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Sample records for higher conservation laws

  1. Higher order Godunov methods for general systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Trangenstein, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe an extension of higher order Godunov methods to general systems of hyperbolic conservation laws. This extension allow the method to be applied to problems that are not strictly hyperbolic and exhibit local linear degeneracies in the wave fields. The method constructs an approximation of the Riemann problem from local wave information. A generalization of the Engquist--Osher flux for systems is then used to compute a numerical flux based on this approximation. This numerical flux replaces the Godunov numerical flux in the algorithm, thereby eliminating the need for a global Riemann problem solution. The additional modifications to the Godunov methodology that are needed to treat loss of strict hyperbolicity are described in detail. The method is applied to some simple model problems for which the glocal analytic structure is known. The method is also applied to the black-oil model for multiphase flow in petroleum reservoirs. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  2. Higher conservation laws for ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Forger, M.; Freiburg Univ.; Jacques, M.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories are integrable systems, in the (weak) sense of admitting a (superspace) Lax representation for their equations of motion. This is achieved by means of an explicit proof that the equations of motion are not only a consequence of but in fact fully equivalent to the superspace constraint F αβ =0. Moreover, a procedure for deriving infinite series of non-local conservation laws is outlined. (orig.)

  3. Higher derivative extensions of 3d Chern-Simons models: conservation laws and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaparulin, D.S.; Karataeva, I.Yu.; Lyakhovich, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the class of higher derivative 3d vector field models with the field equation operator being a polynomial of the Chern-Simons operator. For the nth-order theory of this type, we provide a general recipe for constructing n-parameter family of conserved second rank tensors. The family includes the canonical energy-momentum tensor, which is unbounded, while there are bounded conserved tensors that provide classical stability of the system for certain combinations of the parameters in the Lagrangian. We also demonstrate the examples of consistent interactions which are compatible with the requirement of stability. (orig.)

  4. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  5. Higher order supersymmetries and fermionic conservation laws of the supersymmetric extension of the KdV equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, P.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    By the introduction of nonlocal basonic and fermionic variables we construct a recursion symmetry of the super KdV equation, leading to a hierarchy of bosonic symmetries and one of fermionic symmetries. The hierarchies of bosonic and fermionic conservation laws arise in a natural way in the

  6. Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

  7. Space, time and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, R.A.; Ugarov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Neter theorem establishing correspondence between conservation laws and symmetry properties (space and time in particular) is considered. The theorem is based on one of the possible ways of finding equations of motion for a physical system. From a certain expression (action functional) equations of motion for a system can be obtained which do not contain new physical assertions in principal in comparison with the Newtonian laws. Neter suggested a way of deriving conservation laws by transforming space and time coordinates. Neter theorem consequences raise a number of problems: 1). Are conservation laws (energy, momentum) consequences of space and time symmetry properties. 2). Is it possible to obtain conservation laws in theory neglecting equations of motion. 3). What is of the primary importance: equations of motion, conservation laws or properties of space and time symmetry. It is shown that direct Neter theorem does not testify to stipulation of conservation laws by properties of space and time symmetry and symmetry properties of other non-space -time properties of material systems in objective reality. It says nothing of whether there is any subordination between symmetry properties and conservation laws

  8. Conservation laws shape dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.

  9. Numerical solutions of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the computation of conservation laws u/sub t/ + f(u)/sub x/ 0, TVD (total-variation-diminishing) schemes have been very successful. TVB (total-variation-bounded) schemes share most the advantages and may remove some of the disadvantages (e.g. local degeneracy of accuracy at critical points) TVD schemes. Included in this dissertation are a class of m-step Runge-Kutta type TVD schemes with CFL number equaling m; a procedure to obtain uniformly high order in space TVB schemes; a class of TVD high order time discretizations; a special boundary treatment which keeps the high order of the scheme up to the boundary and preserves the TVB properties in the nonlinear scalar and linear system cases; a discrete entropy inequality for a modified Lax-Wendroff scheme applied to Burgers' equation; and discusses about error propagation in large regions

  10. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Conservation laws and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients in the inhomogeneous fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Subpicosecond or femtosecond optical pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous fiber can be described by a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients, which is investigated in the paper. Via the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur system and symbolic computation, the Lax pair and infinitely-many conservation laws are deduced. Based on the Lax pair and a modified Darboux transformation technique, the first- and second-order rogue wave solutions are constructed. Effects of the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion on the properties of the first- and second-order rouge waves are graphically presented and analyzed: The groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion both affect the ranges and shapes of the first- and second-order rogue waves: The third-order dispersion can produce a skew angle of the first-order rogue wave and the skew angle rotates counterclockwise with the increase of the groupvelocity dispersion, when the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are chosen as the constants; When the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are taken as the functions of the propagation distance, the linear, X-shaped and parabolic trajectories of the rogue waves are obtained.

  12. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  13. Asymptotic Conservation Laws in Classical Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.M.; Torre, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    A new, general, field theoretic approach to the derivation of asymptotic conservation laws is presented. In this approach asymptotic conservation laws are constructed directly from the field equations according to a universal prescription which does not rely upon the existence of Noether identities or any Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formalisms. The resulting general expressions of the conservation laws enjoy important invariance properties and synthesize all known asymptotic conservation laws, such as the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner energy in general relativity. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Conservation Law Enforcement Program Standardization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Stan

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate goal of standardization is to develop a safe and effective program that is recognized within the USAF, DoD, and by other Federal and state law enforcement agencies, and the general public...

  15. Reduced energy conservation law for magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    A global energy conservation law for a magnetized plasma is studied within the context of a quasiparticle description. A reduced energy conservation law is derived for low-frequency, as compared to the gyromagnetic frequency, plasma motions with regard to both non-uniform mean flows and fluctuations in the plasma. The mean value of plasma energy is calculated and sufficient stability conditions for non-equilibrium plasmas are derived. (orig.)

  16. Conservation laws and nuclear transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Das Gupta, S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the consequences of energy and angular momentum conservation for nucleon-nucleon scattering in a nuclear environment during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We describe algorithms that ensure stricter enforcement of such conservation laws within popular microscopic models of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that the net effects on global observables are small

  17. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  18. Law of Conservation of Muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  19. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  20. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bakosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N nonnegative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires a set of fluctuating variables to be nonnegative and (if appropriately normalized sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the nonnegativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraints are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  1. The conservation laws for deformed classical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, M.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of deriving the conservation laws for deformed linear equations of motion is investigated. The conserved currents are obtained in explicit form and used in the construction of constants of motion. The equations for the set of non-interacting oscillators with arbitrary scale-time as well as the κ-Klein-Gordon equation are considered as an example of application of the method. (author) 9 refs

  2. The structure of additive conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmut Reen

    1979-01-01

    All additive conserved quantities are listed for a system with short range central force interaction between the particles: a special case shows up in Boltzmann H-theorem and his derivation of the Maxwell velocity distribution. It is concluded that in classical mechanics of mass points there are no other additive conservation laws besides of energy, momentum, angular momentum and center of mass motion. A generator is considered of a symmetry transformation defined as integral over a conserved local current density where the latter, in general, needs not be covariant under translations

  3. Symmetries, conservation laws and least action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    This article is a non-technical account of some recent work on the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. This recent work-which uses the modern algebraic concept of naturality-yields a new interpretation of the variational, or least action, principle. (author)

  4. The tensorial conservation law in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    A general tensorial conservation law is formulated by starting from the invariance of the gravitational Lagrangian density. Utilising this new formula, the author derives some reasonable results for the mass-energy distribution which are in accordance with the Newtonian formulae. (author)

  5. Application of polynomial preconditioners to conservation laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; van Buuren, R.; Lu, H.

    2000-01-01

    Polynomial preconditioners which are suitable in implicit time-stepping methods for conservation laws are reviewed and analyzed. The preconditioners considered are either based on a truncation of a Neumann series or on Chebyshev polynomials for the inverse of the system-matrix. The latter class of

  6. Truncated Wigner dynamics and conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D.; Opanchuk, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    Ultracold Bose gases can be used to experimentally test many-body theory predictions. Here we point out that both exact conservation laws and dynamical invariants exist in the topical case of the one-dimensional Bose gas, and these provide an important validation of methods. We show that the first four quantum conservation laws are exactly conserved in the approximate truncated Wigner approach to many-body quantum dynamics. Center-of-mass position variance is also exactly calculable. This is nearly exact in the truncated Wigner approximation, apart from small terms that vanish as N-3 /2 as N →∞ with fixed momentum cutoff. Examples of this are calculated in experimentally relevant, mesoscopic cases.

  7. Massively parallel computation of conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbey, M [Univ. Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France); Levine, D [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a new method for computing solutions of conservation laws based on the use of cellular automata with the method of characteristics. The method exploits the high degree of parallelism available with cellular automata and retains important features of the method of characteristics. It yields high numerical accuracy and extends naturally to adaptive meshes and domain decomposition methods for perturbed conservation laws. They describe the method and its implementation for a Dirichlet problem with a single conservation law for the one-dimensional case. Numerical results for the one-dimensional law with the classical Burgers nonlinearity or the Buckley-Leverett equation show good numerical accuracy outside the neighborhood of the shocks. The error in the area of the shocks is of the order of the mesh size. The algorithm is well suited for execution on both massively parallel computers and vector machines. They present timing results for an Alliant FX/8, Connection Machine Model 2, and CRAY X-MP.

  8. Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Mousikou, Ioanna

    2016-11-11

    Hyperbolic conservation laws form a special class of partial differential equations. They describe phenomena that involve conserved quantities and their solutions show discontinuities which reflect the formation of shock waves. We consider one-dimensional systems of hyperbolic conservation laws and produce approximations using finite difference, finite volume and finite element methods. Due to stability issues of classical finite element methods for hyperbolic conservation laws, we study the discontinuous Galerkin method, which was recently introduced. The method involves completely discontinuous basis functions across each element and it can be considered as a combination of finite volume and finite element methods. We illustrate the implementation of discontinuous Galerkin method using Legendre polynomials, in case of scalar equations and in case of quasi-linear systems, and we review important theoretical results about stability and convergence of the method. The applications of finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods to linear and non-linear scalar equations, as well as to the system of elastodynamics, are exhibited.

  9. Nonlinear Conservation Laws and Finite Volume Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Randall J.

    Introduction Software Notation Classification of Differential Equations Derivation of Conservation Laws The Euler Equations of Gas Dynamics Dissipative Fluxes Source Terms Radiative Transfer and Isothermal Equations Multi-dimensional Conservation Laws The Shock Tube Problem Mathematical Theory of Hyperbolic Systems Scalar Equations Linear Hyperbolic Systems Nonlinear Systems The Riemann Problem for the Euler Equations Numerical Methods in One Dimension Finite Difference Theory Finite Volume Methods Importance of Conservation Form - Incorrect Shock Speeds Numerical Flux Functions Godunov's Method Approximate Riemann Solvers High-Resolution Methods Other Approaches Boundary Conditions Source Terms and Fractional Steps Unsplit Methods Fractional Step Methods General Formulation of Fractional Step Methods Stiff Source Terms Quasi-stationary Flow and Gravity Multi-dimensional Problems Dimensional Splitting Multi-dimensional Finite Volume Methods Grids and Adaptive Refinement Computational Difficulties Low-Density Flows Discrete Shocks and Viscous Profiles Start-Up Errors Wall Heating Slow-Moving Shocks Grid Orientation Effects Grid-Aligned Shocks Magnetohydrodynamics The MHD Equations One-Dimensional MHD Solving the Riemann Problem Nonstrict Hyperbolicity Stiffness The Divergence of B Riemann Problems in Multi-dimensional MHD Staggered Grids The 8-Wave Riemann Solver Relativistic Hydrodynamics Conservation Laws in Spacetime The Continuity Equation The 4-Momentum of a Particle The Stress-Energy Tensor Finite Volume Methods Multi-dimensional Relativistic Flow Gravitation and General Relativity References

  10. Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Mousikou, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbolic conservation laws form a special class of partial differential equations. They describe phenomena that involve conserved quantities and their solutions show discontinuities which reflect the formation of shock waves. We consider one-dimensional systems of hyperbolic conservation laws and produce approximations using finite difference, finite volume and finite element methods. Due to stability issues of classical finite element methods for hyperbolic conservation laws, we study the discontinuous Galerkin method, which was recently introduced. The method involves completely discontinuous basis functions across each element and it can be considered as a combination of finite volume and finite element methods. We illustrate the implementation of discontinuous Galerkin method using Legendre polynomials, in case of scalar equations and in case of quasi-linear systems, and we review important theoretical results about stability and convergence of the method. The applications of finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods to linear and non-linear scalar equations, as well as to the system of elastodynamics, are exhibited.

  11. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA=A t S and SA=-A t S for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose A t , which may be of independent interest

  12. Conservation laws with coinciding smooth solutions but different conserved variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Guerra, Graziano

    2018-04-01

    Consider two hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in one space dimension with the same eigenvalues and (right) eigenvectors. We prove that solutions to Cauchy problems with the same initial data differ at third order in the total variation of the initial datum. As a first application, relying on the classical Glimm-Lax result (Glimm and Lax in Decay of solutions of systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, No. 101. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1970), we obtain estimates improving those in Saint-Raymond (Arch Ration Mech Anal 155(3):171-199, 2000) on the distance between solutions to the isentropic and non-isentropic inviscid compressible Euler equations, under general equations of state. Further applications are to the general scalar case, where rather precise estimates are obtained, to an approximation by Di Perna of the p-system and to a traffic model.

  13. Hyperbolic conservation laws in continuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Constantine M

    2016-01-01

    This is a masterly exposition and an encyclopedic presentation of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. It illustrates the essential role of continuum thermodynamics in providing motivation and direction for the development of the mathematical theory while also serving as the principal source of applications. The reader is expected to have a certain mathematical sophistication and to be familiar with (at least) the rudiments of analysis and the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, whereas prior exposure to continuum physics is not required. The target group of readers would consist of (a) experts in the mathematical theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws who wish to learn about the connection with classical physics; (b) specialists in continuum mechanics who may need analytical tools; (c) experts in numerical analysis who wish to learn the underlying mathematical theory; and (d) analysts and graduate students who seek introduction to the theory of hyperbolic systems of conser...

  14. Hall magnetohydrodynamics: Conservation laws and Lyapunov stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Hall electric fields produce circulating mass flow in confined ideal-fluid plasmas. The conservation laws, Hamiltonian structure, equilibrium state relations, and Lyapunov stability conditions are presented here for ideal Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) in two and three dimensions. The approach here is to use the remarkable array of nonlinear conservation laws for HMHD that follow from its Hamiltonian structure in order to construct explicit Lyapunov functionals for the HMHD equilibrium states. In this way, the Lyapunov stability analysis provides classes of HMHD equilibria that are stable and whose linearized initial-value problems are well posed (in the sense of possessing continuous dependence on initial conditions). Several examples are discussed in both two and three dimensions

  15. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  16. Compensatory Measures in European Nature Conservation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van Hoorick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Birds and Habitats Directives are the cornerstones of EU nature conservation law, aiming at the conservation of the Natura 2000 network, a network of protected sites under these directives, and the protection of species. The protection regime for these sites and species is not absolute: Member States may, under certain conditions, allow plans or projects that can have an adverse impact on nature. In this case compensatory measures can play an important role in safeguarding the Natura 2000 network and ensuring the survival of the protected species.This contribution analyses whether taking compensatory measures is always obligatory, and discusses the aim and the characteristics of compensatory measures, in relation to other kinds of measures such as mitigation measures, usual nature conservation measures, and former nature development measures, and to the assessment of the adverse impact caused by the plan or project and of the alternative solutions. The questions will be discussed in light of the contents of the legislation, the guidance and practice by the European Commission, (legal doctrine and case law, mainly of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

  17. Conservation laws and symmetries in stochastic thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Bulnes-Cuetara, Gregory; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Phenomenological nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes how fluxes of conserved quantities, such as matter, energy, and charge, flow from outer reservoirs across a system and how they irreversibly degrade from one form to another. Stochastic thermodynamics is formulated in terms of probability fluxes circulating in the system's configuration space. The consistency of the two frameworks is granted by the condition of local detailed balance, which specifies the amount of physical quantities exchanged with the reservoirs during single transitions between configurations. We demonstrate that the topology of the configuration space crucially determines the number of independent thermodynamic affinities (forces) that the reservoirs generate across the system and provides a general algorithm that produces the fundamental affinities and their conjugate currents contributing to the total dissipation, based on the interplay between macroscopic conservations laws for the currents and microscopic symmetries of the affinities.

  18. Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Front tracking for hyperbolic conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge

    2015-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book providing the fundamentals of the theory hyperbolic conservation laws. Several chapters have been rewritten, new material has been added, in particular, a chapter on space dependent flux functions, and the detailed solution of the Riemann problem for the Euler equations. Hyperbolic conservation laws are central in the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations and in science and technology. The reader is given a self-contained presentation using front tracking, which is also a numerical method. The multidimensional scalar case and the case of systems on the line are treated in detail. A chapter on finite differences is included. From the reviews of the first edition: "It is already one of the few best digests on this topic. The present book is an excellent compromise between theory and practice. Students will appreciate the lively and accurate style." D. Serre, MathSciNet  "I have read the book with great pleasure, and I can recommend it to experts ...

  1. Front tracking for hyperbolic conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge

    2002-01-01

    Hyperbolic conservation laws are central in the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations and in science and technology. The reader is given a self-contained presentation using front tracking, which is also a numerical method. The multidimensional scalar case and the case of systems on the line are treated in detail. A chapter on finite differences is included. "It is already one of the few best digests on this topic. The present book is an excellent compromise between theory and practice. Students will appreciate the lively and accurate style." D. Serre, MathSciNet "I have read the book with great pleasure, and I can recommend it to experts as well as students. It can also be used for reliable and very exciting basis for a one-semester graduate course." S. Noelle, Book review, German Math. Soc. "Making it an ideal first book for the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations...an excellent reference for a graduate course on nonlinear conservation laws." M. Laforest, Comp. Phys. Comm.

  2. Approximate spacetime symmetries and conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harte, Abraham I [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: harte@uchicago.edu

    2008-10-21

    A notion of geometric symmetry is introduced that generalizes the classical concepts of Killing fields and other affine collineations. There is a sense in which flows under these new vector fields minimize deformations of the connection near a specified observer. Any exact affine collineations that may exist are special cases. The remaining vector fields can all be interpreted as analogs of Poincare and other well-known symmetries near timelike worldlines. Approximate conservation laws generated by these objects are discussed for both geodesics and extended matter distributions. One example is a generalized Komar integral that may be taken to define the linear and angular momenta of a spacetime volume as seen by a particular observer. This is evaluated explicitly for a gravitational plane wave spacetime.

  3. The Conservation Principles and Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Lloyd

    1975-01-01

    Derives Kepler's three laws of planetary motion algebraically from conservation principles without introducing Newton's law of force explicitly. This procedure can be presented to students who have had no more than high school algebra. (Author)

  4. Symmetries and Conservation Laws in Classical and Quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    and conservation principles in the Lagrangian and. Hamiltonian ... theory. V Balakrishnan – his research interests are statistical phys- ics, stochastic .... We can appreciate this difference in yet another way: ... principles and conservation laws.

  5. Layer-Mean Quantities, Local Conservation Laws, and Vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camassa, R.; Levermore, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We derive local conservation laws for layer-mean quantities in two general settings. When applied to Euler flows, the first of these settings yields well-known local conservation laws for quantities averaged between material surfaces. The second, however, leads to new local conservation laws for quantities involving the vorticity that are averaged between arbitrary surfaces. These produce the crucial vorticity conservation laws in shallow water models that admit nonhydrostatic and noncolumnar motion. Moreover, they seem to lie outside the Hamiltonian paradigm of fluid dynamics. The formalism generalizes to skew-symmetric matrix fields; applications to electromagnetism are suggested. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Variational approaches to conservation laws for a nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation laws of a nonlinear evolution equation of time dependent variable coefficients of damping and dispersion is studied. The equation under consideration is not derivable from a variational principle which means that one cannot appeal to the Noether theorem to determine the conservation laws. We utilize the ...

  7. Conservation laws and covariant equations of motion for spinning particles

    OpenAIRE

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Puetzfeld, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    We derive the Noether identities and the conservation laws for general gravitational models with arbitrarily interacting matter and gravitational fields. These conservation laws are used for the construction of the covariant equations of motion for test bodies with minimal and nonminimal coupling.

  8. Quasilocal conservation laws in the quantum Hirota model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadnik, Lenart; Prosen, Tomaž

    2017-01-01

    The extensivity of the quantum Hirota model’s conservation laws on a 1  +  1 dimensional lattice is considered. This model can be interpreted in terms of an integrable many-body quantum Floquet dynamics. We establish the procedure to generate a continuous family of quasilocal conservation laws from the conserved operators proposed by Faddeev and Volkov. The Hilbert–Schmidt kernel which allows the calculation of inner products of these new conservation laws is explicitly computed. This result has potential applications in quantum quench and transport problems in integrable quantum field theories. (paper)

  9. Nonlocal symmetries and nonlocal conservation laws of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, S.C.; Bluman, G.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlocal symmetries are obtained for Maxwell's equations in three space-time dimensions through the use of two potential systems involving scalar and vector potentials for the electromagnetic field. Corresponding nonlocal conservation laws are derived from these symmetries. The conservation laws yield nine functionally independent constants of motion which cannot be expressed in terms of the constants of motion arising from local conservation laws for space-time symmetries. These nine constants of motion represent additional conserved quantities for the electromagnetic field in three space endash time dimensions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. A Kinematic Conservation Law in Free Surface Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilyuk , Sergey; Kalisch , Henrik; Khorsand , Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The Green-Naghdi system is used to model highly nonlinear weakly dispersive waves propagating at the surface of a shallow layer of a perfect fluid. The system has three associated conservation laws which describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy due to the surface wave motion. In addition, the system features a fourth conservation law which is the main focus of this note. It will be shown how this fourth conservation law can be interpreted in terms of a concrete kinematic quanti...

  11. Solutions and conservation laws of Benjamin–Bona–Mahony ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    obtained with power-law and dual power-law nonlinearities. The Lie group analysis as ... The notion of conservation laws plays an important role in the solution process of differential ... For the theory and applications of Lie group analysis the ...

  12. Nonlinear self-adjointness, conservation laws, and the construction of solutions of partial differential equations using conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, N Kh; Avdonina, E D

    2013-01-01

    The method of nonlinear self-adjointness, which was recently developed by the first author, gives a generalization of Noether's theorem. This new method significantly extends approaches to constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries, since it does not require the existence of a Lagrangian. In particular, it can be applied to any linear equations and any nonlinear equations that possess at least one local conservation law. The present paper provides a brief survey of results on conservation laws which have been obtained by this method and published mostly in recent preprints of the authors, along with a method for constructing exact solutions of systems of partial differential equations with the use of conservation laws. In most cases the solutions obtained by the method of conservation laws cannot be found as invariant or partially invariant solutions. Bibliography: 23 titles

  13. Violations of conservation laws in viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

    The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover,......, although particle number conservation applies strictly for any liquid, the solidity of viscous liquids implies that even this conservation law is apparently violated in coarse-grained descriptions of density fluctuations.......The laws expressing conservation of momentum and energy apply to any isolated system, but these laws are violated for highly viscous liquids under laboratory conditions because of the unavoidable interactions with the measuring equipment over the long times needed to study the dynamics. Moreover...

  14. Local conservation laws for principle chiral fields (d=1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherednik, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    The Beklund transformation for chiral fields in the two-dimensional Minkovski space is found. As a result an infinite series of conservation laws for principle chiral Osub(n) fields (d=1) has been built. It is shown that these laws are local, the infinite series of global invariants which do not depend on xi, eta, and which is rather rapidly decrease along xi (or along eta) solutions being connected with these laws (xi, eta - coordinates of the light cone). It is noted that with the help of the construction proposed it is possible to obtain conservation laws of principle chiral G fields, including G in the suitable ortogonal groups. Symmetry permits to exchange xi and eta. The construction of conservation laws may be carried out without supposition that lambda has a multiplicity equal to 1, however the proof of the locality applied does not transfer on the laws obtained

  15. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  16. Quantum Law of Motion: Analysis and Extension to Higher Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Bouda, A.; Gharbi, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recently formulated quantum laws of motion and provide new observations. We also extend these laws to higher dimensions. By applying in two dimensions the obtained relations to charge submitted to an electric central potential, we decide between these laws. Furthermore, we extend the selected law to the relativistic case in higher dimensions.

