers Of The research Centers Of The Atomic Energy Commission higher Than The Rates Among The General Population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litai, D.

    1999-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates among the workers of the AEC and its retirees have increased several fold in the last decade compared to the rates experienced in previous ones. This has brought about a wave of claims for compensation with negative repercussions in the media about the state of radiation safety in the nuclear research centers in the country. The Nuclear Research Center - Negev, being, generally closed to public and media visits, has taken the brunt of this criticism. Consequently, the question spelled out in the title has caused much concern and deserves to be discussed and explained. The purpose of this paper is to review what we know in this context and to show that the observed morbidity rates, worrying as they may be, are entirely natural, and, by and large, unrelated to the occupational exposures of the workers. It is well known that cancer incidence rates in the population rise steeply with age, especially over 50. As both research centers are approaching the age of 40, it is clear that a very large fraction of the workers and all retirees have passed this age and many are already in their sixties and even seventies. It is a well established fact that close to 40% of the population in this country (and many others as well) develop some type of cancer during their lifetime and close to a half of these succumb to it. As most of those cancers occur after the age of 50, this explains the increased rates alluded to above. Notably, numerous research centers around the globe have reached similar ages in the last decade and experience similar increases in morbidity, that have caused understandable concern and the initiation of epidemiological studies intended to identify the health effects of extended exposures to low doses, if any. Such studies have been carried out in several countries and followed, altogether, about 100,000 workers through 40 years. The studies showed no excess of cancer mortality among workers compared to the general population (adjusted

  19. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  20. HIGHER PRECISION OF HEART RATE COMPARED WITH VO2 TO PREDICT EXERCISE INTENSITY IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s-1 with a 0.56 m·s-1 increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 181 ± 13 beats·min-1. The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99 with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x < 5% at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 lactate thresholds. The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods.

  1. Estimating detection rates for the LIGO-Virgo search for gravitational-wave burst counterparts to gamma-ray bursts using inferred local GRB rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonor, I; Frey, R; Sutton, P J; Jones, G; Marka, S; Marka, Z

    2009-01-01

    One of the ongoing searches performed using the LIGO-Virgo network of gravitational-wave interferometers is the search for gravitational-wave burst (GWB) counterparts to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This type of analysis makes use of GRB time and position information from gamma-ray satellite detectors to trigger the GWB search, and the GWB detection rates possible for such an analysis thus strongly depend on the GRB detection efficiencies of the satellite detectors. Using local GRB rate densities inferred from observations which are found in the science literature, we calculate estimates of the GWB detection rates for different configurations of the LIGO-Virgo network for this type of analysis.

  2. Use of dew-point detection for quantitative measurement of sweating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengelmann, G. L.; Mckeag, M.; Rowell, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring sweat rate (SR) based on detection of dew point (DP) is proposed which has advantages that may be attractive to other laboratories concerned with recording SR from selected areas of skin. It is similar to other methods in that dry gas is passed through a capsule which isolates several square centimeters of skin surface. The difference is in the means of determining how much gaseous water is carried off in the effluent moist gas. The DP detector used is free of the drawbacks of previous devices. DP is obtained through the fundamental technique of determining the temperature at which condensate forms on a mirror. Variations in DP are tracked rapidly, and accurately (+ or - 0.8 C nominal, sensitivity + or - 0.05 C) over a wide range ( -40 C to +50 C) without measurable hysteresis. The detector asembly is rugged and readily opened for cleaning and inspection.

  3. From b → sγ to the LSP detection rates in minimal string unification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.; Masiero, A.; Shafi, Q.

    1997-04-01

    We exploit the measured branching ratio for b → sγ to derive lower limits on the sparticle and Higgs masses in the minimal string unification models. For the LSP ('bino'), chargino and the lightest Higgs, these turn out to be 50, 90 and 75 GeV respectively. Taking account of the upper bounds on the mass spectrum from the LSP relic abundance, we estimate the direct detection rate for the latter to vary from 10 -1 to 10 -4 events/kg/day. The muon flux, produced by neutrinos from the annihilating LSP's, varies in the range 10 -2 - 10 -9 muons/m 2 /day. (author). 26 refs, 9 figs

  4. A Method for Harmonic Sources Detection based on Harmonic Distortion Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruixing; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Xian

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic sources detection at the point of common coupling is an essential step for harmonic contribution determination and harmonic mitigation. The harmonic distortion power rate index is proposed for harmonic source location based on IEEE Std 1459-2010 in the paper. The method only based on harmonic distortion power is not suitable when the background harmonic is large. To solve this problem, a threshold is determined by the prior information, when the harmonic distortion power is larger than the threshold, the customer side is considered as the main harmonic source, otherwise, the utility side is. A simple model of public power system was built in MATLAB/Simulink and field test results of typical harmonic loads verified the effectiveness of proposed method.

  5. Topic-oriented community detection of rating-based social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reihanian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, real world social networks contain a vast range of information including shared objects, comments, following information, etc. Finding meaningful communities in this kind of networks is an interesting research area and has attracted the attention of many researchers. The community structure of complex networks reveals both their organization and hidden relations among their constituents. Most of the researches in the field of community detection mainly focus on the topological structure of the network without performing any content analysis. In recent years, a number of researches have proposed approaches which consider both the contents that are interchanged in networks, and the topological structures of the networks in order to find more meaningful communities. In this research, the effect of topic analysis in finding more meaningful communities in social networking sites in which the users express their feelings toward different objects (like movies by means of rating is demonstrated by performing extensive experiments.

  6. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for applications to leak-rate detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S; Wilkowski, G; Ghadiali, N [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Stochastic pipe fracture evaluations are conducted for applications to leak-rate detection. A state-of-the-art review was first conducted to evaluate the adequacy of current deterministic models for thermo-hydraulic and elastic-plastic fracture analyses. Then a new probabilistic model was developed with the above deterministic models for structural reliability analysis of cracked piping systems and statistical characterization of crack morphology parameters, material properties of pipe, and crack location. The proposed models are then applied for computing conditional probability of failure for various nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants. The PRAISE code was not used, and the probabilistic model is based on modern methods of stochastic mechanics, computationally far superior to Monte Carlo and Stratified Sampling methods used in PRAISE. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for applications to leak-rate detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic pipe fracture evaluations are conducted for applications to leak-rate detection. A state-of-the-art review was first conducted to evaluate the adequacy of current deterministic models for thermo-hydraulic and elastic-plastic fracture analyses. Then a new probabilistic model was developed with the above deterministic models for structural reliability analysis of cracked piping systems and statistical characterization of crack morphology parameters, material properties of pipe, and crack location. The proposed models are then applied for computing conditional probability of failure for various nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants. The PRAISE code was not used, and the probabilistic model is based on modern methods of stochastic mechanics, computationally far superior to Monte Carlo and Stratified Sampling methods used in PRAISE. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  8. Variable terrestrial GPS telemetry detection rates: Addressing the probability of successful acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Kirsten E.; Mattson, David J.; Choate, David; Stoner, David; Arundel, Terry; Hansen, Jered R.; Theimer, Tad; Holton, Brandon; Jansen, Brian; Sexton, Joseph O.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Peters, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Studies using global positioning system (GPS) telemetry rarely result in 100% fix success rates (FSR), which may bias datasets because data loss is systematic rather than a random process. Previous spatially explicit models developed to correct for sampling bias have been limited to small study areas, a small range of data loss, or were study-area specific. We modeled environmental effects on FSR from desert to alpine biomes, investigated the full range of potential data loss (0–100% FSR), and evaluated whether animal body position can contribute to lower FSR because of changes in antenna orientation based on GPS detection rates for 4 focal species: cougars (Puma concolor), desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Terrain exposure and height of over story vegetation were the most influential factors affecting FSR. Model evaluation showed a strong correlation (0.88) between observed and predicted FSR and no significant differences between predicted and observed FSRs using 2 independent validation datasets. We found that cougars and canyon-dwelling bighorn sheep may select for environmental features that influence their detectability by GPS technology, mule deer may select against these features, and elk appear to be nonselective. We observed temporal patterns in missed fixes only for cougars. We provide a model for cougars, predicting fix success by time of day that is likely due to circadian changes in collar orientation and selection of daybed sites. We also provide a model predicting the probability of GPS fix acquisitions given environmental conditions, which had a strong relationship (r 2 = 0.82) with deployed collar FSRs across species.

  9. Detection Rate and Clinical Impact of Respiratory Viruses in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hye Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.

  10. Delay in diabetic retinopathy screening increases the rate of detection of referable diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, P H; Aldington, S J; Stratton, I M

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether there is a relationship between delay in retinopathy screening after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and level of retinopathy detected. Patients were referred from 88 primary care practices to an English National Health Service diabetic eye screening programme. Data for screened patients were extracted from the primary care databases using semi-automated data collection algorithms supplemented by validation processes. The programme uses two-field mydriatic digital photographs graded by a quality assured team. Data were available for 8183 screened patients with diabetes newly diagnosed in 2005, 2006 or 2007. Only 163 with type 1 diabetes were identified and were insufficient for analysis. Data were available for 8020 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Of these, 3569 were screened within 6 months, 2361 between 6 and 11 months, 1058 between 12 and 17 months, 366 between 18 and 23 months, 428 between 24 and 35 months, and 238 at 3 years or more after diagnosis. There were 5416 (67.5%) graded with no retinopathy, 1629 (20.3%) with background retinopathy in one eye, 753 (9.4%) with background retinopathy in both eyes and 222 (2.8%) had referable diabetic retinopathy. There was a significant trend (P = 0.0004) relating time from diagnosis to screening detecting worsening retinopathy. Of those screened within 6 months of diagnosis, 2.3% had referable retinopathy and, 3 years or more after diagnosis, 4.2% had referable retinopathy. The rate of detection of referable diabetic retinopathy is elevated in those who were not screened promptly after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  11. Fiber optic sensor based on reflectivity configurations to detect heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, M.; Marzuki, A.; Riyatun, R.; Lestari, D.

    2016-11-01

    Research of optical fiber-based heart rate detection sensor has been conducted using the reflection configurationon the thorax motion modified. Optical fiber used in this research was Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) with a diameter of 0.5. Optical fiber system is made with two pieces of fiber, the first fiber is to serve as a transmitter transmitting light from the source to the reflector membrane, the second fiber serves as a receiver. One of the endsfrom the two fibersis pressed and positioned perpendicular of reflector membrane which is placed on the surface of the chest. The sensor works on the principle of intensity changes captured by the receiver fiber when the reflector membrane gets the vibe from the heart. The light source used is in the form of Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as a light sensor. Variations are performed on the reflector membrane diameter. The light intensity received by the detector increases along with the increasing width of the reflector membrane diameter. The results show that this sensor can detect the harmonic peak at a frequency of 1.5 Hz; 7.5 Hz; 10.5 Hz; and 22.5 Hz in a healthy human heart with an average value of Beat Per Minute (BPM) by 78 times, a prototype sensor that is made can work and function properly.

  12. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  13. Detection and recurrence rate of transurethral resection of bladder tumors by narrow-band imaging: Prospective, randomized comparison with white light cystoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bin Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of narrow-band imaging (NBI as a diagnostic tool for detecting bladder tumors during cystoscopy compared with white light cystoscopy (WLC. Materials and Methods: From December 2013 to June 2017, a randomized prospective study was conducted on 198 patients underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor by a single surgeon. The patients were divided into two groups according to diagnostic method. In Group I, WLC only was performed. In Group II, NBI was additionally performed after WLC. We analyzed the rate of detection of bladder tumors as a primary endpoint. In addition, we evaluated rates of recurrence in each group. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in characteristics except hypertension. In the analysis of rates of detection, the probability of diagnosing cancer was 80.9% (114/141 in the WLC group, and the probability of diagnosing cancer using WLC in the NBI group was 85.5% (159/186. After switching from WLC to NBI for second-look cystoscopy in the NBI group, NBI was shown to detect additional tumors with a detection rate of 35.1% (13/37 from the perspective of the patients and 42.2% (27/64 from the perspective of the tumors. The 1-year recurrence-free rate was 72.2% in the WLC group and 85.2% in the NBI group (p=0.3. Conclusions: NBI had benefits for detecting tumors overlooked by WLC. Although the difference in the 1-year recurrence-free rate was not statistically significant, our results showed a trend for higher recurrence in the NBI group.

  14. Score of Inattention Subscale of ADHD Rating Scale-IV is Significantly Higher for AD/HD than PDD.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujibayashi, Hiromi; Kitayama, Shinji; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) must be differentiated because the respective treatments are different. However, they are difficult to distinguish because they often show similar symptoms. At our hospital, we have the rearer of a patient answer both the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and use the results as an aid for the diagnosis of AD/HD or PDD. These results were compared wit...

  15. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  16. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  17. Early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic diabetic patient using strain and strain rate echocardiographic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Gaber

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus deteriorate both LV systolic and diastolic performance. Strain and strain rate by tissue Doppler Imaging is superior to conventional Doppler in early detection and evaluation of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.

  18. Time of day variation in polyp detection rate for colonoscopies performed on a 3-hour shift schedule.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munson, Gregory W

    2011-03-01

    Recent research suggests that the colonoscopy polyp detection rate (PDR) varies by time of day, possibly because of endoscopist fatigue. Mayo Clinic Rochester (MCR) schedules colonoscopies on 3-hour shifts, which should minimize fatigue.

  19. Standard and Nonstandard Neutrino-Nucleus Reactions Cross Sections and Event Rates to Neutrino Detection Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Papoulias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore ν-nucleus processes from a nuclear theory point of view and obtain results with high confidence level based on accurate nuclear structure cross sections calculations. Besides cross sections, the present study includes simulated signals expected to be recorded by nuclear detectors and differential event rates as well as total number of events predicted to be measured. Our original cross sections calculations are focused on measurable rates for the standard model process, but we also perform calculations for various channels of the nonstandard neutrino-nucleus reactions and come out with promising results within the current upper limits of the corresponding exotic parameters. We concentrate on the possibility of detecting (i supernova neutrinos by using massive detectors like those of the GERDA and SuperCDMS dark matter experiments and (ii laboratory neutrinos produced near the spallation neutron source facilities (at Oak Ridge National Lab by the COHERENT experiment. Our nuclear calculations take advantage of the relevant experimental sensitivity and employ the severe bounds extracted for the exotic parameters entering the Lagrangians of various particle physics models and specifically those resulting from the charged lepton flavour violating μ-→e- experiments (Mu2e and COMET experiments.

  20. Improved detection of congestive heart failure via probabilistic symbolic pattern recognition and heart rate variability metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ruhi; Viangteeravat, Teeradache; Akbilgic, Oguz

    2017-12-01

    A timely diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) is crucial to evade a life-threatening event. This paper presents a novel probabilistic symbol pattern recognition (PSPR) approach to detect CHF in subjects from their cardiac interbeat (R-R) intervals. PSPR discretizes each continuous R-R interval time series by mapping them onto an eight-symbol alphabet and then models the pattern transition behavior in the symbolic representation of the series. The PSPR-based analysis of the discretized series from 107 subjects (69 normal and 38 CHF subjects) yielded discernible features to distinguish normal subjects and subjects with CHF. In addition to PSPR features, we also extracted features using the time-domain heart rate variability measures such as average and standard deviation of R-R intervals. An ensemble of bagged decision trees was used to classify two groups resulting in a five-fold cross-validation accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 98.1%, 100%, and 94.7%, respectively. However, a 20% holdout validation yielded an accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 99.5%, 100%, and 98.57%, respectively. Results from this study suggest that features obtained with the combination of PSPR and long-term heart rate variability measures can be used in developing automated CHF diagnosis tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of depth, time and human activity on detection rate of acoustic tags: a case study on two fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterå, H; Skilbrei, O T

    2016-03-01

    The detection rates of stationary acoustic transmitters deployed at three depths on two Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cage farms for c. 2 months were investigated. Deployment depth, time of day, day of the year and specific incidences at the farm substantially affected the rate of signal detection by the receiver. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  3. Do More Hospital Beds Lead to Higher Hospitalization Rates? A Spatial Examination of Roemer’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L.; Messina, Joseph P.; Grady, Sue C.; WinklerPrins, Vince; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Roemer’s Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence supports its content. Furthermore, known geographic factors influencing health services use and the spatial structure of the relationship between hospital bed availability and hospitalization rates have not been sufficiently explored in past examinations of Roemer’s Law. We pose the question, “Accounting for space in health care access and use, is there an observable association between the availability of hospital beds and hospital utilization?” Methods We employ an ecological research design based upon the Anderson behavioral model of health care utilization. This conceptual model is implemented in an explicitly spatial context. The effect of hospital bed availability on the utilization of hospital services is evaluated, accounting for spatial structure and controlling for other known determinants of hospital utilization. The stability of this relationship is explored by testing across numerous geographic scales of analysis. The case study comprises an entire state system of hospitals and population, evaluating over one million inpatient admissions. Results We find compelling evidence that a positive, statistically significant relationship exists between hospital bed availability and inpatient hospitalization rates. Additionally, the observed relationship is invariant with changes in the geographic scale of analysis. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the effects of Roemer’s Law, thus suggesting that variations in hospitalization rates have origins in the availability of hospital beds. This relationship is found to be robust across geographic scales of analysis. These findings suggest

  4. Analysis of acoustic cardiac signals for heart rate variability and murmur detection using nonnegative matrix factorization-based hierarchical decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ghafoor; Koch, Peter; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of heart rate variability (HRV) via cardiac auscultation examination can be a useful and inexpensive tool which, however, is challenging in the presence of pathological signals and murmurs. The aim of this research is to analyze acoustic cardiac signals for HRV and murmur detection...

  5. Positive predictive value of device-detected atrial high-rate episodes at different rates and durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Israel, Carsten W; Nair, Girish M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pacemakers can automatically identify and catalog atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs). While most AHREs represent true atrial tachyarrhythmia/atrial fibrillation (AT/AF), a review of stored electrograms suggests that a substantial proportion do not. As AHREs may lead to the initiation o...

  6. Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung

    2017-12-06

    Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.

  7. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. The Active Management of Risk in Multiparous Pregnancy at Term: association between a higher preventive labor induction rate and improved birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584

  9. Potential impact on HIV incidence of higher HIV testing rates and earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation in MSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec

    2015-01-01

    count 350/μl. We investigated what would be required to reduce HIV incidence in MSM to below 1 per 1000 person-years (i.e. cost-effective. METHODS: A dynamic, individual-based simulation model was calibrated to multiple data sources...... with viral suppression to 80%, and it would be 90%, if ART is initiated at diagnosis. The scenarios required for such a policy to be cost-effective are presented. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides targets for the proportion of all HIV-positive MSM with viral suppression required to achieve substantial......BACKGROUND: Increased rates of testing, with early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, represent a key potential HIV-prevention approach. Currently, in MSM in the United Kingdom, it is estimated that 36% are diagnosed by 1 year from infection, and the ART initiation threshold is at CD4 cell...

  10. Detection rate of prostate cancer following biopsy among the northern Han Chinese population: a single-center retrospective study of 1022 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong; Zhu, Lei-Yi; Xian, Yu-Xin; Sun, Xiao-Qing; Gao, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xin-Hong; Hou, Si-Chuan; Zhang, Chang-Cun; Liu, Zhao-Xu

    2017-08-29

    Prostate cancer is known to have ethnic and regional differences. The study aimed to clinically evaluate the detection rate of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and analyze its characteristics among the northern Han Chinese population at a single center. Between October 2009 and September 2016, a total of 1027 Chinese men, who had undergone TRUS-guided prostate biopsy at Qingdao Municipal Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Prostate biopsies were performed in the case of an abnormally elevated serum PSA level, and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, and/or suspicious prostatic imaging findings. Of the 1022 men enrolled in the analysis, 438 patients (42.8%) were diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma histologically. When serum PSA levels were divided into five subgroups (less than 4.0, 4.0 to 10.0, 10.0 to 20.0, 20.0 to 100.0, and ≥ 100.0 ng/ml), the detection rates of prostate cancer were 12.4, 15.9, 34.1, 66.2, and 93.8%, respectively. With serum PSA levels of 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml, the cancer detection rates for a normal DRE and a suspect DRE finding were 13.5 and 58.2%, respectively. Accordingly, the cancer detection rates for a normal imaging and a suspect imaging finding were 13.5 and 58.2%, respectively. Besides, a large proportion of the patients were in the clinically advanced stage. The present study data reported a relatively higher prostate cancer detection rate of 42.8% and that the majority of the patients presented with clinically advanced prostate cancers within a local clinical urologic practice. An early detection and screening program for prostate cancer is of great need to reduce the burden from this disease among the northern Han Chinese population.

  11. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taboada, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    ... intercept devices such as radar warning, electronic support and electronic intelligence receivers, In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required This thesis first...

  12. False discovery rate control incorporating phylogenetic tree increases detection power in microbiome-wide multiple testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Cao, Hongyuan; Chen, Jun

    2017-09-15

    Next generation sequencing technologies have enabled the study of the human microbiome through direct sequencing of microbial DNA, resulting in an enormous amount of microbiome sequencing data. One unique characteristic of microbiome data is the phylogenetic tree that relates all the bacterial species. Closely related bacterial species have a tendency to exhibit a similar relationship with the environment or disease. Thus, incorporating the phylogenetic tree information can potentially improve the detection power for microbiome-wide association studies, where hundreds or thousands of tests are conducted simultaneously to identify bacterial species associated with a phenotype of interest. Despite much progress in multiple testing procedures such as false discovery rate (FDR) control, methods that take into account the phylogenetic tree are largely limited. We propose a new FDR control procedure that incorporates the prior structure information and apply it to microbiome data. The proposed procedure is based on a hierarchical model, where a structure-based prior distribution is designed to utilize the phylogenetic tree. By borrowing information from neighboring bacterial species, we are able to improve the statistical power of detecting associated bacterial species while controlling the FDR at desired levels. When the phylogenetic tree is mis-specified or non-informative, our procedure achieves a similar power as traditional procedures that do not take into account the tree structure. We demonstrate the performance of our method through extensive simulations and real microbiome datasets. We identified far more alcohol-drinking associated bacterial species than traditional methods. R package StructFDR is available from CRAN. chen.jun2@mayo.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. The use of high definition colonoscopy versus standard definition: does it affect polyp detection rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John; Thaventhiran, Anthony; Mackenzie, Hugh; Stubbs, Benjamin

    2017-11-03

    Polyp detection rate (PDR) during lower gastrointestinal endoscopy (LGIE) is of clinical importance. Detecting adenomatous polyps early in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence can halt disease progression, enabling treatment at a favourable stage. High definition colonoscopy (HDC) has been used in our hospital alongside standard definition equipment since 2011. We aim to determine what affect the use of HDC has on PDR. Post-hoc analysis of a prospectively maintained database on all patients undergoing LGIE was performed (01/01/2012-31/12/2015), n = 15,448. Analysis tested the primary outcome of HD's effect on PDR across LGIE and secondary outcome stratified this by endoscopist group (Physician (PE), Surgeon (SE) and Nurse Endoscopist (NE)). Of 15,448 patients, 1353 underwent HDC. Unmatched analysis showed PDR increased by 5.3% in this group (p < 0.001). Matched analysis considered 2288 patients from the total cohort (1144 HDC) and showed an increase of 1% in PDR with HDC (p = 0.578). Further unmatched analysis stratified by endoscopist groups showed a PDR increase of 1.8% (p = 0.375), 5.4% (p = 0.008) and 4.6% (p = 0.021) by PE, SE and NE respectively. Matched analysis demonstrated an increase of 1% (p = 0.734) and 1.5% (p = 0.701) amongst PE and NE, with a decrease of 0.6% (p = 0.883) by SE. The introduction of HDC increased PDR across all LGIE in our hospital, though this was not clinically significant. This marginal benefit was present across all endoscopist groups with no group benefiting over another in matched analysis.