  17. Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This book presents thirteen papers, representing the most significant advances and current trends in nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and related analysis with applications. Topics covered include a survey on multidimensional systems of conservation laws as well as novel results  on liquid crystals, conservation laws with discontinuous flux functions, and applications to sedimentation.  Also included are articles on recent advances in the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system, in addition to new results on collective phenomena described by the Cucker-Smale model.    The Workshop on Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (Edinburgh, UK) held in Edinburgh, September 2011, produced this fine collection of original research and survey articles. Many leading mathematicians attended the event and submitted their contributions for this volume. It is addressed to researchers and graduate students inter...

  18. The Fourier law in a momentum-conserving chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardinà, C.; Kurchan, J.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a family of models for heat conduction with and without momentum conservation. They are analytically solvable in the high temperature limit and can also be efficiently simulated. In all cases the Fourier law is verified in one dimension.

  19. Direct Construction of Conservation Laws from Field Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, S.C.; Bluman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This Letter presents an algorithm to obtain all local conservation laws for any system of field equations. The algorithm uses a formula which directly generates the conservation laws and does not depend on the system having a Lagrangian formulation, in contrast to Noether close-quote s theorem which requires a Lagrangian. Several examples are considered including dissipative systems inherently having no Lagrangian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyfitz, Barbara Lee [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  1. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  2. Conservation Laws for Partially Conservative Variable Mass Systems via d'Alembert's Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AFTAB Ahmed; NASEER Ahmed; QUDRAT Khan

    2008-01-01

    Conservation laws for partially conservative variable mass dynamical systems under symmetric infinitesimal transformations are determined. A generalization of Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle for a variable mass system in terms of asynchronous virtual variation is presented. The generalized Killing equations are obtained such that their solution yields the transformations and the associated conservation laws. An example illustrative of the theory is furnished at the end as well.

  3. Conservation Laws for Partially Conservative Variable Mass Systems via d'Alembert's Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Aftab; Ahmed, Naseer; Khan, Qudrat

    2008-01-01

    Conservation laws for partially conservative variable mass dynamical systems under symmetric infinitesimal transformations are determined. A generalization of Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle for a variable mass system in terms of asynchronous virtual variation is presented. The generalized Killing equations are obtained such that their solution yields the transformations and the associated conservation laws. An example illustrative of the theory is furnished at the end as well. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  4. Symmetry Principles and Conservation Laws in Atomic and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Symmetry Principles and Conservation Laws in. Atomic and Subatomic Physics – 2. P C Deshmukh .... dicated that parity conservation, though often assumed, had not been verified in weak interactions. Acting on ... The gauge bosons W§ have a charge of +1 and −1 unit, but the Z0 boson of the standard model is neutral.

  5. Power-law and runaway growth in conserved aggregation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The z-transform technique is used to analyze the Smoluchowski coagulation equation for conserved aggregation systems. A universal power law with the exponent -5/2 appears when a total 'mass' has a certain critical value. Below the threshold, ordinary scaling relations hold and the system exhibits a behavior like usual critical phenomena. Above the threshold, in contrast, the excess amount of mass coagulates into a runaway member, and remaining members follow the power law. Here the runaway growth coexists with the power law. It is argued that these behaviors are observed universally in conserved aggregation processes

  6. Magnetohydrodynamics and fluid dynamics action principles and conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Gary

    2018-01-01

    This text focuses on conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics, gasdynamics and hydrodynamics. A grasp of new conservation laws is essential in fusion and space plasmas, as well as in geophysical fluid dynamics; they can be used to test numerical codes, or to reveal new aspects of the underlying physics, e.g., by identifying the time history of the fluid elements as an important key to understanding fluid vorticity or in investigating the stability of steady flows. The ten Galilean Lie point symmetries of the fundamental action discussed in this book give rise to the conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum and center of mass conservation laws via Noether’s first theorem. The advected invariants are related to fluid relabeling symmetries – so-called diffeomorphisms associated with the Lagrangian map – and are obtained by applying the Euler-Poincare approach to Noether’s second theorem. The book discusses several variants of helicity including kinetic helicity, cross helicity, magnetic helici...

  7. A Note on Weak Solutions of Conservation Laws and Energy/Entropy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Piotr; Michálek, Martin; Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Agnieszka

    2018-03-01

    A common feature of systems of conservation laws of continuum physics is that they are endowed with natural companion laws which are in such cases most often related to the second law of thermodynamics. This observation easily generalizes to any symmetrizable system of conservation laws; they are endowed with nontrivial companion conservation laws, which are immediately satisfied by classical solutions. Not surprisingly, weak solutions may fail to satisfy companion laws, which are then often relaxed from equality to inequality and overtake the role of physical admissibility conditions for weak solutions. We want to answer the question: what is a critical regularity of weak solutions to a general system of conservation laws to satisfy an associated companion law as an equality? An archetypal example of such a result was derived for the incompressible Euler system in the context of Onsager's conjecture in the early nineties. This general result can serve as a simple criterion to numerous systems of mathematical physics to prescribe the regularity of solutions needed for an appropriate companion law to be satisfied.

  8. Kac-Moody-Virasoro Symmetries and Related Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, S. Y.; Jia, M.; Tang, X. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, some important facts on the symmetries and conservation laws of high dimensional integrable systems are discussed. It is summarized that almost all the known (2+1)-dimensional integrable models possess the Kac-Moody-Virasoro (KMV) symmetry algebras. One knows that infinitely many partial differential equations may possess a same KMV symmetry algebra. It is found that the KMV symmetry groups can be explicitly obtained by using some direct methods. For some quite general variable coefficient nonlinear systems, their sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of the KMV symmetry algebra is they can be changed to the related known constant coefficient models. Finally, it is found that every one symmetry may be related to infinitely many conservation laws and then infinitely many models may possess a same set of infinitely many conservation laws.

  9. A Kirchhoff-like conservation law in Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, Adrian P; Kheyfets, Arkady; McDonald, Jonathan R; Miller, Warner A

    2009-01-01

    Simplicial lattices provide an elegant framework for discrete spacetimes. The inherent orthogonality between a simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual yields an austere representation of spacetime which provides a conceptually simple form of Einstein's geometric theory of gravitation. A sufficient understanding of simplicial spacetimes has been demonstrated in the literature for spacetimes devoid of all non-gravitational sources. However, this understanding has not been adequately extended to non-vacuum spacetime models. Consequently, a deep understanding of the diffeomorphic structure of the discrete theory is lacking. Conservation laws and symmetry properties are attractive starting points for coupling matter with the lattice. We present a simplicial form of the contracted Bianchi identity which is based on the E Cartan moment of rotation operator. This identity manifests itself in the conceptually simple form of a Kirchhoff-like conservation law. This conservation law enables one to extend Regge calculus to non-vacuum spacetimes and provides a deeper understanding of the simplicial diffeomorphism group.

  10. Convergence of spectral methods for nonlinear conservation laws. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1987-08-01

    The convergence of the Fourier method for scalar nonlinear conservation laws which exhibit spontaneous shock discontinuities is discussed. Numerical tests indicate that the convergence may (and in fact in some cases must) fail, with or without post-processing of the numerical solution. Instead, a new kind of spectrally accurate vanishing viscosity is introduced to augment the Fourier approximation of such nonlinear conservation laws. Using compensated compactness arguments, it is shown that this spectral viscosity prevents oscillations, and convergence to the unique entropy solution follows

  11. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in [7], the more interesting case being the latter since these lead to conservation laws via ... obtained and, hence, more conservation laws are classified. .... −2r2 sin θurt − 2r sin θut + 2r sin θ. (. 1 −. 2t r. ) ur + 2t sin θur. +r2 sin θ. (. 1 −. 2t r. ) urr + cos θuθ + sin θuθθ = 0,. (15) and then ¯X2 = u∂u + t∂t + r∂r leads to dt t. = dr.

  12. Generalized Laws of Black Hole Thermodynamics and Quantum Conservation Laws on Hawking Radiation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, S. Q.; Cai, X.

    2000-01-01

    Four classical laws of black hole thermodynamics are extended from exterior (event) horizon to interior (Cauchy) horizon. Especially, the first law of classical thermodynamics for Kerr-Newman black hole (KNBH) is generalized to those in quantum form. Then five quantum conservation laws on the KNBH evaporation effect are derived in virtue of thermodynamical equilibrium conditions. As a by-product, Bekenstein-Hawking's relation $ S=A/4 $ is exactly recovered.

  13. Generalized laws of black-hole thermodynamics and quantum conservation laws on Hawking radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Q.; Cai, X.

    2000-01-01

    Four classical laws of black-hole thermodynamics are extended from exterior (event) horizon to interior (Cauchy) horizon. Especially, the first law of classical thermodynamics for Kerr-Newman black hole (KNBH) is generalized to those in quantum form. Then five quantum conservation laws on the KNBH evaporation effect are derived in virtue of thermodynamical equilibrium conditions. As a by-product, Bekenstein-Haw king's relation S=A/4 is exactly recovered

  14. Infinite set of conservation laws for relativistic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The solution of the Cauchy problem has been found. An infinite class of conserving values Jsub(α) for a free closed relativistic string has been constructed. Jsub(α) values characterize three-parametric generating functions of conservation laws. It is shown using particular examples that it is necessary to order subintegral expressions of quantum values Jsub(α) and do not disturb a property of commutativity with a hamiltonian to attach sense to these values [ru

  15. Notes on the Mass Definition with Covariant Conservation Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Jun

    1990-01-01

    Mass definition based on the conservation law of some physical quantities is investigated, adopting the 2nd rank tensor in four space world as the conserving quantity. It is shown that the scalar function appeared as coefficients in the general expression of this tensor quantity should be independent on s, s being the line element of the world line, under the postulate that the trajectories of free particle must be geodesic lines of the world. Discussions are made on this constant factor whic...

  16. Enforcing conservation laws in nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, Christian; Potthoff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Using the recently introduced time-local formulation of the nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory (CPT), we construct a generalization of the approach such that macroscopic conservation laws are respected. This is achieved by exploiting the freedom for the choice of the starting point of the all-order perturbation theory in the intercluster hopping. The proposed conserving CPT is a self-consistent propagation scheme which respects the conservation of energy, particle number, and spin, which treats short-range correlations exactly up to the linear scale of the cluster, and which represents a mean-field-like approach on length scales beyond the cluster size. Using Green's functions, conservation laws are formulated as local constraints on the local spin-dependent particle and the doublon density. We consider them as conditional equations to self-consistently fix the time-dependent intracluster one-particle parameters. Thanks to the intrinsic causality of the CPT, this can be set up as a step-by-step time propagation scheme with a computational effort scaling linearly with the maximum propagation time and exponentially in the cluster size. As a proof of concept, we consider the dynamics of the two-dimensional, particle-hole-symmetric Hubbard model following a weak interaction quench by simply employing two-site clusters only. Conservation laws are satisfied by construction. We demonstrate that enforcing them has strong impact on the dynamics. While the doublon density is strongly oscillating within plain CPT, a monotonic relaxation is observed within the conserving CPT.

  17. Demonstrations of the Action and Reaction Law and the Energy Conservation Law Using Fine Spherical Plastic Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, A.; Tanaka, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Lee, Y. I.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    Equipment for demonstrating Newton's third law and the energy conservation law in mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine spherical plastic beads in place of metal ball bearings. To demonstrate Newton's third law, special magnetized Petri dishes were employed as objects, while to examine the energy conservation law, a…

  18. Cayley number and conservation laws for elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollendorf, F.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the five conservation laws of charge, hyper-charge, barion number and the two lepton numbers lead to the construction of a commutative non-associative 24 dimensional linear algebra. Each element of the algebra is an ordered set of three Cayley numbers. (orig.) [de

  19. The symmetries and conservation laws of some Gordon-type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conservation laws; Milne space-time; Gordon-type equations. Abstract. In this letter, the Lie point symmetries of a class of Gordon-type wave equations that arise in the Milne space-time are presented ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  20. Symmetries and conservation laws of the damped harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We work with a formulation of Noether-symmetry analysis which uses the properties of infinitesimal point transformations in the space-time variables to establish the association between symmetries and conservation laws of a dynamical system. Here symmetries are expressed in the form of generators. We have studied the ...

  1. Gravitation SL(2,C) gauge theory and conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe; Nissani, Noah

    1990-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive presentation of the SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation along with some recent developments in the problem of Conservation Laws in General Relativity. Emphasis is put on quadratic Lagrangians which yield the Einstein field equations, as compared with Hilbert's original linear Langrangian, thus gravitation follows the other Gauge Fields all of which are derived from nonlinear Lagrangians.

  2. Helicity and other conservation laws in perfect fluid motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, Denis

    2018-03-01

    In this review paper, we discuss helicity from a geometrical point of view and see how it applies to the motion of a perfect fluid. We discuss its relation with the Hamiltonian structure, and then its extension to arbitrary space dimensions. We also comment about the existence of additional conservation laws for the Euler equation, and its unlikely integrability in Liouville's sense.

  3. Energy conservation law for randomly fluctuating electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbur, G.; Wolf, E.; James, D.

    1999-01-01

    An energy conservation law is derived for electromagnetic fields generated by any random, statistically stationary, source distribution. It is shown to provide insight into the phenomenon of correlation-induced spectral changes. The results are illustrated by an example. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  4. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution ...

  5. 2×2 systems of conservation laws with L data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Stefano; Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Monti, Francesca

    Consider a hyperbolic system of conservation laws with genuinely nonlinear characteristic fields. We extend the classical Glimm-Lax (1970) result [13, Theorem 5.1] proving the existence of solutions for L initial datum, relaxing the assumptions taken therein on the geometry of the shock-rarefaction curves.

  6. ADM pseudotensors, conserved quantities and covariant conservation laws in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatibene, L.; Ferraris, M.; Francaviglia, M.; Lusanna, L.

    2012-01-01

    The ADM formalism is reviewed and techniques for decomposing generic components of metric, connection and curvature are obtained. These techniques will turn out to be enough to decompose not only Einstein equations but also covariant conservation laws. Then a number of independent sets of hypotheses that are sufficient (though not necessary) to obtain standard ADM quantities (and Hamiltonian) from covariant conservation laws are considered. This determines explicitly the range in which standard techniques are equivalent to covariant conserved quantities. The Schwarzschild metric in different coordinates is then considered, showing how the standard ADM quantities fail dramatically in non-Cartesian coordinates or even worse when asymptotically flatness is not manifest; while, in view of their covariance, covariant conservation laws give the correct result in all cases. - Highlights: ► In the paper ADM conserved quantities for GR are obtained from augmented conservation laws. ► Boundary conditions for this to be possible are considered and compared with the literature. ► Some different forms of Schwarzschild solutions are considered as simple examples of different boundary conditions.

  7. Conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.; Laflamme, R.; Marolf, D.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems and begin by reviewing an argument that exact decoherence implies the exact conservation of quantities that commute with the Hamiltonian. However, we also show that decoherence limits the alternatives that can be included in sets of histories that assess the conservation of these quantities. In the case of charge and energy, these limitations would be severe were these quantities not coupled to a gauge field. However, for the realistic cases of electric charge coupled to the electromagnetic field and mass coupled to spacetime curvature, we show that when alternative values of charge and mass decohere they always decohere exactly and are exactly conserved. Further, while decohering histories that describe possible changes in time of the total charge and mass are also subject to the limitations mentioned above, we show that these do not, in fact, restrict physical alternatives and are therefore not really limitations at all

  8. Contractual Relationships: Higher Education Laws and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tantralita

    2011-01-01

    One major aspect of any contractual relationship is liability. "Institutions of higher education face potential breach of contract claims from employees, student, and vendors purchasers, or business partners" (Kaplin & Lee, 2007, 105) When referring to the liability of an institution, we must take into consideration the contract…

  9. The Truth behind Higher Education Disclosure Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kevin; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing that higher education is a market driven by consumer choice and reluctant to regulate college behavior directly, state and federal policymakers have created a host of college information disclosure and reporting requirements. Armed with better data, the theory goes, students and parents will vote with their wallets, putting pressure on…

  10. Conservation laws and geometry of perturbed coset models

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    1994-01-01

    We present a Lagrangian description of the $SU(2)/U(1)$ coset model perturbed by its first thermal operator. This is the simplest perturbation that changes sign under Krammers--Wannier duality. The resulting theory, which is a 2--component generalization of the sine--Gordon model, is then taken in Minkowski space. For negative values of the coupling constant $g$, it is classically equivalent to the $O(4)$ non--linear $\\s$--model reduced in a certain frame. For $g > 0$, it describes the relativistic motion of vortices in a constant external field. Viewing the classical equations of motion as a zero curvature condition, we obtain recursive relations for the infinitely many conservation laws by the abelianization method of gauge connections. The higher spin currents are constructed entirely using an off--critical generalization of the $W_{\\infty}$ generators. We give a geometric interpretation to the corresponding charges in terms of embeddings. Applications to the chirally invariant $U(2)$ Gross--Neveu model ar...

  11. Contractive relaxation systems and interacting particles for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakis, M.A.; Tzavaras, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a class of semi linear hyperbolic systems with relaxation that are contractive in the L 1 -norm and admit invariant regions. We show that, as the relaxation parameter ξ goes to zero, their solutions converge to a weak solution of the scalar multidimensional conversation law that satisfies the Kruzhkov conditions. In the case of one space dimension, we propose certain interacting particle systems, whose mesoscopic limit is the systems with relaxation and their macroscopic dynamics is described by entropy solutions of a scalar conservation law. (author)

  12. Averaged multivalued solutions and time discretization for conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenier, Y.

    1985-01-01

    It is noted that the correct shock solutions can be approximated by averaging in some sense the multivalued solution given by the method of characteristics for the nonlinear scalar conservation law (NSCL). A time discretization for the NSCL equation based on this principle is considered. An equivalent analytical formulation is shown to lead quite easily to a convergence result, and a third formulation is introduced which can be generalized for the systems of conservation laws. Various numerical schemes are constructed from the proposed time discretization. The first family of schemes is obtained by using a spatial grid and projecting the results of the time discretization. Many known schemes are then recognized (mainly schemes by Osher, Roe, and LeVeque). A second way to discretize leads to a particle scheme without space grid, which is very efficient (at least in the scalar case). Finally, a close relationship between the proposed method and the Boltzmann type schemes is established. 14 references

  13. Numerical methods for Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Després, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the interplay between Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation laws for systems that admit physical motivation and originate from continuum mechanics. Ultimately, it highlights what is specific to and beneficial in the Lagrangian approach and its numerical methods. The two first chapters present a selection of well-known features of conservation laws and prepare readers for the subsequent chapters, which are dedicated to the analysis and discretization of Lagrangian systems. The text is at the frontier of applied mathematics and scientific computing and appeals to students and researchers interested in Lagrangian-based computational fluid dynamics. It also serves as an introduction to the recent corner-based Lagrangian finite volume techniques.

  14. Propagation of multidimensional nonlinear waves and kinematical conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Phoolan

    2017-01-01

    This book formulates the kinematical conservation laws (KCL), analyses them and presents their applications to various problems in physics. Finally, it addresses one of the most challenging problems in fluid dynamics: finding successive positions of a curved shock front. The topics discussed are the outcome of collaborative work that was carried out mainly at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India. The theory presented in the book is supported by referring to extensive numerical results. The book is organised into ten chapters. Chapters 1–4 offer a summary of and briefly discuss the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations and conservation laws. Formulation of equations of a weakly nonlinear wavefront and those of a shock front are briefly explained in Chapter 5, while Chapter 6 addresses KCL theory in space of arbitrary dimensions. The remaining chapters examine various analyses and applications of KCL equations ending in the ultimate goal-propagation of a three-dimensional curved sho...

  15. Physical conservation laws and the β-decay of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.

    1975-04-01

    The law of conservation of energy is extended to the region of the Dirac states of negative energy. When particles are produced or disappear, energy changes occur in the negative energy region which can be seen in the positive energy region. The law of conservation of energy then says that the total change in energy is equal to naught. The same is valid for translations and angular momentum. The way in which completely occupied states change energy and momentum is not shown. The β-decay of the neutron is considered as pair production in which an electron is emitted and a positron is bonded to the neutron. Neutrinos are not produced. The latest results on neutrino experiments on accelerators are not discussed. (BJ/LH) [de

  16. Nonlinear MHD-equations: symmetries, solutions and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhin, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate stability and nonlinear effects in a high-temperature plasma the system of two scalar nonlinear equations is considered. The algebra of classical symmetries of this system and a certain natural part of its conservation laws are described. It is shown that first, with symmetries one can derive invariant (self-similar) solutions, second, acting with symmetry on the known solution the latter can be included into parametric family

  17. On 'conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.M.; Parle, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors reconsider the apparent conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation, and show that earlier workers in this field did not correctly include the effects of radiation reaction in their calculations. When a 'recoil' term, calculated using relativistic quantum theory, is included in the angular momentum of the particle the conflict disappears. It is found that the guiding centre of the particle drifts outwards during cyclotron radiation. (author)

  18. Determination of constants of factorized pairing force from conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronkov, Yu.P.; Mikhajlov, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    The constants of a factorized interaction in the particle-particle channel are evaluated on the basis of average field parameters and Cooper pairing. The relations between the constants of multipole particle-particle forces are derived for the spherical nuclei. The constants of the quadrupole pairing are obtained for deformed nuclei from the angular momentum conservation law. The calculated constants are compared with empiricalones

  19. Different realizations of Cooper-Frye sampling with conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, C.; Oliinychenko, D.; Pang, L.-G.; Ryu, S.; Petersen, H.

    2018-01-01

    Approaches based on viscous hydrodynamics for the hot and dense stage and hadronic transport for the final dilute rescattering stage are successfully applied to the dynamic description of heavy ion reactions at high beam energies. One crucial step in such hybrid approaches is the so-called particlization, which is the transition between the hydrodynamic description and the microscopic degrees of freedom. For this purpose, individual particles are sampled on the Cooper-Frye hypersurface. In this work, four different realizations of the sampling algorithms are compared, with three of them incorporating the global conservation laws of quantum numbers in each event. The algorithms are compared within two types of scenarios: a simple ‘box’ hypersurface consisting of only one static cell and a typical particlization hypersurface for Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=200 {GeV}. For all algorithms the mean multiplicities (or particle spectra) remain unaffected by global conservation laws in the case of large volumes. In contrast, the fluctuations of the particle numbers are affected considerably. The fluctuations of the newly developed SPREW algorithm based on the exponential weight, and the recently suggested SER algorithm based on ensemble rejection, are smaller than those without conservation laws and agree with the expectation from the canonical ensemble. The previously applied mode sampling algorithm produces dramatically larger fluctuations than expected in the corresponding microcanonical ensemble, and therefore should be avoided in fluctuation studies. This study might be of interest for the investigation of particle fluctuations and correlations, e.g. the suggested signatures for a phase transition or a critical endpoint, in hybrid approaches that are affected by global conservation laws.

  20. Construction of elasto-plastic boundaries using conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Senashov, S.; Filyushina, E.; Gomonova, O.

    2015-01-01

    The solution of elasto-plastic problems is one of the most complicated and actual problems of solid mechanics. Traditionally, these problems are solved by the methods of complex analysis, calculus of variations or semi-inverse methods. Unfortunately, all these methods can be applied to a limited number of problems only. In this paper, a technique of conservation laws is used. This technique allows constructing analytical formulas to determine the elasto-plastic boundary for a wide class of pr...

  1. Post-Newtonian conservation laws in rigid quasilocal frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Paul L; Chanona, Melanie; Epp, Richard J; Mann, Robert B; Koop, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    In recent work we constructed completely general conservation laws for energy (McGrath et al 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 215012) and linear and angular momentum (Epp et al 2013 Class. Quantum Grav. 30 195019) of extended systems in general relativity based on the notion of a rigid quasilocal frame (RQF). We argued at a fundamental level that these RQF conservation laws are superior to conservation laws based on the local stress–energy–momentum tensor of matter because (1) they do not rely on spacetime symmetries and (2) they properly account for both matter and gravitational effects. Moreover, they provide simple, exact, operational expressions for fluxes of gravitational energy and linear and angular momentum. In this paper we derive the form of these laws in a general first post-Newtonian (1PN) approximation, and then apply these approximate laws to the problem of gravitational tidal interactions. We obtain formulas for tidal heating and tidal torque that agree with the literature, but without resorting to the use of pseudotensors. We describe the physical mechanism of these tidal interactions not in the traditional terms of a Newtonian gravitational force, but in terms of a much simpler and universal mechanism that is an exact, quasilocal manifestation of the equivalence principle in general relativity. As concrete examples, we look at the tidal heating of Jupiter’s moon Io and angular momentum transfer in the Earth–Moon system that causes a gradual spin-down of the Earth and recession of the Moon. In both examples we find agreement with observation. (paper)

  2. Painleve analysis, conservation laws, and symmetry of perturbed nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Chowdhury, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors consider the Lie-Backlund symmetries and conservation laws of a perturbed KdV equation and NLS equation. The arbitrary coefficients of the perturbing terms can be related to the condition of existence of nontrivial LB symmetry generators. When the perturbed KdV equation is subjected to Painleve analysis a la Weiss, it is found that the resonance position changes compared to the unperturbed one. They prove the compatibility of the overdetermined set of equations obtained at the different stages of recursion relations, at least for one branch. All other branches are also indicated and difficulties associated them are discussed considering the perturbation parameter epsilon to be small. They determine the Lax pair for the aforesaid branch through the use of Schwarzian derivative. For the perturbed NLS equation they determine the conservation laws following the approach of Chen and Liu. From the recurrence of these conservation laws a Lax pair is constructed. But the Painleve analysis does not produce a positive answer for the perturbed NLS equation. So here they have two contrasting examples of perturbed nonlinear equations: one passes the Painleve test and its Lax pair can be found from the analysis itself, but the other equation does not meet the criterion of the Painleve test, though its Lax pair is found in another way

  3. An exactly conservative particle method for one dimensional scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjoun, Yossi; Seibold, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A particle scheme for scalar conservation laws in one space dimension is presented. Particles representing the solution are moved according to their characteristic velocities. Particle interaction is resolved locally, satisfying exact conservation of area. Shocks stay sharp and propagate at correct speeds, while rarefaction waves are created where appropriate. The method is variation diminishing, entropy decreasing, exactly conservative, and has no numerical dissipation away from shocks. Solutions, including the location of shocks, are approximated with second order accuracy. Source terms can be included. The method is compared to CLAWPACK in various examples, and found to yield a comparable or better accuracy for similar resolutions.

  4. Finite difference techniques for nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.

    1985-01-01

    The present study is concerned with numerical approximations to the initial value problem for nonlinear systems of conservative laws. Attention is given to the development of a class of conservation form finite difference schemes which are based on the finite volume method (i.e., the method of averages). These schemes do not fit into the classical framework of conservation form schemes discussed by Lax and Wendroff (1960). The finite volume schemes are specifically intended to approximate solutions of multidimensional problems in the absence of rectangular geometries. In addition, the development is reported of different schemes which utilize the finite volume approach for time discretization. Particular attention is given to local time discretization and moving spatial grids. 17 references

  5. An Analysis of the Invariance and Conservation Laws of Some Classes of Nonlinear Ostrovsky Equations and Related Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhar, K.; Kara, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    A large class of partial differential equations in the modelling of ocean waves are due to Ostrovsky. We determine the invariance properties (through the Lie point symmetry generators) and construct classes of conservation laws for some of the models. In the latter case, the method involves finding the ‘multipliers’ associated with the conservation laws with a stronger emphasis on the ‘higher-order’ ones. The relationship between the symmetries and conservation laws is investigated by considering the invariance properties of the multipliers. (general)

  6. The role of angular momentum conservation law in statistical mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Dubrovskii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the limits of Khinchin ideas [A.Y. Khinchin, Mathematical Foundation of Statistical Mechanics. NY, Ed. Dover, 1949] the importance of momentum and angular momentum conservation laws was analyzed for two cases: for uniform magnetic field and when magnetic field is absent. The law of momentum conservation does not change the density of probability distribution in both cases, just as it is assumed in the conventional theory. It is shown that in systems where the kinetic energy depends only on particle momenta canonically conjugated with Cartesian coordinates being their diagonal quadric form,the angular momentum conservation law changes the density of distribution of the system only in case the full angular momentum of a system is not equal to zero. In the gas of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field the density of distribution also varies if the angular momentum is zero [see Dubrovskii I.M., Condensed Matter Physics, 2206, 9, 23]. Two-dimensional gas of charged particles located within a section of an endless strip filled with gas in magnetic field is considered. Under such conditions the angular momentum is not conserved. Directional particle flows take place close to the strip boundaries, and, as a consequence, the phase trajectory of the considered set of particles does not remain within the limited volume of the phase space. In order to apply a statistical thermodynamics method, it was suggested to consider near-boundary trajectories relative to a reference system that moves uniformly. It was shown that if the diameter of an orbit having average thermal energy is much smaller than a strip width, the corrections to thermodynamic functions are small depending on magnetic field. Only the average velocity of near-boundary particles that form near-boundary electric currents creating the paramagnetic moment turn out to be essential.

  7. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Knobel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  8. Effects of collisions on conservation laws in gyrokinetic field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Nunami, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Watanabe, T.-H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Effects of collisions on conservation laws for toroidal plasmas are investigated based on the gyrokinetic field theory. Associating the collisional system with a corresponding collisionless system at a given time such that the two systems have the same distribution functions and electromagnetic fields instantaneously, it is shown how the collisionless conservation laws derived from Noether's theorem are modified by the collision term. Effects of the external source term added into the gyrokinetic equation can be formulated similarly with the collisional effects. Particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations including collisional and turbulent transport fluxes are systematically derived using a novel gyrokinetic collision operator, by which the collisional change rates of energy and canonical toroidal angular momentum per unit volume in the gyrocenter space can be given in the conservative forms. The ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work are shown to include classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport fluxes which agree with those derived from conventional recursive formulations.

  9. A Note on the Invariance Properties and Conservation Laws of the Kadomstev—Petviashvili Equation with Power Law Nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari A H; Zaman F D; Fakhar K; Kara A H

    2011-01-01

    First, we studied the invariance properties of the Kadomstev—Petviashvili equation with power law nonlinearity. Then, we determined the complete class of conservation laws and stated the corresponding conserved densities which are useful in finding the conserved quantities of the equation. The point symmetry generators were also used to reduce the equation to an exact solution and to verify the invariance properties of the conserved flows. (general)

  10. Reductions and conservation laws for BBM and modified BBM equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the classical Lie theory is applied to study the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM and modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equations (MBBM to obtain their symmetries, invariant solutions, symmetry reductions and differential invariants. By observation of the the adjoint representation of Mentioned symmetry groups on their Lie algebras, we find the primary classification (optimal system of their group-invariant solutions which provides new exact solutions to BBM and MBBM equations. Finally, conservation laws of the BBM and MBBM equations are presented. Some aspects of their symmetry properties are given too.

  11. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper puzzles over why symmetry, so central to particle physics today, was so little attended to in the 1950s when the need for it was becoming profound, with the notion of parity violation and other break-downs in conservation laws, such as angular momentum and charge conjugation. Group theory, including Lie groups, would also have helped understanding of the particle physics discoveries of the 1950s such as strange particles, resonances, and associated production. They were adopted ten years too late by the physics community. (UK)

  12. Multi-component WKI equations and their conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Changzheng [Department of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China) and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)]. E-mail: qu_changzheng@hotmail.com; Yao Ruoxia [Department of Computer Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Department of Computer Sciences, Weinan Teacher' s College, Weinan 715500 (China); Liu Ruochen [Department of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2004-10-25

    In this Letter, a two-component WKI equation is obtained by using the fact that when curvature and torsion of a space curve satisfy the vector modified KdV equation, a graph of the curve satisfies the two-component WKI equation, which is a natural generalization to the WKI equation. It is shown that the two-component WKI equation can be solved in terms of the extended WKI scheme, and it admits an infinite number of conservation laws. In the same vein, a n-component generalization to the WKI equation is proposed.

  13. Conformal conservation laws for second-order scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeskee, J.S.; Logan, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is considered an action integral over space-time whose Lagrangian depends upon a scalar field an upon derivatives of the field function up to second order. From invariance identities obtained by the authors in an earlier work it is shown how a new proof of Noether's theorem for this second-order problem follows in the multiple integral case. Finally, conservation laws are written down in the case that the given action integral be invariant under the fifteen-parameter special conformal group

  14. Conservation laws and mass distribution in the planet formation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinella, P.; Paolicchi, P.

    1977-01-01

    Within the framework of the nebular theory of the origin of the solar system, conservation laws are applied to the condensation of a ring-shaped cloud of orbiting particles. The final configuration is assumed to be a point-like planet in a circular orbit around the Sun. On this ground, it is possible to relate the masses of the planets with the interplanetary distances. This relation is confirmed satisfactorily by the observed masses and orbital radii of several planets and satellites of the solar system. (Auth.)

  15. Systems of conservation laws with third-order Hamiltonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferapontov, Evgeny V.; Pavlov, Maxim V.; Vitolo, Raffaele F.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate n-component systems of conservation laws that possess third-order Hamiltonian structures of differential-geometric type. The classification of such systems is reduced to the projective classification of linear congruences of lines in P^{n+2} satisfying additional geometric constraints. Algebraically, the problem can be reformulated as follows: for a vector space W of dimension n+2 , classify n-tuples of skew-symmetric 2-forms A^{α } \\in Λ ^2(W) such that φ _{β γ }A^{β }\\wedge A^{γ }=0, for some non-degenerate symmetric φ.

  16. High-resolution finite-difference algorithms for conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towers, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of Total Variation Decreasing (TVD) schemes for 2-dimensional scalar conservation laws is constructed using either flux-limited or slope-limited numerical fluxes. The schemes are proven to have formal second-order accuracy in regions where neither u/sub x/ nor y/sub y/ vanishes. A new class of high-resolution large-time-step TVD schemes is constructed by adding flux-limited correction terms to the first-order accurate large-time-step version of the Engquist-Osher scheme. The use of the transport-collapse operator in place of the exact solution operator for the construction of difference schemes is studied. The production of spurious extrema by difference schemes is studied. A simple condition guaranteeing the nonproduction of spurious extrema is derived. A sufficient class of entropy inequalities for a conservation law with a flux having a single inflection point is presented. Finite-difference schemes satisfying a discrete version of each entropy inequality are only first-order accurate

  17. First law of AdS black holes in higher curvature gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Jun-ichirou

    2005-01-01

    We consider the first law of black hole thermodynamics in an asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime in the class of gravitational theories whose gravitational Lagrangian is an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar. We first show that the conserved quantities in this class of gravitational theories constructed through conformal completion remain unchanged under the conformal transformation into the Einstein frame. We then prove that the mass and the angular momenta defined by these conserved quantities, along with the entropy defined by the Noether charge, satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics, not only in Einstein gravity but also in the higher curvature gravity within the class under consideration. We also point out that it is naturally understood in the symplectic formalism that the mass satisfying the first law should be necessarily defined associated with the timelike Killing vector nonrotating at infinity. Finally, a possible generalization into a wider class of gravitational theories is discussed

  18. Local conservation law and dark radiation in cosmological braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamitsuji, Masato; Sasaki, Misao

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) single-brane scenario, we discuss the bulk geometry and dynamics of a cosmological brane in terms of the local energy conservation law which exists for the bulk that allows slicing with a maximally symmetric three-space. This conservation law enables us to define a local mass in the bulk. We show that there is a unique generalization of the dark radiation on the brane, which is given by the local mass. We find there also exists a conserved current associated with the Weyl tensor, and the corresponding local charge, which we call the Weyl charge, is given by the sum of the local mass and a certain linear combination of the components of the bulk energy-momentum tensor. This expression of the Weyl charge relates the local mass to the projected Weyl tensor, E μν , which plays a central role in the geometrical formalism of the RS braneworld. On the brane, in particular, this gives a decomposition of the projected Weyl tensor into the local mass and the bulk energy-momentum tensor. Then, as an application of these results, we consider a null dust model for the bulk energy-momentum tensor and discuss the black hole formation in the bulk. We investigate the causal structure by identifying the locus of the apparent horizon and clarify possible brane trajectories in the bulk. We find that the brane stays always outside the black hole as long as it is expanding. We also find an upper bound on the value of the Hubble parameter in terms of the matter energy density on the brane, irrespective of the energy flux emitted from the brane

  19. Residual distribution for general time-dependent conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricchiuto, Mario; Csik, Arpad; Deconinck, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We consider the second-order accurate numerical solution of general time-dependent hyperbolic conservation laws over unstructured grids in the framework of the Residual Distribution method. In order to achieve full conservation of the linear, monotone and first-order space-time schemes of (Csik et al., 2003) and (Abgrall et al., 2000), we extend the conservative residual distribution (CRD) formulation of (Csik et al., 2002) to prismatic space-time elements. We then study the design of second-order accurate and monotone schemes via the nonlinear mapping of the local residuals of linear monotone schemes. We derive sufficient and necessary conditions for the well-posedness of the mapping. We prove that the schemes obtained with the CRD formulation satisfy these conditions by construction. Thus the nonlinear schemes proposed in this paper are always well defined. The performance of the linear and nonlinear schemes are evaluated on a series of test problems involving the solution of the Euler equations and of a two-phase flow model. We consider the resolution of strong shocks and complex interacting flow structures. The results demonstrate the robustness, accuracy and non-oscillatory character of the proposed schemes. d schemes

  20. Lagrange and Noether analysis of polarization laws of conservation for electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivskij, I.Yu.; Simulik, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Both well-known Bessel-Hagen conservation laws and conservation laws of polarized character are derived for electromagnetic field in the Lagrange approach to electrodynamics in terms of intensities (without using the A μ potentials as variation variables). The laws mentioned are derived according to Noether theorem because symmetry to which such concervation laws correspond is lost during the transition from intensities to potentials. Based on Noether theorem (and its generalization for Naeik's symmetries) and Lagrange function scalar in relation to complete Poincare group in terms of intensity tensor, a convenient formula for calculating and values conserved for electromagnetic field is derived which sets up a physically adequate symmetry operator -conservation law correlation and thus links the presence of conservation laws of polarized character with symmetry properties of Maxwell equations. Adiabaticity of conservation laws of polarized character under the presence of interaction with currents and charges is indicated

  1. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodrati, M. [University of Michigan, Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hajian, K. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS{sub 3}, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  2. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS 3 , charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  3. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the "solution phase space method," conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f( R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS_3, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z=3 Lifshitz black holes.

  4. Existence of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar I. Kondo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show the existence existence and uniqueness of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws with flux function in $C^{1}(mathbb{R}$, by using phase plane analysis. Also we estimate the domain of attraction of the equilibrium point attractor corresponding to the right-hand state. The equilibrium point corresponding to the left-hand state is a saddle point. According to the phase portrait close to the saddle point, there are exactly two semi-orbits of the system. We establish that only one semi-orbit come in the domain of attraction and converges to $(u_{-},0$ as $yo -infty$. This provides the desired saddle-attractor connection.

  5. Global conservation laws and femtoscopy of small systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajecki, Zbigniew; Lisa, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand, in detail, two-pion correlations measured in p+p and d+A collisions. In particular, one wishes to understand the femtoscopic correlations to compare to similar measurements in heavy-ion collisions. However, in the low-multiplicity final states of these systems, global conservation laws generate significant N-body correlations that project onto the two-pion space in nontrivial ways and complicate the femtoscopic analysis. We discuss a formalism to calculate and account for these correlations in collisions dominated by a single particle species (e.g., pions). We also discuss effects on two-particle correlations between nonidentical particles, the understanding of which may be important in the study of femtoscopic space-time asymmetries

  6. A Taylor weak-statement algorithm for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. J.; Kim, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Finite element analysis, applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problem classes, presents a formal procedure for establishing the ingredients of a discrete approximation numerical solution algorithm. A classical Galerkin weak-statement formulation, formed on a Taylor series extension of the conservation law system, is developed herein that embeds a set of parameters eligible for constraint according to specification of suitable norms. The derived family of Taylor weak statements is shown to contain, as special cases, over one dozen independently derived CFD algorithms published over the past several decades for the high speed flow problem class. A theoretical analysis is completed that facilitates direct qualitative comparisons. Numerical results for definitive linear and nonlinear test problems permit direct quantitative performance comparisons.

  7. The origin of the energy-momentum conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2017-09-01

    The interplay between the action-reaction principle and the energy-momentum conservation law is revealed by the examples of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories, and general relativity. These two statements are shown to be equivalent in the sense that both hold or fail together. Their mutual agreement is demonstrated most clearly in the self-interaction problem by taking account of the rearrangement of degrees of freedom appearing in the action of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories. The failure of energy-momentum conservation in general relativity is attributed to the fact that this theory allows solutions having nontrivial topologies. The total energy and momentum of a system with nontrivial topological content prove to be ambiguous, coordinatization-dependent quantities. For example, the energy of a Schwarzschild black hole may take any positive value greater than, or equal to, the mass of the body whose collapse is responsible for forming this black hole. We draw the analogy to the paradoxial Banach-Tarski theorem; the measure becomes a poorly defined concept if initial three-dimensional bounded sets are rearranged in topologically nontrivial ways through the action of free non-Abelian isometry groups.

  8. Analysis of the Symmetries and Conservation Laws of the Nonlinear Jaulent-Miodek Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nadjafikhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lie symmetry method is performed for the nonlinear Jaulent-Miodek equation. We will find the symmetry group and optimal systems of Lie subalgebras. The Lie invariants associated with the symmetry generators as well as the corresponding similarity reduced equations are also pointed out. And conservation laws of the J-M equation are presented with two steps: firstly, finding multipliers for computation of conservation laws and, secondly, symbolic computation of conservation laws will be applied.

  9. A general qualitative theory of conservation laws, their violation and other spontaneous phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1976-10-01

    A general theory of conservation laws and other invariants for a physical system through equivalence relations are formulated. The conservation laws are classified according to the type of equivalence relation; group equivalence, homotopical equivalence and other types of equivalence relations giving respective kinds of conservation laws. The stability properties in the topological (and differentiable) sense are discussed using continuous deformations with respect to control parameters. The conservation laws due to the abelian symmetries are shown to be stable through application of well-known theorems

  10. Higher quantum conserved current in a new completely integrable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.R.

    1980-06-01

    The first higher local quantum conserved current is the recently proposed new completely integrable (2esup(βphi)+esup(-2βphi)) 2 model is explicitly constructed thus proving absence of particle production and factorization of multiparticle scattering. (author)

  11. The laws of conservation of physics and the β-decay of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    The laws of conservation of energy, the momentum of translation and the angular momentum of a system form a closed unit according to Noether's theorem. A generalisation of these laws taking into account the states of negative energies must therefore comprise all laws of conservation. A new interpretation of the β-decay without neutrinos should thus take the law of conservation of energy at the β-continuum for the world and anti-world as motivation to demand corresponding laws of conservation for the linear momentum and the spin and it will be shown that this new interpretation of the laws of conservation exactly suffices to interpret all characteristic phenomena of β-decay in a manner free of contradiction. (orig.) [de

  12. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  13. On the structure of the new electromagnetic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, S Brian

    2004-01-01

    New electromagnetic conservation laws have recently been proposed: in the absence of electromagnetic currents, the trace of the Chevreton superenergy tensor, H ab is divergence free in four-dimensional (a) Einstein spacetimes for test fields, and (b) Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes. Subsequently it has been pointed out, in analogy with flat spaces, that for Ricci-flat spacetimes the trace of the Chevreton superenergy tensor H ab can be rearranged in the form of a generalized wave operator □ L acting on the energy-momentum tensor T ab of the test fields, i.e., H ab □ L T ab /2. In this letter we show, for Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes in the full nonlinear theory, that, although, the trace of the Chevreton superenergy tensor H ab can again be rearranged in the form of a generalized wave operator □ G acting on the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor, in this case the result is also crucially dependent on Einstein's equations; hence we argue that the divergence-free property of the tensor H ab = □ G T ab /2 has significant independent content beyond that of the divergence-free property of T ab . (letter to the editor)

  14. Unimodular Einstein-Cartan gravity: Dynamics and conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonder, Yuri; Corral, Cristóbal

    2018-04-01

    Unimodular gravity is an interesting approach to address the cosmological constant problem, since the vacuum energy density of quantum fields does not gravitate in this framework, and the cosmological constant appears as an integration constant. These features arise as a consequence of considering a constrained volume element 4-form that breaks the diffeomorphisms invariance down to volume preserving diffeomorphisms. In this work, the first-order formulation of unimodular gravity is presented by considering the spin density of matter fields as a source of spacetime torsion. Even though the most general matter Lagrangian allowed by the symmetries is considered, dynamical restrictions arise on their functional dependence. The field equations are obtained and the conservation laws associated with the symmetries are derived. It is found that, analogous to torsion-free unimodular gravity, the field equation for the vierbein is traceless; nevertheless, torsion is algebraically related to the spin density as in standard Einstein-Cartan theory. The particular example of massless Dirac spinors is studied, and comparisons with standard Einstein-Cartan theory are shown.

  15. Infinitely many conservation laws for the discrete KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, Alexander G; Schiff, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Rasin and Hydon (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 12763-73) suggested a way to construct an infinite number of conservation laws for the discrete KdV equation (dKdV), by repeated application of a certain symmetry to a known conservation law. It was not decided, however, whether the resulting conservation laws were distinct and nontrivial. In this paper we obtain the following results: (1) we give an alternative method to construct an infinite number of conservation laws using a discrete version of the Gardner transformation. (2) We give a direct proof that the conservation laws obtained by the method of Rasin and Hydon are indeed distinct and nontrivial. (3) We consider a continuum limit in which the dKdV equation becomes a first-order eikonal equation. In this limit the two sets of conservation laws become the same, and are evidently distinct and nontrivial. This proves the nontriviality of the conservation laws constructed by the Gardner method, and gives an alternative proof of the nontriviality of the conservation laws constructed by the method of Rasin and Hydon

  16. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅵ)-CONSERVATION LAWS OF MASS AND INERTIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish the coupled conservation laws, the local conservation equations and the jump conditions of mass and inertia for polar continuum theories. In this connection the new material derivatives of the deformation gradient, the line element, the surface element and the volume element were derived and the generalized Reynolds transport theorem was presented. Combining these conservation laws of mass and inertia with the balance laws of momentum, angular momentum and energy derived in our previous papers of this series, a rather complete system of coupled basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories is constituted on the whole. From this system the coupled nonlocal balance equations of mass, inertia, momentum, angular momentum and energy may be obtained by the usual localization.

  17. Fast sweeping methods for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws at steady state II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Björn; Froese, Brittany D.; Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

    2015-04-01

    The idea of using fast sweeping methods for solving stationary systems of conservation laws has previously been proposed for efficiently computing solutions with sharp shocks. We further develop these methods to allow for a more challenging class of problems including problems with sonic points, shocks originating in the interior of the domain, rarefaction waves, and two-dimensional systems. We show that fast sweeping methods can produce higher-order accuracy. Computational results validate the claims of accuracy, sharp shock curves, and optimal computational efficiency.

  18. Conservation laws in quantum mechanics on a Riemannian manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepilko, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In Refs. 1-5 the quantum dynamics of a particle on a Riemannian manifold V n is considered. The advantage of Ref. 5, in comparison with Refs. 1-4, is the fact that in it the differential-geometric character of the theory and the covariant definition (via the known Lagrangian of the particle) of the algebra of quantum-mechanical operators on V n are mutually consistent. However, in Ref. 5 the procedure for calculating the expectation values of operators from the known wave function of the particle is not discussed. In the authors view, this question is problematical and requires special study. The essence of the problem is that integration on a Riemannian manifold V n , unlike that of a Euclidean manifold R n , is uniquely defined only for scalars. For this reason, the calculation of the expectation value of, e.g., the operator of the momentum or angular momentum of a particle on V n is not defined in the usual sense. However, this circumstance was not taken into account by the authors of Refs. 1-4, in which quantum mechanics on a Riemannian manifold V n was studied. In this paper the author considers the conservation laws and a procedure for calculating observable quantities in the classical mechanics (Sec. 2) and quantum mechanics (Sec. 3) of a particle on V n . It is found that a key role here is played by the Killing vectors of the Riemannian manifold V n . It is shown that the proposed approach to the problem satisfies the correspondence principle for both the classical and the quantum mechanics of a particle on a Euclidean manifold R n

  19. Scaling symmetries, conservation laws and action principles in one-dimensional gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G M; Zank, G P

    2009-01-01

    Scaling symmetries of the planar, one-dimensional gas dynamic equations with adiabatic index γ are used to obtain Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws associated with the symmetries. The known Eulerian symmetry operators for the scaling symmetries are converted to the Lagrangian form, in which the Eulerian spatial position of the fluid element is given in terms of the Lagrangian fluid labels. Conditions for a linear combination of the three scaling symmetries to be a divergence or variational symmetry of the action are established. The corresponding Lagrangian and Eulerian form of the conservation laws are determined by application of Noether's theorem. A nonlocal conservation law associated with the scaling symmetries is obtained by applying a nonlocal symmetry operator to the scaling symmetry-conserved vector. An action principle incorporating known conservation laws using Lagrangian constraints is developed. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle gives the same formulas for the conserved vector as the classical Noether theorem, except that the Lie symmetry vector field now includes the effects of nonlocal potentials. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle is used to obtain nonlocal conservation laws. The scaling symmetry conservation laws only apply for special forms of the entropy of the gas.