  14. Effect of temperature during ion sputtering on the surface segregation rate of antimony in an iron-antimony alloy at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, M.; Hirokawa, K.; Kimura, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    The surface segregation of antimony in an iron-0.23 at% antimony alloy was studied by XPS. The segregation rate in the temperature range between 800 and 900 K depends on the temperature during sputtering with argon ion of kinetic energy of 1 keV. The sputtering at room temperature or 473 K gives higher values of the segregation rate than those at 673 K. Both cases give the activation energy of 170 kJmol -1 for the surface segregation rate. The segregation of antimony is not observed after the sample is heated at 1000 K. (author)

  15. Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Mauro, Christine M; Levin, Frances R; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Most US states have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), with great variation in program regulation impacting enrollment rates. We aimed to compare changes in rates of marijuana use, heavy use and cannabis use disorder across age groups while accounting for whether states enacted medicalized (highly regulated) or non-medical mml programs. Difference-in-differences estimates with time-varying state-level MML coded by program type (medicalized versus non-medical). Multi-level linear regression models adjusted for state-level random effects and covariates as well as historical trends in use. Nation-wide cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) restricted use data portal aggregated at the state level. Participants comprised 2004-13 NSDUH respondents (n ~ 67 500/year); age groups 12-17, 18-25 and 26+ years. States had implemented eight medicalized and 15 non-medical MML programs. Primary outcome measures included (1) active (past-month) marijuana use; (2) heavy use (> 300 days/year); and (3) cannabis use disorder diagnosis, based on DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included program type, age group and state-level characteristics throughout the study period. Adults 26+ years of age living in states with non-medical MML programs increased past-month marijuana use 1.46% (from 4.13 to 6.59%, P = 0.01), skewing towards greater heavy marijuana by 2.36% (from 14.94 to 17.30, P = 0.09) after MMLs were enacted. However, no associated increase in the prevalence of cannabis use disorder was found during the study period. Our findings do not show increases in prevalence of marijuana use among adults in states with medicalized MML programs. Additionally, there were no increases in adolescent or young adult marijuana outcomes following MML passage, irrespective of program type. Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years. Researchers and

  16. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN THE DETECTION RATES OF HEPATITIS B IN THE SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiana Esmeraldino Mendes Marcon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem. The state of Santa Catarina presents areas of high endemicity. The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in detection rates of hepatitis B in the period from 2002 to 2009 in Santa Catarina and in its regions. A time series study was carried out. Crude rates were calculated and standardized by age using the direct method. Annual variation percentages were estimated by Joinpoint regression. There were two distinct and significant trends in Santa Catarina. From 2002 to 2006 a significant increase of 5.9% per year was observed. From 2006, there was a significant decrease of 6.4% per year. In this same period the southern and far-western regions had significant increases of 15.9% and 4.6% and significant decreases of 7.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Greater Florianópolis and Northeast also showed significant increases until 2006, of 15.4% and 17.4%, respectively. In the following period, non-significant decreases of 5.8% and 9.8% respectively were observed. Foz do Rio Itajaí and Planalto Serrano showed non-significant increases up to half of the studied period of 21.1% and 12.0%, respectively and after, significant decreases of 21.5% and 18.0%, respectively. Vale do Itajaí showed a significant decrease of 9.7%; Planalto Norte showed a non-significant decrease of 0.6% and Midwest a non-significant increase of 2.7% per year, in the period from 2002 to 2009.

  17. Noise-tolerant instantaneous heart rate and R-peak detection using short-term autocorrelation for wearable healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takahide; Nakano, Masanao; Yamashita, Ken; Konishi, Toshihiro; Izumi, Shintaro; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a robust method of Instantaneous Heart Rate (IHR) and R-peak detection from noisy electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Generally, the IHR is calculated from the R-wave interval. Then, the R-waves are extracted from the ECG using a threshold. However, in wearable bio-signal monitoring systems, noise increases the incidence of misdetection and false detection of R-peaks. To prevent incorrect detection, we introduce a short-term autocorrelation (STAC) technique and a small-window autocorrelation (SWAC) technique, which leverages the similarity of QRS complex waveforms. Simulation results show that the proposed method improves the noise tolerance of R-peak detection.

  18. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  19. Breast cancer: Early detection - increasing mortality rates; Mammacarcinom: Erfolgreiche Fruehdiagnose, steigende Mortalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterok, E M [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany); Siebzehnruebl, E [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany); Schulz-Wendtland, R [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany); Koch, T [Universitaets-Frauenklinik, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Mammography, sonography and nmr imaging are the tools that will in all probability detect breast cancer at an early stage. NMR imaging is the most recently developed and most sophisticated high-tech method for the diagnosis of disorders of the mammary parenchyma. To ensure a better differentiation between benign and malignant changes, nmr imaging of the breast is carried out following paramagnetic opacification using intravenous gadolinium DTPA. Owing to their angiogenic potential and increased vascular permeability carcinomas are characterized by a significant contrast medium accumulation. The signal intensities of malignant tumours are therefore higher than those of the adjacent supporting and fatty tissues or the intact mammary parenchyma. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Die Diagnostik des fruehen Mammacarcinoms gelingt mit Hilfe der Mammographie, Sonographie und Kernspintomographie. Die Kernspintomographie stellt gegenwaertig das neueste und apparatetechnisch aufwendigste Verfahren zur Diagnostik der Mammaparenchymerkrankungen dar. Zur besseren Differenzierung von malignen und benignen Veraenderungen wird die Kernspintomographie der Brust nach intravenoeser Applikation des paramagnetischen Kontrastmittels Gadolinium-DTPA durchgefuehrt. Carcinome zeigen aufgrund ihrer angiogenetischen Potenz und ihrer erhoehten Gefaesswandpermeabilitaet eine signifikante Kontrastmittelanreicherung. Maligne Tumoren stellen sich deshalb signalreicher dar als das umliegende Stuetz-, Fettgewebe und gesundes Mammaparenchym. (orig./VHE)

  20. Boarding is associated with higher rates of medication delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-On, Jiraporn; Chang, Yuchiao; Curley, David P; Camargo, Carlos A; Weissman, Joel S; Singer, Sara J; Liu, Shan W

    2014-09-01

    Hospital crowding and emergency department (ED) boarding are large and growing problems. To date, there has been a paucity of information regarding the quality of care received by patients boarding in the ED compared with the care received by patients on an inpatient unit. We compared the rate of delays and adverse events at the event level that occur while boarding in the ED vs while on an inpatient unit. This study was a secondary analysis of data from medical record review and administrative databases at 2 urban academic teaching hospitals from August 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005. We measured delayed repeat cardiac enzymes, delayed partial thromboplastin time level checks, delayed antibiotic administration, delayed administration of home medications, and adverse events. We compared the incidence of events during ED boarding vs while on an inpatient unit. Among 1431 patient medical records, we identified 1016 events. Emergency department boarding was associated with an increased risk of home medication delays (risk ratio [RR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.88), delayed antibiotic administration (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.72-3.52), and adverse events (RR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.15-4.72). On the contrary, ED boarding was associated with fewer delays in repeat cardiac enzymes (RR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.27) and delayed partial thromboplastin time checks (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-0.96). Compared with inpatient units, ED boarding was associated with more medication-related delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays. Until we can eliminate ED boarding, it is critical to identify areas for improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-birthweight rates higher among Bangladeshi neonates measured during active birth surveillance compared to national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Rolf D W; Merrill, Rebecca D; Wu, Lee; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2015-10-01

    Birth size is an important gauge of fetal and neonatal health. Birth size measurements were collected within 72 h of life for 16 290 live born, singleton infants in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2007. Gestational age was calculated based on the date of last menstrual period. Newborns were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) based on a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, using three sets of US reference data. Birth size distributions were explored based on raw values as well as after z-score standardisation in reference to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth standards. Mean (SD) birthweight (g), length (cm) and head circumference (cm) measurements, completed within [median (25th, 75th percentile)] 15 (8, 23) h of life, were 2433 (425), 46.4 (2.4) and 32.4 (1.6), respectively. Twenty-two per cent were born preterm. Over one-half (55.3%) of infants were born low birthweight; 46.6%, 37.0% and 33.6% had a weight, length and head circumference below -2 z-scores of the WHO growth standard at birth; and 70.9%, 72.2% and 59.8% were SGA for weight based on Alexander et al., Oken et al. and Olsen et al. references, respectively. Infants in this typical rural Bangladesh setting were commonly born small, reflecting a high burden of fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Our findings, produced by active birth surveillance, suggest that low birthweight is far more common than suggested by cross-sectional survey estimates. Interventions that improve fetal growth during pregnancy may have the largest impact on reducing SGA rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of the bell-mouth inlet design of a centrifugal fan for higher internal flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hyeon; Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The energy efficiency of a household refrigerator is one of the most critical characteristics considered by manufacturers and consumers. Numerous studies in various fields have been conducted to increase energy efficiency. One of the most efficient methods to reduce the energy consumption of a refrigerator is by improving the performance of fans inside the refrigerator. A number of studies reported various ways to enhance fan performance. However, the majority of these studies focused solely on the fan and did not consider the working environment of the fan, such as the inlet and outlet flow characteristics. The expected performance of fans developed without consideration of these characteristics cannot be determined because complex inlet and outlet flow passage could adversely affect performance. This study investigates the effects of the design of the bell-mouth inlet on the performance of a centrifugal fan in a household refrigerator. In preliminary numerical studies, significant flow loss is identified through the bell-mouth inlet in the target fan system. Several design factors such as tip clearance, inner fence, motor-box struts, and guide vane are proposed to resolve these flow losses. The effects of these factors on fan performance are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques to solve incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for predicting the circulating flow of the fan. Experiments are then performed to validate the numerical predictions. Results indicate that four design factors positively affect fan performance in terms of flow rate. The guide vane is the most effective design factor to consider for improving fan performance. Further studies are conducted to investigate the detailed effects of the guide vane by varying its install angle, install location, height, and length. These studies determine the optimum design of the guide vane to achieve the highest performance of the fan and the related flow characteristics

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of the bell-mouth inlet design of a centrifugal fan for higher internal flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hyeon; Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [Refrigeration Division, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The energy efficiency of a household refrigerator is one of the most critical characteristics considered by manufacturers and consumers. Numerous studies in various fields have been conducted to increase energy efficiency. One of the most efficient methods to reduce the energy consumption of a refrigerator is by improving the performance of fans inside the refrigerator. A number of studies reported various ways to enhance fan performance. However, the majority of these studies focused solely on the fan and did not consider the working environment of the fan, such as the inlet and outlet flow characteristics. The expected performance of fans developed without consideration of these characteristics cannot be determined because complex inlet and outlet flow passage could adversely affect performance. This study investigates the effects of the design of the bell-mouth inlet on the performance of a centrifugal fan in a household refrigerator. In preliminary numerical studies, significant flow loss is identified through the bell-mouth inlet in the target fan system. Several design factors such as tip clearance, inner fence, motor-box struts, and guide vane are proposed to resolve these flow losses. The effects of these factors on fan performance are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques to solve incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for predicting the circulating flow of the fan. Experiments are then performed to validate the numerical predictions. Results indicate that four design factors positively affect fan performance in terms of flow rate. The guide vane is the most effective design factor to consider for improving fan performance. Further studies are conducted to investigate the detailed effects of the guide vane by varying its install angle, install location, height, and length. These studies determine the optimum design of the guide vane to achieve the highest performance of the fan and the related flow characteristics

  4. Using near infrared spectroscopy and heart rate variability to detect mental overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantin, G; Gagnon, J-F; Tremblay, S; Dehais, F

    2014-02-01

    Mental workload is a key factor influencing the occurrence of human error, especially during piloting and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) operations, where safety depends on the ability of pilots to act appropriately. In particular, excessively high or low mental workload can lead operators to neglect critical information. The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) - a non-invasive method of measuring prefrontal cortex activity - in combination with measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), to predict mental workload during a simulated piloting task, with particular regard to task engagement and disengagement. Twelve volunteers performed a computer-based piloting task in which they were asked to follow a dynamic target with their aircraft, a task designed to replicate key cognitive demands associated with real life ROV operating tasks. In order to cover a wide range of mental workload levels, task difficulty was manipulated in terms of processing load and difficulty of control - two critical sources of workload associated with piloting and remotely operating a vehicle. Results show that both fNIRS and HRV are sensitive to different levels of mental workload; notably, lower prefrontal activation as well as a lower LF/HF ratio at the highest level of difficulty, suggest that these measures are suitable for mental overload detection. Moreover, these latter measurements point toward the existence of a quadratic model of mental workload. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Insufflation Increases Colonoscopic Adenoma Detection Rate Compared With Air Insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher D; McCamley, Chere; Swan, Michael P

    2018-03-07

    To determine the effect of carbon dioxide insufflation on the most important outcome measure of colonoscopic quality: adenoma detection rate (ADR). Bowel cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females in Australia. Carbon dioxide has in recent times become the insufflation methodology of choice for screening colonoscopy for bowel cancer, as this has been shown to have significant advantages when compared with traditional air insufflation. Endoscopies performed over a period of 9 months immediately before and after the implementation of carbon dioxide insufflation at endoscopy centers were eligible for inclusion. The difference in ADR between the carbon dioxide and air insufflation methods was statistically significant, with an increased ADR in the carbon dioxide group. The superiority of carbon dioxide insufflation was sustained with a logistic regression model, which showed ADR was significantly impacted by insufflation method. Carbon dioxide insufflation is known to reduce abdominal pain, postprocedural duration of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and analgesic requirements. This study represents for the first time the beneficial effect of carbon dioxide insufflation upon the key quality colonoscopy indicator of ADR.

  6. Auditory detection of an increment in the rate of a random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Emmerich, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experiments have presented listeners with complex tonal stimuli consisting of components with values (i.e., intensities or frequencies) randomly sampled from probability distributions [e.g., R. A. Lutfi, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 934--944 (1989)]. In the present experiment, brief tones were presented at intervals corresponding to the intensity of a random process. Specifically, the intervals between tones were randomly selected from exponential probability functions. Listeners were asked to decide whether tones presented during a defined observation interval represented a ''noise'' process alone or the ''noise'' with a ''signal'' process added to it. The number of tones occurring in any observation interval is a Poisson variable; receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) arising from Poisson processes have been considered by Egan [Signal Detection Theory and ROC Analysis (Academic, New York, 1975)]. Several sets of noise and signal intensities and observation interval durations were selected which were expected to yield equivalent performance. Rating ROCs were generated based on subjects' responses in a single-interval, yes--no task. The performance levels achieved by listeners and the effects of intensity and duration are compared to those predicted for an ideal observer

  7. Dynamic detection-rate-based bit allocation with genuine interval concealment for binary biometric representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2013-06-01

    Biometric discretization is a key component in biometric cryptographic key generation. It converts an extracted biometric feature vector into a binary string via typical steps such as segmentation of each feature element into a number of labeled intervals, mapping of each interval-captured feature element onto a binary space, and concatenation of the resulted binary output of all feature elements into a binary string. Currently, the detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) scheme is one of the most effective biometric discretization schemes in terms of its capability to assign binary bits dynamically to user-specific features with respect to their discriminability. However, we learn that DROBA suffers from potential discriminative feature misdetection and underdiscretization in its bit allocation process. This paper highlights such drawbacks and improves upon DROBA based on a novel two-stage algorithm: 1) a dynamic search method to efficiently recapture such misdetected features and to optimize the bit allocation of underdiscretized features and 2) a genuine interval concealment technique to alleviate crucial information leakage resulted from the dynamic search. Improvements in classification accuracy on two popular face data sets vindicate the feasibility of our approach compared with DROBA.

  8. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taboada, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Low probability of intercept (LPI) is that property of an emitter that because of its low power, wide bandwidth, frequency variability, or other design attributes, makes it difficult to be detected or identified by means of passive...

  9. Physiologic Waveform Analysis for Early Detection of Hemorrhage during Transport and Higher Echelon Medical Care of Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    area under the curve (ROC AUC ) values. (ROC AUC values range from 0 and 1 and indicate the probability of correct detection/discrimination...training set of the human LBNP data. Values are receiver operating characteristic area under the curves (ROC AUCs ) comparing the relative SV change...detection of hemorrhage is crucial for managing combat casualties. However, mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and other vital signs are late indicators of

  10. Retrospective observation on contribution and limitations of screening for breast cancer with mammography in Korea: detection rate of breast cancer and incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyeongsu; Lee, Jung Hyun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Shin, Soon Ae; Han, Taehwa; Seo, Young Lan; Yoo, Youngbum; Nam, Sang Eun; Park, Jong Heon; Park, Yoo Mi

    2016-11-18

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits and limitations of screening for breast cancer using mammography. Descriptive design with follow-up was used in the study. Data from breast cancer screening and health insurance claim data were used. The study population consisted of all participants in breast cancer screening from 2009 to 2014. Crude detection rate, positive predictive value and sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening and, incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast were calculated. The crude detection rate of breast cancer screening per 100,000 participants increased from 126.3 in 2009 to 182.1 in 2014. The positive predictive value of breast cancer screening per 100,000 positives increased from 741.2 in 2009 to 1,367.9 in 2014. The incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast per 100,000 negatives increased from 51.7 in 2009 to 76.3 in 2014. The sensitivities of screening for breast cancer were 74.6% in 2009 and 75.1% in 2014 and the specificities were 83.1% in 2009 and 85.7% in 2014. To increase the detection rate of breast cancer by breast cancer screening using mammography, the participation rate should be higher and an environment where accurate mammography and reading can be performed and reinforcement of quality control are required. To reduce the incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast, it will be necessary to educate women after their 20s to perform self-examination of the breast once a month regardless of participation in screening for breast cancer.

  11. APPRAISAL OF STUDENT RATING AS A MEASURE TO MANAGE THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY USING SIX SIGMA MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Vijay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students' rating of teaching is one of the most widely accepted methods of measuring the quality in Higher Education worldwide. The overall experience gained by the students during their academic journey in their respective college is a key factor to determine the Institutional Quality. This study was conducted among the Physical Therapy students with an objective to capture the overall experience related to various aspects of their Academic environment including teaching and learning process adopted in their college. To facilitate that, a unique questionnaire called,"Academic Environment Evaluation Questionnaire (AEEQ was developed covering all the important teaching elements of the Higher Education Institutions. The students' opinion was captured and analyzed through six sigma analytical tool using Poisson distribution model. From the non-conformance level captured through the responses from the students about the various categories of teaching and learning elements, the corresponding Sigma rating for each teaching element was measured. Accordingly, a six point Quality rating system was developed customizing to each sigma values. This study brings a new, innovative student driven Quality rating system for the Higher Education Institutions in India.

  12. Remote vital parameter monitoring in neonatology - robust, unobtrusive heart rate detection in a realistic clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanik, Nikolai; Heimann, Konrad; Pereira, Carina; Paul, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    Vital parameter monitoring of term and preterm infants during incubator care with self-adhesive electrodes or sensors directly positioned on the skin [e.g. photoplethysmography (PPG) for oxygen saturation or electrocardiography (ECG)] is an essential part of daily routine care in neonatal intensive care units. For various reasons, this kind of monitoring contains a lot of stress for the infants. Therefore, there is a need to measure vital parameters (for instance respiration, temperature, pulse, oxygen saturation) without mechanical or conductive contact. As a non-contact method of monitoring, we present an adapted version of camera-based photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) according to neonatal requirements. Similar to classic PPG, the PPGI camera detects small temporal changes in the term and preterm infant's skin brightness due to the cardiovascular rhythm of dermal blood perfusion. We involved 10 preterm infants in a feasibility study [five males and five females; mean gestational age: 26 weeks (24-28 weeks); mean biological age: 35 days (8-41 days); mean weight at the time of investigation: 960 g (670-1290 g)]. The PPGI camera was placed directly above the incubators with the infant inside illuminated by an infrared light emitting diode (LED) array (850 nm). From each preterm infant, 5-min video sequences were recorded and analyzed post hoc. As the measurement scenario was kept as realistic as possible, the infants were not constrained in their movements in front of the camera. Movement intensities were assigned into five classes (1: no visible motion to 5: heavy struggling). PPGI was found to be significantly sensitive to movement artifacts. However, for movement classes 1-4, changes in blood perfusion according to the heart rate (HR) were recovered successfully (Pearson correlation: r=0.9759; r=0.765 if class 5 is included). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universal Hospital of the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany (EK 254/13).

  13. [Evaluation of heart impact in the 100 m extreme intensity sport using near-infrared non-invasive muscle oxygen detecting device and sports heart rate detection technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yong; Long, Fei-Xiao; Fu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yue; Ding, Hai-Shu; Qu, An-Lian; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Using continuous two wavelength near-infrared technology to detect the variation in the consistency of oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle and the sports heart rate wireless real time collection technology, we devised the real time muscle tissue oxygenation and instantaneous heart rate experiment scheme and implemented it for the process of the 100 m run with two parameters given simultaneously. The experiment shows that the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle tissue continues decreasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin attains the minimum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (6.65 +/- 1.10) sec; while the heart rate continues increasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the heart rate attains the maximum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (8.00 +/- 1.57) sec. The results show that the two wavelength near-infrared tissue oxygenation detection technology and the sports heart rate real time collection equipment can accurately measure the sports tissue oxygenation and the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport, and reveal the process of muscle oxygen transportation and consumption and its dynamic character with the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport.

  14. Endometrial Scratch Injury Induces Higher Pregnancy Rate for Women With Unexplained Infertility Undergoing IUI With Ovarian Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Al-Inany, Hesham; Salama, Khaled M; Souidan, Ibrahim I; Abo Ragab, Hesham M; Elnassery, Noura

    2016-02-01

    To explore the impact of endometrial scratch injury (ESI) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) success. One hundred and fifty four infertile women received 100 mg of oral clomiphene citrate for 5 days starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Patients were randomized to 2 equal groups: Group C received IUI without ESI and group S had ESI. Successful pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound. 13, 21, and 10 women got pregnant after the first, second, and third IUI trials, respectively, with 28.6% cumulative pregnancy rate (PR). The cumulative PR was significantly higher in group S (39%) compared to group C (18.2%). The PR in group S was significantly higher compared to that in group C at the second and third trials. The PR was significantly higher in group S at the second trial compared to that reported in the same group at the first trial but nonsignificantly higher compared to that reported during the third trial, while in group C, the difference was nonsignificant. Eight pregnant women had first trimester abortion with 18.2% total abortion rate with nonsignificant difference between studied groups. The ESI significantly improves the outcome of IUI in women with unexplained infertility especially when conducted 1 month prior to IUI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Incorporating an Exercise Detection, Grading, and Hormone Dosing Algorithm Into the Artificial Pancreas Using Accelerometry and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Peter G.; Resalat, Navid; El Youssef, Joseph; Reddy, Ravi; Branigan, Deborah; Preiser, Nicholas; Condon, John; Castle, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present several important contributions necessary for enabling an artificial endocrine pancreas (AP) system to better respond to exercise events. First, we show how exercise can be automatically detected using body-worn accelerometer and heart rate sensors. During a 22 hour overnight inpatient study, 13 subjects with type 1 diabetes wearing a Zephyr accelerometer and heart rate monitor underwent 45 minutes of mild aerobic treadmill exercise while controlling their glucose ...

  16. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  17. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  18. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  19. Sleep Apnoea Detection in Single Channel ECGs by Analyzing Heart Rate Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zywietz, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Sleep disorders are typically investigated by means of polysomnographic recordings. We have analyzed 70 eight-hour single-channel ECG recordings to find out to which extent sleep apneas may be detected from the ECG alone...

  20. Forecasting the new case detection rate of leprosy in four states of Brazil: A comparison of modelling approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Blok (David); R.E. Crump (Ron E.); Sundaresh, R. (Ram); M. Ndeffo-Mbah (Martial); Galvani, A.P. (Alison P.); T.C. Porco (Travis C.); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground Brazil has the second highest annual number of new leprosy cases. The aim of this study is to formally compare predictions of future new case detection rate (NCDR) trends and the annual probability of NCDR falling below 10/100,000 of four different modelling approaches in four

  1. High-Frame-Rate Power Doppler Ultrasound Is More Sensitive than Conventional Power Doppler in Detecting Rheumatic Vascularisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Ven (Myrthe); J.J. Luime (Jolanda); van der Velden, L.L. (Levinia L.); J.G. Bosch (Hans); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); H.J. Vos (Rik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEarly recognition of joint inflammation will increase treatment efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Yet, conventional power Doppler (PD) ultrasound might not be sufficiently sensitive to detect minor inflammation. We investigated the sensitivity of high-frame rate Doppler, combined

  2. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joshua I.; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates ⩾ 30 s-1) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5 s-1) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast.