  20. Expanding Newton Mechanics with Neutrosophy and Quadstage Method ──New Newton Mechanics Taking Law of Conservation of Energy as Unique Source Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal

  1. Solutions and conservation laws of Benjamin–Bona–Mahony

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, exact solutions of Benjamin–Bona–Mahony–Peregrine equation are obtained with power-law and dual power-law nonlinearities. The Lie group analysis as well as the simplest equation method are used to carry out the integration of these equations. The solutions obtained are cnoidal waves, periodic solutions ...

  2. Numerical viscosity of entropy stable schemes for systems of conservation laws. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1985-11-01

    Discrete approximations to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are studied. The amount of numerical viscosity present in such schemes is quantified and related to their entropy stability by means of comparison. To this end conservative schemes which are also entropy conservative are constructed. These entropy conservative schemes enjoy second-order accuracy; moreover, they admit a particular interpretation within the finite-element frameworks, and hence can be formulated on various mesh configurations. It is then shown that conservative schemes are entropy stable if and only if they contain more viscosity than the mentioned above entropy conservative ones

  3. On 'conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DasGupta, P.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that conservation of energy, linear momentum and angular momentum are all compatible with each other in the case of an electron undergoing cyclotron emission in a uniform and constant magnetic field. The flaw in the argument of previous workers claiming the incompatibility of the conservation principles is also pointed out. (author)

  4. Waves, conservation laws and symmetries of a third-order nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    order is under consideration. Important properties concerning advanced character such like conservation laws and the equation of continuity are given. Characteristic wave properties such like dispersion relations and both the group and phase ...

  5. Statistical mechanical foundation of the peridynamic nonlocal continuum theory: energy and momentum conservation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoucq, R B; Sears, Mark P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive the energy and momentum conservation laws of the peridynamic nonlocal continuum theory using the principles of classical statistical mechanics. The peridynamic laws allow the consideration of discontinuous motion, or deformation, by relying on integral operators. These operators sum forces and power expenditures separated by a finite distance and so represent nonlocal interaction. The integral operators replace the differential divergence operators conventionally used, thereby obviating special treatment at points of discontinuity. The derivation presented employs a general multibody interatomic potential, avoiding the standard assumption of a pairwise decomposition. The integral operators are also expressed in terms of a stress tensor and heat flux vector under the assumption that these fields are differentiable, demonstrating that the classical continuum energy and momentum conservation laws are consequences of the more general peridynamic laws. An important conclusion is that nonlocal interaction is intrinsic to continuum conservation laws when derived using the principles of statistical mechanics.

  6. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law | Knobel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and succumb); habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. ... prey species that are not Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable, ... Better application of the existing laws could be achieved by improving ...

  7. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  8. Tendril perversion-a physical implication of the topological conservation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieranski, Piotr; Baranska, Justyna; Skjeltorp, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Tendril perversion-a phenomenon ruled by the topological conservation law-is presented. A contemporary, quantitative analysis of the phenomenon is confronted with its qualitative, intuitive analysis carried out by Charles Darwin. The linking number, twist and writhe are defined. The topological conservation law is introduced. The Gauss formula for calculating the linking number and the Calugareanu formula for calculating writhe are derived and discussed using physical arguments

  9. Tendril perversion-a physical implication of the topological conservation law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieranski, Piotr [Laboratory of Computational Physics and Semiconductors, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60 965 Poznan (Poland); Baranska, Justyna [Laboratory of Computational Physics and Semiconductors, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60 965 Poznan (Poland); Skjeltorp, Arne [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)

    2004-09-10

    Tendril perversion-a phenomenon ruled by the topological conservation law-is presented. A contemporary, quantitative analysis of the phenomenon is confronted with its qualitative, intuitive analysis carried out by Charles Darwin. The linking number, twist and writhe are defined. The topological conservation law is introduced. The Gauss formula for calculating the linking number and the Calugareanu formula for calculating writhe are derived and discussed using physical arguments.

  10. Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, conservation laws, and linearization of various field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau Wang, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The discussion includes: the Sine-Gordon equation, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations and the derivation of local conservation laws; chiral fields, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, local and non-local conservation laws, and linearization; super chiral fields, a parallel development similar to the chiral field; and self-dual Yang-Mills fields in 4-dimensional Euclidean space; loop-cpace chiral equations, parallel development but with subtlety

  11. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    The conservation threats to eagles in South Africa may be classified into two broad ..... 3.1.6 The Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001) (the ...... South Africa has highly advanced biodiversity legislation in place, but merely having.

  12. Nearly auto-parallel maps and conservation laws on curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacaru, S.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of nearly auto-parallel maps (na-maps, generalization of conformal transforms) of Einstein-Cartan spaces is formulated. The transformation laws of geometrical objects and gravitational and matter field equations under superpositions of na-maps are considered. A special attention is paid to the very important problem of definition of conservation laws for gravitational fields. (Author)

  13. Simple connection between conservation laws in the Korteweg--de Vriesand sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodos, A.

    1980-01-01

    An infinite sequence of conserved quantities follows from the Lax representation in both the Korteweg--de Vries and sine-Gordon systems. We show that these two sequences are related by a simple substitution. In an appendix, two different methods of deriving conservation laws from the Lax representation are presented

  14. On a quantum version of conservation laws for derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Chowdhury, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors derived the quantum mechanical versions of infinite number of conservation laws associated with Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger equation with the help of a methodology used in string theory. The renormalised version of the conserved quantities are obtained with explicit forms of the counter terms

  15. Conservation laws for steady flow and solitons in a multifluid plasma revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, R. L.; McKenzie, J. F.; Webb, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The conservation laws used in constructing the governing equations for planar solitons in multifluid plasmas are revisited. In particular, the concept of generalized vorticity facilitates the derivation of some general ''Bernoulli theorems,'' which reduce, in specific instances, to conservation laws previously deduced by other means. These theorems clarify the underlying physical principles that give rise to the conserved quantities. As an example of the usefulness of the techniques, even for relatively simple flows and progressive waves, the equations governing stationary nonlinear whistler waves propagating parallel to an ambient magnetic field are derived using generalized vorticity concepts

  16. Conservation laws derived by the Neutral-Action Method. A simple application to the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbrock, U.; Kienzler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation laws are a recognized tool in physical and engineering sciences. The classical procedure to construct conservation laws is to apply Noether's Theorem. It requires the existence of a Lagrange-function for the system under consideration. Two unknown sets of functions have to be found. A broader class of such laws is obtainable, if Noether's Theorem is used together with the Bessel-Hagen extension, raising the number of sets of unknown functions to three. By using the recently developed Neutral-Action Method, the same conservation laws can be obtained by calculating only one unknown set of functions. Moreover the Neutral Action Method can also be applied in the absence of a Lagrangian, since only the governing differential equations are required for this procedure. In the paper, an application of this method to the Schroedinger equation is presented. (authors)

  17. Metric theories of gravity perturbation and conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Alexander N; Lompay, Robert R; Tekin, Bayram

    2017-01-01

    By focusing on the most popular pertubation methods this monograph aspires to give a unified overview and comparison of ways to construct conserved quantities and study symmetries in general relativity. The main emphasis lies on the field-theoretical formulation of pertubations, the canonical Noether approach and the Belinfante procedure of symmetrisation.

  18. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-04-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.

  19. Scaling and scale invariance of conservation laws in Reynolds transport theorem framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltas, Ismail; Ulusoy, Suleyman

    2015-07-01

    Scale invariance is the case where the solution of a physical process at a specified time-space scale can be linearly related to the solution of the processes at another time-space scale. Recent studies investigated the scale invariance conditions of hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformations to the governing equations of the processes. Scale invariance of a physical process is usually achieved under certain conditions on the scaling ratios of the variables and parameters involved in the process. The foundational axioms of hydrodynamics are the conservation laws, namely, conservation of mass, conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of energy from continuum mechanics. They are formulated using the Reynolds transport theorem. Conventionally, Reynolds transport theorem formulates the conservation equations in integral form. Yet, differential form of the conservation equations can also be derived for an infinitesimal control volume. In the formulation of the governing equation of a process, one or more than one of the conservation laws and, some times, a constitutive relation are combined together. Differential forms of the conservation equations are used in the governing partial differential equation of the processes. Therefore, differential conservation equations constitute the fundamentals of the governing equations of the hydrodynamic processes. Applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework instead of applying to the governing partial differential equations may lead to more fundamental conclusions on the scaling and scale invariance of the hydrodynamic processes. This study will investigate the scaling behavior and scale invariance conditions of the hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework.

  20. Symmetries and conservation laws in non-Hermitian field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Jean; Millington, Peter; Seynaeve, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Anti-Hermitian mass terms are considered, in addition to Hermitian ones, for P T -symmetric complex-scalar and fermionic field theories. In both cases, the Lagrangian can be written in a manifestly symmetric form in terms of the P T -conjugate variables, allowing for an unambiguous definition of the equations of motion. After discussing the resulting constraints on the consistency of the variational procedure, we show that the invariance of a non-Hermitian Lagrangian under a continuous symmetry transformation does not imply the existence of a corresponding conserved current. Conserved currents exist, but these are associated with transformations under which the Lagrangian is not invariant and which reflect the well-known interpretation of P T -symmetric theories in terms of systems with gain and loss. A formal understanding of this unusual feature of non-Hermitian theories requires a careful treatment of Noether's theorem, and we give specific examples for illustration.

  1. Soft black hole absorption rates as conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, Steven G.; Schwab, Burkhard UniversityW.

    2017-01-01

    The absorption rate of low-energy, or soft, electromagnetic radiation by spherically symmetric black holes in arbitrary dimensions is shown to be fixed by conservation of energy and large gauge transformations. We interpret this result as the explicit realization of the Hawking-Perry-Strominger Ward identity for large gauge transformations in the background of a non-evaporating black hole. Along the way we rederive and extend previous analytic results regarding the absorption rate for the minimal scalar and the photon.

  2. Soft black hole absorption rates as conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G. [Brown University, Department of Physics,182 Hope St, Providence, RI, 02912 (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,East Lansing, MI, 48824 (United States); Schwab, Burkhard UniversityW. [Harvard University, Center for Mathematical Science and Applications,1 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The absorption rate of low-energy, or soft, electromagnetic radiation by spherically symmetric black holes in arbitrary dimensions is shown to be fixed by conservation of energy and large gauge transformations. We interpret this result as the explicit realization of the Hawking-Perry-Strominger Ward identity for large gauge transformations in the background of a non-evaporating black hole. Along the way we rederive and extend previous analytic results regarding the absorption rate for the minimal scalar and the photon.

  3. Identifying all moiety conservation laws in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Andrea; De Martino, Daniele; Mulet, Roberto; Pagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The stoichiometry of a metabolic network gives rise to a set of conservation laws for the aggregate level of specific pools of metabolites, which, on one hand, pose dynamical constraints that cross-link the variations of metabolite concentrations and, on the other, provide key insight into a cell's metabolic production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all non-negative integer solutions of a linear system, a programming problem known to be NP-hard. We present an efficient strategy to compute the complete set of integer conservation laws of a genome-scale stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. Our method is deployed for the analysis of moiety conservation relationships in two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, in six tissue-specific human metabolic networks, and, finally, in the human reactome as a whole, revealing that bacterial metabolism could be evolutionarily designed to cover broader production spectra than human metabolism. Convergence to the full set of moiety conservation laws in each case is achieved in extremely reduced computing times. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the independent pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation.

  4. Identifying all moiety conservation laws in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Martino

    Full Text Available The stoichiometry of a metabolic network gives rise to a set of conservation laws for the aggregate level of specific pools of metabolites, which, on one hand, pose dynamical constraints that cross-link the variations of metabolite concentrations and, on the other, provide key insight into a cell's metabolic production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all non-negative integer solutions of a linear system, a programming problem known to be NP-hard. We present an efficient strategy to compute the complete set of integer conservation laws of a genome-scale stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. Our method is deployed for the analysis of moiety conservation relationships in two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, in six tissue-specific human metabolic networks, and, finally, in the human reactome as a whole, revealing that bacterial metabolism could be evolutionarily designed to cover broader production spectra than human metabolism. Convergence to the full set of moiety conservation laws in each case is achieved in extremely reduced computing times. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the independent pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation.

  5. Searching for Conservation Laws in Brain Dynamics—BOLD Flux and Source Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U. Voss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD imaging is the most important noninvasive tool to map human brain function. It relies on local blood-flow changes controlled by neurovascular coupling effects, usually in response to some cognitive or perceptual task. In this contribution we ask if the spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD signal can be modeled by a conservation law. In analogy to the description of physical laws, which often can be derived from some underlying conservation law, identification of conservation laws in the brain could lead to new models for the functional organization of the brain. Our model is independent of the nature of the conservation law, but we discuss possible hints and motivations for conservation laws. For example, globally limited blood supply and local competition between brain regions for blood might restrict the large scale BOLD signal in certain ways that could be observable. One proposed selective pressure for the evolution of such conservation laws is the closed volume of the skull limiting the expansion of brain tissue by increases in blood volume. These ideas are demonstrated on a mental motor imagery fMRI experiment, in which functional brain activation was mapped in a group of volunteers imagining themselves swimming. In order to search for local conservation laws during this complex cognitive process, we derived maps of quantities resulting from spatial interaction of the BOLD amplitudes. Specifically, we mapped fluxes and sources of the BOLD signal, terms that would appear in a description by a continuity equation. Whereas we cannot present final answers with the particular analysis of this particular experiment, some results seem to be non-trivial. For example, we found that during task the group BOLD flux covered more widespread regions than identified by conventional BOLD mapping and was always increasing during task. It is our hope that these results motivate more work towards the search for conservation

  6. Multiplicity fluctuations in a hadron gas with exact conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becattini, Francesco; Keraenen, Antti; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Gabbriellini, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    The study of fluctuations of particle multiplicities in relativistic heavy-ion reactions has drawn much attention in recent years, because they have been proposed as a probe for underlying dynamics and possible formation of quark-gluon plasma. Thus it is of uttermost importance to describe the baseline of statistical fluctuations in the hadron gas phase in a correct way. We performed a comprehensive study of multiplicity distributions in the full ideal hadron-resonance gas in different ensembles, namely grand canonical, canonical, and microcanonical, by using two different methods: Asymptotic expansions and full Monte Carlo simulations. The method based on asymptotic expansion allows a quick numerical calculation of dispersions in the hadron gas with three conserved charges at the primary hadron level, while the Monte Carlo simulation is suitable for studying the effect of resonance decays. Even though mean multiplicities converge to the same values, major differences in fluctuations for these ensembles persist in the thermodynamic limit, as pointed out in recent studies. We observe that this difference is ultimately related to the nonadditivity of the variances in the ensembles with exact conservation of extensive quantities

  7. Conserved upstream open reading frames in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Carolyn J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upstream open reading frames (uORFs can down-regulate the translation of the main open reading frame (mORF through two broad mechanisms: ribosomal stalling and reducing reinitiation efficiency. In distantly related plants, such as rice and Arabidopsis, it has been found that conserved uORFs are rare in these transcriptomes with approximately 100 loci. It is unclear how prevalent conserved uORFs are in closely related plants. Results We used a homology-based approach to identify conserved uORFs in five cereals (monocots that could potentially regulate translation. Our approach used a modified reciprocal best hit method to identify putative orthologous sequences that were then analysed by a comparative R-nomics program called uORFSCAN to find conserved uORFs. Conclusion This research identified new genes that may be controlled at the level of translation by conserved uORFs. We report that conserved uORFs are rare (

  8. Turing patterns in parabolic systems of conservation laws and numerically observed stability of periodic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Blake; Jung, Soyeun; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    Turing patterns on unbounded domains have been widely studied in systems of reaction-diffusion equations. However, up to now, they have not been studied for systems of conservation laws. Here, we (i) derive conditions for Turing instability in conservation laws and (ii) use these conditions to find families of periodic solutions bifurcating from uniform states, numerically continuing these families into the large-amplitude regime. For the examples studied, numerical stability analysis suggests that stable periodic waves can emerge either from supercritical Turing bifurcations or, via secondary bifurcation as amplitude is increased, from subcritical Turing bifurcations. This answers in the affirmative a question of Oh-Zumbrun whether stable periodic solutions of conservation laws can occur. Determination of a full small-amplitude stability diagram - specifically, determination of rigorous Eckhaus-type stability conditions - remains an interesting open problem.

  9. Infinite sets of conservation laws for linear and nonlinear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The relation between an infinite set of conservation laws of a linear field equation and the enveloping algebra of the space-time symmetry group is established. It is shown that each symmetric element of the enveloping algebra of the space-time symmetry group of a linear field equation generates a one-parameter group of symmetries of the field equation. The cases of the Maxwell and Dirac equations are studied in detail. Then it is shown that (at least in the sense of a power series in the 'coupling constant') the conservation laws of the linear case can be deformed to conservation laws of a nonlinear field equation which is obtained from the linear one by adding a nonlinear term invariant under the group of space-time symmetries. As an example, our method is applied to the Korteweg-de Vries equation and to the massless Thirring model. (orig.)

  10. Infinite sets of conservation laws for linear and non-linear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederle, J.

    1984-01-01

    The work was motivated by a desire to understand group theoretically the existence of an infinite set of conservation laws for non-interacting fields and to carry over these conservation laws to the case of interacting fields. The relation between an infinite set of conservation laws of a linear field equation and the enveloping algebra of its space-time symmetry group was established. It is shown that in the case of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation to each symmetry of the corresponding linear equation delta sub(o)uxxx=u sub() determined by an element of the enveloping algebra of the space translation algebra, there corresponds a symmetry of the full KdV equation

  11. Comments on conformal masses, asymptotic backgrounds and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruelle, Nathalie; Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The 'conformal mass prescriptions' were used recently to calculate the mass of spacetimes in higher dimensional and higher curvature theories of gravity. These definitions are closely related to Komar integrals for spacetimes that are conformally flat at great distances from the sources. We derive these relations without using the conformal infinity formalism

  12. Conservation law for distributed entanglement of formation and quantum discord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanchini, Felipe F.; Cornelio, Marcio F.; Oliveira, Marcos C. de; Caldeira, Amir O.

    2011-01-01

    We present a direct relation, based upon a monogamic principle, between entanglement of formation (EOF) and quantum discord (QD), showing how they are distributed in an arbitrary tripartite pure system. By extending it to a paradigmatic situation of a bipartite system coupled to an environment, we demonstrate that the EOF and the QD obey conservation relation. By means of this relation we show that in the deterministic quantum computer with one pure qubit the protocol has the ability to rearrange the EOF and the QD, which implies that quantum computation can be understood on a different basis as a coherent dynamics where quantum correlations are distributed between the qubits of the computer. Furthermore, for a tripartite mixed state we show that the balance between distributed EOF and QD results in a stronger version of the strong subadditivity of entropy.

  13. Conservation Laws for Gyrokinetic Equations for Large Perturbations and Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimits, Andris

    2017-10-01

    Gyrokinetic theory has proved to be very useful for the understanding of magnetized plasmas, both to simplify analytical treatments and as a basis for efficient numerical simulations. Gyrokinetic theories were previously developed in two extended orderings that are applicable to large fluctuations and flows as may arise in the tokamak edge and scrapeoff layer. In the present work, we cast the resulting equations in a field-theoretical variational form, and derive, up to second order in the respective orderings, the associated global and local energy and (linear and toroidal) momentum conservation relations that result from Noether's theorem. The consequences of these for the various possible choices of numerical discretization used in gyrokinetic simulations are considered. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the U.S. DOE, OFES.

  14. The conservation laws of nonrelativistic classical and quantum mechanics for a system of interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, P.

    1978-01-01

    The various classical or quantum mechanical equations describing a system of N particles with central two-body interactions are invariant under the 10 transformations of the Galilei group, and for interaction potential inversely proportional to the squares of the particle separations also under two further transformations. From the invariance of the corresponding classical and quantum mechanical variation principles under this 12-parameter conformal extension of the Galilei group, the 'Jacobi-Schroedinger group', the 12 well-known conservation laws of Newtonian dynamics as well as 12 local conservation laws implied by the Schroedinger equation are obtained via Noether's theorem. Under appropriate conditions on the wave functions, these local laws yield 12 global conservation laws which are analogous to the Newtonian ones. The Hamiltonian-Jacobi equation implies a classical equation differing from the Schroedinger equation only by a potential-like term involving the Van Vleck determinant, from which 12 local balance equations and the corresponding global equations are obtained, which under certain conditions reduce the true conservation laws. (Auth.)

  15. On double reductions from symmetries and conservation laws for a damped Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarias, M.L.; Rosa, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study a Boussinesq equation with a strong damping term from the point of view of the Lie theory. We derive the classical Lie symmetries admitted by the equation as well as the reduced ordinary differential equations. Some nontrivial conservation laws are derived by using the multipliers method. Taking into account the relationship between symmetries and conservation laws and applying the double reduction method, we obtain a direct reduction of order of the ordinary differential equations and in particular a kink solution.

  16. Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional fourth-order evolution equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional nonlinear fourth-order evolution equation. Using the method of Lie point symmetry, we provide the associated vector fields, and derive the similarity reductions of the equation, respectively. The method can be applied wisely and efficiently to get the reduced fractional ordinary differential equations based on the similarity reductions. Finally, by using the nonlinear self-adjointness method and Riemann-Liouville time-fractional derivative operator as well as Euler-Lagrange operator, the conservation laws of the equation are obtained.

  17. Symmetries, Traveling Wave Solutions, and Conservation Laws of a (3+1-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letlhogonolo Daddy Moleleki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the (3+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation, which has applications in fluid mechanics. We find exact solutions of the (3+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation by utilizing the Lie symmetry method along with the simplest equation method. The solutions obtained are traveling wave solutions. Moreover, we construct the conservation laws of the (3+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation using the new conservation theorem, which is due to Ibragimov.

  18. Conservation laws for certain time fractional nonlinear systems of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Komal; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, an extension of the concept of nonlinear self-adjointness and Noether operators is proposed for calculating conserved vectors of the time fractional nonlinear systems of partial differential equations. In our recent work (J Math Phys 2016; 57: 101504), by proposing the symmetry approach for time fractional systems, the Lie symmetries for some fractional nonlinear systems have been derived. In this paper, the obtained infinitesimal generators are used to find conservation laws for the corresponding fractional systems.

  19. Solutions and Conservation Laws of a (2+1-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letlhogonolo Daddy Moleleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a nonlinear evolution partial differential equation, namely, the (2+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation. For the first time Lie symmetry method together with simplest equation method is used to find the exact solutions of the (2+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation. Furthermore, the new conservation theorem due to Ibragimov will be utilized to construct the conservation laws of the (2+1-dimensional Boussinesq equation.

  20. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge–Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2014-08-27

    An error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge–Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also flux-based decompositions are studied. In the latter case mass conservation is guaranteed, but it will be seen that the accuracy may deteriorate.

  1. On the checking of electric charge conservation law and the pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun', L.B.

    1989-01-01

    This is a short critical review of the attempts to check the accuracy with which are carried out in experiment the electric charge conservation law and the Pauli principle. The absence of the inwardly noncontradictory phenomenological theory is emphasized, which could describe the charge conservation and/or the Pauli principle violation. Under charge nonconservation longitudinal photons are of a principal importance. New suggestions concerning the principle Puli checking are discussed

  2. Conservation Laws and Traveling Wave Solutions of a Generalized Nonlinear ZK-BBM Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijo Rashid Adem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a generalized two-dimensional nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (ZK-BBM equation, which is in fact Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation formulated in the ZK sense. Conservation laws for this equation are constructed by using the new conservation theorem due to Ibragimov and the multiplier method. Furthermore, traveling wave solutions are obtained by employing the (G'/G-expansion method.