  3. Factors influencing cerebrospinal fluid and plasma HIV-1 RNA detection rate in patients with and without opportunistic neurological disease during the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleixo Agdemir W

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neurological diseases. The clinical usefulness of HIV-1 RNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with opportunistic neurological diseases, or the effect of opportunistic diseases on CSF HIV levels in patients under HAART has not been well defined. We quantified CSF and plasma viral load in HIV-infected patients with and without different active opportunistic neurological diseases, determined the characteristics that led to a higher detection rate of HIV RNA in CSF, and compared these two compartments. Methods A prospective study was conducted on 90 HIV-infected patients submitted to lumbar puncture as part of a work-up for suspected neurological disease. Seventy-one patients had active neurological diseases while the remaining 19 did not. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 90 CSF and 70 plasma samples. The HIV-1 RNA detection rate in CSF was higher in patients with neurological diseases, in those with a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3, and in those not receiving antiretroviral therapy, as well as in patients with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. Median viral load was lower in CSF than in plasma in the total population, in patients without neurological diseases, and in patients with toxoplasmic encephalitis, while no significant difference between the two compartments was observed for patients with cryptococcal meningitis and HIV-associated dementia. CSF viral load was lower in patients with cryptococcal meningitis and neurotoxoplasmosis under HAART than in those not receiving HAART. Conclusion Detection of HIV-1 RNA in CSF was more frequent in patients with neurological disease, a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3 and detectable plasma HIV-1. Median HIV-1 RNA levels were generally lower in CSF than in

  4. Sleep Apnoea Detection in Single Channel ECGs by Analyzing Heart Rate Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zywietz, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Our analysis is based on spectral components of heart rate variability. Frequency analysis was performed using Fourier and wavelet transformation with appropriate application of the Hilbert transform...

  5. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Older Adults With a Combination of Vision and Hearing Impairment Experience Higher Rates of Cognitive Impairment, Functional Dependence, and Worse Outcomes Across a Set of Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob G S; Guthrie, Dawn M

    2017-08-01

    Hearing and vision impairment were examined across several health-related outcomes and across a set of quality indicators (QIs) in home care clients with both vision and hearing loss (or dual sensory impairment [DSI]). Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed in a sample of older home care clients. The QIs represent the proportion of clients experiencing negative outcomes (e.g., falls, social isolation). The average age of clients was 82.8 years ( SD = 7.9), 20.5% had DSI and 8.5% had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clients with DSI were more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (not AD), have functional impairments, report loneliness, and have higher rates across 20 of the 22 QIs, including communication difficulty and cognitive decline. Clients with highly impaired hearing, and any visual impairment, had the highest QI rates. Individuals with DSI experience higher rates of adverse events across many health-related outcomes and QIs. Understanding the unique contribution of hearing and vision in this group can promote optimal quality of care.

  7. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy using water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Hu, Chi-Tan; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR), defined as the proportion of patients with at least one adenoma of any size, is a quality indicator. We tested the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) improves ADR but water immersion (WI) has no adverse effect on ADR compared with air insufflation (AI). A prospective study was conducted at the Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital in southern Taiwan and the Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital in eastern Taiwan on patients randomly assigned to WE, WI, or AI with stratification by the 3 study colonoscopists. The primary outcome was ADR. From July 2013 to December 2015, 651 patients were recruited and randomized into 3 groups with a 1:1:1 ratio (217 patients per group). Overall, ADR met quality standards: WE 49.8% (95% CI, 43.2%-56.4%), AI 37.8% (95% CI, 31.6%-44.4%), and WI 40.6% (95% CI, 34.2%-47.2%). Compared with AI, WE significantly increased ADR (P = .016). There was no difference between WI and WE. ADRs of WI and AI were comparable. Compared with AI, WE confirmed a longer insertion time, higher cleanliness score, but similar adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) and withdrawal time with polypectomy. Subgroup analysis found WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. Multivariate generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed that age ≥50 years, WE (vs AI), colonoscopy indication, no previous history of colonoscopy, and withdrawal time >8 minutes were significant predictors of increased ADR. Confirmation of prior reports showing WE, but not WI, increased ADR further strengthened the validity of our observations. WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. The outcome differences justify assessment of the role of WE in colorectal cancer prevention. Similar APPC and withdrawal times suggest that adequate inspection was performed on colonoscope withdrawal in each of the study arms. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01894191.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. All rights reserved.

  8. The Diurnal Variation of the Wimp Detection Event Rates in Directional Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2009-01-01

    The recent WMAP data have confirmed that exotic dark matter together with the vacuum energy (cosmological constant) dominate in the flat Universe. Modern particle theories naturally provide viable cold dark matter candidates with masses in the GeV-TeV region. Supersymmetry provides the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), theories in extra dimensions supply the lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) etc. The nature of dark matter can only be unraveled only by its direct detection in the laboratory. All such candidates will be called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). In any case the direct dark matter search, which amounts to detecting the recoiling nucleus, following its collision with WIMP, is central to particle physics and cosmology. In this work we briefly review the theoretical elements relevant to the direct dark matter detection experiments, paying particular attention to directional experiments. i.e experiments in which, not only the energy but the direction of the recoiling nucleus is ob...

  9. Effects of higher-coordination shells in garnets detected by XAS at the Al K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelli, A.; Wu, Z.; Mottana, A.; Giuli, G.; Paris, E.; Seifert, F.

    1996-03-01

    The aluminium 1 s x-ray-absorption spectra of a series of garnets, pyrope, almandine, spessartine and grossular, are compared to full multiple-scattering calculation using cluster models. An overall good agreement between experiment and calculation, extended also to the edge region,is obtained in the energy range in up to 60 e V above the threshold, provided cluster containing at least 40 atoms are used. The analysis of these garnet XAS spectra provides clear evidence on the effect of probe, XANES spectroscopy at the edge of low Z elements appears to be a perfect tool to investigate the role played by atoms located in higher-coordination shells

  10. Effects of higher-coordination shells in garnets detected by XAS at the Al K-edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati; Wu, Z. [CNRS UMR 110, Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, Nantes Cedex (France). Institut de materiaux de Nantes; Mottana, A. [Roma III Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche; Giuli, G.; Paris, E. [Camerino Univ., Camerino (Italy).Diparimento di Scienze della Terra; Seifert, F [Univ. Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Italy). Bayerisches Geoinstitut (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    The aluminium 1 s x-ray-absorption spectra of a series of garnets, pyrope, almandine, spessartine and grossular, are compared to full multiple-scattering calculation using cluster models. An overall good agreement between experiment and calculation, extended also to the edge region,is obtained in the energy range in up to 60 e V above the threshold, provided cluster containing at least 40 atoms are used. The analysis of these garnet XAS spectra provides clear evidence on the effect of probe, XANES spectroscopy at the edge of low Z elements appears to be a perfect tool to investigate the role played by atoms located in higher-coordination shells.

  11. Central nervous system tumours among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years) in Southern and Eastern Europe: Registration improvements reveal higher incidence rates compared to the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Sfakianos, Georgios; Nikas, Ioannis; Kosmidis, Sofia; Razis, Evangelia; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-11-01

    To present incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumours among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) derived from registries of Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), US and explore changes due to etiological parameters or registration improvement via evaluating time trends. Diagnoses of 11,438 incident malignant CNS tumours in AYAs (1990-2014) were retrieved from 14 collaborating SEE cancer registries and 13,573 from the publicly available SEER database (1990-2012). Age-adjusted incidence rates (AIRs) were calculated; Poisson and joinpoint regression analyses were performed for temporal trends. The overall AIR of malignant CNS tumours among AYAs was higher in SEE (28.1/million) compared to SEER (24.7/million). Astrocytomas comprised almost half of the cases in both regions, albeit the higher proportion of unspecified cases in SEE registries (30% versus 2.5% in SEER). Similar were the age and gender distributions across SEE and SEER with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and an overall increase of incidence by age. Increasing temporal trends in incidence were documented in four SEE registries (Greater Poland, Portugal North, Turkey-Izmir and Ukraine) versus an annual decrease in Croatia (-2.5%) and a rather stable rate in SEER (-0.3%). This first report on descriptive epidemiology of AYAs malignant CNS tumours in the SEE area shows higher incidence rates as compared to the United States of America and variable temporal trends that may be linked to registration improvements. Hence, it emphasises the need for optimisation of cancer registration processes, as to enable the in-depth evaluation of the observed patterns by disease subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thin film organic photodetectors for indirect X-ray detection demonstrating low dose rate sensitivity at low voltage operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkenburg, Daken J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Johns, Paul M. [Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Detection Systems Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Baciak, James E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Nino, Juan C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Xue, Jiangeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA

    2017-12-14

    Developments in the field of organic semiconductors have generated organic photodetectors with high quantum efficiency, wide spectral sensitivity, low power consumption, and unique form factors that are flexible and conformable to their substrate shape. In this work, organic photodetectors coupled with inorganic CsI(Tl) scintillators are used to showcase the low dose rate sensitivity that is enabled when high performance organic photodetectors and scintillator crystals are integrated. The detection capability of these organic-inorganic coupled systems to high energy radiation highlights their potential as an alternative to traditional photomultiplier tubes for nuclear spectroscopy applications. When exposed to Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an X-ray generator, SubPc:C60, AlPcCl:C70, and P3HT:PC61BM thin film photodetectors with active layer thicknesses less than 100 nm show detection of incident radiation at low and no applied bias. Remarkably low dose rates, down to at least 0.28 µGy/s, were detectable with a characteristic linear relationship between exposure rate and photodetector current output. These devices also demonstrate sensitivities as high as 5.37 mC Gy-1 cm-2 when coupled to CsI(Tl). Additionally, as the tube voltage across the X-ray generator was varied, these organic-inorganic systems showed their ability to detect a range of continuous radiation spectra spanning several hundred keV.

  13. Thin film organic photodetectors for indirect X-ray detection demonstrating low dose rate sensitivity at low voltage operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkenburg, Daken J.; Johns, Paul M.; Baciak, James E.; Nino, Juan C.; Xue, Jiangeng

    2017-12-01

    Developments in the field of organic semiconductors have generated organic photodetectors with high quantum efficiency, wide spectral sensitivity, low power consumption, and unique form factors that are flexible and conformable to their substrate shape. In this work, organic photodetectors coupled with inorganic CsI(Tl) scintillators are used to showcase the low dose rate sensitivity that is enabled when high performance organic photodetectors and scintillator crystals are integrated. The detection capability of these organic-inorganic coupled systems to high energy radiation highlights their potential as an alternative to traditional photomultiplier tubes for nuclear spectroscopy applications. When exposed to Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an X-ray generator, SubPc:C60, AlPcCl:C70, and P3HT:PC61BM thin film photodetectors with active layer thicknesses less than 100 nm show detection of incident radiation at low and no applied bias. Remarkably low dose rates, down to at least 0.18 μGy/s, were detectable with a characteristic linear relationship between exposure rate and photodetector current output. These devices also demonstrate sensitivities as high as 5.37 mC Gy-1 cm-2 when coupled to CsI(Tl). Additionally, as the tube voltage across the X-ray generator was varied, these organic-inorganic systems showed their ability to detect a range of continuous radiation spectra spanning several hundred keV.

  14. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joshua I; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates⩾30s(-1)) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5s(-1)) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing Brain Lesions during Acute Optic Neuritis and/or Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis May Portend a Higher Relapse Rate in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, G; Wang, K Y; Pekcevik, Y; Thompson, C B; Mealy, M; Levy, M; Izbudak, I

    2017-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures. Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were evaluated for patterns of contrast enhancement (periependymal, cloudlike, leptomeningeal, and so forth). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the annualized relapse rate and disease duration between patients with and without contrast enhancement and with and without seropositivity. Brain MRIs of 77 patients were evaluated; 59 patients (10 males, 49 females) were scanned within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and were included in the analysis. Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. Having brain contrast enhancement of any type during an acute attack was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates ( P = .03) and marginally associated with shorter disease duration ( P = .05). Having periependymal contrast enhancement was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates ( P = .03). Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with contrast

  16. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Seaghdha, C M

    2011-04-06

    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  17. The impact of ambient dose rate measuring network and precipitation radar system for detection of environmental radioactivity released by accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, M; Stoehlker, U.

    2003-01-01

    For the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, the German measuring network of BfS consists of more than 2000 stations where the ambient gamma dose rate is continuously measured. This network is a helpful tool to detect and localise enhanced environmental contamination from artificial radionuclides. The threshold for early warning is so low, that already an additional dose rate contribution of 0,07 μGy/h is detectable. However, this threshold is frequently exceeded due to precipitation events caused by washout of natural activity in air. Therefore, the precipitation radar system of the German Weather Service provides valuable information on the problem, whether the increase of the ambient dose rate is due to natural or man-made events. In case of an accidental release, the data of this radar system show small area precipitation events and potential local hot spots not detected by the measuring network. For the phase of cloud passage, the ambient dose rate measuring network provides a reliable database for the evaluation of the current situation and its further development. It is possible to compare measured data for dose rate with derived intervention levels for countermeasures like ''sheltering''. Thus, critical regions can be identified and it is possible to verify implemented countermeasures. During and after this phase of cloud passage the measured data of the monitoring network help to adapt the results of the national decision support systems PARK and RODOS. Therefore, it is necessary to derive the actual additional contribution to the ambient dose rate. Map representations of measured dose rate are rapidly available and helpful to optimise measurement strategies of mobile systems and collection strategies for samples of agricultural products. (orig.)

  18. Accuracy rate of pregnancy detection in dairy cow by measuring the early pregnancy factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mosaferi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy factor (EPF a protein with immunosuppressive properties can be detected in the serum of most domestic animals at early pregnancy. In this study, pregnancy detection in 41 dairy cows following artificial insemination was evaluated by detecting EPF in blood serum using the rosette inhibition test (RIT. The amount of EPF activity 1-3 and 4-7 days after artificial insemination of cows was measured by RIT. Pregnancies were confirmed 45-60 days after insemination by rectal palpation. The results indicated that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of this technique in detecting pregnancy 1-3 days following insemination was 88.88,  66.66,  72.72,  85.71  and  77.77 percent  respectively and RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were seen in pregnant and non-pregnant animals at this period. The value of the above parameters were 91,  83.83,  83.33,  91  and  87 percent  respectively  4-7  days  after insemination and also RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were achieved in pregnant and non pregnant cows during this period. The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences in RIT titers between pregnant and non-pregnant cows 1-3 and 4-7 days following artificial insemination (P

  19. Evaluation of the usefulness of smartphone-directed applications for measuring heart rate and arrhythmia detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Witkowski

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The majority of the free applications, available for smartphones, are able to measure HR precisely in patients with sinus rhythm, while in patients with AF, the exact measurement is significantly impeded by HR deficits. Only one out of 16 applications was able to measure HR in a patient with AF. None of the available applications could detect AF.

  20. Automatic Atrial Fibrillation Detection: A Novel Approach Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Heart Rate Variabilit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Iben H.; Hissabu, Semira M. S.; Poulsen, Erik S.

    2017-01-01

    be used as a screening tool for patients suspected to have AF. The method includes an automatic peak detection prior to the feature extraction, as well as a noise cancellation technique followed by a bagged tree classification. Simulation studies on the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation database was performed...

  1. Dynamic N -occupancy models: estimating demographic rates and local abundance from detection-nondetection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Rossman; Charles B. Yackulic; Sarah P. Saunders; Janice Reid; Ray Davis; Elise F. Zipkin

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is a widely used analytical technique for assessing species distributions and range dynamics. However, occupancy analyses frequently ignore variation in abundance of occupied sites, even though site abundances affect many of the parameters being estimated (e.g., extinction, colonization, detection probability). We introduce a new model (“dynamic

  2. Cooperation schemes for rate enhancement in detect-and-forward relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha; Szczeciński, Leszek L.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    an adaptive cooperation scheme based on the maximization of the information rate at the destination which needs to observe only the average signal-to-noise ratios of direct and relaying links. ©2010 IEEE.

  3. Heart rate variability, sleep, and the early detection of post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, Geert J.M.; Cluitmans, Pierre J.M.; Raymann, Roy J.E.M.; Ouwerkerk, Martin; Denissen, Ad J.M.; Dekker, Marian K.J.; Sitskoorn, Margriet M.; Vermetten, E.; Germain, A.; Neylan, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are sensitive indices of autonomic nervous system functioning, capable of distinguishing activity of its two constituent branches, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. As such, these measures are possibly useful as early markers of

  4. Detection rate of serrated polyps and serrated polyposis syndrome in colorectal cancer screening cohorts: a European overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJspeert, J E G; Bevan, R; Senore, C; Kaminski, M F; Kuipers, E J; Mroz, A; Bessa, X; Cassoni, P; Hassan, C; Repici, A; Balaguer, F; Rees, C J; Dekker, E

    2017-07-01

    The role of serrated polyps (SPs) as colorectal cancer precursor is increasingly recognised. However, the true prevalence SPs is largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the detection rate of SPs subtypes as well as serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) among European screening cohorts. Prospectively collected screening cohorts of ≥1000 individuals were eligible for inclusion. Colonoscopies performed before 2009 and/or in individuals aged below 50 were excluded. Rate of SPs was assessed, categorised for histology, location and size. Age-sex-standardised number needed to screen (NNS) to detect SPs were calculated. Rate of SPS was assessed in cohorts with known colonoscopy follow-up data. Clinically relevant SPs (regarded as a separate entity) were defined as SPs ≥10 mm and/or SPs >5 mm in the proximal colon. Three faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening cohorts and two primary colonoscopy screening cohorts (range 1.426-205.949 individuals) were included. Rate of SPs ranged between 15.1% and 27.2% (median 19.5%), of sessile serrated polyps between 2.2% and 4.8% (median 3.3%) and of clinically relevant SPs between 2.1% and 7.8% (median 4.6%). Rate of SPs was similar in FOBT-based cohorts as in colonoscopy screening cohorts. No apparent association between the rate of SP and gender or age was shown. Rate of SPS ranged from 0% to 0.5%, which increased to 0.4% to 0.8% after follow-up colonoscopy. The detection rate of SPs is variable among screening cohorts, and standards for reporting, detection and histopathological assessment should be established. The median rate, as found in this study, may contribute to define uniform minimum standards for males and females between 50 and 75 years of age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Interferon-free treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C and autoimmune liver disease: higher SVR rates with special precautions for deterioration of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Koji; Wu, Shuang; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Saito, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Kiyono, Soichiro; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Imazeki, Fumio; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Naoya

    2018-02-20

    Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three patients took prednisolone (PSL) at baseline, and 3 did not take PSL during interferon-free treatment. In one HCV patient with AIH and cirrhosis, PSL were not administered at baseline, but she needed to take 40 mg/day PSL at week 8 for liver dysfunction. She also complained back pain and was diagnosed with vasospastic angina by coronary angiography at week 11. However, she completed interferon-free treatment. All 5 HCV patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three of these HCV patients with PBC were treated with UDCA during interferon-free treatment. Interferon-free regimens could result in higher SVR rates in HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. As interferon-free treatment for HCV may have an effect on hepatic immunity and activity of the autoimmune liver diseases, careful attention should be paid to unexpected adverse events in their treatments. Total 12 patients with HCV and autoimmune liver diseases [7 AIH and PBC], who were treated with interferon-free regimens, were retrospectively analyzed.

  6. A New Mechanism to Improve the Detection Rate of Shilling Attacks in the Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad nehriri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are widely used, in social networks and online stores, to overcome the problems caused by the large amount of information. Most of these systems use a collaborative filtering method to generate recommendations to the users. But, as in this method users’ feedback is considered for recommendations, it can be significantly erroneous by the malicious people. In other words, there may be some users who open fake profiles and vote one-sided or biased in the system that may cause disturbance in providing proper recommendations to other users. This kind of damage is said to be shiling attacks. If the attackers succeed, the user's trust in the recommender systems will reduce. In recent years, efficient attack detection algorithms have been proposed, but each has its own limitations. In this paper, we use profile-based and item-based algorithms to provide a new mechanism to significantly reduce the detection error for shilling attacks.

  7. Detection unit for measuring dose rate and/or dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.

    1987-01-01

    A detection unit is designed consisting of a scintillation detector of the NaI(Tl) type on which there is a correction filter. The filter is an aluminium case in which are placed alternately side by side lead and iron absorption layers. The sensitivity of the detector with this filter is constant for gamma energy within the range 50 to 1300 keV. (M.D.). 2 figs

  8. Leflunomide is associated with a higher flare rate compared to methotrexate in the treatment of chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, J; Benseler, S M; Krumrey-Langkammerer, M; Haas, J-P; Hügle, B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic anterior uveitis is a serious complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); disease flares are highly associated with loss of vision. Leflunomide (LEF) is used successfully for JIA joint disease but its effectiveness in uveitis has not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether LEF improves flare rates of uveitis in JIA patients compared to preceding methotrexate (MTX) therapy. A single-centre retrospective study of consecutive children with JIA and chronic anterior uveitis was performed. All children initially received MTX and were then switched to LEF. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, dose and duration of MTX and LEF therapy, concomitant medications and rate of anterior uveitis flares, as determined by an expert ophthalmologist, were obtained. Flare rates were compared using a generalized linear mixed model with a negative binomial distribution. A total of 15 children were included (80% females, all antinuclear antibody positive). The median duration of MTX therapy was 51 (range 26-167) months; LEF was given for a median of 12 (range 4-47) months. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF-α) co-medication was given to four children while on MTX. By contrast, LEF was combined with anti-TNF-α treatment in six children. On MTX, JIA patients showed a uveitis flare rate of 0.0247 flares/month, while LEF treatment was associated with a significantly higher flare rate of 0.0607 flares/month (p = 0.008). Children with JIA had significantly more uveitis flares on LEF compared to MTX despite receiving anti-TNF-α co-medication more frequently. Therefore, LEF may need to be considered less effective in controlling chronic anterior uveitis.

  9. Breast cancer detection rates using four different types of mammography detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Warren, Lucy M.; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Wallis, Matthew G. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cooke, Julie [Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom); Given-Wilson, Rosalind M. [St George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, Dev P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Halling-Brown, Mark D. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Scientific Computing, Department of Medical Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Looney, Padraig T. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the performance of different types of detectors in breast cancer detection. A mammography image set containing subtle malignant non-calcification lesions, biopsy-proven benign lesions, simulated malignant calcification clusters and normals was acquired using amorphous-selenium (a-Se) detectors. The images were adapted to simulate four types of detectors at the same radiation dose: digital radiography (DR) detectors with a-Se and caesium iodide (CsI) convertors, and computed radiography (CR) detectors with a powder phosphor (PIP) and a needle phosphor (NIP). Seven observers marked suspicious and benign lesions. Analysis was undertaken using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics weighted figure of merit (FoM). The cancer detection fraction (CDF) was estimated for a representative image set from screening. No significant differences in the FoMs between the DR detectors were measured. For calcification clusters and non-calcification lesions, both CR detectors' FoMs were significantly lower than for DR detectors. The calcification cluster's FoM for CR NIP was significantly better than for CR PIP. The estimated CDFs with CR PIP and CR NIP detectors were up to 15 % and 22 % lower, respectively, than for DR detectors. Cancer detection is affected by detector type, and the use of CR in mammography should be reconsidered. (orig.)

  10. Enhanced detection rate of typhoid fever among clinically suspected patients in a tertiary referral hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh using nested polymerase chain reaction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Miah, M R; Khatun, S

    2015-12-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica subspecies enteric serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen, in blood. This study was done during the period of March 2013 to February 2014. A total of 80 clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever were included in the study. Blood was collected from all participating individuals. Nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene (fliC) of Salmonella Typhi & blood culture were done for each of the cases. The positivity rate of PCR & blood culture was 70%& 20% respectively. The positivity rate of PCR was significantly higher than blood culture (Ptyphoid fever cases on the basis of clinical features but with negative cultures. We conclude that the PCR technique could be used as a novel diagnostic method of typhoid fever, particularly in culture-negative cases in an endemic country like Bangladesh.