  3. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge–Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem; Ketcheson, David I.; Savostianov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    An error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge–Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also flux-based decompositions are studied. In the latter case mass conservation is guaranteed, but it will be seen that the accuracy may deteriorate.

  4. Discretely Conservative Finite-Difference Formulations for Nonlinear Conservation Laws in Split Form: Theory and Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nordstroem, Jan; Yamaleev, Nail K.; Swanson, R. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of nonlinear conservation laws that admit discontinuous solutions are typically restricted to discretizations of equations that are explicitly written in divergence form. This restriction is, however, unnecessary. Herein, linear combinations of divergence and product rule forms that have been discretized using diagonal-norm skew-symmetric summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, are shown to satisfy the sufficient conditions of the Lax-Wendroff theorem and thus are appropriate for simulations of discontinuous physical phenomena. Furthermore, special treatments are not required at the points that are near physical boundaries (i.e., discrete conservation is achieved throughout the entire computational domain, including the boundaries). Examples are presented of a fourth-order, SBP finite-difference operator with second-order boundary closures. Sixth- and eighth-order constructions are derived, and included in E. Narrow-stencil difference operators for linear viscous terms are also derived; these guarantee the conservative form of the combined operator.

  5. Conservation laws, vertex corrections, and screening in Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saurabh; Chubukov, Andrey V.; Hirschfeld, P. J.

    2017-07-01

    We present a microscopic theory for the Raman response of a clean multiband superconductor, with emphasis on the effects of vertex corrections and long-range Coulomb interaction. The measured Raman intensity, R (Ω ) , is proportional to the imaginary part of the fully renormalized particle-hole correlator with Raman form factors γ (k ⃗) . In a BCS superconductor, a bare Raman bubble is nonzero for any γ (k ⃗) and diverges at Ω =2 Δmax , where Δmax is the largest gap along the Fermi surface. However, for γ (k ⃗) = constant, the full R (Ω ) is expected to vanish due to particle number conservation. It was sometimes stated that this vanishing is due to the singular screening by long-range Coulomb interaction. In our general approach, we show diagrammatically that this vanishing actually holds due to vertex corrections from the same short-range interaction that gives rise to superconductivity. We further argue that long-range Coulomb interaction does not affect the Raman signal for any γ (k ⃗) . We argue that vertex corrections eliminate the divergence at 2 Δmax . We also argue that vertex corrections give rise to sharp peaks in R (Ω ) at Ω <2 Δmin (the minimum gap along the Fermi surface), when Ω coincides with the frequency of one of the collective modes in a superconductor, e.g., Leggett and Bardasis-Schrieffer modes in the particle-particle channel, and an excitonic mode in the particle-hole channel.

  6. Probing Fundamental Symmetries: Questioning the Very Basics of Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal

    2017-09-01

    Is the Lorentz-CPT symmetry, a core component of the standard model, valid? To what extent are the CP and T symmetries broken in the strong sector? What are we doing about the existing strong-CP problem? Do neutrons oscillate (like neutral kaons) or break the (Baryon - Lepton) number conservation? In this presentation, we will go over some of the experiments probing fundamental symmetries trying to answer the above questions. I will, very briefly, introduce the CompEx & nEx experiments probing the Lorentz symmetry in the electromagnetic (EM) sector, the nEDM experiment probing CP and T symmetries in the strong sector, NStar experiment searching for neutron oscillations, MASS & BDX experiments searching for axion like particles & dark matter. We will then briefly touch upon the highlights of these experiments and focus on the path we are taking towards answering those questions while also connecting the dots [experiments] with CEU. PM would like to acknowledge support from SERI SNSF Grant 2015.0594.

  7. Probing the design of grand unification through conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this talk is to note a few special consequences of gauging ''maximal'' quark-lepton symmetries such as SO(16), which is the maximal symmetry for a single family of fermions. Within these symmetries, violations for B, L and F are spontaneous rather than explicit. Furthermore these symmetries as a rule permit intermediate mass scales approx.(10 3 -10 6 GeV) and (10 8 -10 11 GeV) filling the so-called grand plateau between 10 2 and 10 15 GeV. It has been shown in earlier papers that within these symmetries proton may decay via four alternative models: i.e. proton→one or three leptons or antileptons plus mesons; some of which can coexist. It is now observed that even n-n-bar oscillations can coexist with (B-L) conserving proton-decays of the type p→e + π 0 etc. without posing any conflict with the cosmological generation of baryon-excess; both these processes can possess measurable strengths so as to be amenable to forthcoming searches. Search for alternative decay modes of proton and n-n-bar oscillations, even as processes in second and third generation experiments, would provide valuable information on the question of intermediate mass-scales and thereby on the design of grand unification

  8. Noether Symmetries and Covariant Conservation Laws in Classical, Relativistic and Quantum Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fatibene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the Lagrangian formulation of (generalised Noether symmetries in the framework of Calculus of Variations in Jet Bundles, with a special attention to so-called “Natural Theories” and “Gauge-Natural Theories” that include all relevant Field Theories and physical applications (from Mechanics to General Relativity, to Gauge Theories, Supersymmetric Theories, Spinors, etc.. It is discussed how the use of Poincar´e–Cartan forms and decompositions of natural (or gauge-natural variational operators give rise to notions such as “generators of Noether symmetries”, energy and reduced energy flow, Bianchi identities, weak and strong conservation laws, covariant conservation laws, Hamiltonian-like conservation laws (such as, e.g., so-calledADMlaws in General Relativity with emphasis on the physical interpretation of the quantities calculated in specific cases (energy, angular momentum, entropy, etc.. A few substantially new and very recent applications/examples are presented to better show the power of the methods introduced: one in Classical Mechanics (definition of strong conservation laws in a frame-independent setting and a discussion on the way in which conserved quantities depend on the choice of an observer; one in Classical Field Theories (energy and entropy in General Relativity, in its standard formulation, in its spin-frame formulation, in its first order formulation “à la Palatini” and in its extensions to Non-Linear Gravity Theories; one in Quantum Field Theories (applications to conservation laws in Loop Quantum Gravity via spin connections and Barbero–Immirzi connections.

  9. Conservation laws of wave action and potential enstrophy for Rossby waves in a stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of wave energy, enstrophy, and wave motion for atmospheric Rossby waves in a variable mean flow are discussed from a theoretical and pedagogic standpoint. In the absence of mean flow gradients, the wave energy density satisfies a local conservation law, with the appropriate flow velocity being the group velocity. In the presence of mean flow variations, wave energy is not conserved, but wave action is, provided the mean flow is independent of longitude. Wave enstrophy is conserved for arbitrary variations of the mean flow. Connections with Eliassen-Palm flux are also discussed.

  10. Conservation laws arising in the study of forward-forward Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc

    2017-01-01

    We consider forward-forward Mean Field Game (MFG) models that arise in numerical approximations of stationary MFGs. First, we establish a link between these models and a class of hyperbolic conservation laws as well as certain nonlinear wave equations. Second, we investigate existence and long-time behavior of solutions for such models.

  11. Symmetry and conservation law structures of some anti-self-dual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... (2016) 87: 64 c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12043-016-1258-y. Symmetry and conservation law structures of some anti-self-dual (ASD) manifolds. J BASINGWA1, A H KARA1,∗, ASHFAQUE H BOKHARI2, R A MOUSA2 and F D ZAMAN2. 1School of Mathematics, University of the ...

  12. Conservation laws for a system of two point masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibaut; Deruelle, Nathalie

    1981-01-01

    We study the symmetries of the generalized lagrangian of two point masses, in the post-post newtonian approximation of General Relativity. We deduce, via Noether's theorem, conservation laws for energy, linear and angular momentum, as well as a generalisation of the center-of-mass theorem [fr

  13. Conservation laws in disordered electron systems: Thermodynamic limit and configurational averaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janiš, Václav; Kolorenč, Jindřich

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 241, č. 9 (2004), s. 2032-2042 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : conservation laws * noninteracting disordered electrons * diffusion pole Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2004

  14. From conservation laws to port-Hamiltonian representations of distributed-parameter systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maschke, B.M.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Piztek, P.

    Abstract: In this paper it is shown how the port-Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems is closely related to the general thermodynamic framework of systems of conservation laws and closure equations. The situation turns out to be similar to the lumped-parameter case where the

  15. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li

    2011-01-01

    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  16. Conservation laws in the SLsub(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissani, N.

    1983-01-01

    A one-parameter family of new Lagrangian densities for the SLsub(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation is proposed. The relation between the laws of conservation and the SLsub(2,C) symmetry of general relativity through the Noether theorem is investigated

  17. On the coupling of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws with ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsche, Raul; Colombo, Rinaldo M; Garavello, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by applications to the piston problem, to a manhole model, to blood flow and to supply chain dynamics, this paper deals with a system of conservation laws coupled with a system of ordinary differential equations. The former is defined on a domain with boundary and the coupling is provided by the boundary condition. For each of the examples considered, numerical integrations are provided

  18. On a kind of Noether symmetries and conservation laws in k-cosymplectic field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Juan Carlos; Roman-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto; Vilarino, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying symmetries of certain kinds of k-cosymplectic Hamiltonian systems in first-order classical field theories. Thus, we introduce a particular class of symmetries and study the problem of associating conservation laws to them by means of a suitable generalization of Noether's theorem.

  19. Symmetry and conservation law structures of some anti-self-dual

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ASD systems and manifolds have been studied via a number of approaches and their origins have been well documented. In this paper, we look at the symmetry structures, variational symmetries and related concepts around the associated conservation laws for a number of such manifolds.

  20. Generalized internal long wave equations: construction, hamiltonian structure and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of the theory of the internal long-wave equations (ILW) are considered. A general class of the ILW type equations is constructed by means of the Zakharov-Shabat ''dressing'' method. Hamiltonian structure and infinite numbers of conservation laws are introduced. The considered equations are shown to be Hamiltonian in the so-called second Hamiltonian structu

  1. 1/N perturbation theory and quantum conservation laws for supersymmetrical chiral field. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Krivoshchekov, V.K.; Medvedev, P.B.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet Standartov Soveta Ministrov SSSR, Moscow; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental'noj Fiziki)

    1980-01-01

    The renormalizability of the supersymmetric chiral model (supersymmetric nonlinear σ-model) is proved in the framework of the 1/N perturbation theory expansion proposed in the previous paper. The renormalizability proof is essentially based on the quantum supersymmetric chirality condition. The supersymmetric formulation of equations of motion is given. The first non-trivial quantum conservation laws are derived

  2. Sensitivity analysis of 1−d steady forced scalar conservation laws

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ersoy, M.; Feireisl, Eduard; Zuazua, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 9 (2013), s. 3817-3834 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sensitivity * scalar conservation law * control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.570, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039613000892#

  3. Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Cai; Yanyan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.

  4. Exact solutions for a discrete unidimensional Boltzmann model satisfying all conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornille, H.

    1989-01-01

    We consider a four-velocity discrete and unidimensional Boltzmann model. The mass, momentum and energy conservation laws being satisfied we can define a temperature. We report the exact positive solutions which have been found: periodic in the space and propagating or not when the time is growing, shock waves similarity solutions and (1 + 1)-dimensional solutions [fr

  5. Symmetries, conservation laws, and time reversibility for Hamiltonian systems with external forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    A system theoretic framework is given for the description of Hamiltonian systems with external forces and partial observations of the state. It is shown how symmetries and conservation laws can be defined within this framework. A generalization of Noether's theorem is obtained. Finally a precise

  6. Lax pairs and conservation laws for two differential-difference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxia

    2003-01-01

    A coupled extended Lotka-Volterra lattice and a special Toda lattice are derived from the existing bilinear equations. Starting from the corresponding bilinear Baecklund transformation, Lax pairs for these two differential-difference systems are obtained. Furthermore, an infinite number of conservation laws for the differential-difference equations are deduced from the Lax pairs in a systematic way

  7. Conservation laws for two (2 + 1)-dimensional differential-difference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guofu; Tam, H.-W.

    2006-01-01

    Two integrable differential-difference equations are considered. One is derived from the discrete BKP equation and the other is a symmetric (2 + 1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation. An infinite number of conservation laws for the two differential-difference equations are deduced

  8. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-03-14

    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  9. Conservation laws arising in the study of forward-forward Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-04-24

    We consider forward-forward Mean Field Game (MFG) models that arise in numerical approximations of stationary MFGs. First, we establish a link between these models and a class of hyperbolic conservation laws as well as certain nonlinear wave equations. Second, we investigate existence and long-time behavior of solutions for such models.

  10. An improved weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rafael; Carmona, Monique; Costa, Bruno; Don, Wai Sun

    2008-03-01

    In this article we develop an improved version of the classical fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference scheme of [G.S. Jiang, C.W. Shu, Efficient implementation of weighted ENO schemes, J. Comput. Phys. 126 (1996) 202-228] (WENO-JS) for hyperbolic conservation laws. Through the novel use of a linear combination of the low order smoothness indicators already present in the framework of WENO-JS, a new smoothness indicator of higher order is devised and new non-oscillatory weights are built, providing a new WENO scheme (WENO-Z) with less dissipation and higher resolution than the classical WENO. This new scheme generates solutions that are sharp as the ones of the mapped WENO scheme (WENO-M) of Henrick et al. [A.K. Henrick, T.D. Aslam, J.M. Powers, Mapped weighted essentially non-oscillatory schemes: achieving optimal order near critical points, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 542-567], however with a 25% reduction in CPU costs, since no mapping is necessary. We also provide a detailed analysis of the convergence of the WENO-Z scheme at critical points of smooth solutions and show that the solution enhancements of WENO-Z and WENO-M at problems with shocks comes from their ability to assign substantially larger weights to discontinuous stencils than the WENO-JS scheme, not from their superior order of convergence at critical points. Numerical solutions of the linear advection of discontinuous functions and nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws as the one dimensional Euler equations with Riemann initial value problems, the Mach 3 shock-density wave interaction and the blastwave problems are compared with the ones generated by the WENO-JS and WENO-M schemes. The good performance of the WENO-Z scheme is also demonstrated in the simulation of two dimensional problems as the shock-vortex interaction and a Mach 4.46 Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) modeled via the two dimensional Euler equations.

  11. A closed set of conservation laws and the evolution of the electron magnetic moment in the collisionless solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.

    1993-01-01

    A hydromagnetic equation system for the interplanetary collisionless solar wind is used to derive a set of conservation laws for that medium. It is found that every equation of the original system, including the closure relation, is related to one conservation law. The set that has been derived does not only include the traditional laws, but also a new one for the magnetic moment of the electrons. The conservation set is then used to obtain the space constants for the solar coronal expansion. The new law yields a constant that has not been predicted by other models

  12. Background Killing vectors and conservation laws in Rosen's bimetric theories of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelit, M.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of global energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum in Rosen's bimetric theories of gravitation is considered from the point of view of motions of the background space-time. It turns out that by means of background Killing vectors global mechanical integrals for matter and field can be defined in a correct manner. For the flat-background bimetric theory conditions are obtained which have been imposed on the algebraic structure of the matter tensor Tsub(μ)sup(ν) in order to get global mechanical conservation laws. For bimetric gravitation theories based on a cosmological (nonflat) background the set of Killing vectors is found. For these theories the obtained restrictions on the algebraic structure of Tsub(μ)sup(ν) lead to global generation laws (instead of conservation laws in the flat-background theory) for mechanical quantities. In particular cases the generation effect vanishes and then conservation laws exist. By means of the method developed in this paper, Rosen's homogeneous isotropic universe in the framework of the cosmological-background bimetric theory with k = 1 is considered. It turns out that such a universe does not generate globally, but will generate locally. The global energy of this universe is found to be zero. (author)

  13. Frequency modulation at a moving material interface and a conservation law for wave number. [acoustic wave reflection and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstein, G. G.; Gunzburger, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    An integral conservation law for wave numbers is considered. In order to test the validity of the proposed conservation law, a complete solution for the reflection and transmission of an acoustic wave impinging normally on a material interface moving at a constant speed is derived. The agreement between the frequency condition thus deduced from the dynamic equations of motion and the frequency condition derived from the jump condition associated with the integral equation supports the proposed law as a true conservation law. Additional comparisons such as amplitude discontinuities and Snells' law in a moving media further confirm the stated proposition. Results are stated concerning frequency and wave number relations across a shock front as predicted by the proposed conservation law.

  14. On 2X2 systems of conservation laws with fluxes that are entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Junk

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study systems of conservation laws with two dependent and two independent variables which have the property that the fluxes are entropies. Several characterizations of such flux functions are presented. It turns out, that the corresponding systems automatically possess a large class of additional entropies, they are closely related to a kinetic equation, and, in the case of strict hyperbolicity, they can be decoupled into two independent Burgers' equations. The isentropic Euler equations with zero or cubic pressure laws are the most prominent examples of such systems, but other examples are also presented.

  15. Neo-Conservatives as Social Darwinists: Implications for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Peter; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares the Social Darwinism of the 1890s with neo-conservatism of the 1980s. Discusses the ideologies of fair play versus fair shares, the theory of supply-side economics, and the implications of neo-conservatism for higher education. Argues that neo-conservatism is altering radically our conceptions of democracy, equality, and freedom. (KH)

  16. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  17. Rarefaction and shock waves for multi-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dening, Li

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author wants to show the local existence of a solution of combination of shock and rarefaction waves for the multi-dimensional hyperbolic system of conservation laws. The typical example he has in mind is the Euler equations for compressible fluid. More generally, he studies the hyperbolic system of conservation laws ∂ t F 0 (u) + Σ j=1 n ∂ x j F j (u)=0 where u=(u 1 ....,u m ) and F j (u), j=0,...,n are m-dimensional vector-valued functions. He'll impose some conditions in the following on the systems (1.2). All these conditions are satisfied by the Euler equations

  18. AKNS hierarchy, Darboux transformation and conservation laws of the 1D nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dun; Zhang Yujuan; Lou Weiwei; Luo Honggang

    2011-01-01

    By constructing nonisospectral Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) hierarchy, we investigate the nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equations which have been used to describe the Feshbach resonance management in matter-wave solitons in Bose-Einstein condensate and the dispersion and nonlinearity managements for optical solitons. It is found that these equations are some special cases of a new integrable model of nonlocal nonautonomous NLS equations. Based on the Lax pairs, the Darboux transformation and conservation laws are explored. It is shown that the local external potentials would break down the classical infinite number of conservation laws. The result indicates that the integrability of the nonautonomous NLS systems may be nontrivial in comparison to the conventional concept of integrability in the canonical case.

  19. Mei symmetry and conservation laws of discrete nonholonomic dynamical systems with regular and irregular lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Gang-Ling; Chen Li-Qun; Fu Jing-Li; Hong Fang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Noether symmetry and Mei symmetry of discrete nonholonomic dynamical systems with regular and the irregular lattices are investigated. Firstly, the equations of motion of discrete nonholonomic systems are introduced for regular and irregular lattices. Secondly, for cases of the two lattices, based on the invariance of the Hamiltomian functional under the infinitesimal transformation of time and generalized coordinates, we present the quasi-extremal equation, the discrete analogues of Noether identity, Noether theorems, and the Noether conservation laws of the systems. Thirdly, in cases of the two lattices, we study the Mei symmetry in which we give the discrete analogues of the criterion, the theorem, and the conservative laws of Mei symmetry for the systems. Finally, an example is discussed for the application of the results

  20. On the application of subcell resolution to conservation laws with stiff source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.

    1989-11-01

    LeVeque and Yee recently investigated a one-dimensional scalar conservation law with stiff source terms modeling the reacting flow problems and discovered that for the very stiff case most of the current finite difference methods developed for non-reacting flows would produce wrong solutions when there is a propagating discontinuity. A numerical scheme, essentially nonoscillatory/subcell resolution - characteristic direction (ENO/SRCD), is proposed for solving conservation laws with stiff source terms. This scheme is a modification of Harten's ENO scheme with subcell resolution, ENO/SR. The locations of the discontinuities and the characteristic directions are essential in the design. Strang's time-splitting method is used and time evolutions are done by advancing along the characteristics. Numerical experiment using this scheme shows excellent results on the model problem of LeVeque and Yee. Comparisons of the results of ENO, ENO/SR, and ENO/SRCD are also presented

  1. Symmetries and conservation laws for a sixth-order Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recio, E.; Gandarias, M.L.; Bruzón, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a generalization depending on an arbitrary function f(u) of a sixth-order Boussinesq equation which arises in shallow water waves theory. Interestingly, this equation admits a Hamiltonian formulation when written as a system. A classification of point symmetries and conservation laws in terms of the function f(u) is presented for both, the generalized Boussinesq equation and the equivalent Hamiltonian system.

  2. Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.

  3. A conservation law, entropy principle and quantization of fractal dimensions in hadron interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zborovský, Imrich

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2018), č. článku 1850057. ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hadron interactions * self-similarity * fractality * conservation laws * quanta Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2016

  4. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Bicomplexes and conservation laws in non-Abelian Toda models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueuvoghlanian, E. P.

    2001-08-01

    A bicomplex structure is associated with the Leznov-Saveliev equation of integrable models. The linear problem associated with the zero-curvature condition is derived in terms of the bicomplex linear equation. The explicit example of a non-Abelian conformal affine Toda model is discussed in detail and its conservation laws are derived from the zero-curvature representation of its equation of motion.

  5. Stationarity-conservation laws for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, Malgorzata [Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Czestochowa, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-09

    In this paper, we study linear fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. It is shown that, by assuming some conditions for the coefficients, the stationarity-conservation laws can be derived. The area where these are valid is restricted by the asymptotic properties of solutions of the respective equation. Applications of the proposed procedure include the fractional Fokker-Planck equation in (1+1)- and (d+1)-dimensional space and the fractional Klein-Kramers equation. (author)

  6. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  7. Stationarity-conservation laws for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, Malgorzata

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study linear fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. It is shown that, by assuming some conditions for the coefficients, the stationarity-conservation laws can be derived. The area where these are valid is restricted by the asymptotic properties of solutions of the respective equation. Applications of the proposed procedure include the fractional Fokker-Planck equation in (1+1)- and (d+1)-dimensional space and the fractional Klein-Kramers equation. (author)

  8. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.

    2010-01-01

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  9. On the choice of minimization parameters using 4 momentum conservation law for particle momenta improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anykeyev, V.B.; Zhigunov, V.P.; Spiridonov, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Special choice of parameters for minimization is offered in the problem of improving estimates for particle momenta in the vertex of the event with the use of 4-momentum conservation law. This choice permits to use any unconditional minimization method instead of that of Lagrange multipliers. The above method is used when analysing the data on the K - +p→n + anti k 0 +π 0 reaction [ru

  10. Some current topics on nonlinear conservation laws lectures at the morningside center of mathematics, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Ling

    2000-01-01

    This volume resulted from a year-long program at the Morningside Center of Mathematics at the Academia Sinica in Beijing. It presents an overview of nonlinear conversation laws and introduces developments in this expanding field. Xin's introductory overview of the subject is followed by lecture notes of leading experts who have made fundamental contributions to this field of research. A. Bressan's theory of L^1-well-posedness for entropy weak solutions to systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conversation laws in the class of viscosity solutions is one of the most important results in the past two decades; G. Chen discusses weak convergence methods and various applications to many problems; P. Degond details mathematical modelling of semi-conductor devices; B. Perthame describes the theory of asymptotic equivalence between conservation laws and singular kinetic equations; Z. Xin outlines the recent development of the vanishing viscosity problem and nonlinear stability of elementary wave-a major focus of research in...

  11. Ambiguities in the Association Between Symmetries and Conservation Laws in the Presence of Alternative Lagrangian Representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitava Choudhuri; Subrata Ghosh; Talukdar, B.

    2011-01-01

    We identify two alternative Lagrangian representations for the damped harmonic oscillator characterised by a frictional coefficient γ. The first one is explicitly time independent while the second one involves time parameter explicitly. With separate attention to both Lagrangians we make use of the Noether theorem to compute the variational symmetries and conservation laws in order to study how association between them changes as one goes from one representation to the other. In the case of time independent representation squeezing symmetry leads to conservation of angular momentum for γ = 0, while for the time-dependent Lagrangian the same conserved quantity results from rotational invariance. The Lie algebra (g) of the symmetry vectors that leaves the action corresponding to the time-independent Lagrangian invariant is semi-simple. On the other hand, g is only a simple Lie algebra for the action characterised by the time-dependent Lagrangian. (authors)

  12. Reciprocity Laws for the Higher Tame Symbol and the Witt Symbol on an Algebraic Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Syder, Kirsty

    2013-01-01

    Parshin's higher Witt pairing on an arithmetic surface can be combined with the higher tame pairing to form a symbol taking values in the absolute abelian Galois group of the function field. We prove reciprocity laws for this symbol using techniques of Morrow for the Witt symbol and Romo for the higher tame symbol.