  11. How Well Can We Detect Lineage-Specific Diversification-Rate Shifts? A Simulation Study of Sequential AIC Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael R; Moore, Brian R

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by the extreme differences in species numbers across branches of the Tree of Life. This has motivated the development of statistical methods for detecting shifts in the rate of lineage diversification across the branches of phylogenic trees. One of the most frequently used methods, MEDUSA, explores a set of diversification-rate models, where each model assigns branches of the phylogeny to a set of diversification-rate categories. Each model is first fit to the data, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is then used to identify the optimal diversification model. Surprisingly, the statistical behavior of this popular method is uncharacterized, which is a concern in light of: (1) the poor performance of the AIC as a means of choosing among models in other phylogenetic contexts; (2) the ad hoc algorithm used to visit diversification models, and; (3) errors that we reveal in the likelihood function used to fit diversification models to the phylogenetic data. Here, we perform an extensive simulation study demonstrating that MEDUSA (1) has a high false-discovery rate (on average, spurious diversification-rate shifts are identified [Formula: see text] of the time), and (2) provides biased estimates of diversification-rate parameters. Understanding the statistical behavior of MEDUSA is critical both to empirical researchers-in order to clarify whether these methods can make reliable inferences from empirical datasets-and to theoretical biologists-in order to clarify the specific problems that need to be solved in order to develop more reliable approaches for detecting shifts in the rate of lineage diversification. [Akaike information criterion; extinction; lineage-specific diversification rates; phylogenetic model selection; speciation.]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  12. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohno, Eriko; Umemoto, Takeshi; Sasaki, Kyoko; Morishima, Isamu; Ueno, Ei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening

  13. Core-needle biopsy of breast cancer is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases 5 to 15 years after diagnosis than FNA biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennerstam, Roland B; Franzén, Bo S H; Wiksell, Hans O T; Auer, Gert U

    2017-10-01

    The literature offers discordant results regarding whether diagnostic biopsy is associated with the dissemination of cancer cells, resulting in local and/or distant metastasis. The long-term outcomes of patients with breast cancer were compared between those who were diagnosed using either fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) or core-needle biopsy (CNB) during 2 decades: the 1970s and 1990s. In the 1970s, the only diagnostic needle biopsy method used for breast cancer in Sweden was FNAB. CNB was introduced 1989 and became established in Stockholm Gotland County in the early 1990s. The authors compared the clinical outcomes of patients diagnosed using FNAB from 1971 to 1976 (n = 354) versus those of patients diagnosed using CNB from 1991 to 1995 (n = 1729). Adjusting for differences in various treatment modalities, mammography screening, tumor size, DNA ploidy, and patient age between the 2 decades, 2 strictly matched samples representing FNAB (n = 181) and CNB (n = 203) were selected for a 15-year follow-up study. In a comparison of the rates of distant metastasis in the strictly matched patient groups from the FNAB and CNB cohorts, significantly higher rates of late-appearing (5-15 years after diagnosis) distant metastasis were observed among the patients who were diagnosed on CNB compared with those who were diagnosed on FNAB. No significant difference in local metastasis was observed between the 2 groups. At 5 to 15 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor, CNB-diagnosed patients had significantly higher rates of distant metastases than FNAB-diagnosed patients. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:748-56. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Colour Doppler and microbubble contrast agent ultrasonography do not improve cancer detection rate in transrectal systematic prostate biopsy sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Gianluigi; Morandi, Giovanni; Seveso, Mauro; Giusti, Guido; Benetti, Alessio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Minuti, Francesco; Grizzi, Fabio; Graziotti, Pierpaolo

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Transrectal gray-scale ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy sampling is the method for diagnosing prostate cancer (PC) in patients with an increased prostate specific antigen level and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. Several imaging strategies have been proposed to optimize the diagnostic value of biopsy sampling, although at the first biopsy nearly 10-30% of PC still remains undiagnosed. This study compares the PC detection rate when employing Colour Doppler ultransongraphy with or without the injection of SonoVue™ microbubble contrast agent, versus the transrectal ultrasongraphy-guided systematic biopsy sampling. The limited accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and the additional cost of using the contrast agent do not justify its routine application in PC detection. • To compare prostate cancer (PC) detection rate employing colour Doppler ultrasonography with or without SonoVue™ contrast agent with transrectal ultrasonography-guided systematic biopsy sampling. • A total of 300 patients with negative digital rectal examination and transrectal grey-scale ultrasonography, with PSA values ranging between 2.5 and 9.9 ng/mL, were randomized into three groups: 100 patients (group A) underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided systematic bioptic sampling; 100 patients (group B) underwent colour Doppler ultrasonography, and 100 patients (group C) underwent colour Doppler ultrasonography before and during the injection of SonoVue™. • Contrast-enhanced targeted biopsies were sampled into hypervascularized areas of peripheral, transitional, apical or anterior prostate zones. • All the patients included in Groups B and C underwent a further 13 systematic prostate biopsies. The cancer detection rate was calculated for each group. • In 88 (29.3%) patients a histological diagnosis of PC was made, whereas 22 (7.4%) patients were diagnosed with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial

  15. Relationship between PSA kinetics and [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine PET/CT detection rates of recurrence in patients with prostate cancer after total prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graute, Vera; Jansen, Nathalie; Uebleis, Christopher; Cumming, Paul; Klanke, Katharina; Tiling, Reinhold; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Hartenbach, Markus [Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Scherr, Michael Karl; Thieme, Sven [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to identify prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold levels, as well as PSA velocity, progression rate and doubling time in relation to the detectability and localization of recurrent lesions with [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine (FC) PET/CT in patients after radical prostatectomy. The study group comprised 82 consecutive patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy. PSA levels measured at the time of imaging were correlated with the FC PET/CT detection rates in the entire group with PSA velocity (in 48 patients), with PSA doubling time (in 47 patients) and with PSA progression (in 29 patients). FC PET/CT detected recurrent lesions in 51 of the 82 patients (62%). The median PSA value was significantly higher in PET-positive than in PET-negative patients (4.3 ng/ml vs. 1.0 ng/ml; p < 0.01). The optimal PSA threshold from ROC analysis for the detection of recurrent prostate cancer lesions was 1.74 ng/ml (AUC 0.818, 82% sensitivity, 74% specificity). Significant differences between PET-positive and PET-negative patients were found for median PSA velocity (6.4 vs. 1.1 ng/ml per year; p < 0.01) and PSA progression (5.0 vs. 0.3 ng/ml per year, p < 0.01) with corresponding optimal thresholds of 1.27 ng/ml per year and 1.28 ng/ml per year, respectively. The PSA doubling time suggested a threshold of 3.2 months, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.071). In a study cohort of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy there emerged clear PSA thresholds for the presence of FC PET/CT-detectable lesions. (orig.)

  16. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on germination rate of corms and selection of a higher temperature-tolerance mutant 'zf893' of Crocus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaosheng; Wang Zhiping; Pan Jianyong; Li Xuebing; Xu Bujin; Zou Fenglian; Lu Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on germination rate of corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were studied and the results were as follows: (1) The corm germination rate raised with the corm fresh weight M (g) increasing, and the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays, the typical radiation effect of dose on germination rate were obtained, and the semi-lethal dose (D 50 ) for the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays and the stigma productivity of ZF893 was 1.3 times as that of the parent, for the field growing period, total weight of daughter corms and flower numbers of ZF893 were 22%, 27% and 30% higher than that of the parent, respectively. (4) The soluble protein SDS-PAGE patterns between ZF893 and it's parent were very similar, but the 54.8kD bands were much stronger in ZF893 and the 20.9 kD bands which were clear in ZF893, but were nearly absent in it's parent. (authors)

  17. Mechanistic dissimilarities between environmentally-influenced fatigue-crack propagation at near-threshold and higher growth rates in lower-strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, S.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1981-11-01

    The role of hydrogen gas in influencing fatigue crack propagation is examined for several classes of lower strength pressure vessel and piping steels. Based on measurements over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, crack propagation rates are found to be significantly higher in dehumidified gaseous hydrogen compared to moist air in two distinct regimes of crack growth, namely (i) at the intermediate range of growth typically above approx. 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle, and (ii) at the near-threshold region below approx. 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle approaching lattice dimensions per cycle. Both effects are seen at maximum stress intensities (K/sub max/) far below the sustained-load threshold stress intensity for hydrogen-assisted cracking (K/sub Iscc/). Characteristics of environmentally influenced fatigue crack growth in each regime are shown to be markedly different with regard to fractography and the effect of such variables as load ratio and frequency. It is concluded that the primary mechanisms responsible for the influence of the environment in each regime are distinctly different. Whereas corrosion fatigue behavior at intermediate growth rates can be attributed to hydrogen embrittlement processes, the primary role of moist environments at near-threshold levels is shown to involve a contribution from enhanced crack closure due to the formation of crack surface corrosion deposits at low load ratios.

  18. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen [Physics Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa (Israel); Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari [Physics Department, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Trakhtenbrot, Benny [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27 Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team; WTTH consortium; GALEX Science Team; Palomar Transient Factory; and others

    2016-03-20

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  19. Children with Autism Detect Targets at Very Rapid Presentation Rates with Similar Accuracy as Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Wyble, Bradley; Shea, Nicole; LeBlanc, Megan; Kates, Wendy R.; Russo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced perception may allow for visual search superiority by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but does it occur over time? We tested high-functioning children with ASD, typically developing (TD) children, and TD adults in two tasks at three presentation rates (50, 83.3, and 116.7 ms/item) using rapid serial visual presentation.…

  20. Annosus Root Disease Hazard Rating, Detection, and Management Strategies in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Alexander

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease (ARD), is the major root disease of pines in the southeastern United States where severely affected trees exhibit growth loss. Assessing the potential damage of ARD is essential for making effective disease control and management decisions. A soil hazard rating system developed to identify potential for tree mortality is described. The Annosus...

  1. Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and

  2. Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression scale for detection of depression in nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. Methods This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and 72

  3. DETECTING REGIME SWITCHES IN THE EUR/RON EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Alina-Nicoleta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we develop and implement a short term exchange rate forecasting methodology using dynamic confidence intervals based on GARCH processes and we analyze whether this methodology can be used to model a regime switch in the volatility of

  4. Evaluating cessation of the type 2 oral polio vaccine by modeling pre- and post-cessation detection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, Steve J; Famulare, Michael; Lyons, Hil; McCarthy, Kevin A; Mercer, Laina D; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume

    2017-10-09

    The globally synchronized removal of the attenuated Sabin type 2 strain from the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in April 2016 marked a major change in polio vaccination policy. This change will provide a significant reduction in the burden of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), but may increase the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreaks during the transition period. This risk can be monitored by tracking the disappearance of Sabin-like type 2 (SL2) using data from the polio surveillance system. We studied SL2 prevalence in 17 countries in Africa and Asia, from 2010 to 2016 using acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data. We modeled the peak and decay of SL2 prevalence following mass vaccination events using a beta-binomial model for the detection rate, and a Ricker function for the temporal dependence. We found type 2 circulated the longest of all serotypes after a vaccination campaign, but that SL2 prevalence returned to baseline levels in approximately 50days. Post-cessation model predictions identified 19 anomalous SL2 detections outside of model predictions in Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and western Africa. Our models established benchmarks for the duration of SL2 detection after OPV2 cessation. As predicted, SL2 detection rates have plummeted, except in Nigeria where OPV2 use continued for some time in response to recent cVDPV2 detections. However, the anomalous SL2 detections suggest specific areas that merit enhanced monitoring for signs of cVDPV2 outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-contact acquisition of respiration and heart rates using Doppler radar with time domain peak-detection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng Yang; Guanghao Sun; Ishibashi, Koichiro

    2017-07-01

    The non-contact measurement of the respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) using a Doppler radar has attracted more attention in the field of home healthcare monitoring, due to the extremely low burden on patients, unconsciousness and unconstraint. Most of the previous studies have performed the frequency-domain analysis of radar signals to detect the respiration and heartbeat frequency. However, these procedures required long period time (approximately 30 s) windows to obtain a high-resolution spectrum. In this study, we propose a time-domain peak detection algorithm for the fast acquisition of the RR and HR within a breathing cycle (approximately 5 s), including inhalation and exhalation. Signal pre-processing using an analog band-pass filter (BPF) that extracts respiration and heartbeat signals was performed. Thereafter, the HR and RR were calculated using a peak position detection method, which was carried out via LABVIEW. To evaluate the measurement accuracy, we measured the HR and RR of seven subjects in the laboratory. As a reference of HR and RR, the persons wore contact sensors i.e., an electrocardiograph (ECG) and a respiration band. The time domain peak-detection algorithm, based on the Doppler radar, exhibited a significant correlation coefficient of HR of 0.92 and a correlation coefficient of RR of 0.99, between the ECG and respiration band, respectively.

  6. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-11-07

    This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  7. Astrophysical limitations to the identification of dark matter: Indirect neutrino signals vis-a-vis direct detection recoil rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    A convincing identification of dark matter (DM) particles can probably be achieved only through a combined analysis of different detections strategies, which provides an effective way of removing degeneracies in the parameter space of DM models. In practice, however, this program is made complicated by the fact that different strategies depend on different physical quantities, or on the same quantities but in a different way, making the treatment of systematic errors rather tricky. We discuss here the uncertainties on the recoil rate in direct-detection experiments and on the muon rate induced by neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Sun, and we show that, contrarily to the local DM density or overall cross section scale, irreducible astrophysical uncertainties affect the two rates in a different fashion, therefore limiting our ability to reconstruct the parameters of the dark matter particles. By varying within their respective errors astrophysical parameters such as the escape velocity and the velocity dispersion of dark matter particles, we show that the uncertainty on the relative strength of the neutrino and direct-detection signal is as large as a factor of 2 for typical values of the parameters, but can be even larger in some circumstances.

  8. Mutation induction in cultured human cells after low-dose and low-dose-rate γ-ray irradiation. Detection by LOH analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umebayashi, Yukihiro; Iwaki, Masaya; Yatagai, Fumio; Honma, Masamitsu; Suzuki, Masao; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2007-01-01

    To study the genetic effects of low-doses and low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (IR), human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were exposed to 30 mGy of γ-rays at a dose-rate of 1.2 mGy/hr. The frequency of early mutations (EMs) in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene locus was determined to be 1.7 x 10 -6 , or 1.9-fold higher than the level seen in unirradiated controls. These mutations were analyzed with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) detection system, a methodology which has been shown to be sensitive to the effects of radiation. Among the 15 EMs observed after IR exposure, 8 were small interstitial-deletion events restricted to the TK gene locus. However, this specific type of event was not found in unirradiated controls. Although these results were observed under the limited conditions, they strongly suggest that the LOH detection system can be used for estimating the genetic effects of a low-dose IR exposure delivered at a low-dose-rate. (author)

  9. Geometrical Sparing Factors for the Rectum and Bladder in the Prediction of Grade 2 and Higher Complications After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-W.; Liang, J.-A.; Hung, Y.-C.; Yeh, L.-S.; Chang, W.-C.; Yang, S.-N.; Lin, F.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. Results: A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  10. Geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in the prediction of grade 2 and higher complications after high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Yang, Shih-Neng; Lin, Fang-Jen

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  11. Implications of Binary Black Hole Detections on the Merger Rates of Double Neutron Stars and Neutron Star–Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Arun, K. G.; Sathyaprakash, B. S., E-mail: axg645@psu.edu, E-mail: kgarun@cmi.ac.in, E-mail: bss25@psu.edu [Institute for Gravitation and Cosmos, Physics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We show that the inferred merger rate and chirp masses of binary black holes (BBHs) detected by advanced LIGO (aLIGO) can be used to constrain the rate of double neutron star (DNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers in the universe. We explicitly demonstrate this by considering a set of publicly available population synthesis models of Dominik et al. and show that if all the BBH mergers, GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, and GW170104, observed by aLIGO arise from isolated binary evolution, the predicted DNS merger rate may be constrained to be 2.3–471.0 Gpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1} and that of NSBH mergers will be constrained to 0.2–48.5 Gpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}. The DNS merger rates are not constrained much, but the NSBH rates are tightened by a factor of ∼4 as compared to their previous rates. Note that these constrained DNS and NSBH rates are extremely model-dependent and are compared to the unconstrained values 2.3–472.5 Gpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1} and 0.2–218 Gpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}, respectively, using the same models of Dominik et al. (2012a). These rate estimates may have implications for short Gamma Ray Burst progenitor models assuming they are powered (solely) by DNS or NSBH mergers. While these results are based on a set of open access population synthesis models, which may not necessarily be the representative ones, the proposed method is very general and can be applied to any number of models, thereby yielding more realistic constraints on the DNS and NSBH merger rates from the inferred BBH merger rate and chirp mass.

  12. Implications of Binary Black Hole Detections on the Merger Rates of Double Neutron Stars and Neutron Star–Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Arun, K. G.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the inferred merger rate and chirp masses of binary black holes (BBHs) detected by advanced LIGO (aLIGO) can be used to constrain the rate of double neutron star (DNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers in the universe. We explicitly demonstrate this by considering a set of publicly available population synthesis models of Dominik et al. and show that if all the BBH mergers, GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226, and GW170104, observed by aLIGO arise from isolated binary evolution, the predicted DNS merger rate may be constrained to be 2.3–471.0 Gpc −3 yr −1 and that of NSBH mergers will be constrained to 0.2–48.5 Gpc −3 yr −1 . The DNS merger rates are not constrained much, but the NSBH rates are tightened by a factor of ∼4 as compared to their previous rates. Note that these constrained DNS and NSBH rates are extremely model-dependent and are compared to the unconstrained values 2.3–472.5 Gpc −3 yr −1 and 0.2–218 Gpc −3 yr −1 , respectively, using the same models of Dominik et al. (2012a). These rate estimates may have implications for short Gamma Ray Burst progenitor models assuming they are powered (solely) by DNS or NSBH mergers. While these results are based on a set of open access population synthesis models, which may not necessarily be the representative ones, the proposed method is very general and can be applied to any number of models, thereby yielding more realistic constraints on the DNS and NSBH merger rates from the inferred BBH merger rate and chirp mass.

  13. Is the detection rate of 18F-choline PET/CT influenced by androgen-deprivation therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Grassetto, Gaia; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Rampin, Lucia; Rubello, Domenico [' ' Santa Maria della Misericordia' ' Hospital, Rovigo (Italy). PET/CT Centre; Ferretti, Alice [' ' San Giacomo Apostolo' ' Hospital, Castelfranco Veneto, Treviso (Italy). Service of Medical Physics; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Univ. Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Giammarile, Francesco [Lyon 1 Univ. Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud Biophysique, Villeurbanne (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate if the detection rate (DR) of {sup 18}F-choline (18F-CH) PET/CT is influenced by androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate cancer (PC) already treated with radical intent and presenting biochemical relapse. We have retrospectively evaluated {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT scans of 325 consecutive PC patients enrolled in the period November 2009 to December 2012 previously treated with radical intent and referred to our centre to perform {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT for biochemical relapse. Two different groups of patients were evaluated. group A included the whole sample of 325 patients (mean age 70 years, range: 49-86) who presented trigger PSA between 0.1 and 80 ng/ml (mean 5.5 ng/ml), and group B included 187 patients (mean age 70 years, range 49-86) with medium-low levels of trigger PSA ranging between 0.5 and 5 ng/ml (mean PSA 2.1 ng/ml); group B was chosen in order to obtain a more homogeneous group of patients in terms of PSA values also excluding both very low and very high PSA levels avoiding the ''a priori'' higher probability of negative or positive PET scan, respectively. At the time of examination, 139 patients from group A and 72 patients from group B were under ADT: these patients were considered to be hormone-resistant PC patients because from their oncologic history (>18 months) an increase of PSA levels emerged despite the ongoing ADT. The relationship between {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT findings and possible clinical predictors was investigated using both univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, including trigger PSA and ADT. Considering the whole population, overall DR of {sup 18}F-CH PET was 58.2 % (189/325 patients). In the whole sample of patients (group A), both at the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, trigger PSA and ADT were significantly correlated with the DR of {sup 18}F-CH PET (p < 0.05). Moreover, the DR in patients under ADT (mean PSA 7.8 ng/ml) was higher than in

  14. Monochromatic Spectral Computed Tomography with Low Iodine Concentration Contrast Medium in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Model:: Investigation of Image Quality and Detection Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Xu, Han; Hou, Ping; Dong, Jun Q; Wang, Ming Y; Gao, Jian B

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate the feasibility of using virtual monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) with isotonic low iodine concentration contrast medium for VX2 hepatic tumors. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits with implanted VX2 hepatic tumors underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced spectral CT imaging on the 14th day after tumor implantation. They were randomly divided into groups A, B, and C, with 20 rabbits each (group A: 270 mg I/mL, monochromatic spectral images; group B: 370 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% filtered back projection [FBP]; group C: 270 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% FBP). Group A was further divided into two subgroups (subgroup A1: 100% FBP; subgroup A2: 50% FBP + 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction). Objective evaluation (signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR], and image noise), subjective rating score (image noise score, anatomical details score, overall image quality score, and lesion conspicuity score), CT dose index volume, and dose length product were compared between groups during two-phase contrast enhancement. The detection rates of the four groups were calculated as percentages. Image noise (SNR and CNR) among the four groups was statistically significant (P noise in group A2 was lower than in group A1, but higher than that in groups B and C (P noise score of group A2 was higher than that of the other three groups. In terms of the anatomic details score, the overall image quality score, and the lesion conspicuity score, the images of group A2 were superior to that of groups A1 and C. For hepatic tumor diameters more than or equal to 1.0 cm and less than 3.0 cm, group A achieved a higher detection rate than groups B and C. The CT dose index volume, dose length product, and effective dose in group A were significantly lower than that in groups B and C (P noise, increase detection rate for small tumors, and decrease radiation dose and iodine load in

  15. Analysis of 162 colon injuries in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma: concomitant stomach injury results in a higher rate of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patricia A; Kirton, Orlando C; Dresner, Lisa S; Tortella, Bartholomew; Kestner, Mark M

    2004-02-01

    Fecal contamination from colon injury has been thought to be the most significant factor for the development of surgical site infection (SSI) after trauma. However, there are increasing data to suggest that other factors may play a role in the development of postinjury infection in patients after colon injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of gastric wounding on the development of SSI and nonsurgical site infection (NSSI) in patients with colon injury. Post hoc analysis was performed on data prospectively collected for 317 patients presenting with penetrating hollow viscus injury. One hundred sixty-two patients with colon injury were subdivided into one of three groups: patients with isolated colon wounds (C), patients with colon and stomach wounds with or without other organ injury (C+S), and patients with colon and other organ injury but no stomach injury (C-S) and assessed for the development of SSI and NSSI. Infection rates were also determined for patients who sustained isolated gastric injury (S) and gastric injury in combination with other injuries other than colon (S-C). Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index, operative times, and transfusion were assessed. Discrete variables were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. Risk factor analysis was performed by multivariate logistic regression. C+S patients had a higher rate of SSI infection (31%) than C patients (3.6%) (p=0.008) and C-S patients (13%) (p=0.021). Similarly, the incidence of NSSI was also significantly greater in the C+S group (37%) compared with the C patients (7.5%) (p=0.07) and the C-S patients (17%) (p=0.019). There was no difference in the rate of SSI or NSSI between the C and C-S groups (p=0.3 and p=0.24, respectively). The rate of SSI was significantly greater in the C+S patients when compared with the S-C patients (31% vs. 10%, p=0.008), but there was no statistical difference in the rate of NSSI in the C+S group and the S-C group (37

  16. arXiv Gravitational wave energy emission and detection rates of Primordial Black Hole hyperbolic encounters

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, Juan

    2018-01-01

    We describe in detail gravitational wave bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) hyperbolic encounters. The bursts are one-time events, with the bulk of the released energy happening during the closest approach, which can be emitted in frequencies that could be within the range of both LIGO (10-1000Hz) and LISA ($10^{-6}-1$ Hz). Furthermore, we correct the results for the power spectrum of hyperbolic encounters found in the literature and present new exact and approximate expressions for the peak frequency of the emission. Note that these GW bursts from hyperbolic encounters between PBH are complementary to the GW emission from the bounded orbits of BHB mergers detected by LIGO, and help breaking degeneracies in the determination of the PBH mass, spin and spatial distributions.

  17. Pulse pile-up in nuclear particle detection systems with rapidly varying counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datlowe, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse pile-up in nuclear particle detection systems is the distortion of the measured pulse height distribution which occurs when there is a significant probability that more than one particle will arrive within the detector resolving time. This paper treats the problem in cases where the probability of pile-up varies on a time scale comparable to the rise time of the detector system electronics. These variations introduce structure into the pulse height distributions which cannot occur for a time-independent pile-up probability. Three classes of problems which exemplify these effects are as follows: 1) Pile-up rejection circuits. 2) Cascaded nuclear decays, in which the lifetime for emission of a second X-ray is comparable to the detector rise time. 3) Bursts of particles where the intensity is modulated on a time scale comparable to the detector rise time. These problems are solved computationally by an extension of a numerical technique previously developed. (Auth.)

  18. Models for financial crisis detection in Indonesia based on bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Zukhronah, Etik; Nur Aini, Anis

    2017-12-01

    Several times Indonesia has experienced to face a financial crisis, but the crisis occurred in 1997 had a tremendous impact on the economy and national stability. The impact of the crisis fall the exchange rate of rupiah against the dollar so it is needed the financial crisis detection system. Some data of bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators are used in this paper. Data taken from January 1990 until December 2016 are used to form the models with three state. Combination of volatility and Markov switching models are used to model the data. The result suggests that the appropriate model for bank deposit and terms of trade is SWARCH (3,1), and for real exchange rates is SWARCH (3,2).

  19. Sensitivity of new detection method for ultra-low frequency gravitational waves with pulsar spin-down rate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemaru, Naoyuki; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko

    2018-04-01

    A new detection method for ultra-low frequency gravitational waves (GWs) with a frequency much lower than the observational range of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) was suggested in Yonemaru et al. (2016). In the PTA analysis, ultra-low frequency GWs (≲ 10-10 Hz) which evolve just linearly during the observation time span are absorbed by the pulsar spin-down rates since both have the same effect on the pulse arrival time. Therefore, such GWs cannot be detected by the conventional method of PTAs. However, the bias on the observed spin-down rates depends on relative direction of a pulsar and GW source and shows a quadrupole pattern in the sky. Thus, if we divide the pulsars according to the position in the sky and see the difference in the statistics of the spin-down rates, ultra-low frequency GWs from a single source can be detected. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of this method by Monte-Carlo simulations and estimate the sensitivity, considering only the "Earth term" while the "pulsar term" acts like random noise for GW frequencies 10-13 - 10-10 Hz. We find that with 3,000 milli-second pulsars, which are expected to be discovered by a future survey with the Square Kilometre Array, GWs with the derivative of amplitude of about 3 × 10^{-19} {s}^{-1} can in principle be detected. Implications for possible supermassive binary black holes in Sgr* and M87 are also given.

  20. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of 'Dose Rate Meter' android app for radiation detection using camera of smartphones and tablet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Aatef; Sharma, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Romal, Jis; Gupta, A.; Chaudhury, P.

    2018-01-01

    An android app 'Dose Rate Meter' for gamma radiation field measurement over wide range using smart phone has been developed. The android app implements the cluster counting and high delta algorithm. The high delta algorithm processes multiple images captured by the camera. It is more sensitive at lower dose rates but it saturates at higher dose rates of the order of 1Gy/h and its response starts decreasing. Since, this algorithm analyses a number of images to compute the dose rate, it takes few minutes to process on a typical smart phone with 1 GB RAM, dual core processor and a clock in the range of 1GHz. However, the cluster count algorithm computes the results in a few seconds only as it operates on a single image but it can be used to measure dose rate only in the range of 5 mGy/h and above. Therefore, we have implemented the two algorithms in such a way that initially, the control goes to the cluster count algorithm and in case the dose rate is below 5mGy/h, it has provision to invoke the high delta algorithm, thereby covering a dose rate measurement range from μGy/h to Gy/h

  2. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  3. Development of gas micro-strip chambers for high rate radiation detection and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Gaudaen, J; Florent, J J; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Groshev, V R; Minakov, G D; Onuchin, A P; Pestov, Yu N; Shekhtman, L I; Sidorov, V A; Dixit, M S; Oakham, G K; Møller, S; Sørensen, G; Uggerhøj, Erik; Brons, S; Brückner, W; Godbersen, M; Heidrich, M; Paul, S; Trombini, A; Werding, R; Armitage, J A; Karlen, D A; Stewart, G; Barasch, E F; McIntyre, P; Pang, Y; Trost, H J; Salomon, M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Pansky, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    Gas Micro-Strip Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high-rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of pre-shower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/charm/beauty factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and for medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about performan...

  4. Development of Gas Micro-Strip Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD28 \\\\ \\\\ Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of preshower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/beauty/charm factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about p...

  5. SU-G-201-03: Automation of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Quality Assurance: Development of a Radioluminescent Detection System for Simultaneous Detection of Activity, Timing, and Positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C; Xing, L; Fahimian, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accuracy of positioning, timing and activity is of critical importance for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy delivery. Respective measurements via film autoradiography, stop-watches and well chambers can be cumbersome, crude or lack dynamic source evaluation capabilities. To address such limitations, a single device radioluminescent detection system enabling automated real-time quantification of activity, position and timing accuracy is presented and experimentally evaluated. Methods: A radioluminescent sheet was fabricated by mixing Gd?O?S:Tb with PDMS and incorporated into a 3D printed device where it was fixated below a CMOS digital camera. An Ir-192 HDR source (VS2000, VariSource iX) with an effective active length of 5 mm was introduced using a 17-gauge stainless steel needle below the sheet. Pixel intensity values for determining activity were taken from an ROI centered on the source location. A calibration curve relating intensity values to activity was generated and used to evaluate automated activity determination with data gathered over 6 weeks. Positioning measurements were performed by integrating images for an entire delivery and fitting peaks to the resulting profile. Timing measurements were performed by evaluating source location and timestamps from individual images. Results: Average predicted activity error over 6 weeks was .35 ± .5%. The distance between four dwell positions was determined by the automated system to be 1.99 ± .02 cm. The result from autoradiography was 2.00 ± .03 cm. The system achieved a time resolution of 10 msec and determined the dwell time to be 1.01 sec ± .02 sec. Conclusion: The system was able to successfully perform automated detection of activity, positioning and timing concurrently under a single setup. Relative to radiochromic and radiographic film-based autoradiography, which can only provide a static evaluation positioning, optical detection of temporary radiation induced luminescence enables dynamic

  6. Exponential decay of GC content detected by strand-symmetric substitution rates influences the evolution of isochore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karro, J E; Peifer, M; Hardison, R C; Kollmann, M; von Grünberg, H H

    2008-02-01

    The distribution of guanine and cytosine nucleotides throughout a genome, or the GC content, is associated with numerous features in mammals; understanding the pattern and evolutionary history of GC content is crucial to our efforts to annotate the genome. The local GC content is decaying toward an equilibrium point, but the causes and rates of this decay, as well as the value of the equilibrium point, remain topics of debate. By comparing the results of 2 methods for estimating local substitution rates, we identify 620 Mb of the human genome in which the rates of the various types of nucleotide substitutions are the same on both strands. These strand-symmetric regions show an exponential decay of local GC content at a pace determined by local substitution rates. DNA segments subjected to higher rates experience disproportionately accelerated decay and are AT rich, whereas segments subjected to lower rates decay more slowly and are GC rich. Although we are unable to draw any conclusions about causal factors, the results support the hypothesis proposed by Khelifi A, Meunier J, Duret L, and Mouchiroud D (2006. GC content evolution of the human and mouse genomes: insights from the study of processed pseudogenes in regions of different recombination rates. J Mol Evol. 62:745-752.) that the isochore structure has been reshaped over time. If rate variation were a determining factor, then the current isochore structure of mammalian genomes could result from the local differences in substitution rates. We predict that under current conditions strand-symmetric portions of the human genome will stabilize at an average GC content of 30% (considerably less than the current 42%), thus confirming that the human genome has not yet reached equilibrium.

  7. To use the brief psychiatric rating scale to detect disorganized speech in schizophrenia: Findings from the REAP-AP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chon Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess the psychometric validity of the conceptual disorganization item and other items of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS for detecting disorganized speech in patients with schizophrenia. We included 357 schizophrenia patients with disorganized speech and 1082 without disorganized speech from the survey centers in India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, and Taiwan, using the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP study. After adjusting the effects of confounding variables, a binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify BPRS items independently associated with disorganized speech. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to identify optimum cut-off scores and their sensitivities and specificities for detecting disorganized speech. After adjusting the effects of confounding variables, the fitted binary logistic regression model indicated that conceptual disorganization (P < 0.0001, uncooperativeness (P = 0.010 and excitement (P = 0.001 were independently associated with disorganized speech. The ROC curve revealed that the conceptual disorganization item could accurately detect disorganized speech in patients with schizophrenia both separately and in combination with uncooperativeness and excitement. The subscale for conceptual disorganization, uncooperativeness and excitement items in the BPRS is a promising psychometric tool for detecting disorganized speech.

  8. Pyrosequencing as a tool for the detection of Phytophthora species: error rate and risk of false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, A M; Bonants, P; Tomassini, A; Bruni, N; Vannini, A

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of pyrosequencing for the description of Phytophthora communities in terms of taxa identification and risk of assignment for false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). Pyrosequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons was used to describe the structure of a DNA mixture comprising eight Phytophthora spp. and Pythium vexans. Pyrosequencing resulted in 16 965 reads, detecting all species in the template DNA mixture. Reducing the ITS1 sequence identity threshold resulted in a decrease in numbers of unmatched reads but a concomitant increase in the numbers of false MOTUs. The total error rate was 0·63% and comprised mainly mismatches (0·25%) Pyrosequencing of ITS1 region is an efficient and accurate technique for the detection and identification of Phytophthora spp. in environmental samples. However, the risk of allocating false MOTUs, even when demonstrated to be low, may require additional validation with alternative detection methods. Phytophthora spp. are considered among the most destructive groups of invasive plant pathogens, affecting thousands of cultivated and wild plants worldwide. Simultaneous early detection of Phytophthora complexes in environmental samples offers an unique opportunity for the interception of known and unknown species along pathways of introduction, along with the identification of these organisms in invaded environments. © 2012 The Authors Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Constraints on the bulk Lorentz factor of gamma-ray bursts with the detection rate by Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2018-05-01

    The bulk Lorentz factor(Γ) of the outflow is an essential parameter to understanding the physics of gamma-ray burst (GRB). Informations about the Lorentz factors of some individual GRBs have been obtained from the spectral features of the high-energy gamma-ray emissions (>100 MeV), assuming that the spectral breaks or cutoffs are due to the pair-production attenuation (i.e., γγ → e+e-). In this paper, we attempt to interpret the dependence of the LAT detection rate of GRBs on the number of high-energy gamma-rays, taking into account the attenuation effect. We first simulate a long-GRB sample with Monte Carlo method using the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and properties of the GRB spectrum. To characterize the distribution of the Lorentz factors, we assume that the Lorentz factors follow the relation Γ =Γ _0E_iso,52k, where Eiso, 52 is the isotropic photon energy in unit of 1052erg. After taking into account the attenuation effect related with the above Lorentz factor distribution, we are able to reproduce the LAT-detected rate of GRBs as the function of the number of gamma-rays for suitable choice of the values of Γ0 and k. The result suggests that the distribution of the bulk Lorentz factor for the majority of GRBs is in the range of 50 - 250.

  10. Is the detection rate of 18F-choline PET/CT influenced by androgen-deprivation therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Grassetto, Gaia; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Rampin, Lucia; Rubello, Domenico; Ferretti, Alice; Fanti, Stefano; Giammarile, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate if the detection rate (DR) of 18 F-choline (18F-CH) PET/CT is influenced by androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate cancer (PC) already treated with radical intent and presenting biochemical relapse. We have retrospectively evaluated 18 F-CH PET/CT scans of 325 consecutive PC patients enrolled in the period November 2009 to December 2012 previously treated with radical intent and referred to our centre to perform 18 F-CH PET/CT for biochemical relapse. Two different groups of patients were evaluated. group A included the whole sample of 325 patients (mean age 70 years, range: 49-86) who presented trigger PSA between 0.1 and 80 ng/ml (mean 5.5 ng/ml), and group B included 187 patients (mean age 70 years, range 49-86) with medium-low levels of trigger PSA ranging between 0.5 and 5 ng/ml (mean PSA 2.1 ng/ml); group B was chosen in order to obtain a more homogeneous group of patients in terms of PSA values also excluding both very low and very high PSA levels avoiding the ''a priori'' higher probability of negative or positive PET scan, respectively. At the time of examination, 139 patients from group A and 72 patients from group B were under ADT: these patients were considered to be hormone-resistant PC patients because from their oncologic history (>18 months) an increase of PSA levels emerged despite the ongoing ADT. The relationship between 18 F-CH PET/CT findings and possible clinical predictors was investigated using both univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, including trigger PSA and ADT. Considering the whole population, overall DR of 18 F-CH PET was 58.2 % (189/325 patients). In the whole sample of patients (group A), both at the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, trigger PSA and ADT were significantly correlated with the DR of 18 F-CH PET (p 18 F-CH PET and ADT. In group B patients only trigger PSA resulted a reliable predictor of the 18 F-CH positivity, since ADT was not

  11. Sediment-Mass Accumulation Rate and Variability in the East China Sea Detected by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS is a region with shallow continental shelves and a mixed oceanic circulation system allowing sediments to deposit on its inner shelf, particularly near the estuary of the Yangtze River. The seasonal northward-flowing Taiwan Warm Current and southward-flowing China Coastal Current trap sediments from the Yangtze River, which are accumulated over time at rates of up to a few mm/year in equivalent water height. Here, we use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE gravity products from three data centres to determine sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs and variability on the ECS inner shelf. We restore the atmospheric and oceanic effects to avoid model contaminations on gravity signals associated with sediment masses. We apply destriping and spatial filters to improve the gravity signals from GRACE and use the Global Land Data Assimilation System to reduce land leakage. The GRACE-derived MARs over April 2002–March 2015 on the ECS inner shelf are about 6 mm/year and have magnitudes and spatial patterns consistent with those from sediment-core measurements. The GRACE-derived monthly sediment depositions show variations at time scales ranging from six months to more than two years. Typically, a positive mass balance of sediment deposition occurs in late fall to early winter when the southward coastal currents prevail. A negative mass balance happens in summer when the coastal currents are northward. We identify quasi-biennial sediment variations, which are likely to be caused by quasi-biennial variations in rain and erosion in the Yangtze River basin. We briefly explain the mechanisms of such frequency-dependent variations in the GRACE-derived ECS sediment deposition. There is no clear perturbation on sediment deposition over the ECS inner shelf induced by the Three Gorges Dam. The limitations of GRACE in resolving sediment deposition are its low spatial resolution (about 250 km and possible contaminations by

  12. Adaptive thresholding with inverted triangular area for real-time detection of the heart rate from photoplethysmogram traces on a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen Jun; Wittek, Peter; Zhao, Li; Gao, Shi Chao

    2014-01-01

    Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals acquired by smartphone cameras are weaker than those acquired by dedicated pulse oximeters. Furthermore, the signals have lower sampling rates, have notches in the waveform and are more severely affected by baseline drift, leading to specific morphological characteristics. This paper introduces a new feature, the inverted triangular area, to address these specific characteristics. The new feature enables real-time adaptive waveform detection using an algorithm of linear time complexity. It can also recognize notches in the waveform and it is inherently robust to baseline drift. An implementation of the algorithm on Android is available for free download. We collected data from 24 volunteers and compared our algorithm in peak detection with two competing algorithms designed for PPG signals, Incremental-Merge Segmentation (IMS) and Adaptive Thresholding (ADT). A sensitivity of 98.0% and a positive predictive value of 98.8% were obtained, which were 7.7% higher than the IMS algorithm in sensitivity, and 8.3% higher than the ADT algorithm in positive predictive value. The experimental results confirmed the applicability of the proposed method.

  13. The Performance of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in the Detection of Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Lucena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestive heart failure (CHF is a cardiac disease associated with the decreasing capacity of the cardiac output. It has been shown that the CHF is the main cause of the cardiac death around the world. Some works proposed to discriminate CHF subjects from healthy subjects using either electrocardiogram (ECG or heart rate variability (HRV from long-term recordings. In this work, we propose an alternative framework to discriminate CHF from healthy subjects by using HRV short-term intervals based on 256 RR continuous samples. Our framework uses a matching pursuit algorithm based on Gabor functions. From the selected Gabor functions, we derived a set of features that are inputted into a hybrid framework which uses a genetic algorithm and k-nearest neighbour classifier to select a subset of features that has the best classification performance. The performance of the framework is analyzed using both Fantasia and CHF database from Physionet archives which are, respectively, composed of 40 healthy volunteers and 29 subjects. From a set of nonstandard 16 features, the proposed framework reaches an overall accuracy of 100% with five features. Our results suggest that the application of hybrid frameworks whose classifier algorithms are based on genetic algorithms has outperformed well-known classifier methods.

  14. A Robust Dynamic Heart-Rate Detection Algorithm Framework During Intense Physical Activities Using Photoplethysmographic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic accurate heart-rate (HR estimation using a photoplethysmogram (PPG during intense physical activities is always challenging due to corruption by motion artifacts (MAs. It is difficult to reconstruct a clean signal and extract HR from contaminated PPG. This paper proposes a robust HR-estimation algorithm framework that uses one-channel PPG and tri-axis acceleration data to reconstruct the PPG and calculate the HR based on features of the PPG and spectral analysis. Firstly, the signal is judged by the presence of MAs. Then, the spectral peaks corresponding to acceleration data are filtered from the periodogram of the PPG when MAs exist. Different signal-processing methods are applied based on the amount of remaining PPG spectral peaks. The main MA-removal algorithm (NFEEMD includes the repeated single-notch filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Finally, HR calibration is designed to ensure the accuracy of HR tracking. The NFEEMD algorithm was performed on the 23 datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Processing Cup Database. The average estimation errors were 1.12 BPM (12 training datasets, 2.63 BPM (10 testing datasets and 1.87 BPM (all 23 datasets, respectively. The Pearson correlation was 0.992. The experiment results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is not only suitable for HR estimation during continuous activities, like slow running (13 training datasets, but also for intense physical activities with acceleration, like arm exercise (10 testing datasets.

  15. A Low-Power Wireless Image Sensor Node with Noise-Robust Moving Object Detection and a Region-of-Interest Based Rate Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    from both environment and hardware further reduces the transmission energy with negligible computation and memory overhead. The rate controller...detection, Region-of-interest, Rate control Introduction In wireless image sensor nodes for moving object surveillance, energy efficiency can be...noise, reliable moving object detection is required to avoid unnecessary transmission of background scenes [1]. Transmission energy can be further

  16. Multiparameter FLAER-based flow cytometry for screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria enhances detection rates in patients with aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Varma, Neelam; Chandra, Dinesh; Bose, Parveen; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Flow cytometry is the gold standard methodology for screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In the last few years, proaerolysin conjugated with fluorescein (FLAER) has become an important component of antibody panel used for the detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clone. This study aimed to compare PNH clone detection by flow cytometry in the pre-FLAER era versus the FLAER era. This was a retrospective analysis of 4 years and included 1004 individuals screened for PNH clone, either presenting as hemolytic anemia or as aplastic anemia. In the pre-FLAER time period, the RBCs and neutrophils were screened with antibodies against CD55 and CD59. With the introduction of FLAER, neutrophils were screened with FLAER/CD24/CD15 and monocytes with FLAER/CD14/CD33 combination. A comparative analysis was done for detection of PNH clone in aplastic anemia patients versus non-aplastic anemia patients, as well as between pre-FLAER and FLAER era. Out of a total of 1004 individuals, 59 (5.8%) were detected to have PNH clone positivity. The frequency of PNH clone detected in aplastic anemia and non-aplastic anemia groups was 12.02 and 3.36%, respectively. The detection rate of PNH clone increased from 4.5% (32/711) in the pre-FLAER era to 9.2% (27/293) with the introduction of FLAER. However, this increase could be attributed to increased detection of PNH clone in the aplastic anemia group, which showed a significant increase from 8.3 to 18.2% after use of FLAER. In the non-aplastic group, PNH clone was detected with similar frequencies before and after use of FLAER (3.2 versus 3.8%, respectively). Mean PNH clone size was lower in the aplastic anemia group when compared with the non-aplastic group. RBCs always showed a lower clone size than neutrophils. PNH clone on neutrophils and monocytes was however similar. Inclusion of FLAER increases the sensitivity of the test which is especially useful in picking up small PNH clones in patients of aplastic anemia.

  17. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular Detection of the Carriage Rate of Four Intestinal Protozoa with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Possible Overdiagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Sahar, Sumrin; König, Brigitte; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium. Questionnaires were administered for epidemiological data collection. E. histolytica was not detected in any of the samples, whereas Giardia (37.2%), E. dispar (18.6%), and Cryptosporidium (1%) were found. Most of the children sourced their drinking water from community wells (91%), while the majority disposed of feces in the bush (81.9%). Our study is the first to use real-time PCR to evaluate the epidemiology of E. histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium in Nigeria where previous studies using traditional diagnostic techniques have suggested higher and lower carriage rates of E. histolytica and Giardia, respectively. It is also the first study to accurately identify the prevalence of common potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers in sub-Saharan Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Comparison of a sentinel lymph node mapping algorithm and comprehensive lymphadenectomy in the detection of stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma at higher risk for nodal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducie, Jennifer A; Eriksson, Ane Gerda Zahl; Ali, Narisha; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Bogani, Giorgio; Cliby, William A; Dowdy, Sean C; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Soslow, Robert A; Keeney, Gary L; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Mariani, Andrea; Leitao, Mario M

    2017-12-01

    To determine if a sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping algorithm will detect metastatic nodal disease in patients with intermediate-/high-risk endometrial carcinoma. Patients were identified and surgically staged at two collaborating institutions. The historical cohort (2004-2008) at one institution included patients undergoing complete pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy to the renal veins (LND cohort). At the second institution an SLN mapping algorithm, including pathologic ultra-staging, was performed (2006-2013) (SLN cohort). Intermediate-risk was defined as endometrioid histology (any grade), ≥50% myometrial invasion; high-risk as serous or clear cell histology (any myometrial invasion). Patients with gross peritoneal disease were excluded. Isolated tumor cells, micro-metastases, and macro-metastases were considered node-positive. We identified 210 patients in the LND cohort, 202 in the SLN cohort. Nodal assessment was performed for most patients. In the intermediate-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 30/107 (28.0%) (LND), 29/82 (35.4%) (SLN) (P=0.28). In the high-risk group, stage IIIC disease was diagnosed in 20/103 (19.4%) (LND), 26 (21.7%) (SLN) (P=0.68). Paraaortic lymph node (LN) assessment was performed significantly more often in intermediate-/high-risk groups in the LND cohort (P<0.001). In the intermediate-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 20/96 (20.8%) (LND) vs. 3/28 (10.7%) (SLN) (P=0.23). In the high-risk group, paraaortic LN metastases were detected in 13/82 (15.9%) (LND) and 10/56 (17.9%) (SLN) (%, P=0.76). SLN mapping algorithm provides similar detection rates of stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The SLN algorithm does not compromise overall detection compared to standard LND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population: History of Knee Ligament Injury Is Associated With Higher Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Ege Aktaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients.