  13. The general conservation principle. Absolute validity of conservation laws and their role as source of entanglement, topology changes, and generation of masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basini, Giuseppe; Capozziello, Salvatore; Longo, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new approach in which several paradoxes and shortcomings of modern physics can be solved because conservation laws are always conserved. Directly due to the fact that conservation laws can never be violated, the symmetry of the theory leads to the very general consequence that backward and forward time evolution are both allowed. The generalization of the approach to five dimensions, each one with real physical meaning, leads to the derivation of particle masses as a result of a process of embedding

  14. Quasilocal conservation laws in XXZ spin-1/2 chains: Open, periodic and twisted boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Prosen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A continuous family of quasilocal exact conservation laws is constructed in the anisotropic Heisenberg (XXZ spin-1/2 chain for periodic (or twisted boundary conditions and for a set of commensurate anisotropies densely covering the entire easy plane interaction regime. All local conserved operators follow from the standard (Hermitian transfer operator in fundamental representation (with auxiliary spin s=1/2, and are all even with respect to a spin flip operation. However, the quasilocal family is generated by differentiation of a non-Hermitian highest weight transfer operator with respect to a complex auxiliary spin representation parameter s and includes also operators of odd parity. For a finite chain with open boundaries the time derivatives of quasilocal operators are not strictly vanishing but result in operators localized near the boundaries of the chain. We show that a simple modification of the non-Hermitian transfer operator results in exactly conserved, but still quasilocal operators for periodic or generally twisted boundary conditions. As an application, we demonstrate that implementing the new exactly conserved operator family for estimating the high-temperature spin Drude weight results, in the thermodynamic limit, in exactly the same lower bound as for almost conserved family and open boundaries. Under the assumption that the bound is saturating (suggested by agreement with previous thermodynamic Bethe ansatz calculations we propose a simple explicit construction of infinite time averages of local operators such as the spin current.

  15. Unsplit schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws with source terms in one space dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papalexandris, M.V.; Leonard, A.; Dimotakis, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    The present work is concerned with an application of the theory of characteristics to conservation laws with source terms in one space dimension, such as the Euler equations for reacting flows. Space-time paths are introduced on which the flow/chemistry equations decouple to a characteristic set of ODE's for the corresponding homogeneous laws, thus allowing the introduction of functions analogous to the Riemann invariants in classical theory. The geometry of these paths depends on the spatial gradients of the solution. This particular decomposition can be used in the design of efficient unsplit algorithms for the numerical integration of the equations. As a first step, these ideas are implemented for the case of a scalar conservation law with a nonlinear source term. The resulting algorithm belongs to the class of MUSCL-type, shock-capturing schemes. Its accuracy and robustness are checked through a series of tests. The stiffness of the source term is also studied. Then, the algorithm is generalized for a system of hyperbolic equations, namely the Euler equations for reacting flows. A numerical study of unstable detonations is performed. 57 refs

  16. Theoretical Maxwell's Equations, Gauge Field and Their Universality Based on One Conservation Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changmao

    2005-01-01

    The notion of the inner product of vectors is extended to tensors of different orders, which may replace the vector product usually. The essences of the differential and the codifferential forms are pointed out: they represent the tangent surface and the normal surface fluxes of a tensor, respectively. The definitions of the divergence and the curl of a 2D surface flux of a tensor are obtained.Maxwell's equations, namely, the construction law of field, which were usually established based on two conservation laws of electric charge and imaginary magnetic charge, are derived by the author only by using one conservation law ( mass or fluid flux quantity and so on) and the feature of central field ( or its composition). By the feature of central field ( or its composition), the curl of 2D flux is zero. Both universality of gauge field and the difficulty of magnetic monopole theory ( a magnetic monopole has no effect on electric current just like a couple basing no effect on the sum of forces) are presented: magnetic monopole has no the feature of magnet. Finally it is pointed out that the base of relation of mass and energy is already involved in Maxwell's equations.

  17. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  18. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks “in a box”, whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s Y between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s Y . We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction

  19. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-07-14

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks "in a box", whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s(Y) between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s(Y). We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction.

  20. Test of post-newtonian conservation laws in the binary system PSR 1913+16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Observations that set upper limits on secular changes in the pulsar period and orbital period in the binary system PSR 1913+16 may provide a test of post-Newtonian conservation laws. According to some metric theories of gravitation, the center of mass of a binary system may be accelerated in the direction of the periastron of the orbit because of a violation of post-Newtonian momentum conservation. In the binary system PSR 1913+16, this effect could produce secular changes in both pulsar and orbital periods (changing overall Doppler shift) as large as two parts in 10 6 per year. The size of the effect is proportional to the sine of the angle of periastron, to the difference in the masses of the components of the binary system, and to the combination of parametrized post-Newtonian parameters α 3 +zeta 2 -zeta/subw/. This combination is zero in any theory that predicts conserved total momentum for isolated systems (including general relativity and Brans-Dicke theory). Although solar-system experiments constrain α 3 and zeta/subw/ to be small, no decent direct limit has been placed on zeta 2 . Other possible sources of secular period changes in PSR 1913+16 are discussed and compared with this effect. It is also shown that a breakdown in the equality of active and passive gravitational masses (violation of ''Newton's third law'') leads only to periodic, unobservable orbital effects in a system like PSR 1913+16

  1. Baeklund transformations, conservation laws and linearization of the self-dual Yang-Mills and chiral fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Baecklund Transformations (BT) and the derivation of local conservation laws are first reviewed in the classic case of the Sine-Gordon equation. The BT, conservation laws (local and nonlocal), and the inverse-scattering formulation are discussed for the chiral and the self-dual Yang-Mills fields. Their possible applications to the loop formulation for the Yang-Mills fields are mentioned. 55 references, 1 figure

  2. Why do French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of English common-law countries in prospects for financial development in the legal-origins debate has been debunked by recent findings. Using exchange rate regimes and economic/monetary integration oriented hypotheses, this paper proposes an “inflation uncertainty theory” in providing theoretical justification and empirical validity as to why French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial allocation efficiency. Inflation uncertainty, typical of floating exchange rat...

  3. Self-consistent perturbation expansion for Bose-Einstein condensates satisfying Goldstone's theorem and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Takafumi

    2009-01-01

    Quantum-field-theoretic descriptions of interacting condensed bosons have suffered from the lack of self-consistent approximation schemes satisfying Goldstone's theorem and dynamical conservation laws simultaneously. We present a procedure to construct such approximations systematically by using either an exact relation for the interaction energy or the Hugenholtz-Pines relation to express the thermodynamic potential in a Luttinger-Ward form. Inspection of the self-consistent perturbation expansion up to the third order with respect to the interaction shows that the two relations yield a unique identical result at each order, reproducing the conserving-gapless mean-field theory [T. Kita, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74, 1891 (2005)] as the lowest-order approximation. The uniqueness implies that the series becomes exact when infinite terms are retained. We also derive useful expressions for the entropy and superfluid density in terms of Green's function and a set of real-time dynamical equations to describe thermalization of the condensate.

  4. Equations of motion and conservation laws in a theory of stably stratified turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L' vov, Victor S; Rudenko, Oleksii [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: oleksii.rudenko@weizmann.ac.il

    2008-12-15

    This paper is part of an invited talk given at the international conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond'. We consider non-isothermal fluid flows and revise simplifications of basic hydrodynamic equations for such flows, arriving eventually at a generalization of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation valid for arbitrary equation of state including both non-ideal gases as well as liquids. The proposed approach is based on a suggested general definition of potential temperature. Special attention is paid to the energy conservation principle: the proposed approximation exactly preserves the total mechanical energy by approximate equations of motion. It is emphasized explicitly the importance for any turbulent boundary layer model to respect the conservation laws.

  5. A second-order iterative implicit-explicit hybrid scheme for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wenlong; Woodward, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    An iterative implicit-explicit hybrid scheme is proposed for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Each wave in a system may be implicitly, or explicitly, or partially implicitly and partially explicitly treated depending on its associated Courant number in each numerical cell, and the scheme is able to smoothly switch between implicit and explicit calculations. The scheme is of Godunov-type in both explicit and implicit regimes, is in a strict conservation form, and is accurate to second-order in both space and time for all Courant numbers. The computer code for the scheme is easy to vectorize. Multicolors proposed in this paper may reduce the number of iterations required to reach a converged solution by several orders for a large time step. The feature of the scheme is shown through numerical examples. 38 refs., 12 figs

  6. Discrete conservation laws and the convergence of long time simulations of the mkdv equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorria, C.; Alejo, M. A.; Vega, L.

    2013-02-01

    Pseudospectral collocation methods and finite difference methods have been used for approximating an important family of soliton like solutions of the mKdV equation. These solutions present a structural instability which make difficult to approximate their evolution in long time intervals with enough accuracy. The standard numerical methods do not guarantee the convergence to the proper solution of the initial value problem and often fail by approaching solutions associated to different initial conditions. In this frame the numerical schemes that preserve the discrete invariants related to some conservation laws of this equation produce better results than the methods which only take care of a high consistency order. Pseudospectral spatial discretization appear as the most robust of the numerical methods, but finite difference schemes are useful in order to analyze the rule played by the conservation of the invariants in the convergence.

  7. ON HAMILTONIAN FORMULATIONS AND CONSERVATION LAWS FOR PLATE THEORIES OF VEKUA-AMOSOV TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Zhavoronok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Some variants of the generalized Hamiltonian formulation of the plate theory of I. N. Vekua – A. A. Amosov type are presented. The infinite dimensional formulation with one evolution variable, or an “instantaneous” formalism, as well as the de Donder – Weyl one are considered, and their application to the numerical simulation of shell and plate dynamics is briefly discussed. The main conservation laws are formulated for the general plate theory of Nth order, and the possible motion integrals are introduced

  8. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Zhao Qiulan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  9. Group theoretical construction of two-dimensional models with infinite sets of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, R.; Regge, T.; Sciuto, S.

    1980-01-01

    We explicitly construct some classes of field theoretical 2-dimensional models associated with symmetric spaces G/H according to a general scheme proposed in an earlier paper. We treat the SO(n + 1)/SO(n) and SU(n + 1)/U(n) case, giving their relationship with the O(n) sigma-models and the CP(n) models. Moreover, we present a new class of models associated to the SU(n)/SO(n) case. All these models are shown to possess an infinite set of local conservation laws. (orig.)

  10. Symmetry Reductions, Exact Solutions and Conservation Laws of Asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ling; Dong Zhongzhou; Liu Xiqiang

    2008-01-01

    By applying a direct symmetry method, we get the symmetry of the asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation (ANNV). Taking the special case, we have a finite-dimensional symmetry. By using the equivalent vector of the symmetry, we construct an eight-dimensional symmetry algebra and get the optimal system of group-invariant solutions. To every case of the optimal system, we reduce the ANNV equation and obtain some solutions to the reduced equations. Furthermore, we find some new explicit solutions of the ANNV equation. At last, we give the conservation laws of the ANNV equation.

  11. Local conservation laws and the structure of the many-body localized states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbyn, Maksym; Papić, Z; Abanin, Dmitry A

    2013-09-20

    We construct a complete set of local integrals of motion that characterize the many-body localized (MBL) phase. Our approach relies on the assumption that local perturbations act locally on the eigenstates in the MBL phase, which is supported by numerical simulations of the random-field XXZ spin chain. We describe the structure of the eigenstates in the MBL phase and discuss the implications of local conservation laws for its nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. We argue that the many-body localization can be used to protect coherence in the system by suppressing relaxation between eigenstates with different local integrals of motion.

  12. Conservation laws and radiation in the scale covariant theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1988-01-01

    The conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum are derived in the scale covariant theory of gravitation. The entropy problem which exists in the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker models can be solved in the present context. Since the weak and strong energy conditions may be violated, a big bang singularity may be avoided, in contrast to general relativity. Since beta is shown to be constant during the radiation-dominated era, the difficulties in the theory associated with nucleosynthesis are avoided. 10 references

  13. Convergence of a continuous BGK model for initial boundary-value problems for conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Seghir

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a scalar conservation law in the quarter plane. This equation is approximated in a continuous kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK model. The convergence of the model towards the unique entropy solution is established in the space of functions of bounded variation, using kinetic entropy inequalities, without special restriction on the flux nor on the equilibrium problem's data. As an application, we establish the hydrodynamic limit for a $2imes2$ relaxation system with general data. Also we construct a new family of convergent continuous BGK models with simple maxwellians different from the $chi$ models.

  14. Basic conservation laws in the electromagnetic theory of cyclotron radiation: further analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieu, R.; Leahy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The conflict of basic conservation laws in cyclotron radiation is considered in more general terms, taking into account relativistic effects of the electron. Also investigated are the effects due to the most important approximation in cyclotron theory, viz the omission of radiation back reaction. The conclusions are (i) the disagreement is of a magnitude considerably larger than any errors introduced by the approximation; (ii) the 'degree of conflict' attains its maximum in relativistic velocities, when the energy loss to radiation can approach the total energy of the electron. (author)

  15. Conservation laws for voter-like models on random directed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ángeles Serrano, M; Klemm, Konstantin; Vazquez, Federico; Eguíluz, Víctor M; San Miguel, Maxi

    2009-01-01

    We study the voter model, under node and link update, and the related invasion process on a single strongly connected component of a directed network. We implement an analytical treatment in the thermodynamic limit using the heterogeneous mean-field assumption. From the dynamical rules at the microscopic level, we find the equations for the evolution of the relative densities of nodes in a given state on heterogeneous networks with arbitrary degree distribution and degree–degree correlations. We prove that conserved quantities as weighted linear superpositions of spin states exist for all three processes and, for uncorrelated directed networks, we derive their specific expressions. We also discuss the time evolution of the relative densities that decay exponentially to a homogeneous stationary value given by the conserved quantity. The conservation laws obtained in the thermodynamic limit for a system that does not order in that limit determine the probabilities of reaching the absorbing state for a finite system. The contribution of each degree class to the conserved quantity is determined by a local property. Depending on the dynamics, the highest contribution is associated with influential nodes reaching a large number of outgoing neighbors, not too influenceable ones with a low number of incoming connections, or both at the same time

  16. On the structure on non-local conservation laws in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1978-01-01

    The non-local conserved charges are supposed to satisfy a special multiplicative law in the space of asymptotic states of the non-linear sigma-model. This supposition leads to factorization equations for two-particle scattering matrix elements and determines to some extent the action of these charges in the asymptotic space. Their conservation turns out to be consistent with the factorized S-matrix of the non-linear sigma-model. It is shown also that the factorized sine-Gordon S-matrix is consistent with a similar family of conservation laws

  17. Conservation laws and stress-energy-momentum tensors for systems with background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratus, Jonathan, E-mail: j.gratus@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Obukhov, Yuri N., E-mail: yo@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Koeln (Germany); Tucker, Robin W., E-mail: r.tucker@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This article attempts to delineate the roles played by non-dynamical background structures and Killing symmetries in the construction of stress-energy-momentum tensors generated from a diffeomorphism invariant action density. An intrinsic coordinate independent approach puts into perspective a number of spurious arguments that have historically lead to the main contenders, viz the Belinfante-Rosenfeld stress-energy-momentum tensor derived from a Noether current and the Einstein-Hilbert stress-energy-momentum tensor derived in the context of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Emphasis is placed on the role played by non-dynamical background (phenomenological) structures that discriminate between properties of these tensors particularly in the context of electrodynamics in media. These tensors are used to construct conservation laws in the presence of Killing Lie-symmetric background fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of background fields in diffeomorphism invariant actions is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interrelations between different stress-energy-momentum tensors are emphasised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Abraham and Minkowski electromagnetic tensors are discussed in this context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation laws in the presence of nondynamic background fields are formulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The discussion is facilitated by the development of a new variational calculus.

  18. The application of mass and energy conservation laws in physiologically structured population models of heterotrophic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman; Kooi; Hallam

    1999-04-07

    Rules for energy uptake, and subsequent utilization, form the basis of population dynamics and, therefore, explain the dynamics of the ecosystem structure in terms of changes in standing crops and size distributions of individuals. Mass fluxes are concomitant with energy flows and delineate functional aspects of ecosystems by defining the roles of individuals and populations. The assumption of homeostasis of body components, and an assumption about the general structure of energy budgets, imply that mass fluxes can be written as weighted sums of three organizing energy fluxes with the weight coefficients determined by the conservation law of mass. These energy fluxes are assimilation, maintenance and growth, and provide a theoretical underpinning of the widely applied empirical method of indirect calorimetry, which relates dissipating heat linearly to three mass fluxes: carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption and N-waste production. A generic approach to the stoichiometry of population energetics from the perspective of the individual organism is proposed and illustrated for heterotrophic organisms. This approach indicates that mass transformations can be identified by accounting for maintenance requirements and overhead costs for the various metabolic processes at the population level. The theoretical background for coupling the dynamics of the structure of communities to nutrient cycles, including the water balance, as well as explicit expressions for the dissipating heat at the population level are obtained based on the conservation law of energy. Specifications of the general theory employ the Dynamic Energy Budget model for individuals. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Infinitely many conservation laws for two integrable lattice hierarchies associated with a new discrete Schroedinger spectral problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zuo-nong; Tam, Hon-Wah; Ding, Qing

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, by means of considering matrix form of a new Schroedinger discrete spectral operator equation, and constructing opportune time evolution equations, and using discrete zero curvature representation, two discrete integrable lattice hierarchies proposed by Boiti et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 139] are re-derived. From the matrix Lax representations, we demonstrate the existence of infinitely many conservation laws for the two lattice hierarchies and give the corresponding conserved densities and the associated fluxes by means of formulae. Thus their integrability is further confirmed. Specially we obtain the infinitely many conservation laws for a new discrete version of the KdV equation. A connection between the conservation laws of the discrete KdV equation and the ones of the KdV equation is discussed by two examples

  20. Multidimensional Riemann problem with self-similar internal structure. Part II - Application to hyperbolic conservation laws on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Multidimensional Riemann solvers that have internal sub-structure in the strongly-interacting state have been formulated recently (D.S. Balsara (2012, 2014) [5,16]). Any multidimensional Riemann solver operates at the grid vertices and takes as its input all the states from its surrounding elements. It yields as its output an approximation of the strongly interacting state, as well as the numerical fluxes. The multidimensional Riemann problem produces a self-similar strongly-interacting state which is the result of several one-dimensional Riemann problems interacting with each other. To compute this strongly interacting state and its higher order moments we propose the use of a Galerkin-type formulation to compute the strongly interacting state and its higher order moments in terms of similarity variables. The use of substructure in the Riemann problem reduces numerical dissipation and, therefore, allows a better preservation of flow structures, like contact and shear waves. In this second part of a series of papers we describe how this technique is extended to unstructured triangular meshes. All necessary details for a practical computer code implementation are discussed. In particular, we explicitly present all the issues related to computational geometry. Because these Riemann solvers are Multidimensional and have Self-similar strongly-Interacting states that are obtained by Consistency with the conservation law, we call them MuSIC Riemann solvers. (A video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers is available on http://www.elsevier.com/xml/linking-roles/text/html". The MuSIC framework is sufficiently general to handle general nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions. It can also accommodate all self-similar one-dimensional Riemann solvers and subsequently produces a multidimensional version of the same. In this paper we focus on unstructured triangular meshes. As examples of different systems of conservation laws we

  1. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws; consistency and L(infinity)-stability imply convergence. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1988-07-01

    A convergence theory for semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws is developed. It is shown, by a series of scalar counter-examples, that consistency with the conservation law alone does not guarantee convergence. Instead, a notion of consistency which takes into account both the conservation law and its augmenting entropy condition is introduced. In this context it is concluded that consistency and L(infinity)-stability guarantee for a relevant class of admissible entropy functions, that their entropy production rate belongs to a compact subset of H(loc)sup -1 (x,t). One can now use compensated compactness arguments in order to turn this conclusion into a convergence proof. The current state of the art for these arguments includes the scalar and a wide class of 2 x 2 systems of conservation laws. The general framework of the vanishing viscosity method is studied as an effective way to meet the consistency and L(infinity)-stability requirements. How this method is utilized to enforce consistency and stability for scalar conservation laws is shown. In this context we prove, under the appropriate assumptions, the convergence of finite difference approximations (e.g., the high resolution TVD and UNO methods), finite element approximations (e.g., the Streamline-Diffusion methods) and spectral and pseudospectral approximations (e.g., the Spectral Viscosity methods)

  3. Equality adds quality: On upgrading higher education and research in the field of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been attempted, and many projects are still underway aimed at achieving equality in higher education and research. Today, the key argument to demand and support the integration of gender in academia is that equality is indeed about the quality on which academic work is supposed to be based. Although more or less national political, social and cultural contexts matter as much as academic environments, regarding higher education and research, the integration of gender into the field of law seems particularly interesting. Faculties of law enjoy a certain standing and status, are closely connected to power and politics, and are likely to feature resistance to equality efforts, both in the law itself and in the curriculum and research agenda. However, a multidimensional, intersectional gender analysis helps to reframe cases and doctrines, rulings and regulations far beyond the law that evidently affects women, which the headscarf controversies illustrate. In addition to gender competence, team diversity is a procedural device for success, and non-discrimination is a key requirement when diversity is meant to work. After all, such efforts - to expose bias and educate about gender in an academic field, to insist and integrate it continuously, and to not only demand but also do it - produce quality. Thus, gender equality is crucial for the achievement of the best possible results in higher education and research.

  4. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  5. Convergence of finite differences schemes for viscous and inviscid conservation laws with rough coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, Kenneth Hvistendal; Risebro, Nils Henrik

    2000-09-01

    We consider the initial value problem for degenerate viscous and inviscid scalar conservation laws where the flux function depends on the spatial location through a ''rough'' coefficient function k(x). we show that the Engquist-Osher (and hence all monotone) finite difference approximations converge to the unique entropy solution of the governing equation if, among other demands, k' is in BV, thereby providing alternative (new) existence proofs for entropy solutions of degenerate convection-diffusion equations as well as new convergence results for their finite difference approximations. In the inviscid case, we also provide a rate of convergence. Our convergence proofs are based on deriving a series of a priori estimates and using a general L{sup p} compactness criterion. (author)

  6. Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2017-03-01

    We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3 , the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QED and QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.

  7. The GSC method for constructing the entropy solution of hyperbolic conservation laws and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we introduce briefly the Geometrical Shock Correction (GSC) method and consider various fields of applications, with special emphasis on two-phase flow problems in porous media. Some test problems are taken from this field. GSC is a very efficient numerical method for constructing the entropy solution of the Cauchy problem of scalar hyperboli conservation laws (with source term) in one space dimension and in specific two-dimensional cases. The novelty consists in constructing the solution at an arbitrary fixed time t=T>0 in one time step, based on transporting the initial values along characteristics and, if shocks appear, on a correction of the multivalued relation by a geometrical averaging technique. (orig.) With 7 figs [de

  8. Divergence-Measure Fields, Sets of Finite Perimeter, and Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Torres, Monica

    2005-02-01

    Divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter are analyzed. A notion of normal traces over boundaries of sets of finite perimeter is introduced, and the Gauss-Green formula over sets of finite perimeter is established for divergence-measure fields in L∞. The normal trace introduced here over a class of surfaces of finite perimeter is shown to be the weak-star limit of the normal traces introduced in Chen & Frid [6] over the Lipschitz deformation surfaces, which implies their consistency. As a corollary, an extension theorem of divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter is also established. Then we apply the theory to the initial-boundary value problem of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws over sets of finite perimeter.