  2. Effects of episodic sediment supply on bedload transport rate in mountain rivers. Detecting debris flow activity using continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Taro; Sakurai, Wataru; Iuchi, Takuma; Izumiyama, Hiroaki; Borgatti, Lisa; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of sediment transport from hillslopes to channel networks as a consequence of floods with suspended and bedload transport, hyperconcentrated flows, debris and mud flows is essential not only for scientific issues, but also for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, i.e. for hazard assessment, land use planning and design of torrent control interventions. In steep, potentially unstable terrains, ground-based continuous monitoring of hillslope and hydrological processes is still highly localized and expensive, especially in terms of manpower. In recent years, new seismic and acoustic methods have been developed for continuous bedload monitoring in mountain rivers. Since downstream bedload transport rate is controlled by upstream sediment supply from tributary channels and bed-external sources, continuous bedload monitoring might be an effective tool for detecting the sediments mobilized by debris flow processes in the upper catchment and thus represent an indirect method to monitor slope instability processes at the catchment scale. However, there is poor information about the effects of episodic sediment supply from upstream bed-external sources on downstream bedload transport rate at a single flood time scale. We have examined the effects of sediment supply due to upstream debris flow events on downstream bedload transport rate along the Yotagiri River, central Japan. To do this, we have conducted continuous bedload observations using a hydrophone (Japanese pipe microphone) located 6.4 km downstream the lower end of a tributary affected by debris flows. Two debris flows occurred during the two-years-long observation period. As expected, bedload transport rate for a given flow depth showed to be larger after storms triggering debris flows. That is, although the magnitude of sediment supply from debris flows is not large, their effect on bedload is propagating >6 km downstream at a single flood time scale. This indicates that continuous bedload

  3. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting patients at higher risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YanHong; Lee, Wah Yean; Basri, Nur Adilah; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Merchant, Reshma A; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2012-11-01

    To examine the discriminant validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for dementia at a memory clinic setting. Memory clinic patients were administered the MoCA, MMSE, and a comprehensive formal neuropsychological battery. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes were dichotomized into two groups: single domain-MCI (sd-MCI) and multiple domain-MCI (md-MCI). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of the MoCA and the MMSE. Two hundred thirty patients were recruited, of which 136 (59.1%) were diagnosed with dementia, 61 (26.5%) with MCI, and 33 (14.3%) with no cognitive impairment (NCI). The majority of MCI patients had md-MCI (n = 36, 59%). The MoCA had significantly larger AUCs than the MMSE in discriminating md-MCI from the lower risk group for incident dementia (NCI and sd-MCI) [MoCA 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) vs. MMSE 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.92), p = 0.02). At their optimal cut-off points, the MoCA (19/20) remained superior to the MMSE (23/24) in detecting md-MCI [sensitivity: 0.83 vs. 0.72; specificity: 0.86 vs. 0.83; PPV: 0.79 vs. 0.72; NPV: 0.89 vs. 0.83; correctly classified: 85.1% vs. 78.7%]. The MoCA is superior to the MMSE in the detection of patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for incident dementia at a memory clinic setting.

  4. Prospective assessment of the false positive rate of the Australian snake venom detection kit in healthy human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimorakiotakis, Vasilios Bill; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-03-01

    The Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK; bioCSL Pty Ltd, Australia) distinguishes venom from the five most medically significant snake immunotypes found in Australia. This study assesses the rate of false positives that, by definition, refers to a positive assay finding in a sample from someone who has not been bitten by a venomous snake. Control unbroken skin swabs, simulated bite swabs and urine specimens were collected from 61 healthy adult volunteers [33 males and 28 females] for assessment. In all controls, simulated bite site and urine samples [a total of 183 tests], the positive control well reacted strongly within one minute and no test wells reacted during the ten minute incubation period. However, in two urine tests, the negative control well gave a positive reaction (indicating an uninterpretable test). A 95% confidence interval for the false positive rate, on a per-patient rate, derived from the findings of this study, would extend from 0% to 6% and, on a per-test basis, it would be 0-2%. It appears to be a very low incidence (0-6%) of intrinsic true false positives for the SVDK. The clinical impresssion of a high SVDK false positive rate may be mostly related to operator error. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can concurrent core biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy improve the false negative rate of sonographically detectable breast lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Tsai-Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to determine the accuracy of concurrent core needle biopsy (CNB and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB for breast lesions and to estimate the false-negative rate using the two methods combined. Methods Over a seven-year period, 2053 patients with sonographically detectable breast lesions underwent concurrent ultrasound-guided CNB and FNAB. The sonographic and histopathological findings were classified into four categories: benign, indeterminate, suspicious, and malignant. The histopathological findings were compared with the definitive excision pathology results. Patients with benign core biopsies underwent a detailed review to determine the false-negative rate. The correlations between the ultrasonography, FNAB, and CNB were determined. Results Eight hundred eighty patients were diagnosed with malignant disease, and of these, 23 (2.5% diagnoses were found to be false-negative after core biopsy. After an intensive review of discordant FNAB results, the final false-negative rate was reduced to 1.1% (p-value = 0.025. The kappa coefficients for correlations between methods were 0.304 (p-value p-value p-value Conclusions Concurrent CNB and FNAB under ultrasound guidance can provide accurate preoperative diagnosis of breast lesions and provide important information for appropriate treatment. Identification of discordant results using careful radiological-histopathological correlation can reduce the false-negative rate.

  6. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  7. Additional lesions detected in therapeutic scans with 177Lu-DOTATATE reflect higher affinity of 177Lu-DOTATATE for somatostatin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Siroos; Bastati, Brigitte; Lipp, Rainer W; Knoll, Peter; Zojer, Niklas; Ludwig, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Peptide receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of somatostatin receptor (SR)-expressing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has become an established therapeutic option in patients with advanced NETs. The aim of this study was to compare the lesion detection rate of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, a newly developed tracer for NET imaging, with (177)Lu-DOTATATE used for PRRT. 8 patients (4 women, 4 men, age range 46-76 years) with histologically proven NETs, who showed high SR loads by (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, were treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE. After treatment, all patients were subjected to whole-body scintigraphy with additional low-dose single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT) of the chest and abdomen. All patients demonstrated (177)Lu-DOTATATE accumulation in all lesions previously detected by (99m)Tc- EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy. Three patients showed additional lesions in the liver and lungs. SPECT-CT after (177)Lu-DOTATATE therapy may be helpful in detecting additional lesions not seen using (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. This could reflect the broader affinity of (177)Lu-DOTATATE for SRs compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Familial prostate cancer has a more aggressive course than sporadic prostate cancer after treatment for localized disease, mainly due to a higher rate of distant metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Klein, Eric A.; Suh, John H; Kupelian, Varant A.

    1997-01-01

    with negative and positive family history were 83% and 72% percent, respectively (p=0.013). The 5-year locRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 87% percent, respectively (p=0.45). The 5-year dRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 84%, respectively (p=0.032). Table 1 displays the statistical significance in crude (univariate) and adjusted (multivariate) analysis of all factors analyzed with respect to outcomes of interest. After adjusting for potential confounders, family history of prostate cancer remained strongly associated with biochemical failure. For RP patients, even in the presence of pathologic parameters, family history remained a strong independent predictor of biochemical, clinical, and distant failure (data not shown). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that familial prostate cancer may have a more aggressive course after treatment than non-familial prostate cancer, and that clinical and/or pathological parameters may not adequately predict this course. Familial prostate cancer seems associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Further studies need to be performed to confirm these findings

  9. After microvascular decompression to treat trigeminal neuralgia, both immediate pain relief and recurrence rates are higher in patients with arterial compression than with venous compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Guan; Guo, Jun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Shuguang; Qian, Chunfa

    2017-07-04

    We explored differences in postoperative pain relief achieved through decompression of the trigeminal nerve compressed by arteries and veins. Clinical characteristics, intraoperative findings, and postoperative curative effects were analyzed in 72 patients with trigeminal neuralgia who were treated by microvascular decompression. The patients were divided into arterial and venous compression groups based on intraoperative findings. Surgical curative effects included immediate relief, delayed relief, obvious reduction, and invalid result. Among the 40 patients in the arterial compression group, 32 had immediate pain relief of pain (80.0%), 5 cases had delayed relief (12.5%), and 3 cases had an obvious reduction (7.5%). In the venous compression group, 12 patients had immediate relief of pain (37.5%), 13 cases had delayed relief (40.6%), and 7 cases had an obvious reduction (21.9%). During 2-year follow-up period, 6 patients in the arterial compression group experienced recurrence of trigeminal neuralgia, but there were no recurrences in the venous compression group. Simple artery compression was followed by early relief of trigeminal neuralgia more often than simple venous compression. However, the trigeminal neuralgia recurrence rate was higher in the artery compression group than in the venous compression group.

  10. Measurement of radiocesium concentration in trees using cumulative gamma radiation dose rate detection systems - A simple presumption for radiocesium concentration in living woods using glass-badge based gamma radiation dose rate detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, T.; Hashida, S.N. [Plant Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Environmental Science, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 1646 Abiko, Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Kawachi, N.; Suzui, N.; Yin, Y.G.; Fujimaki, S. [Radiotracer Imaging Gr., Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagao, Y.; Yamaguchi, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium from the severe accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on 11 March 2011 contaminates large areas. After this, a doubt for forest products, especially of mushroom, is indelible at the areas. Pruned woody parts and litters are containing a considerable amount of radiocesium, and generates a problem at incineration and composting. These mean that more attentive survey for each subject is expected; however, the present survey system is highly laborious/expensive and/or non-effective for this purpose. On the other hand, we can see a glass-badge based gamma radiation dose rate detection system. This system always utilized to detect a personal cumulative radiation dose, and thus, it is not suitable to separate a radiation from a specific object. However, if we can separate a radiation from a specific object and relate it with the own radiocesium concentration, it would enable us to presume the specific concentration with just an easy monitoring but without a destruction of the target nature and a complicated process including sampling, pre-treatment, and detection. Here, we present the concept of the measurement and results of the trials. First, we set glass-badges (type FS, Chiyoda Technol Corp., Japan) on a part of bough (approximately 10 cm in diameter) of Japanese flowering cherry trees (Prunus x yedoensis cv. Somei-Yoshino) with four different settings: A, a direct setting without any shield; B, a setting with an aluminum shield between bough and the glass-badge; C, a setting with a lead shield between bough and the glass-badge; D, a setting with a lead shield covering the glass-badge to shut the radiation from the surrounding but from bough. The deduction between the amount of each setting should separate a specific radiation of the bough from unlimited radiation from the surrounding. Even if the hourly dose rate is not enough to count the difference, a moderate cumulative dose would clear the difference. In fact, results demonstrated a

  11. Indexed effective orifice area is a significant predictor of higher mid- and long-term mortality rates following aortic valve replacement in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Yiyun; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhinong

    2014-02-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is defined as a too-small effective orifice area (EOA) of an inserted prosthetic relative to body size, resulting in an abnormally high postoperative gradient. It is unclear, however, whether residual stenosis after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has a negative impact on mid- and long-term survivals. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane controlled trials register, through October 2012, to identify published full-text English studies on the association between PPM and mortality rates. A significant PPM was defined as an indexed EOA (iEOA)<0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM as an iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fourteen observational studies, involving 14 874 patients, met our final inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that PPM significantly increased mid-term (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.69) and long-term (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.84) all-cause mortalities. Subgroup analysis showed that PPM was associated with higher mid- and long-term mortality rates only in younger and predominantly female populations. Risk-adjusted sensitivity analysis showed that severe PPM was associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.80), whereas moderate PPM was not (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07). Regardless of severity, however, PPM had a negative effect on survival in patients with impaired ejection fraction (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47). PPM (iEOA<0.85 cm2/m2) after AVR tended to be associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in younger patients, females and patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. Severe PPM (iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2) was a significant predictor of reduced long-term survival in all populations undergoing AVR.

  12. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  13. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Generation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate from acetate in higher plants: Detection of acetoacetyl CoA reductase- and PHB synthase- activities in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirohisa; Shiraki, Mari; Inoue, Eri; Saito, Terumi

    2016-08-20

    It has been reported that Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is generated from acetate in the rice root. However, no information is available about the biosynthetic pathway of PHB from acetate in plant cells. In the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 (R. eutropha), PHB is synthesized from acetyl CoA by the consecutive reaction of three enzymes: β-ketothiolase (EC: 2.3.1.9), acetoacetyl CoA reductase (EC: 1.1.1.36) and PHB synthase (EC: 2.3.1.-). Thus, in this study, we examined whether the above three enzymatic activities were also detected in rice seedlings. The results clearly showed that the activities of the above three enzymes were all detected in rice. In particular, the PHB synthase activity was detected specifically in the sonicated particulate fractions (2000g 10min precipitate (ppt) and the 8000g 30min ppt) of rice roots and leaves. In addition to these enzyme activities, several new experimental results were obtained on PHB synthesis in higher plants: (a) (14)C-PHB generated from 2-(14)C-acetate was mainly localized in the 2000g 10min ppt and the 8000g 30min ppt of rice root. (b) Addition of acetate (0.1-10mM) to culture medium of rice seedlings did not increase the content of PHB in the rice root or leaf. (c) In addition to C3 plants, PHB was generated from acetate in a C4 plant (corn) and in a CAM plant (Bryophyllum pinnatum). d) Washing with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) strongly suggested that the PHB synthesized from acetate was of plant origin and was not bacterial contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Higher-order statistical moments and a procedure that detects potentially anomalous years as two alternative methods describing alterations in continuous environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical moments (skewness and kurtosis) to examine potential changes of empirical distributions at decadal extents. Second, we adapt a statistical procedure combining a non-metric multidimensional scaling technique and higher density region plots to detect potentially anomalous years. We illustrate the use of these approaches by examining long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-influenced streams. In particular, we contrast predictions about thermal regime responses to changing climates and human-related water uses. Using these methods, we effectively diagnose years with unusual thermal variability and patterns in variability through time, as well as spatial variability linked to regional and local factors that influence stream temperature. Our findings highlight the complexity of responses of thermal regimes of streams and reveal their differential vulnerability to climate warming and human-related water uses. The two approaches presented here can be applied with a variety of other continuous phenomena to address historical changes, extreme events, and their associated ecological responses.

  16. Detection of Driver Drowsiness Using Wavelet Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and a Support Vector Machine Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC analysis and a support vector machine (SVM classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use.

  17. The detection rates and tumor clinical/pathological stages of whole-body FDG-PET cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ken; Omagari, Junichi; Ochiai, Reiji; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Mami; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) has been used for cancer screening, mainly in East-Asia, and cancers are found not infrequently. However, their stages have not been clarified. We examined the detection rates of various cancers using whole-body PET for the screening of cancers in asymptomatic individuals, focusing on their clinical and pathological stages. Whole-body PET was obtained as a part of our cancer screening program among 3,426 healthy subjects. All subjects participated in a course of PET examination in conjunction with conventional examinations including a medical questionnaire, tumor markers, immunological fecal occult blood test, neck and abdominal ultrasonography and whole body computed tomography. A diagnosis and staging was obtained by an analysis of the pathological findings or by an analysis of the clinical follow-up data. Malignant tumors were discovered in 65 lesions found in 3,426 participants (1.90%). The PET findings were true-positive in 46 of the 65 cancer cases. The cancers were found in the following organs: the colon 14; thyroid gland 10; stomach 7; lung 5; liver 3; breast 2; and one each in the kidney, gallbladder, esophagus, pancreas and retroperitoneum. The stages were as follows: stage 0 5, stage I 17, stage II 10, stage III 7, and stage IV 6. One was an unknown primary. There were 19 false-negative findings (0.6%) on PET. Six cancers (0.18%) were missed in our screening program. PET imaging has the potential to detect a wide variety of cancers at potentially curative stages. Most PET-negative cancers are early stage cancers, and thus can be detected using other conventional examinations such as endoscopy. (author)

  18. MRI-detection rate and incidence of lumbar bleeding sources in 190 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Kashefiolasl

    Full Text Available Up to 15% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH have a non-aneurysmal SAH (NASAH. The evaluation of SAH patients with negative digital subtraction angiography (DSA is sometimes a diagnostic challenge. Our goal in this study was to reassess the yield of standard MR-imaging of the complete spinal axis to rule out spinal bleeding sources in patients with NASAH.We retrospectively analyzed the spinal MRI findings in 190 patients with spontaneous NASAH, containing perimesencephalic (PM and non-perimesencephalic (NPM SAH, diagnosed by computer tomography (CT and/or lumbar puncture (LP, and negative 2nd DSA.190 NASAH patients were included in the study, divided into PM-SAH (n = 87; 46% and NPM-SAH (n = 103; 54%. Overall, 23 (22% patients had a CT negative SAH, diagnosed by positive LP. MR-imaging of the spinal axis detected two patients with lumbar ependymoma (n = 2; 1,05%. Both patients complained of radicular sciatic pain. The detection rate raised up to 25%, if only patients with radicular sciatic pain received an MRI.Routine radiological investigation of the complete spinal axis in NASAH patients is expensive and can not be recommended for standard procedure. However, patients with clinical signs of low-back/sciatic pain should be worked up for a spinal pathology.

  19. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2017-04-13

    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR 2W ) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR 2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR 2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2

  20. Human care system for heart-rate and human-movement trajectory in home and its application to detect mental disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yutaka; Kanazawa, Seigo; Endo, Maki; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a heart rate monitoring system for detecting autonomic nervous system by the heart rate variability using an air pressure sensor to diagnose mental disease. Moreover, we propose a human behavior monitoring system for detecting the human trajectory in home by an infrared camera. In day and night times, the human behavior monitoring system detects the human movement in home. The heart rate monitoring system detects the heart rate in bed in night time. The air pressure sensor consists of a rubber tube, cushion cover and pressure sensor, and it detects the heart rate by setting it to bed. It unconstraintly detects the RR-intervals; thereby the autonomic nervous system can be assessed. The autonomic nervous system analysis can examine the mental disease. While, the human behavior monitoring system obtains distance distribution image by an infrared camera. It classifies adult, child and the other object from distance distribution obtained by the camera, and records their trajectories. This behavior, i.e., trajectory in home, strongly corresponds to cognitive disorders. Thus, the total system can detect mental disease and cognitive disorders by uncontacted sensors to human body.

  1. Detection of high-sensitivity troponin in outpatients with stable pulmonary hypertension identifies a subgroup at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; McCullagh, Brian N; Segurado, Ricardo; McGorrian, Catherine; Keane, Elizabeth; Keaney, John; Fitzgibbon, Maria N; Mahon, Niall G; Murray, Patrick T; Gaine, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The detection of elevations in cardiorenal biomarkers, such as troponins, B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalins, are associated with poor outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure. Less is known about the association of these markers with adverse events in chronic right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary hypertension, or whether their measurement may improve risk assessment in the outpatient setting. We performed a cohort study of 108 patients attending the National Pulmonary Hypertension Unit in Dublin, Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. Cox proportional hazards analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine predictors of mortality and hospitalization. Death or hospitalization occurred in 50 patients (46.3%) during the median study period of 4.1 years. Independent predictors of mortality were: 1) decreasing 6-minute walk test (6MWT; hazard ratio [HR] 12.8; P < .001); 2) BNP (HR 6.68; P < .001); and 3) highly sensitive troponin (hsTnT; HR 5.48; P < .001). Adjusted hazard analyses remained significant when hsTnT was added to a model with BNP and 6MWT (HR 9.26, 95% CI 3.61-23.79), as did the predictive ability of the model for death and rehospitalization (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.90). Detection of troponin using a highly sensitive assay identifies a pulmonary hypertension subgroup with a poorer prognosis. hsTnT may also be used in a risk prediction model to identify patients at higher risk who may require escalation of targeted pulmonary vasodilator therapies and closer clinical surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Study on the detection rate and risk factors regarding non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Zhu, Cui-zhen; Situ, Ming-jing; DU, Na; Huang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and risk factors of non-suicidal self-injury in middle school students. 1312 middle school students of Pengzhou and Santai were selected to fill in a Risky Behavior Questionnaire for Adolescence (RBQ-A), Family Environment Scale (FES), Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Social Support Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) and self-administered questionnaire. In all the research subjects, 1288 were qualified for the study in April 2011 before the risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury were identified by logistic regression. In 1288 middle school students, 22.67% had a history of non-suicidal self-injury, with 22.70% in boys and 22.64% in girls. 63.36% of students had injured themselves through variously ways, more seen in boys (26.88%) than in girls (11.36%) who cut or burnt themselves. The scores of ASLEC and CES-D in non-suicidal self-injury group appeared higher than that in the control group and the score of SSSA was found higher in the control group. The main risk factors for non-suicidal self-injuries were family conflict, depressive emotion, negative life events and receiving less social support. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among middle school students in Pengzhou was high, which called for more attention.

  3. Effect of layer number on recovery rate of WS{sub 2} nanosheets for ammonia detection at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ziyu [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zeng, Dawen, E-mail: dwzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Jia; Wu, Congyi; Wen, Yanwei; Shan, Bin; Xie, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Reasons for room-temperature difficult recovery of WS{sub 2} sensors for NH{sub 3} detection. • The excellent recovery within 271.9 s was observed for single-layer WS{sub 2} sensor. • The recovery time of WS{sub 2} sensor has a anti-linear relation with number of layer. - Abstract: Tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}), as a representative layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), is expected as a promising candidate for high-performance NH{sub 3} sensor at room temperature. Unfortunately, the common WS{sub 2} based NH{sub 3} sensors are difficult to recovery at room temperature, which severely limits its application. Hence, how to improve recovery has become an urgent problem to be solved. Herein, we prepare five types of WS{sub 2} nanosheets with different layer numbers from bulk to monolayer, and find that the recovery time of NH{sub 3} gas sensor is rapidly linear shorten as the number of layers decreasing. Through the first-principles calculation of the interaction between NH{sub 3} and WS{sub 2} substance, the different binding energy between ammonia and the surface (−0.179 eV) and interlayer (−0.356 eV) of layered WS{sub 2}, as well as the different electron transfer way, should be responsible for the difficult recovery rate of various WS{sub 2} samples. Therefore, reducing the number of layer of WS{sub 2} is a promising approach to speed up recovery. Based on this conclusion, we successfully prepare a fast recoverable ammonia gas sensor based on single layer WS{sub 2}, which exhibits exciting fast recovery within 271.9 s at room temperature without any condition. Moreover, our work also can act as a reference for other gas detection of TMDs based gas sensor to improve the gas performance at room-temperature.

  4. A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.A.; Mokhlis, H.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Karimi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

  5. Does preoperative breast MRI significantly impact on initial surgical procedure and re-operation rates in patients with screen-detected invasive lobular carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.; Sakellariou, S.; Dawson, N.; Litherland, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes the management of patients with screen-detected invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Materials and methods: A retrospective, controlled, single-centre analysis of 138 cases of screen-detected ILC was performed. All patients were assessed by a single multidisciplinary team as to whether preoperative MRI altered the initial management decision or reduced re-operation rates. Results: Forty-three percent of patients had preoperative MRI. MRI guided surgical management in 40.7% patients. Primary mastectomy rates were not significantly different between the MRI and non-MRI groups (32% and 30% respectively, p=0.71). The MRI group had a lower secondary surgery rate (6.8% versus 15.2%); however, the results did not reach statistical significance, and there were no unnecessary mastectomies. Conclusion: MRI can be used appropriately to guide primary surgery in screen-detected ILC cases and affects the initial management decision in 40.7% of patients. It does not significantly affect the overall mastectomy rate or re-operation rates, but reduces the likelihood of the latter. As a result of this review, the authors' local policy for the use of MRI in screen-detected ILC patients has been modified. For patients undergoing mastectomy for ILC, MRI is no longer performed routinely to search for contralateral malignancy as this has no proven added benefit. - Highlights: • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows more accurate tumour assessment and detects additional foci of disease in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). • Over the study's 3 year time frame, MRI guided surgical management of 40.7% screen-detected ILC patients scanned. • No statistically significant difference in mastectomy rates between MRI and non MRI groups. • Observed lower re-operation rate (6.8%-v-15.2%) in MRI group not statistically significant. • No MRI benefit for contralateral disease detection in ILC patients for

  6. The effect of changing from one to two views at incident (subsequent) screens in the NHS breast screening programme in England: impact on cancer detection and recall rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanks, R.G.; Bennett, R.L.; Patnick, J.; Cush, S.; Davison, C.; Moss, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect on cancer detection and recall rates of changing from one to two views for incident (subsequent) screens. METHODS: Controlled, comparative, observational study of programmes in NHS breast screening programme in England. Subjects: women aged 50-64 years were screened by the NHSBSP between 1 April 2001 and 31 March 2003. RESULTS: The effect of changing to two-view mammography was a 20% increase in overall incident screen cancer detection rate, with the biggest effect seen for small (<15 mm) invasive cancers. This increased detection rate was achieved with an 11% drop-in recall rate. CONCLUSION: The introduction of two-view mammography for incident screens has resulted in considerable improvements in overall NHS breast screening performance

  7. Molecular analysis using DHPLC of cystic fibrosis: increase of the mutation detection rate among the affected population in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardone Anna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystem disorder characterised by mutations of the CFTR gene, which encodes for an important component in the coordination of electrolyte movement across of epithelial cell membranes. Symptoms are pulmonary disease, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, male infertility and elevated sweat concentrations. The CFTR gene has numerous mutations (>1000 and functionally important polymorphisms (>200. Early identification is important to provide appropriate therapeutic interventions, prognostic and genetic counselling and to ensure access to specialised medical services. However, molecular diagnosis by direct mutation screening has proved difficult in certain ethnic groups due to allelic heterogeneity and variable frequency of causative mutations. Methods We applied a gene scanning approach using DHPLC system for analysing specifically all CFTR exons and characterise sequence variations in a subgroup of CF Italian patients from the Lazio region (Central Italy characterised by an extensive allelic heterogeneity. Results We have identified a total of 36 different mutations representing 88% of the CF chromosomes. Among these are two novel CFTR mutations, including one missense (H199R and one microdeletion (4167delCTAAGCC. Conclusion Using this approach, we were able to increase our standard power rate of mutation detection of about 11% (77% vs. 88%.

  8. Prediction and early detection of delirium in the intensive care unit by using heart rate variability and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Cho, Dongrae; Park, Jaesub; Na, Se Hee; Kim, Jongin; Heo, Jaeseok; Shin, Cheung Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Boreom

    2018-03-27

    Delirium is an important syndrome found in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), however, it is usually under-recognized during treatment. This study was performed to investigate whether delirious patients can be successfully distinguished from non-delirious patients by using heart rate variability (HRV) and machine learning. Electrocardiography data of 140 patients was acquired during daily ICU care, and HRV data were analyzed. Delirium, including its type, severity, and etiologies, was evaluated daily by trained psychiatrists. HRV data and various machine learning algorithms including linear support vector machine (SVM), SVM with radial basis function (RBF) kernels, linear extreme learning machine (ELM), ELM with RBF kernels, linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis were utilized to distinguish delirium patients from non-delirium patients. HRV data of 4797 ECGs were included, and 39 patients had delirium at least once during their ICU stay. The maximum classification accuracy was acquired using SVM with RBF kernels. Our prediction method based on HRV with machine learning was comparable to previous delirium prediction models using massive amounts of clinical information. Our results show that autonomic alterations could be a significant feature of patients with delirium in the ICU, suggesting the potential for the automatic prediction and early detection of delirium based on HRV with machine learning.

  9. The ability of NT-proBNP to detect chronic heart failure and predict all-cause mortality is higher in elderly Chinese coronary artery disease patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu, Leiming Luo, Ping Ye, Shuangyan Yi, Yuan Liu, Bing Zhu, Liang Wang, Tiehui Xiao, Yongyi Bai Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Objective: To analyze the relationship between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP and renal function, and compare the ability and cut-off thresholds of NT-proBNP to detect chronic heart failure (CHF and predict mortality in elderly Chinese coronary artery disease (CAD patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD. Methods: The study included 999 CAD patients older than 60 years. The endpoint was all-cause mortality over a mean follow-up period of 417 days. Results: The median age was 86 years (range: 60–104 years, and the median NT-proBNP level was 409.8 pg/mL. CKD was present in 358 patients. Three hundred and six patients were positive for CHF. One hundred and ten CKD patients and 105 non-CKD patients died. Not only CKD, but also estimated glomerular filtration rate independently affected NT-proBNP. NT-proBNP detected CHF with a cut-off value of 298.4 pg/mL in non-CKD patients and a cut-off value of 435.7 pg/mL in CKD patients. NT-proBNP predicted death with a cut-off value of 369.5 pg/mL in non-CKD patients and a cut-off value of 2584.1 pg/mL in CKD patients. The NT-proBNP level was significantly related to the prevalence of CHF and all-cause mortality in CAD patients with and without CKD; this effect persisted after adjustment. The crude and multiple adjusted hazard ratios of NT-proBNP to detect CHF and predict mortality were significantly higher in patients with CKD compared with the remainder of the population. The addition of NT-proBNP to the three-variable and six-variable models generated a significant increase in the C-statistic. Conclusion: Amongst elderly Chinese CAD patients, there was an independently inverse association between NT-proBNP and renal function. With the higher cutoff points, NT

  10. Does provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling lead to higher HIV testing rate and HIV case finding in Rwandan clinics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; van Santen, Daniëla; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Lammers, Judith; Mugisha, Veronicah; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV

  11. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astor, Brad C; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2011-01-01

    We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected...

  12. Payment for antiretroviral drugs is associated with a higher rate of patients lost to follow-up than those offered free-of-charge therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariah, R.; van Engelgem, I.; Massaquoi, M.; Kocholla, L.; Manzi, M.; Suleh, A.; Phillips, M.; Borgdorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective analysis of routine programme data from Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya shows the difference in rates of loss to follow-up between a cohort that paid 500 shillings/month (approximately US$7) for antiretroviral drugs (ART) and one that received medication free of charge.

  13. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative

  14. Bleeding rates necessary for detecting acute gastrointestinal bleeding with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.A.; Datz, F.L.; Remley, K.; Christian, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Proponents of [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid for GI bleeding studies argue that, although labeled red blood cells are useful for intermittent bleeding, they are not capable of detecting low bleeding rates. Studies of dogs with experimental GI bleeding have indicated bleeding rates of 0.05 ml/min can be detected with [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid. Since similar data in the dog model were unavailable for /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells, we undertook this study. To simulate lower GI bleeding, catheters were inserted into the bowel lumen. Each dog's blood was labeled with /sup 99m/Tc using an in vitro technique. Venous blood was then withdrawn and re-infused into the lumen of the bowel using a Harvard pump. Fourteen dogs were studied, ten receiving a bleeding rate from 4.6-0.02 ml/min in the descending colon and four with proximal jejunal bleeds of 0.20-0.02 ml/min. Bleeding rates of 4.6-0.2 ml/min were detected within 10 min in the colon and bleeding rates as low as 0.04 ml/min were seen by 55 min. Slower bleeding rates were not detected. Similar findings were noted for proximal jejunal bleeds. Based on the time of appearance, a minimum volume of approximately 2-3 ml labeled blood was necessary to detect bleeding. We conclude that /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBCs are sensitive for low bleeding rates in the dog model. The rates are comparable to those described for [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid in this experimental setting. The time of appearance of activity is related to the bleeding rate

  15. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  16. Higher caloric intake in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa is associated with reduced length of stay and no increased rate of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Keane-Miller, Casey; Sainani, Kristin L; Kapphahn, Cynthia J

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of higher caloric intake on weight gain, length of stay (LOS), and incidence of hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia in adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa. Electronic medical records of all subjects 10-21 years of age with anorexia nervosa, first admitted to a tertiary children's hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic factors, anthropometric measures, incidence of hypophosphatemia (≤3.0 mg/dL), hypomagnesemia (≤1.7 mg/dL), and hypokalemia (≤3.5 mEq/L), and daily change in percent median body mass index (BMI) (%mBMI) from baseline were recorded. Subjects started on higher-calorie diets (≥1,400 kcal/d) were compared with those started on lower-calorie diets (Refeeding hypophosphatemia depends on the degree of malnutrition but not prescribed caloric intake, within the range studied. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  18. Extraction and Refinement Strategy for Detection of Autism in 18-Month-Olds: A Guarantee of Higher Sensitivity and Specificity in the Process of Mass Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo; Shimizu, Yasuo; Nitto, Yukari; Imai, Miho; Ozawa, Takeshi; Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Shiga, Keiko; Hira, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Background: For early detection of autism, it is difficult to maintain an efficient level of sensitivity and specificity based on observational data from a single screening. The Extraction and Refinement (E&R) Strategy utilizes a public children's health surveillance program to produce maximum efficacy in early detection of autism. In the…

  19. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A; Gibb, D M; Butler, K; Costagliola, D; Sabin, C; van Sighem, A; Ledergerber, B; Torti, C; Mocroft, A; Podzamczer, D; Dorrucci, M; De Wit, S; Obel, N; Dabis, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; García, F; Brockmeyer, N H; Warszawski, J; Gonzalez-Tome, M I; Mussini, C; Touloumi, G; Zangerle, R; Ghosn, J; Castagna, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Stephan, C; Meyer, L; Campbell, M A; Chene, G; Phillips, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged 500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL despite ≥ 4 months of use. TCVF was defined as cumulative failure of two NRTIs, an NNRTI and a bPI. The median number of weeks between diagnosis and the start of ART was higher in participants with perinatal HIV infection compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART was 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-12.3%] in participants with perinatally acquired infection and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9-5.5%) in participants with heterosexually acquired infection, and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years when starting ART (27.7%; 95% CI 13.2-42.1%). Across all participants, significant predictors of TCVF were those with perinatal HIV aged 10-14 years, African origin, pre-ART AIDS, NNRTI-based initial regimens, higher pre-ART viral load and lower pre-ART CD4. The results suggest a beneficial effect of starting ART before adolescence, and starting young people on boosted PIs, to maximize treatment response during this transitional stage of development. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  20. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  1. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths ≥10mm, and margin distances ≤4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  2. Effect of specimen collection techniques, transport media, and incubation of cultures on the detection rate of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Verheul, S. B.; Weel, J. F.; Gerrits, Y.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    Culture and histologic examination are considered "gold standard" methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori, but discrepancies may occur with either method. Failure to detect Helicobacter pylori may be due to sampling error, inappropriate transport or culture media, or insufficient duration

  3. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification-anoxic denitrification dominated the anoxic/oxic sewage treatment process during optimization for higher loading rate and energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyu; Zheng, Shaokui; Zhang, Hangyu; Duan, Shoupeng

    2018-04-30

    This study clarified the dominant nitrogen (N)-transformation pathway and the key ammonia-oxidizing microbial species at three loading levels during optimization of the anoxic/oxic (A/O) process for sewage treatment. Comprehensive N-transformation activity analysis showed that ammonia oxidization was performed predominantly by aerobic chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia oxidization, whereas N 2 production was performed primarily by anoxic denitrification in the anoxic unit. The abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic AOB in activated sludge reflected their activities on the basis of high-throughput sequencing data. AOB amoA gene clone libraries revealed that the predominant AOB species in sludge samples shifted from Nitrosomonas europaea (61% at the normal loading level) to Nitrosomonas oligotropha (58% and 81% at the two higher loading levels). Following isolation and sequencing, the predominant culturable heterotrophic AOB in sludge shifted from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (42% at the normal loading level) to Acinetobacter johnsonii (52% at the highest loading level). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Infusion-related febrile reaction after haploidentical stem cell transplantation in children is associated with higher rates of engraftment syndrome and acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Kai-Yan; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Feng-Rong; Han, Wei; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Wang, Yu; Yan, Chen-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Yu-Qian; Xu, Lan-Ping

    2015-12-01

    The clinical significance and prognostic impact of IRFR in pediatric recipients of haploidentical SCT are not clearly understood. Therefore, we attempted to determine how IRFR affects clinical outcomes in children. Clinical data from 100 consecutive pediatric patients (60 boys and 40 girls; median age, 12 yr [range, 2-18 yr] after haploidentical SCT between January 2010 and December 2012 were collected retrospectively. IRFR was described as unexplained fever (>38 °C) within 24 h after the infusion of haploidentical PBSCs. Thirty-eight (38.0%) cases met the criteria for IRFR. ES was found in 24 (63.2%) of the 38 children with IRFR, with the median time of developing ES of +9 (7-16) days, while only 15 (25.4%) of the 59 children without IRFR were found with ES (p children after haploidentical SCT. Thirty-eight children comprised the IRFR group, and 59 were in the control (non-IRFR) group. High incidence of ES was observed in children with the occurrence of IRFR. Similarly, the incidence of stage I-IV and II-IV aGVHD was significantly higher in the febrile group. Multivariate analysis showed IRFR to be the risk factor for ES and aGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early PET imaging with [68]Ga-PSMA-11 increases the detection rate of local recurrence in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Kendler, Dorota; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Nilica, Bernhard; Maffey-Steffan, Johanna; Di Santo, Gianpaolo; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Fritz, Josef [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Urology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    with and without urinary bladder activity (median starting time of 321 vs. 275 s p.i.; range: 281-491 vs. 243-311 s p.i.; p < 0.001). Median SUV{sub max} value of lesions suggestive of LR on early images was significantly higher in comparison to gluteal muscle, inguinal vessels and seminal vesicle/anastomosis (median SUV{sub max}: 5.9 vs. 1.9, 4.0 and 2.4, respectively). Performance of early imaging in {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in addition to whole-body scans 60 min p.i. increases the detection rate of local recurrence in PC patients with biochemical recurrence. Acquisition of early PET images should be started as early as 5 min p.i. in order to avoid disturbing tracer activity in the urinary bladder occuring at a later time point. (orig.)

  6. Ablation of arginylation in the mouse N-end rule pathway: loss of fat, higher metabolic rate, damaged spermatogenesis, and neurological perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Brower

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the N-end rule pathway of protein degradation, the destabilizing activity of N-terminal Asp, Glu or (oxidized Cys residues requires their conjugation to Arg, which is recognized directly by pathway's ubiquitin ligases. N-terminal arginylation is mediated by the Ate1 arginyltransferase, whose physiological substrates include the Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16 regulators of G proteins. Here, we employed the Cre-lox technique to uncover new physiological functions of N-terminal arginylation in adult mice. We show that postnatal deletion of mouse Ate1 (its unconditional deletion is embryonic lethal causes a rapid decrease of body weight and results in early death of approximately 15% of Ate1-deficient mice. Despite being hyperphagic, the surviving Ate1-deficient mice contain little visceral fat. They also exhibit an increased metabolic rate, ectopic induction of the Ucp1 uncoupling protein in white fat, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. In addition, Ate1-deficient mice have enlarged brains, an enhanced startle response, are strikingly hyperkinetic, and are prone to seizures and kyphosis. Ate1-deficient males are also infertile, owing to defects in Ate1(-/- spermatocytes. The remarkably broad range of specific biological processes that are shown here to be perturbed by the loss of N-terminal arginylation will make possible the dissection of regulatory circuits that involve Ate1 and either its known substrates, such as Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16, or those currently unknown.

  7. Surgery for diverticular disease results in a higher hernia rate compared to colorectal cancer: a population-based study from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, E S; Robertson, D I; Whitehead, M; Xu, J; Hall, S F

    2017-11-16

    Incisional hernias are a well described complication of abdominal surgery. Previous studies identified malignancy and diverticular disease as risk factors. We compared incisional hernia rates between colon resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticular disease (DD). We performed a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study. Provincial databases were linked through the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. These databases include all patients registered under the universal Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Patients aged 18-105 undergoing open colon resection, without ostomy formation between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2009, were included. We excluded those with previous surgery, hernia, obstruction, and perforation. The primary outcomes were surgery for hernia repair, or diagnosis of hernia in clinic. We identified 4660 cases of DD. These were matched 2:1 by age and gender to 8933 patients with CRC for a total of 13,593. At 5 years, incisional hernias occurred in 8.3% of patients in the CRC cohort, versus 13.1% of those undergoing surgery for DD. After adjusting for important confounders (comorbidity score, wound infection, age, diabetes, prednisone and chemotherapy), hernias were still more likely in patients with DD [HR 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.43-1.76, P < 0.001]. The only significant covariate was wound infection (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.43-1.87, P < 0.001). Our study found that incisional hernias occur more commonly in patients with DD than CRC.

  8. Fast-Rate Capable Electrode Material with Higher Energy Density than LiFePO4: 4.2V LiVPO4F Synthesized by Scalable Single-Step Solid-State Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seongsu; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2016-03-01

    Use of compounds that contain fluorine (F) as electrode materials in lithium ion batteries has been considered, but synthesizing single-phase samples of these compounds is a difficult task. Here, it is demonstrated that a simple scalable single-step solid-state process with additional fluorine source can obtain highly pure LiVPO 4 F. The resulting material with submicron particles achieves very high rate capability ≈100 mAh g -1 at 60 C-rate (1-min discharge) and even at 200 C-rate (18 s discharge). It retains superior capacity, ≈120 mAh g -1 at 10 C charge/10 C discharge rate (6-min) for 500 cycles with >95% retention efficiency. Furthermore, LiVPO 4 F shows low polarization even at high rates leading to higher operating potential >3.45 V (≈3.6 V at 60 C-rate), so it achieves high energy density. It is demonstrated for the first time that highly pure LiVPO 4 F can achieve high power capability comparable to LiFePO 4 and much higher energy density (≈521 Wh g -1 at 20 C-rate) than LiFePO 4 even without nanostructured particles. LiVPO 4 F can be a real substitute of LiFePO 4.

  9. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was associated with a higher severe late toxicity rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients compared with radiotherapy alone: a meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Cheng-run; Ying, Hong-mei; Kong, Fang-fang; Zhai, Rui-ping; Hu, Chao-su

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk of severe late toxicity with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating CCRT versus radiotherapy alone in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in which data on severe late toxicities were available. Random effects or fixed effect models were applied to obtain the summary incidence, relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five RCTs with 1102 patients with NPC were included in this analysis. The summary incidence of overall severe late toxicities in patients receiving CCRT was 30.7% (95% CI, 18–47.2%) and the incidence of radiotherapy alone group was 21.7% (95% CI, 13.3–33.4%). The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of severe late toxicities, with a RR of 1.349 (95% CI, 1.108–1.643; P = 0.005). As for specific late toxicity, CCRT significantly increased the risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.567; 95% CI, 1.192–2.052), but other late toxicities were not significantly different. Patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy regimens with 3-week high-dose cisplatin (HC) have a higher risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.672; 95% CI, 1.174–2.382; P = 0.026). However, there was no significant increase in the RR of severe ear complication with the addition of non-3-week high-dose cisplatin (nonHC) regimens (RR = 1.433; 95% CI, 0.946–2.171; P = 0.095). With the present evidence, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy seems to increase the risk of severe late toxicities in patients with NPC, especially when using HC regimen for the occurrence of severe ototoxicity

  10. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Are lower levels of physical activity and self-rated fitness associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Croatian young adults? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Štefan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Although previous evidence has shown that physical activity and physical fitness lower the level of psychological distress, little is known of simultaneous associations between of physical activity and physical fitness and with psychological distress, especially in young adults. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to explore both separate and simultaneous association between physical activity and physical fitness with psychological distress. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study were 2,100 university students (1,041 men and 1,059 women chosen from eight faculties in the city of Zagreb. Physical activity, physical fitness and psychological distress were assessed using structured questionnaires. The associations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, material status, binge drinking, chronic disease/s and sleep quality, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.92–3.52] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.94; 95% CI [1.25–3.01] and tertile 1; OR = 2.59; 95% CI [1.65–4.08] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. When physical activity and physical fitness were entered simultaneously into the model, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.35; 95% CI [1.72–3.21] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.24–2.77] and tertile 1; OR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.26–3.20] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that both “insufficient” physical activity and “lower” levels of physical fitness are associated with “high” psychological distress, even after adjusting for numerous covariates. Therefore, special policies aiming to increase the levels of physical activity and fitness are warranted.

  12. Adding Endoscopist-Directed Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing to the Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study Increased the Detection Rates of Penetration, Aspiration, and Pharyngeal Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Young; Lee, Tae Hee; Ham, Nam Seok; Park, Ji Woong; Lee, Yang Gyun; Cho, Sang Jin; Lee, Joon Seong; Hong, Su Jin; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Jin Oh; Cho, Jun Hyung; Lee, Ji Sung

    2015-09-23

    Currently, the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is the standard tool for evaluating dysphagia. We evaluated whether the addition of endoscopist-directed flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) to VFSS could improve the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue, compared the diagnostic efficacy between VFSS and endoscopist-directed FEES and assessed the adverse events of the FEES. In single tertiary referral center, a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Fifty consecutive patients suspected of oropharyngeal dysphagia were enrolled in this study between January 2012 and July 2012. The agreement in the detection of penetration and aspiration between VFSS and FEES of viscous food (κ=0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.53) and liquid food (κ=0.22; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.42) was "fair." The agreement in the detection of pharyngeal residue between the two tests was "substantial" with viscous food (κ=0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.94) and "fair" with liquid food (κ=0.37; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.63). Adding FEES to VFSS significantly increased the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue. No severe adverse events were noted during FEES, except for two cases of epistaxis, which stopped spontaneously without requiring any packing. This study demonstrated that the addition of endoscopist-directed FEES to VFSS increased the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue.

  13. Increased detection rate of syringomyelia by whole spine sagittal magnetic resonance images: Based on the data from military conscription of Korean young males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Oh, Chang Hyun [Seoul Regional Military Manpower Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong Chun; Park, Chong Oon; Kim, Yeo Ju [Inha Univ. Hospital/College of Medicine/Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    We compared the detection rate of syringomyelia according to the type of magnetic resonance (MR) images among the Korean military conscription. Among the total of 238910 examinees (males aged 18 to 32 years old) from January 2008 to December 2011, the examinees with conventional single lesion MR images (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar) with and without whole spine sagittal T2 weighted MR images (WSST2I) totaled 1206 cases, and syringomyelia was observed in 24 cases. The detection rate of syringomyelia according to the MR protocol (the presence of WSST2I or not) was done through analysis by annually and the clinical characters of syringomyelia was reviewed. The estimated prevalence of syringomyelia was approximately 10.0 cases per 100000 people. The detection rate was increased annually when the WSST2I proportion was increased (from 3.4 to 14.9 cases per 100000 persons, r = 0.939, p = 0.018). Clinical character of syringomyelia was ambiguous with other spinal diseases. The most affected spinal level was C5 to C7 (83%), and most cases were non communicating syringomyelia with benign central canal widening (79%). Whole spine sagittal MR image is useful to detect coexisting spinal diseases such as syringomyelia, and most syringomyelia in young males was benign hydromyelia. A whole spine sagittal MR image is recommended to increase the detection of syringomyelia.

  14. A Comparison of the Detection Rates for Infrared and Visual Imagery of a Person Holding an RPG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sohn, Euijung; Meitzler, Tom; Bryk, Darryl; Jozwiak, Rachel; Bednarz, David; Lane, Kim; Bankowski, Elena; Vala, John

    2004-01-01

    Detection of potential threats that are camouflaged or concealed is important not only for military acquisition problems but, also for crowd surveillance as well as tactical use such as on border patrols...

  15. A Comparison of the Detection Rates for Infrared and Visual Imagery of a Person Holdina an RPG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sohn, Euijung; Meitzler, Tom; Bryk, Darryl; Jozwiak, Rachel; Bednarz, David; Lane, Kim; Bankowski, Elena; Vala, John

    2004-01-01

    Detection of potential threats that are camouflaged or concealed is important not only for military acquisition problems but, also for crowd surveillance as well as tactical use such as on border patrols...

  16. Impact of a shift in nuchal translucency measurements on the detection rate of first-trimester Down syndrome screening: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Nicolas; Salomon, Laurent J; Muller, Françoise; Dreux, Sophie; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Coquel, Philippe; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Dommergues, Marc

    2018-01-01

    To assess the distribution of nuchal translucency (NT) measurements following a national policy without credentialing and its impact on first-trimester Down syndrome screening (DSS) detection rate. All first-trimester DSS data recorded in France (2010-2014) were collected by the laboratories in charge via an Internet database (https://www.bionuqual.org/echo.php). There was no minimal requirement for image quality to allow sonographers to enter the screening process. A subgroup of DSS with complete DS follow-up corresponded to 1614 sonographers. Based on the distribution of maternal age, DS detection rate was calculated and split as a function of the distribution of NT multiple of the median (MoM). Four thousand nine hundred forty-three sonographers performed 2,337,372 NT measurements. Median NT expressed in MoM was 0.83. Screenings with complete follow-up consisted of 197,417 screenings, in which DSS detection rates were respectively 70.4%, 70.9%, 79.4%, 87.7%, and 79.5% for the following median NT MoM ranges: 0.99 (trend χ = 12.21; P = .0158). In France, following a policy of quality assessment without standardized credentialing, the distribution of NT measurements did not fit the expected distribution. Down syndrome detection rate was 10% lower in screenings by sonographers with a median NT < 0.80 MoM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Prospective comparison of the detection rates of human enterovirus and parechovirus RT-qPCR and viral culture in different pediatric specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Crom, S C M; Obihara, C C; de Moor, R A; Veldkamp, E J M; van Furth, A M; Rossen, J W A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reverse-transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of human enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections. The detection rate of RT-qPCR in different pediatric body specimens has not been compared

  18. Bit-error-rate performance analysis of self-heterodyne detected radio-over-fiber links using phase and intensity modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaoli; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the performance of two self-heterodyne detected radio-over-fiber (RoF) links employing phase modulation (PM) and quadrature biased intensity modulation (IM), in term of bit-error-rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR). In both links, self...