  9. Finite volume schemes with equilibrium type discretization of source terms for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botchorishvili, Ramaz; Pironneau, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    We develop here a new class of finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes for scalar conservation laws with stiff source terms. The schemes are of equilibrium type, hence with uniform bounds on approximate solutions, valid in cell entropy inequalities and exact for some equilibrium states. Convergence is investigated in the framework of kinetic schemes. Numerical tests show high computational efficiency and a significant advantage over standard cell centered discretization of source terms. Equilibrium type schemes produce accurate results even on test problems for which the standard approach fails. For some numerical tests they exhibit exponential type convergence rate. In two of our numerical tests an equilibrium type scheme with 441 nodes on a triangular mesh is more accurate than a standard scheme with 5000 2 grid points

  10. Willingness to Comply with Corporate Law: An Interdisciplinary Teaching Method in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Robina Ramirez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Using an innovation training project, an interdisciplinary cross-sectional teaching strategy was developed to enhance students’ willingness to comply with the law. Thirty-five business, finance and accounting teachers examined the effects of ethical education on 484 university students’ willingness to comply with corporate law. Ethical education was based on building students’ ethical decisions on three court judgments in the new Spanish Corporate Governance Code. The ethical training was carried out by developing and applying social justice counter arguments. This perspective allowed students to imagine what decisions other person could have taken if they had managed the company ethically. The results suggest that ethics education in higher education can improve the willingness to comply the law. This methodology can be applied to interdisciplinary departments teaching ethics in business, finance and accounting.

  11. The zeroth law of thermodynamics and volume-preserving conservative system in equilibrium with stochastic damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mathematical formulation of the zeroth law of thermodynamics and develop a stochastic dynamical theory, with a consistent irreversible thermodynamics, for systems possessing sustained conservative stationary current in phase space while in equilibrium with a heat bath. The theory generalizes underdamped mechanical equilibrium: dx=gdt+{−D∇ϕdt+√(2D)dB(t)}, with ∇⋅g=0 and {⋯} respectively representing phase-volume preserving dynamics and stochastic damping. The zeroth law implies stationary distribution u ss (x)=e −ϕ(x) . We find an orthogonality ∇ϕ⋅g=0 as a hallmark of the system. Stochastic thermodynamics based on time reversal (t,ϕ,g)→(−t,ϕ,−g) is formulated: entropy production e p # (t)=−dF(t)/dt; generalized “heat” h d # (t)=−dU(t)/dt, U(t)=∫ R n ϕ(x)u(x,t)dx being “internal energy”, and “free energy” F(t)=U(t)+∫ R n u(x,t)lnu(x,t)dx never increases. Entropy follows (dS)/(dt) =e p # −h d # . Our formulation is shown to be consistent with an earlier theory of P. Ao. Its contradistinctions to other theories, potential-flux decomposition, stochastic Hamiltonian system with even and odd variables, Klein–Kramers equation, Freidlin–Wentzell's theory, and GENERIC, are discussed.

  12. Why do younger women have higher breast cancer recurrence rates after breast-conserving surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Masakazu; Miyayama, Haruhiko; Okazaki, Shinji; Kai, Chiharu; Ozaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing breast cancer recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is an important issue. The main factors contributing to such recurrence are positive margins, absence of radiotherapy and young age. To investigate the clinical significance of age in breast-conserving surgery, we examined the relationship between clinicopathological findings or outcome and age, especially young age. The cases were divided into three groups by age; 35 years old or less, 36-50y.o. and 51y.o. or higher. Between April 1989 and March 2003, 743 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery. There were 49 patients aged 35 years old or less (6.6%). Younger age significantly correlated with positive surgical margin, lymph node metastases, higher proliferative activity, negative estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR), larger tumor size, and shorter nipple-tumor distances. Although younger patients had a higher recurrence rate irrespective of radiotherapy, margin status had an impact on recurrence rate. Thus, the reason young age was a significant factor for breast recurrence after breast-conserving surgery was that young patients frequently had numerous risk factors such as positive margin, higher proliferative activity, positive nodes, negative ER/PgR and larger tumor. However, negative surgical margins could reduce recurrence rates even in young women. These results suggest that more suitable criteria and strategies may be needed for young patients with breast cancer. (author)

  13. δ- and δ'-shock wave types of singular solutions of systems of conservation laws and transport and concentration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelkovich, V M

    2008-01-01

    This is a survey of some results and problems connected with the theory of generalized solutions of quasi-linear conservation law systems which can admit delta-shaped singularities. They are the so-called δ-shock wave type solutions and the recently introduced δ (n) -shock wave type solutions, n=1,2,..., which cannot be included in the classical Lax-Glimm theory. The case of δ- and δ'-shock waves is analyzed in detail. A specific analytical technique is developed to deal with such solutions. In order to define them, some special integral identities are introduced which extend the concept of weak solution, and the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are derived. Solutions of Cauchy problems are constructed for some typical systems of conservation laws. Also investigated are multidimensional systems of conservation laws (in particular, zero-pressure gas dynamics systems) which admit δ-shock wave type solutions. A geometric aspect of such solutions is considered: they are connected with transport and concentration processes, and the balance laws of transport of 'volume' and 'area' to δ- and δ'-shock fronts are derived for them. For a 'zero-pressure gas dynamics' system these laws are the mass and momentum transport laws. An algebraic aspect of these solutions is also considered: flux-functions are constructed for them which, being non-linear, are nevertheless uniquely defined Schwartz distributions. Thus, a singular solution of the Cauchy problem generates algebraic relations between its components (distributions).

  14. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  15. Sexual harassment, special relationships and consensual engagement policies within higher learning institutions : a labour law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (Labour Law) A university is a community of adults in which close personal relationships between adults can develop. These institutions of higher learning recognise the need for policies prohibiting sexual harassment but few have addressed the subtle issues surrounding consensual and special amorous relationships between academic staff members and students and whether they have the right to regulate private behaviour between adults. The aim of this minor dissertation is to explore th...

  16. A higher-taxon approach to rodent conservation priorities for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amori, G.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Although rodents are not considered among the most threatened mammals, there is ample historical evidence concerning the vulnerability to extinction of several rodent phylogenetic lineages. Owing to the high number of species, poor taxonomy and the lack of detailed information on population status, the assessment of threat status according to IUCN criteria has still to be considered arbitrary in some cases. Public appreciation is scarce and tends to overlook the ecological role and conservation problems of an order representing about 41 percent of mammalian species. We provide an overview of the most relevant information concerning the conservation status of rodents at the genus, subfamily, and family level. For species¿poor taxa, the importance of distinct populations is highlighted and a splitter approach in taxonomy is adopted. Considering present constraints, strategies for the conservation of rodent diversity must rely mainly on higher taxon and hot-spot approaches. A clear understanding of phyletic relationships among difficult groups -such as Rattus, for instance- is an urgent goal. Even if rodent taxonomy is still unstable, high taxon approach is amply justified from a conservation standpoint as it offers a more subtle overview of the world terrestrial biodiversity than that offered by large mammals. Of the circa 451 living rodent genera, 126 (27,9 %, representing 168 living species, deserve conservation attention according to the present study. About 76 % of genera at risk are monotypic, confirming the danger of losing a considerable amount of phylogenetic distinctiveness.

  17. Law enforcement staff perceptions of illegal hunting and wildlife conservation in the Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Mango, L.; Jakarasi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, pressure from the illegal harvesting of wildlife is a recurrent issue for protected area management. In order to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife resources, law enforcement has been identified as one of the most important components of protected area management. Our study

  18. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws and exact solutions of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Yaşar

    Full Text Available In this paper Lie symmetry analysis of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito (FSKI equation with Riemann–Liouville derivative is performed. Using the Lie point symmetries of FSKI equation, it is shown that it can be transformed into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation of fractional order with a new dependent variable. In the reduced equation the derivative is in Erdelyi–Kober sense. Furthermore, adapting the Ibragimov’s nonlocal conservation method to time fractional partial differential equations, we obtain conservation laws of the underlying equation. In addition, we construct some exact travelling wave solutions for the FSKI equation using the sub-equation method. Keywords: Fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito equation, Lie symmetry, Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative, Conservation laws, Exact solutions

  19. Macroscopic law of conservation revealed in the population dynamics of Toll-like receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarajoo Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stimulating the receptors of a single cell generates stochastic intracellular signaling. The fluctuating response has been attributed to the low abundance of signaling molecules and the spatio-temporal effects of diffusion and crowding. At population level, however, cells are able to execute well-defined deterministic biological processes such as growth, division, differentiation and immune response. These data reflect biology as a system possessing microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. This commentary discusses the average population response of the Toll-like receptor (TLR 3 and 4 signaling. Without requiring detailed experimental data, linear response equations together with the fundamental law of information conservation have been used to decipher novel network features such as unknown intermediates, processes and cross-talk mechanisms. For single cell response, however, such simplicity seems far from reality. Thus, as observed in any other complex systems, biology can be considered to possess order and disorder, inheriting a mixture of predictable population level and unpredictable single cell outcomes.

  20. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Exact solutions to robust control problems involving scalar hyperbolic conservation laws using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP (or MILP if the objective function depends on boolean variables). Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Efficient robust control of first order scalar conservation laws using semi-analytical solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new robust control framework for transportation problems in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, using initial density control and boundary flow control, as a Linear Program. We then show that this framework can be extended to arbitrary control problems involving the control of subsets of the initial and boundary conditions. Unlike many previously investigated transportation control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e. discontinuities in the state of the system). We also demonstrate that the same framework can handle robust control problems, in which the uncontrollable components of the initial and boundary conditions are encoded in intervals on the right hand side of inequalities in the linear program. The lower bound of the interval which defines the smallest feasible solution set is used to solve the robust LP/MILP. Since this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation used to model the state of the system, it is extremely fast. Several examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the robust control solution and the trade-off between the robustness and the optimality.

  5. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  6. On the Incompleteness of Ibragimov’s Conservation Law Theorem and Its Equivalence to a Standard Formula Using Symmetries and Adjoint-Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Anco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A conservation law theorem stated by N. Ibragimov along with its subsequent extensions are shown to be a special case of a standard formula that uses a pair consisting of a symmetry and an adjoint-symmetry to produce a conservation law through a well-known Fréchet derivative identity. Furthermore, the connection of this formula (and of Ibragimov’s theorem to the standard action of symmetries on conservation laws is explained, which accounts for a number of major drawbacks that have appeared in recent work using the formula to generate conservation laws. In particular, the formula can generate trivial conservation laws and does not always yield all non-trivial conservation laws unless the symmetry action on the set of these conservation laws is transitive. It is emphasized that all local conservation laws for any given system of differential equations can be found instead by a general method using adjoint-symmetries. This general method is a kind of adjoint version of the standard Lie method to find all local symmetries and is completely algorithmic. The relationship between this method, Noether’s theorem and the symmetry/adjoint-symmetry formula is discussed.

  7. Conservation laws with non-convex flux and applications to two-phase flow in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegnander, Cathrine

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with conservation laws, which form a family of partial differential equations (PDEs) describing conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The first part studies some theoretical aspects of conservation laws: (1) Scalar hyperbolic conservation laws with a non-convex flux function, where time dependent decay estimates are mainly obtained by a front tracking technique, (2) Convergence of solutions for a finite difference scheme given by a class of one dimensional parabolic systems. The second part of the thesis applies the theory to multiphase flow in porous media. A number of mathematical models for multiphase flow in groundwater are studied. Techniques to improve the study of simulations of oil, gas and water phases in reservoirs such as in the North Sea are discussed. Upscaling of a refinement of the permeability field is evaluated using a flow simulation. This is done by a study of the preserving of the rank of a number of realizations with respect to the cumulative production parameter. Finally, the importance of selection of numerical methods in the simulations are exemplified by considering various splitting techniques. The numerical methods of front tracking and finite difference schemes and finite element methods are used. 98 refs., 24 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Semi-implicit and fully implicit shock-capturing methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.C.; Shinn, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    Some numerical aspects of finite-difference algorithms for nonlinear multidimensional hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff nonhomogenous (source) terms are discussed. If the stiffness is entirely dominated by the source term, a semi-implicit shock-capturing method is proposed provided that the Jacobian of the source terms possesses certain properties. The proposed semi-implicit method can be viewed as a variant of the Bussing and Murman point-implicit scheme with a more appropriate numerical dissipation for the computation of strong shock waves. However, if the stiffness is not solely dominated by the source terms, a fully implicit method would be a better choice. The situation is complicated by problems that are higher than one dimension, and the presence of stiff source terms further complicates the solution procedures for alternating direction implicit (ADI) methods. Several alternatives are discussed. The primary motivation for constructing these schemes was to address thermally and chemically nonequilibrium flows in the hypersonic regime. Due to the unique structure of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for fluid flows of this type, the computation can be simplified, thus providing a more efficient solution procedure than one might have anticipated

  9. Semi-implicit and fully implicit shock-capturing methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.C.; Shinn, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some numerical aspects of finite-difference algorithms for nonlinear multidimensional hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff nonhomogeneous (source) terms are discussed. If the stiffness is entirely dominated by the source term, a semi-implicit shock-capturing method is proposed provided that the Jacobian of the source terms possesses certain properties. The proposed semi-implicit method can be viewed as a variant of the Bussing and Murman point-implicit scheme with a more appropriate numerical dissipation for the computation of strong shock waves. However, if the stiffness is not solely dominated by the source terms, a fully implicit method would be a better choice. The situation is complicated by problems that are higher than one dimension, and the presence of stiff source terms further complicates the solution procedures for alternating direction implicit (ADI) methods. Several alternatives are discussed. The primary motivation for constructing these schemes was to address thermally and chemically nonequilibrium flows in the hypersonic regime. Due to the unique structure of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for fluid flows of this type, the computation can be simplified, thus providing a more efficient solution procedure than one might have anticipated. 46 references

  10. Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws for the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws (Cls) to the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera (CDGDK) equation with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The time fractional CDGDK is reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order. New exact traveling wave solutions for the time fractional CDGDK are obtained by fractional sub-equation method. In the reduced equation, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense. Ibragimov's nonlocal conservation method is applied to construct Cls for time fractional CDGDK.

  11. Integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for a gravitational field with the absolute parallelism structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown the description of gravitational field in the riemannian space-time by means of the absolute parallelism structure makes it possible to formulate an integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for gravitational field, by imposing on the energy-momentum tensor the condition of vanishing of the covariant divergence (in the sense of the absolute parallelism). As a result of taking into account covariant constraints for the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the Lagrangian density turns out to be not geometrised anymore and leads to the unambiguous conservation law of the type mentioned in the N-body problem. Covariant field equations imply the existence of the special euclidean coordinates outside of static neighbourhoods of gravitationing bodies. In these coordinates determined by the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the linear approximation is not connected with any noncovariant assumptions

  12. Super-Hamiltonian Structures and Conservation Laws of a New Six-Component Super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucai You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-component super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (-AKNS hierarchy is proposed by the zero curvature equation associated with Lie superalgebras. Supertrace identity is used to furnish the super-Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear superintegrable hierarchy. Furthermore, we derive the infinite conservation laws of the first two nonlinear super-AKNS equations in the hierarchy by utilizing spectral parameter expansions. PACS: 02.30.Ik; 02.30.Jr; 02.20.Sv.

  13. A new six-component super soliton hierarchy and its self-consistent sources and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Han-yu; Xia Tie-cheng

    2016-01-01

    A new six-component super soliton hierarchy is obtained based on matrix Lie super algebras. Super trace identity is used to furnish the super Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear super integrable hierarchy. After that, the self-consistent sources of the new six-component super soliton hierarchy are presented. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super soliton hierarchy. (paper)

  14. Higher Spin Superfield Interactions with the Chiral Supermultiplet: Conserved Supercurrents and Cubic Vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioseph L. Buchbinder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate cubic interactions between a chiral superfield and higher spin superfields corresponding to irreducible representations of the 4 D , N = 1 super-Poincaré algebra. We do this by demanding an invariance under the most general transformation, linear in the chiral superfield. Following Noether’s method we construct an infinite tower of higher spin supercurrent multiplets which are quadratic in the chiral superfield and include higher derivatives. The results are that a single, massless, chiral superfield can couple only to the half-integer spin supermultiplets ( s + 1 , s + 1 / 2 and for every value of spin there is an appropriate improvement term that reduces the supercurrent multiplet to a minimal multiplet which matches that of superconformal higher spins. On the other hand a single, massive, chiral superfield can couple only to higher spin supermultiplets of type ( 2 l + 2 , 2 l + 3 / 2 (only odd values of s, s = 2 l + 1 and there is no minimal multiplet. Furthermore, for the massless case we discuss the component level higher spin currents and provide explicit expressions for the integer and half-integer spin conserved currents together with a R-symmetry current.

  15. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  16. Implications of a decay law for the cosmological constant in higher dimensional cosmology and cosmological wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami, El-Nabulsi Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Higher dimensional cosmological implications of a decay law for the cosmological constant term are analyzed. Three independent cosmological models are explored mainly: 1) In the first model, the effective cosmological constant was chosen to decay with times like Δ effective = Ca -2 + D(b/a I ) 2 where a I is an arbitrary scale factor characterizing the isotropic epoch which proceeds the graceful exit period. Further, the extra-dimensional scale factor decays classically like b(t) approx. a x (t), x is a real negative number. 2) In the second model, we adopt in addition to Δ effective = Ca -2 + D(b/a I ) 2 the phenomenological law b(t) = a(t)exp( -Qt) as we expect that at the origin of time, there is no distinction between the visible and extra dimensions; Q is a real number. 3) In the third model, we study a Δ - decaying extra-dimensional cosmology with a static traversable wormhole in which the four-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime is subject to the conventional perfect fluid while the extra-dimensional part is endowed by an exotic fluid violating strong energy condition and where the cosmological constant in (3+n+1) is assumed to decays like Δ(a) = 3Ca -2 . The three models are discussed and explored in some details where many interesting points are revealed. (author)

  17. Higher conserved charges and integrability for spinning strings in AdS5 x S5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engquist, Johan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an infinite number of local commuting charges for classical solutions of the string sigma model on AdS 5 x S 5 associated with a certain circular three-spin solution spinning with large angular momenta in three orthogonal directions on the five-sphere. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find agreement to one-loop with the tower of conserved higher charges in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory associated with the dual composite single-trace operator in the highest weight representation (J 1 ,J 2 ,J 2 ) of SO(6). The agreement can be explained by the presence of integrability on both sides of the duality. (author)

  18. Mitigation and Compensation under EU Nature Conservation Law in the Flemish Region: Beyond the Deadlock for Development Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Schoukens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For years, the predicament of many of the European protected habitats and species in the Flemish Region, as in many other Member States, passed relatively unnoticed. The lack of proper rules and clear implementation rules fuelled the impression amongst project developers and planning authorities that the impacts of project developments on biodiversity did not really warrant closer assessment. However, in the past ten years, strict national case law has significantly altered this view. Faced with tighter judicial scrutiny, the Habitats and Birds Directives were seen as an important obstacle to project development. Hence mitigation and compensation have now come up as novel approaches to better align spatial aspirations with the conservation of nature. In reality, mitigation was often used as a cover-up for projects that would not fit the strict requirements enshrined in the derogatory clauses. Interestingly, the Belgian Council of State showed itself quite cautious in reasserting the lax view of some planning authorities on mitigation and compensation. In reviewing the legality of several new approaches to mitigation and compensation, the Belgian Council of State, which was initially very cautious in quashing decisions that would actually jeopardise major infrastructure developments, has rendered some compelling rulings on the specific application of mitigation and compensatory measures in a spatial planning context. By letting the objectives of EU nature conservation law prevail in the face of economic interests, the recent case law of the Belgian Council of State can be seen as a remarkable example of judicial environmental activism.

  19. Men Who have Sex with Men Who Believe that Their State has a HIV Criminal Law Report Higher Condomless Anal Sex than Those Who are Unsure of the Law in Their State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Meyer, Craig; Rosser, B R Simon

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the effects of beliefs about state HIV criminal law on condomless anal sex (CAS law(s) or where a HIV-related arrest, prosecution, or sentence enhancement (APSE) had occurred. Three-quarters of MSM reported that they were unsure of the law in their state. Men who believed there was a HIV law in their state but lived in states without any or a sex-specific HIV criminal law(s) had higher probabilities of CAS compared to those who were unsure of their state's law; men who believed there was a HIV law in their state and lived in a state where an APSE had occurred had higher probabilities of CAS compared to those who were unsure of their state's law. Correct knowledge of state law was not associated with CAS. Findings suggest that HIV criminal laws have little or counter-productive effects on MSM's risk behavior.

  20. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  1. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  2. Comments by the Quebec Union for Nature Conservation (UQCN) regarding the proposed law on the security of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, M.

    1998-09-01

    The Union quebecoise pour la conservation de la nature (UQCN) is an association of 5000 members that is active in the field of nature conservation and environmental protection. Comments made by the UQCN to the Parliamentary Commission on Transport and the Environment on the proposed law on the security of dams are summarized. A number of general and specific comments were made concerning access to information, the process of authorisation, and the definition of high-volume dams. Concern was also expressed about the lack of clear indication of how the plans for the management of dam security and water reservoirs will be coordinated among the various agencies that represent the various users of the river system

  3. Symmetries and conservation laws in the single-time Lagrangian form of the Fokker-type relativistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyak, V.I.; Gaida, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Symmetry properties of the single-time relativistic Lagrangian of an N-particle-system corresponding to the many-time action of the Fokker-type, which are a function of derivatives of particle coordinates with respect to time up to infinite order, are investigated. The conditions for quasi-invariance for such a Lagrangian, with respect to a representation of an arbitrary group in infinite continuation of configuration space of the system, are discussed. Using these conditions a general expression for the Lagrangian, securing Poincare covariance of corresponding equations of motion, is found, and the conservation laws related to this covariance are formulated. In the case of tensor interaction, the expansion of conserved quantities in c -1 up to terms of the order c -4 is performed. (author)

  4. Lie symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and conservation laws for the space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the symmetry analysis, explicit solutions, convergence analysis, and conservation laws (Cls) for two different space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order using their Lie point symmetries. In the reduced equations, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense, power series technique is applied to derive an explicit solutions for the reduced fractional ODEs. The convergence of the obtained power series solutions is also presented. Moreover, the new conservation theorem and the generalization of the Noether operators are developed to construct the nonlocal Cls for the equations . Some interesting figures for the obtained explicit solutions are presented.

  5. The Influence of Higher Education on Law Enforcement Entry Level Examination Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprota, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Entry into a career in law enforcement is most often dependent upon the aspiring candidate's relative success on a competitive, written, multiple-choice examination. In the state of New Jersey, as in many states, civil service laws preclude consideration of formal educational attainment when establishing the ordinal, eligibles lists for law…

  6. A new six-component super soliton hierarchy and its self-consistent sources and conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-yu, Wei; Tie-cheng, Xia

    2016-01-01

    A new six-component super soliton hierarchy is obtained based on matrix Lie super algebras. Super trace identity is used to furnish the super Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear super integrable hierarchy. After that, the self-consistent sources of the new six-component super soliton hierarchy are presented. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super soliton hierarchy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547175, 11271008 and 61072147), the First-class Discipline of University in Shanghai, China, and the Science and Technology Department of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 152300410230).

  7. Tsunami risk assessment for facility group over a wide area using inundation assessment method considering energy conservation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutani, Yo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Tokunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of overall tsunami risk that the entire facility group over a wide area holds. We considerably reduced the calculation cost for tsunami inundation depth by adopting the evaluation method using energy conservation law as compared with the evaluation method using non-linear long wave equation. For financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies with contractors over a wide area and business companies with multiple their assets and facilities in various places, the proposed evaluation method in this study could be a useful approach to implement their risk-based management decisions for tsunami risk. (author)

  8. Angular momentum in general relativity. 1. Definition and asymptotic behaviour. [axisymmetric space-times, infinity, conservation law, spin coefficient formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, C R [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1977-06-27

    Angular momentum in axisymmetric space-times is investigated. The conclusions lead to a general definition suitable for all asymptotically-flat spaces which is valid both at infinity and on the event horizon of a black hole. This first paper restricts attention to considerations at infinity. Working in terms of the spin coefficient formalism, the field equations are solved asymptotically at large distances and the definition is evaluated. A conservation law is derived and finally the effect on the angular momentum of a supertranslation of the coordinates is discussed.