  19. High mutation detection rate in the COL4A5 collagen gene in suspected Alport syndrome using PCR and direct DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, P; Heiskari, N; Zhou, J

    1998-01-01

    -amplified and sequenced from DNA of 50 randomly chosen patients with suspected Alport syndrome. Mutations were found in 41 patients, giving a mutation detection rate of 82%. Retrospective analysis of clinical data revealed that two of the cases might be autosomal. Although it could not be determined whether the remaining...

  20. Impact of total PSA, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity on detection rates of 11C-Choline positron emission tomography in recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybalov, Maxim; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Leliveld, Anna M.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; de Jong, Igle J.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total PSA (tPSA) and PSA kinetics on the detection rates of (11)C-Choline PET in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: We included 185 patients with BCR after RP (PSA >0.2 ng/ml)

  1. Higher rates of metabolic syndrome among women taking zidovudine as compared to tenofovir in rural Africa: preliminary data from the CART-1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Faturyiele, Olatunbosun; Motlatsi, Mokete M; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Lejone, Thabo Ismael; Cerutti, Bernard; Muser, Jürgen; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hatz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T) has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF [1]. Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI)-based regimens. Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa [2]. Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied [3]. Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV)), history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF). Statistical analyses - stratified for sex - comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance levelwomen. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6; p=0.001) and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8-34.1, pwomen who are on ART for ≥6 months predisposes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Given that, still 38% of first-line regimens in LMIC contain AZT, this finding needs to be verified in other

  2. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  3. A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate

    CERN Document Server

    Jagutzki, O; Mergel, V; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Spielberger, L; Spillmann, U; Ullmann-Pfleger, K

    2002-01-01

    New applications for single particle and photon detection in many fields require both large area imaging performance and precise time information on each detected particle. Moreover, a very high data acquisition rate is desirable for most applications and eventually the detection and imaging of more than one particle arriving within a microsecond is required. Commercial CCD systems lack the timing information whereas other electronic microchannel plate (MCP) read-out schemes usually suffer from a low acquisition rate and complicated and sometimes costly read-out electronics. We have designed and tested a complete imaging system consisting of an MCP position readout with helical wire delay-lines, single-unit amplifier box and PC-controlled time-to-digital converter (TDC) readout. The system is very flexible and can detect and analyse position and timing information at single particle rates beyond 1 MHz. Alternatively, multi-hit events can be collected and analysed at about 20 kHz rate. We discuss the advantage...

  4. High rates of detection of Clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 viruses in wild birds in the Pacific Northwest during the winter of 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses spread across the Republic of Korea and ultimately were reported in China, Japan, Russia and Europe. Mortality associated with a reassortant HPAI H5N2 virus was detected in poultry farms in Western Canada at the end of November. The same strain (with identical genetic structure) was then detected in free-living wild birds that had died prior to December 8 of unrelated causes in Whatcom County, Washington, USA in an area contiguous with the index Canadian location. A gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) that had hunted and fed on an American wigeon (Anas americana) on December 6 in the same area and died two days later, tested positive for the Eurasian origin HPAI H5N8. Subsequently, an Active Surveillance Program using hunter-harvest waterfowl in Washington and Oregon detected ten HPAI H5 viruses, of three different subtypes (four H5N2, three H5N8 and three H5N1) with 4 segments in common (HA, PB2, NP and MA). In addition, a mortality-based Passive Surveillance Program detected 18 HPAI (14 H5N2 and four H5N8) cases from Idaho, Kansas, Oregon, Minnesota, Montana, Washington and Wisconsin. Comparatively, mortality-based passive surveillance appears to be detecting these HPAI infections at a higher rate than active surveillance during the period following initial introduction into the US.

  5. Factors associated with adenoma detection rate and diagnosis of polyps and colorectal cancer during colonoscopy in France: results of a prospective, nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilien Barret

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Colonoscopy can prevent deaths due to colorectal cancer (CRC through early diagnosis or resection of colonic adenomas. We conducted a prospective, nationwide study on colonoscopy practice in France. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to 2,600 French gastroenterologists. Data from all consecutive colonoscopies performed during one week were collected. A statistical extrapolation of the results to a whole year was performed, and factors potentially associated with the adenoma detection rate (ADR or the diagnosis of polyps or cancer were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 342 gastroenterologists, representative of the overall population of French gastroenterologists, provided data on 3,266 colonoscopies, corresponding to 1,200,529 (95% CI: 1,125,936-1,275,122 procedures for the year 2011. The indication for colonoscopy was CRC screening and digestive symptoms in 49.6% and 38.9% of cases, respectively. Polypectomy was performed in 35.5% of cases. The ADR and prevalence of CRC were 17.7% and 2.9%, respectively. The main factors associated with a high ADR were male gender (p=0.0001, age over 50 (p=0.0001, personal or family history of CRC or colorectal polyps (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively, and positive fecal occult blood test (p=0.0005. The prevalence of CRC was three times higher in patients with their first colonoscopy (4.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in France, we report nationwide prospective data on colonoscopy practice, including histological results. We found an average ADR of 17.7%, and observed reduced CRC incidence in patients with previous colonoscopy.

  6. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barrett, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  7. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaiser, Brooke L. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barrett, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in × 2 in) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results are discussed in a separate report.

  8. Hot spots, cluster detection and spatial outlier analysis of teen birth rates in the U.S., 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Diba; Rossen, Lauren M.; Hamilton, Brady E.; He, Yulei; Wei, Rong; Dienes, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space-time interaction models to produce smoothed estimates of teen birth rates at the county level from 2003–2012. Results indicate that teen birth rates show evidence of clustering, where hot and cold spots occur, and identify spatial outliers. Findings from this analysis may help inform efforts targeting the prevention efforts by illustrating how geographic patterns of teen birth rates have changed over the past decade and where clusters of high or low teen birth rates are evident. PMID:28552189

  9. Hot spots, cluster detection and spatial outlier analysis of teen birth rates in the U.S., 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Diba; Rossen, Lauren M; Hamilton, Brady E; He, Yulei; Wei, Rong; Dienes, Erin

    2017-06-01

    Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space-time interaction models to produce smoothed estimates of teen birth rates at the county level from 2003-2012. Results indicate that teen birth rates show evidence of clustering, where hot and cold spots occur, and identify spatial outliers. Findings from this analysis may help inform efforts targeting the prevention efforts by illustrating how geographic patterns of teen birth rates have changed over the past decade and where clusters of high or low teen birth rates are evident. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  11. Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2012-10-01

    Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children malnutrition affects fewer children but is associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Supplementary feeding programs aim to treat moderate acute malnutrition and prevent the deterioration to severe acute malnutrition. The aim was to compare recovery rates of children with moderate acute malnutrition in supplementary feeding programs by using the newly recommended ration of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.

  12. Molecular detection of the carriage rate of four intestinal protozoa with real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub......-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia...

  13. Warnings to Counter Choice Blindness for Identification Decisions: Warnings Offer an Advantage in Time but Not in Rate of Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sagana

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Choice blindness for identification decisions refers to the inability of eyewitnesses to detect that an originally recognized target was swapped for a non-identified lineup member. The robustness of the effect calls for measures that can prevent or reduce the negative consequences of choice blindness manipulations. Here, we investigated whether pre- and post-warnings given to participants about the possibility of mistakes reduces choice blindness for identification decisions. Participants (N = 119 were presented with identifications they never made and were asked to justify those decisions. Either before or after the presentation of the manipulated identification outcome, participants were or were not warned about the possibility of mistakes in the identification process. Although warnings were not sufficient to reduce choice blindness for identification decisions they provided a time-related detection advantage. Pre-warned participants questioned the legitimacy of the manipulated outcome sooner (i.e., concurrent detection than participants in other conditions. Hence, pre-warnings can help detect mistakes in the identification procedure at an earlier stage, before they contaminate the memory of the witness and other pieces of evidence. From a theoretical stance, our findings attest to the strength of self-suggestion and indicate that choice blindness effects are deeply rooted in cognition.

  14. The attendance of women in mammographic early detection programme and the results of the observation of the breast glands condition. 1. The attendance of higher schools female employees in mammography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romejko, M.; Kleszczewska, J.; Liszek, A.; Tarlowska, L.; Wronkowski, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to assess the attendance in the early detection (mammography) in female employees of Warsaw-based higher schools aged 40-69. During the 4.5 year period (1985-1989) 1325 female employees of higher schools (23.5% of the schools' total employment) turned up to the Female Cancer Prevention Center of The Higher Schools' Medical Center (ZOZ) in Warsaw. Observation of this group continued until June 30, 1992. Majority of the women (56.5%) showed up only once, 21.7% came twice, and 21.8% at least three times. Out of the 1021 women (77% of all the examined female employees) who showed no symptoms in the first test, only 37% came again for the second checkup. Out of the 305 women who had changes detected in their X-ray images, 66% turned up for the second test. 23 women (1.7%) had suspicious mammography results or typical cancer symptoms in the first test. The present work shows that the reason of the insufficient attendance of higher schools' female employees in early detection programs need to be investigated and that a more efficient early detection system must be developed. (author)

  15. VADASE: a new approach for real-time fast displacement detection - First application to Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to show new possibilities for GNSS Permanent Network data processing offered by VADASE (Variometric Approach for Displacements Analysis Standalone Engine) to retrieve waveforms and coseismic displacements in real-time when an earthquake occurs. The main advantage of using GNSS receiver, in a complementary way with traditional seismic network, is that it can work without being affected by saturation, which commonly influence seismometers and accelerometers close to strong earthquake epicenters. VADASE was originally proposed in 2010 ([4],[5]) as the third way in GPS Seismology (in addition to Precise Point Positioning and Instantaneous Differential Positioning). The approach is based on time single differences of carrier phase observations continuously collected at high rate (1 Hz or higher) using a standalone GPS receiver and standard GPS broadcast products (orbits and clocks) that are available in real-time. Hence, one receiver works in standalone mode and the epoch-by-epoch displacements (equivalent to velocities) are estimated. Then, they are summed over the time interval when the earthquake occurred to retrieve coseismic displacements and waveforms. Considering time intervals limited to few minutes, the receiver displacements can be ascertained at a few centimeters accuracy level in real-time. The effectiveness of this approach was recognized by DLR (German Aerospace Agency), and VADASE was awarded the DLR Special Topic Prize and the Audience Award at the European Satellite Navigation Competition 2010. Moreover, VADASE potential was proven in the dramatic occasion of the Japanese earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 ([3]-[6]); in fact VADASE was able to provide the first estimates of the displacements suffered at the IGS sites of MIZU and USUD [7], as soon as the data of these stations were available. The results were then confirmed by several other solutions based on the renown (DP, PPP) approaches. More recently, VADASE was applied

  16. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-05

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  17. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Welden; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2012-01-01

    ill patients dropping out of the study in the usual-detection area. Except for higher levels of excitative symptoms in the early-detection area, there were no symptom differences between the groups. Early-detection recovery rates were higher largely because of higher employment rates for patients...

  18. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The era of Open Access (OA publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. Design: We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF are calculated. After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication, we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Results: Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts. The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both. The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45. Conclusion : We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the

  19. Corrosion potential detection method, potential characteristic simulation method for reaction rate and plant monitoring system using the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masanori; Onaka, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    In a calculation controlling device for a plant monitoring system, concentrations of materials concerning reaction materials in a certain state of a reaction process, and an actually measured value for the potential of a material in this state are substituted into a reaction rate equation obtained in accordance with a reaction process model. With such procedures, a relation between the reaction rate (current value) and the potential of the material can be obtained. A potential at which the reaction rates of an anode reaction and a cathode reaction contained in a corrosion reaction are made equal is determined by a numerical value calculation, based on an electrochemical hybrid potential logic by using the reaction rate equation, the reaction rate information relative to the corrosion reaction of the material and the concentration of the material concerning the corrosion reaction is obtained by a numerical value calculation. Then, simulation for the corrosion potential is enabled based on the handling corresponding to the actual reaction. Further, even for a portion which can not be measured actually, the corrosion potential can be recognized by simulation. (N.H.)

  20. Technical Note: Higher-order statistical moments and a procedure that detects potentially anomalous years as two alternative methods describing alterations in continuous environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Arismendi; S. L. Johnson; J. B. Dunham

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical...

  1. Neutron detection system for extremely low count rate. Calculation, construction and employment in search for 'cold fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.E.; Patino, N.E.; Florido, P.C.; Gomez, S.E.; Granada, J.R.; Gillette, V.H.

    1993-01-01

    A 22% efficiency thermal neutron detection system was designed for the investigation of neutron emission from pulsed D 2 O electrolysis. Reasons are discussed for the choice of 10 atm 3 He proportional counters. Optimization calculations carried out through standard reactor code system (AMPX-II) are presented along with construction details and characteristics of the associated electronics. Experimental verification of calculated efficiency and examples of measurements performed with the detector are included. (orig.)

  2. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  3. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  4. Breaking the Barrier to Slow Water Exchange Rates for Optimal Magnetic Resonance Detection of paraCEST Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W Shirangi; Martins, André F; Zhao, Piyu; Wu, Yunkou; Kiefer, Garry E; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-03-21

    EuDOTA-tetraamide complexes as paraCEST agents offer an attractive platform for designing biological sensors and responsive agents. The early versions of these agents showed low sensitivity at temperature and power levels suitable for in vivo applications partly due to non-optimal water exchange rates. Here we report two new EuDOTA derivatives having glutamyl-phosphonate side arms that display the slowest water exchange rates of any other paraCEST agent reported so far. The advantages of such systems are demonstrated experimentally both in vitro and in vivo and DFT calculations were performed to help understand the physical-chemical reasons for this interesting behavior.

  5. Sentinel lymph node mapping using SPECT/CT and gamma probe in endometrial cancer: an analysis of parameters affecting detection rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahbai, Samine; La Fougere, Christian; Dittmann, Helmut [University Hospital Tuebingen, Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Tuebingen (Germany); Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara [University Hospital Tuebingen, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, Annette [University Hospital Tuebingen, Pathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    SPECT/CT after pericervical injection of technetium-99 m-nanocolloid was shown to be suitable for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in endometrial cancer (EC). The aim of this study was to analyze factors affecting successful SLN detection by means of SPECT/CT such as imaging findings, patient characteristics and tumor biology in a large cohort of patients. One hundred and forty-five consecutive patients suffering from EC who received pre-surgical SLN mapping at our institution between 2011 and 2016 were included in this analysis. SPECT/CT data of abdomen and pelvis (mean 4:20 ± 1:20 h p.i.) were acquired after pericervical injection of technetium-99 m-nanocolloid (mean 230 ± 45 MBq) in all patients. Surgical staging was performed on the day after. Acquisition parameters, patient characteristics, SPECT/CT findings as well as histopathological results were collected. A total of 282 SLNs were identified by means of SPECT/CT. Overall, preoperative and intraoperative SLN detection rates were 86%, 76% and 74% respectively. The most important factor associated with failure to detect SLNs was the presence of high bone marrow on SPECT/CT (p = 0.005). Peritoneal/abdominal radioactivity was also associated with missed SLN detection in SPECT/CT (p = 0.02). However, the presence of liver/spleen uptake on its own was not predictive for detection failure. Low numbers of detected SLNs in SPECT/CT were slightly related with older age and lower injected activity. No significant influence was found for the parameters of tumor histology and stage, lymph node involvement and the time gap between injection and imaging. Venous drainage as indicated by bone marrow uptake is the most important factor associated with scintigraphic SLN detection failure. Moreover, high peritoneal and abdominal activity was also associated with detection failure. Thus, meticulous application of the radiotracer is crucial in EC. (orig.)

  6. Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with fluctuating prostate-specific antigen levels on the repeat prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Park

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The current study shows that the risk of prostate cancer at repeat TRUS-Bx was higher in men with a fluctuating PSA level and PSAV=1.0 ng/mL/yr than in those with a fluctuating PSA level and PSAV<1.0 ng/mL/yr.

  7. A Novel Passive Islanding Detection Scheme for Distributed Generations Based on Rate of Change of Positive Sequence Component of Voltage and Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostami, Ali; Jalilian, Amin; Naderi, Seyed Behzad

    2017-01-01

    ) based wind turbine and synchronous diesel generator DGs by MATLAB/Simulink software. Different non-islanding case studies are taken into account to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the proposed method has advantage of detecting the islanding rapidly......Islanding operation is one of serious hazards of distributed generation (DG) applications. According to IEEE 1547 standard, its occurrence must be detected within two seconds. This paper presents a novel passive islanding detection method based on rate of change of positive sequence component...... of RCPSC and RCPSV exceed the predetermined threshold values, it is concluded that the islanding condition has occurred. Otherwise, it is considered as a non-islanding event. The performance of the proposed method is investigated on a sample network in the presence of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG...

  8. The detection rate of [11C]Choline-PET/CT depends on the serum PSA-value in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Souvatzoglou, M.; Tuncel, M.; Herrmann, K.; Buck, A.K.; Praus, C.; Schwaiger, M.; Schuster, T.; Geinitz, H.; Treiber, U.

    2008-01-01

    An increase of the serum PSA-level is a sensitive in vitro marker for recurrent prostate cancer. However, it remains difficult to differentiate between local, regional or distant recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT and the serum PSA-level in patients with a biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer with the view towards localisation of recurrent disease. Sixty-three patients (mean age, 68.8 ± 6.9; range, 45-83 years) with biochemical recurrence after primary therapy for prostate cancer were included in the analysis. Mean PSA-levels were 5.9 ± 9.7 ng/ml (range, 0.2-39 ng/ml; median, 2.15). Of the 63 patients, 17 were under anti-androgen therapy at the time of [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT. Patients underwent a [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT study after injection of 656 ± 119 MBq [ 11 C]Choline on a Sensation 16 Biograph PET/CT scanner. Of the 63 patients, 35 (56%) showed a pathological [ 11 C]Choline uptake. The detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT showed a relationship with the serum PSA-level: The detection rate was 36% for a PSA-value 11 C]Choline-PET/CT (p = 0.374). As an important result our study shows that even for PSA-values 11 C]Choline-PET/CT is 36%. Furthermore, the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT shows a positive relationship with serum PSA-levels in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after primary therapy. Therefore, in these patients, [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT allows not only to diagnose but also to localise recurrent disease with implications on disease management (localised vs systemic therapy). (orig.)

  9. Detection of low-level environmental exposure rates due to noble gas releases from the Muehleberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Volkle, H.; Pretre, S.

    1980-01-01

    The increase of radiation doses in the vicinity of the Swiss Nuclear Power Stations due to airborne releases is generally expected to be below one mrem/year (about one percent of the natural radiation dose). To prove this expected rate, long term measurements with pressure ionization chambers in the vicinity of the Muhleberg plant (BWR) were conducted. Two of these chambers were installed at places where the greatest dose rates from the noble gas plumes were expected in the two prevailing wind directions. The local dose rates were continuously registered on magnetic tape to allow minicomputer evaluation. After the fuel change in the summer of 1976 the noble gas releases from Muhleberg dropped considerably. From that time the noble gas releases consisted of a very low continuous component and some rare short-time spike compoments resulting from turbine and reactor trips. The dose due to the low continuous component was determined by correlating the dose rates at the measuring points with the release measure--ments at the stack and with weather conditions, and by subtracting the natural background. The short noble gas spikes lasted from minutes to some hours and caused small dose rate increases which were easily measured with the ionization chambers, and usually amounted to doses of some microroentgens. By further correlating these dose peaks with wind direction and stack emission measurements, determination of short time atmospheric dilution factors for existing weather situations became possible. By this process, the very low annual environmental doses in the range of 1 mrem per year were determined. (author)

  10. PSA-stratified detection rates for [68Ga]THP-PSMA, a novel probe for rapid kit-based 68Ga-labeling and PET imaging, in patients with biochemical recurrence after primary therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlin, Thorsten; Schmuck, Sebastian; Juhl, Cathleen; Zörgiebel, Johanna; Schneefeld, Sophie M; Walte, Almut C A; Hueper, Katja; von Klot, Christoph A; Henkenberens, Christoph; Christiansen, Hans; Thackeray, James T; Ross, Tobias L; Bengel, Frank M

    2018-06-01

    [ 68 Ga]Tris(hydroxypyridinone)(THP)-PSMA is a novel radiopharmaceutical for one-step kit-based radiolabelling, based on direct chelation of 68 Ga 3+ at low concentration, room temperature and over a wide pH range, using direct elution from a 68 Ge/ 68 Ga-generator. We evaluated the clinical detection rates of [ 68 Ga]THP-PSMA PET/CT in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy. Consecutive patients (n=99) referred for evaluation of biochemical relapse of prostate cancer by [ 68 Ga]THP-PSMA PET/CT were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent a standard whole-body PET/CT (1 h p.i.), followed by delayed (3 h p.i.) imaging of the abdomen. PSA-stratified cohorts of positive PET/CT results, standardized uptake values (SUVs) and target-to-background ratios (TBRs) were analyzed, and compared between standard and delayed imaging. At least one lesion suggestive of recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer was identified on PET images in 52 patients (52.5%). Detection rates of [ 68 Ga]THP-PSMA PET/CT increased with increasing PSA level: 94.1% for a PSA value of ≥10 ng/mL, 77.3% for a PSA value of 2 to PSA value of 1 to PSA value of 0.5 to PSA value of >0.2 to PSA value of 0.01 to 0.2 ng/mL. [ 68 Ga]THP-PSMA uptake (SUVs) in metastases decreased over time, whereas TBRs improved. Delayed imaging at 3 h p.i. exclusively identified pathologic findings in 2% of [ 68 Ga]THP-PSMA PET/CT scans. Detection rate was higher in patients with a Gleason score ≥8 (P=0.02) and in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (P=0.003). In this study, [ 68 Ga]THP-PSMA PET/CT showed suitable detection rates in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer and PSA levels ≥ 2 ng /mL. Detections rates were lower than in previous studies evaluating other PSMA ligands, though prospective direct radiotracer comparison studies are mandatory particularly in patients with low PSA levels to evaluate the relative performance of different PSMA ligands.

  11. Digitizing Tablet and Fahn–Tolosa–Marín Ratings of Archimedes Spirals have Comparable Minimum Detectable Change in Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger J. Elble

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drawing Archimedes spirals is a popular and valid method of assessing action tremor in the upper limbs. We performed the first blinded comparison of Fahn–Tolosa–Marín (FTM ratings and tablet measures of essential tremor to determine if a digitizing tablet is better than 0–4 ratings in detecting changes in essential tremor that exceed random variability in tremor amplitude.Methods: The large and small spirals of FTM were drawn with each hand on two consecutive days by 14 men and four women (age 60±8.7 years [mean±SD] with mild to severe essential tremor. The drawings were simultaneously digitized with a digitizing tablet. Tremor in each digitized drawing was computed with spectral analysis in an independent laboratory, blinded to the clinical ratings. The mean peak-to-peak tremor displacement (cm in the four spirals and mean FTM ratings were compared statistically.Results: Test–retest intraclass correlations (ICCs (two-way random single measures, absolute agreement were excellent for the FTM ratings (ICC 0.90, 95% CI 0.76–0.96 and tablet (ICC 0.97, 95% CI 0.91–0.99. Log10 tremor amplitude (T and FTM were strongly correlated (logT = αFTM + β, α≈0.6, β≈–1.27, r = 0.94. The minimum detectable change for the tablet and FTM were 51% and 67% of the initial assessment.Discussion: Digitizing tablets are much more precise than clinical ratings, but this advantage is mitigated by the natural variability in tremor. Nevertheless, the digitizing tablet is a robust method of quantifying tremor that can be used in lieu of or in combination with clinical ratings.

  12. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal) compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nora K; Nathan, Romil; Ahmed, Yasin K; Shidham, Vinod B

    2014-01-01