  9. Trouble with the Lorentz law of force: incompatibility with special relativity and momentum conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-05-11

    The Lorentz law of force is the fifth pillar of classical electrodynamics, the other four being Maxwell's macroscopic equations. The Lorentz law is the universal expression of the force exerted by electromagnetic fields on a volume containing a distribution of electrical charges and currents. If electric and magnetic dipoles also happen to be present in a material medium, they are traditionally treated by expressing the corresponding polarization and magnetization distributions in terms of bound-charge and bound-current densities, which are subsequently added to free-charge and free-current densities, respectively. In this way, Maxwell's macroscopic equations are reduced to his microscopic equations, and the Lorentz law is expected to provide a precise expression of the electromagnetic force density on material bodies at all points in space and time. This Letter presents incontrovertible theoretical evidence of the incompatibility of the Lorentz law with the fundamental tenets of special relativity. We argue that the Lorentz law must be abandoned in favor of a more general expression of the electromagnetic force density, such as the one discovered by Einstein and Laub in 1908. Not only is the Einstein-Laub formula consistent with special relativity, it also solves the long-standing problem of "hidden momentum" in classical electrodynamics.

  10. Classicality condition on a system observable in a quantum measurement and a relative-entropy conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Yui; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    We consider the information flow on a system observable X corresponding to a positive-operator-valued measure under a quantum measurement process Y described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the average decrease in the relative entropy of the system observable X equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of Y , i.e., the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of Y followed by X such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of X for the premeasurement state. We show that in the case when X is a discrete projection-valued measure and Y is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely, quantum nondemolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the nondemolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban [M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32, 1643 (1999), 10.1088/0305-4470/32/9/012], implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

  11. On the exact conservation laws in thermal models and the analysis of AGS and SIS experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keraenen, A.; Suhonen, E.; Cleymans, J.

    1999-01-01

    The production of hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions is studied using a statistical ensemble with thermal and chemical equilibrium. Special attention is given to exact conservation laws, i.e. certain charges are treated canonically instead of using the usual grand canonical approach. For small systems, the exact conservation of baryon number, strangeness and electric charge is to be taken into account. We have derived compact, analytical expressions for particle abundances in such ensemble. As an application, the change in K/π ratios in AGS experiments with different interaction system sizes is well reproduced. The canonical treatment of three charges becomes impractical very quickly with increasing system size. Thus, we focus our attention on exact conservation of strangeness, and treat baryon number and electric charge grand canonically. We present expressions for particle abundances in such ensemble as well, and apply them to reproduce the large variety of particle ratios in GSI SIS 2 A GeV Ni-Ni experiments. At the energies considered here, the exact strangeness conservation fully accounts for strange particle suppression, and no extra chemical factor is needed. (author)

  12. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  13. Higher Volume at Time of Breast Conserving Surgery Reduces Re-Excision in DCIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Wolf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical and pathological variables which impact rate of re-excision following breast conserving therapy (BCS with or without concurrent additional margin excision (AM. Methods. The pathology database was queried for all patients with DCIS from January 2004 to September 2008. Pathologic assessment included volume of excision, subtype, size, distance from margin, grade, necrosis, multifocality, calcifications, and ER/PR status. Results. 405 cases were identified and 201 underwent BCS, 151-BCS-AM, and 53-mastectomy. Among the 201 BCS patients, 190 underwent re-excision for close or involved margins. 129 of these were treated with BCS and 61 with BCS-AM (P<.0001. The incidence of residual DCIS in the re-excision specimens was 32% (n=65 for BCS and 22% (n=33 for BCS-AM (P<.05. For both the BCS and the BCS-AM cohorts, volume of tissue excised is inversely correlated to the rate of re-excision (P=.0284. Multifocality (P=.0002 and ER status (P=.0382 were also significant predictors for rate of re-excision and variation in surgical technique was insignificant. Conclusions. The rate of positive margins, re-excision, and residual disease was significantly higher in patients with lower volume of excision. The performance of concurrent additional margin excision increases the efficacy of BCS for DCIS.

  14. First law of black ring thermodynamics in higher dimensional Chern-Simons gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogatko, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with Chern-Simons term were derived. This theory constitutes the simplest generalization of the five-dimensional one admitting a stationary black ring solution. The equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring mechanics was achieved by choosing any cross section of the event horizon to the future of the bifurcation surface

  15. 'Debating' nature conservation : policy, law and practice in Indonesia : a discourse analysis of history and present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnscheidt, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This book is about the politics of nature conservation in late New Order and early Reformasi Indonesia. It approaches the subject through discourse analysis. Understanding politics as a struggle for discourse hegemony it analyses both processes of policy- and lawmaking in Jakarta and of

  16. Evaluation of the Learning Process of Students Reinventing the General Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logman, Paul; Kaper, Wolter; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between context and concept we have constructed a conceptual learning path in which students reinvent the concept of energy conservation and embedded this path in two authentic practices. A comparison of the expected learning outcome with actual student output for the most important steps in the learning path gives…

  17. MIGRATION AND CONSERVATION: FRAMEWORKS, GAPS, AND SYNERGIES IN SCIENCE, LAW, AND MANAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meretsky, Vicky J; Atwell, Jonathan W; Hyman, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    Migratory animals provide unique spectacles of cultural, ecological, and economic importance. However, the process of migration is a source of risk for migratory species as human actions increasingly destroy and fragment habitat, create obstacles to migration, and increase mortality along the migration corridor. As a result, many migratory species are declining in numbers. In the United States, the Endangered Species Act provides some protection against extinction for such species, but no protection until numbers are severely reduced, and no guarantee of recovery to population levels associated with cultural, ecological, or economic significance. Although groups of species receive some protection from statutes such as the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act, there is no coordinated system for conservation of migratory species. In addition, information needed to protect migratory species is often lacking, limiting options for land and wildlife managers who seek to support these species. In this Article, we outline the existing scientific, legal, and management information and approaches to migratory species. Our objective is to assess present capacity to protect the species and the phenomenon of migration, and we argue that al three disciplines are necessary for effective conservation. We find significant capacity to support conservation in all three disciplines, but no organization around conservation of migration within any discipline or among the three disciplines. Areas of synergy exist among the disciplines but not as a result of any attempt for coordination. As a result, significant gaps in information and capacity exist that must be addressed if effective conservation of migratory species is to be undertaken. We suggest that all three disciplines cooperate to identify the most pressing research needs, so that these can become targets for relevant funding sources. We identify areas of current risk to migratory species that represent gaps

  18. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  19. On conservation laws for models in discrete, noncommutative and fractional differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present the general method of derivation the explicit form of conserved currents for equations built within the framework of discrete, noncommutative or fractional differential calculus. The procedure applies to linear models with variable coefficients including also nonlinear potential part. As an example an equation on quantum plane, nonlinear Toda lattice model and homogeneous equation of fractional diffusion in 1+1 dimensions are studied

  20. Construction of local and non-local conservation laws for non-linear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.S.; Volovich, I.V.

    1984-08-01

    A method of constructing conserved currents for non-linear field equations is presented. More explicitly for non-linear equations, which can be derived from compatibility conditions of some linear system with a parameter, a procedure of obtaining explicit expressions for local and non-local currents is developed. Some examples such as the classical Heisenberg spin chain and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are considered. (author)

  1. Smoke-free law associated with higher-than-expected taxable retail sales for bars and taverns in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Dilley, Julia; Maher, Julie E; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry

    2010-07-01

    Continued progress in implementing smoke-free laws throughout the United States would benefit from documenting positive economic effects, particularly for the hospitality industry. This study describes changes in sales revenue in bars and taverns since December 2005, when a statewide smoke-free law in Washington State went into effect. Using 24 quarters of inflation-adjusted taxable retail sales data from 2002 through 2007, we fitted a regression model to estimate the effect of the smoke-free law on sales revenue, controlling for seasonality and other economic factors. We found no immediate change in bar revenues in the first quarter of 2006, but taxable retail sales grew significantly through the fourth quarter of 2007. In the 2 years after the smoke-free law was implemented, sales revenues were $105.5 million higher than expected for bars and taverns in Washington State. The higher-than-expected revenue from taxable sales in bars and taverns after the implementation of smoke-free laws in Washington State provided extra funds to the state general fund. Potential increases in revenue in other jurisdictions that implement smoke-free indoor air policies could provide funds to benefit residents of those jurisdictions.

  2. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shi-Wang; Wang Jian-Bo; Chen Xiang-Wei; Xie Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system. (general)

  3. "Conserving Marine Biodiversity in the Global Marine Commons: Co-evolution and Interaction with the Law of the Sea"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Margaret Warner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As global shipping intensifies and technological advances provide more opportunities to access the resources of the high seas and the deep seabed beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ, the catalogue of threats to the marine environment and its biodiversity increase commensurately. Beyond these threats, new and emerging uses of ABNJ including more intrusive marine scientific research, bio-prospecting, deep seabed mining and environmental modification activities to mitigate the effects of climate change have the potential to harm the highly interconnected and sensitive ecosystems of the open ocean and the deep seabed if not sustainably managed now and into the future. Modern conservation norms such as environmental impact assessment, marine protected areas, marine spatial planning and development mechanisms such as technology transfer and capacity building are under developed in the legal and institutional framework for ABNJ. This article examines key normative features of the legal and institutional framework for ABNJ and their applicability to conservation of marine biodiversity, gaps and disconnects in that framework and ongoing global initiatives to develop more effective governance structures. It discusses some of the options being considered in the UN Ad Hoc Informal Open-ended Working Group to study issues related to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Working Group to evolve the legal and institutional framework for conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in ABNJ and their current and future relevance for the law of the sea. It concludes that the discussions in the BBNJ Working Group and related initiatives in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and at regional level have demonstrated that a more integrated legal and institutional structure is needed to address growing threats to marine biodiversity in ABNJ.

  4. Family of two-dimensional Born-Infeld equations and a system of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiv, M.; Rosenhaus, V.

    1979-01-01

    Lower-order conserved quantities, the ''currents'', for two-dimensional Lorentz-invariant Born-Infeld equation are considered. The currents are divided into pairs, which contain a class (basic currents) leading to the family equations. The basic currents determine the transformations between the solutions of the Born-Infeld eqution family. The equations belonging to the family are fully hodograph-invariant, partly hodograph-invariant, and effectively linear, i.e. non-linear equations with linear image of hodograph transformation

  5. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yao, E-mail: Yao.Fu@colorado.edu; Song, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: JH.Song@colorado.edu

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging.

  6. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging

  7. Bounds imposed on the sheath velocity of a dense plasma focus by conservation laws and ionization stability condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data compiled over five decades of dense plasma focus research are consistent with the snowplow model of sheath propagation, based on the hypothetical balance between magnetic pressure driving the plasma into neutral gas ahead and “wind pressure” resisting its motion. The resulting sheath velocity, or the numerically proportional “drive parameter,” is known to be approximately constant for devices optimized for neutron production over 8 decades of capacitor bank energy. This paper shows that the validity of the snowplow hypothesis, with some correction, as well as the non-dependence of sheath velocity on device parameters, have their roots in local conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy coupled with the ionization stability condition. Both upper and lower bounds on sheath velocity are shown to be related to material constants of the working gas and independent of the device geometry and capacitor bank impedance

  8. Bounds imposed on the sheath velocity of a dense plasma focus by conservation laws and ionization stability condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auluck, S. K. H., E-mail: skhauluck@gmail.com, E-mail: skauluck@barc.gov.in [Physics Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Experimental data compiled over five decades of dense plasma focus research are consistent with the snowplow model of sheath propagation, based on the hypothetical balance between magnetic pressure driving the plasma into neutral gas ahead and “wind pressure” resisting its motion. The resulting sheath velocity, or the numerically proportional “drive parameter,” is known to be approximately constant for devices optimized for neutron production over 8 decades of capacitor bank energy. This paper shows that the validity of the snowplow hypothesis, with some correction, as well as the non-dependence of sheath velocity on device parameters, have their roots in local conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy coupled with the ionization stability condition. Both upper and lower bounds on sheath velocity are shown to be related to material constants of the working gas and independent of the device geometry and capacitor bank impedance.

  9. Modulational instability: Conservation laws and bright soliton solution of ion-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion-dust plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Kalaawy, O. H.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the nonlinear propagation of non-planar (cylindrical and spherical) ion-acoustic (IA) envelope solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electron-positron-ion-dust plasma with two-electron temperature distributions in the context of the non-extensive statistics. The basic set of fluid equations is reduced to the modified nonlinear Schrödinger (MNLS) equation in cylindrical and spherical geometry by using the reductive perturbation method (RPM). It is found that the nature of the modulational instabilities would be significantly modified due to the effects of the non-extensive and other plasma parameters as well as cylindrical and spherical geometry. Conservation laws of the MNLS equation are obtained by Lie symmetry and multiplier method. A new exact solution (envelope bright soliton) is obtained by the extended homogeneous balance method. Finally, we study the results of this article.

  10. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  11. A higher-order conservation element solution element method for solving hyperbolic differential equations on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, David

    This dissertation presents an extension of the Conservation Element Solution Element (CESE) method from second- to higher-order accuracy. The new method retains the favorable characteristics of the original second-order CESE scheme, including (i) the use of the space-time integral equation for conservation laws, (ii) a compact mesh stencil, (iii) the scheme will remain stable up to a CFL number of unity, (iv) a fully explicit, time-marching integration scheme, (v) true multidimensionality without using directional splitting, and (vi) the ability to handle two- and three-dimensional geometries by using unstructured meshes. This algorithm has been thoroughly tested in one, two and three spatial dimensions and has been shown to obtain the desired order of accuracy for solving both linear and non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The scheme has also shown its ability to accurately resolve discontinuities in the solutions. Higher order unstructured methods such as the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods have been developed for one-, two- and three-dimensional application. Although these schemes have seen extensive development and use, certain drawbacks of these methods have been well documented. For example, the explicit versions of these two methods have very stringent stability criteria. This stability criteria requires that the time step be reduced as the order of the solver increases, for a given simulation on a given mesh. The research presented in this dissertation builds upon the work of Chang, who developed a fourth-order CESE scheme to solve a scalar one-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equation. The completed research has resulted in two key deliverables. The first is a detailed derivation of a high-order CESE methods on unstructured meshes for solving the conservation laws in two- and three-dimensional spaces. The second is the code implementation of these numerical methods in a computer code. For

  12. A conservation law, entropy principle and quantization of fractal dimensions in hadron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborovský, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fractal self-similarity of hadron interactions demonstrated by the z-scaling of inclusive spectra is studied. The scaling regularity reflects fractal structure of the colliding hadrons (or nuclei) and takes into account general features of fragmentation processes expressed by fractal dimensions. The self-similarity variable z is a function of the momentum fractions x1 and x2 of the colliding objects carried by the interacting hadron constituents and depends on the momentum fractions ya and yb of the scattered and recoil constituents carried by the inclusive particle and its recoil counterpart, respectively. Based on entropy principle, new properties of the z-scaling concept are found. They are conservation of fractal cumulativity in hadron interactions and quantization of fractal dimensions characterizing hadron structure and fragmentation processes at a constituent level.

  13. Conservation laws and two-dimensional black holes in dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R. B.

    1993-05-01

    A very general class of Lagrangians which couple scalar fields to gravitation and matter in two spacetime dimensions is investigated. It is shown that a vector field exists along whose flow lines the stress-energy tensor is conserved, regardless of whether or not the equations of motion are satisfied or if any Killing vectors exist. Conditions necessary for the existence of Killing vectors are derived. A new set of two-dimensional (2D) black-hole solutions is obtained for one particular member within this class of Lagrangians, which couples a Liouville field to 2D gravity in a novel way. One solution of this theory bears an interesting resemblance to the 2D string-theoretic black hole, yet contains markedly different thermodynamic properties.

  14. Operator Hydrodynamics, OTOCs, and Entanglement Growth in Systems without Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Rakovszky, Tibor; Pollmann, Frank; Sondhi, S. L.

    2018-04-01

    Thermalization and scrambling are the subject of much recent study from the perspective of many-body quantum systems with locally bounded Hilbert spaces ("spin chains"), quantum field theory, and holography. We tackle this problem in 1D spin chains evolving under random local unitary circuits and prove a number of exact results on the behavior of out-of-time-ordered commutators (OTOCs) and entanglement growth in this setting. These results follow from the observation that the spreading of operators in random circuits is described by a "hydrodynamical" equation of motion, despite the fact that random unitary circuits do not have locally conserved quantities (e.g., no conserved energy). In this hydrodynamic picture, quantum information travels in a front with a "butterfly velocity" vB that is smaller than the light-cone velocity of the system, while the front itself broadens diffusively in time. The OTOC increases sharply after the arrival of the light cone, but we do not observe a prolonged exponential regime of the form ˜eλL(t -x /v ) for a fixed Lyapunov exponent λL. We find that the diffusive broadening of the front has important consequences for entanglement growth, leading to an entanglement velocity that can be significantly smaller than the butterfly velocity. We conjecture that the hydrodynamical description applies to more generic Floquet ergodic systems, and we support this idea by verifying numerically that the diffusive broadening of the operator wavefront also holds in a more traditional nonrandom Floquet spin chain. We also compare our results to Clifford circuits, which have less rich hydrodynamics and consequently trivial OTOC behavior, but which can nevertheless exhibit linear entanglement growth and thermalization.

  15. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Wang; WANG Jian-Bo; CHEN Xiang-Wei; XIE Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems,and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system.We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived.The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented.This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.%Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzenoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.

  16. Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2016-10-01

    Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.

  17. Scaling laws and higher-order effects in Coulomb excitation of neutron halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Baur, G.

    2008-01-01

    Essential properties of halo nuclei can be described in terms of a few low-energy constants. For neutron halo nuclei, analytical results can be found for wave functions and electromagnetic transition matrix elements in simple but well-adapted models. These wave functions can be used to study nuclear reactions; an especially simple and instructive example is Coulomb excitation. A systematic expansion in terms of small parameters can be given. We present scaling laws for excitation amplitudes and cross-sections. The results can be used to analyze experiments like 11 Be Coulomb excitation. They also serve as benchmark tests for more involved reaction theories. (orig.)

  18. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  19. How to satisfy the energy-momentum conservation law and to take into account Fermi motion of constituents in simulation of compound system interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzhinskij, V.V.; Shmakov, S.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    A method is suggested which enables one to take unto account the Fermi motion of nuclear nucleons in Monte-Carlo simulation of exclusive states in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions and, in hadron-hadron interaction simulation, to take into account the quark transverse momentum without violation of the energy-momentum conservation law

  20. Solitons, Lie Group Analysis and Conservation Laws of a (3+1)-Dimensional Modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov Equation in a Multicomponent Magnetised Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xia-Xia; Tian, Bo; Chai, Jun; Sun, Yan; Yuan, Yu-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate a (3+1)-dimensional modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation, which describes the nonlinear plasma-acoustic waves in a multicomponent magnetised plasma. With the aid of the Hirota method and symbolic computation, bilinear forms and one-, two- and three-soliton solutions are derived. The characteristics and interaction of the solitons are discussed graphically. We present the effects on the soliton's amplitude by the nonlinear coefficients which are related to the ratio of the positive-ion mass to negative-ion mass, number densities, initial densities of the lower- and higher-temperature electrons and ratio of the lower temperature to the higher temperature for electrons, as well as by the dispersion coefficient, which is related to the ratio of the positive-ion mass to the negative-ion mass and number densities. Moreover, using the Lie symmetry group theory, we derive the Lie point symmetry generators and the corresponding symmetry reductions, through which certain analytic solutions are obtained via the power series expansion method and the (G'/G) expansion method. We demonstrate that such an equation is strictly self-adjoint, and the conservation laws associated with the Lie point symmetry generators are derived.

  1. On stability and monotonicity requirements of finite difference approximations of stochastic conservation laws with random viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Pettersson, Per

    2013-05-01

    The stochastic Galerkin and collocation methods are used to solve an advection-diffusion equation with uncertain and spatially varying viscosity. We investigate well-posedness, monotonicity and stability for the extended system resulting from the Galerkin projection of the advection-diffusion equation onto the stochastic basis functions. High-order summation-by-parts operators and weak imposition of boundary conditions are used to prove stability of the semi-discrete system.It is essential that the eigenvalues of the resulting viscosity matrix of the stochastic Galerkin system are positive and we investigate conditions for this to hold. When the viscosity matrix is diagonalizable, stochastic Galerkin and stochastic collocation are similar in terms of computational cost, and for some cases the accuracy is higher for stochastic Galerkin provided that monotonicity requirements are met. We also investigate the total spatial operator of the semi-discretized system and its impact on the convergence to steady-state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. On stability and monotonicity requirements of finite difference approximations of stochastic conservation laws with random viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Pettersson, Per; Doostan, Alireza; Nordströ m, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The stochastic Galerkin and collocation methods are used to solve an advection-diffusion equation with uncertain and spatially varying viscosity. We investigate well-posedness, monotonicity and stability for the extended system resulting from the Galerkin projection of the advection-diffusion equation onto the stochastic basis functions. High-order summation-by-parts operators and weak imposition of boundary conditions are used to prove stability of the semi-discrete system.It is essential that the eigenvalues of the resulting viscosity matrix of the stochastic Galerkin system are positive and we investigate conditions for this to hold. When the viscosity matrix is diagonalizable, stochastic Galerkin and stochastic collocation are similar in terms of computational cost, and for some cases the accuracy is higher for stochastic Galerkin provided that monotonicity requirements are met. We also investigate the total spatial operator of the semi-discretized system and its impact on the convergence to steady-state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  3. A high-order finite-volume method for hyperbolic conservation laws on locally-refined grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip

    2011-01-28

    We present a fourth-order accurate finite-volume method for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on Cartesian grids with multiple levels of refinement. The underlying method is a generalization of that in [5] to nonlinear systems, and is based on using fourth-order accurate quadratures for computing fluxes on faces, combined with fourth-order accurate Runge?Kutta discretization in time. To interpolate boundary conditions at refinement boundaries, we interpolate in time in a manner consistent with the individual stages of the Runge-Kutta method, and interpolate in space by solving a least-squares problem over a neighborhood of each target cell for the coefficients of a cubic polynomial. The method also uses a variation on the extremum-preserving limiter in [8], as well as slope flattening and a fourth-order accurate artificial viscosity for strong shocks. We show that the resulting method is fourth-order accurate for smooth solutions, and is robust in the presence of complex combinations of shocks and smooth flows.

  4. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  5. Power-law scaling of extreme dynamics near higher-order exceptional points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Q.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Khajavikhan, M.; Makris, K. G.; El-Ganainy, R.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the extreme dynamics of non-Hermitian systems near higher-order exceptional points in photonic networks constructed using the bosonic algebra method. We show that strong power oscillations for certain initial conditions can occur as a result of the peculiar eigenspace geometry and its dimensionality collapse near these singularities. By using complementary numerical and analytical approaches, we show that, in the parity-time (PT ) phase near exceptional points, the logarithm of the maximum optical power amplification scales linearly with the order of the exceptional point. We focus in our discussion on photonic systems, but we note that our results apply to other physical systems as well.

  6. Management Strategies for Sustainability Education, Planning, Design, Energy Conservation in California Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petratos, Panagiotis; Damaskou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the effects of campus sustainability planning to annual campus energy inflows and outflows in California higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary statistical analysis for the evaluation of impact factors on energy outflows and a link between energy outflows and building…

  7. Who Benefits From Four-Year Higher Education in Turkey? A Case Study of Law School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz GÖLPEK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, a higher education system which is based on welfare state practices prevails. In this system, the services are substantially provided by the state free of charge or at quite low prices. Since the services are financed by taxes, additional sources cannot be provided; and because of the fact that it doesn't entail a real cost benefit comparison by the users, it leads to inefficiency. From the early 80s on, there has been a tendency towards the marketing mechanisms in the provision of many public services such as education due to both strong theoretical and empirical reason, and the restrictions in public financing. Together with this tendency, the question of who benefits from education services is tried to be answered in order to discuss the stimulation of activities and additional resources on a reasonable base. The aim of this study is to determine whether it is the individual or the society who benefits from this public service at the higher education level by calculating private and social return rates through internal return rate technique which is one of the cost benefit analysis method. Findings from calculations have shown that the individual gains more than the society after a four-year university education.

  8. Self-medication of mood and anxiety disorders with marijuana: Higher in states with medical marijuana laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Olfson, Mark; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    Self-medication with drugs or alcohol is commonly reported among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, and increases the risk of developing substance use disorders. Medical marijuana laws (MML) may be associated with greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of marijuana, leading individuals to self-medicate. The study utilized data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Participants were sampled from households in the general population and included adults with a mood or anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 7418), and the subset of those who used marijuana and no other drug (n = 314). Weighted logistic regression models predicted the prevalence of self-medication with drugs in U.S. states with and without MML, adjusting for individual and state-level covariates. As a negative control, analyses were repeated for self-medication with alcohol. Overall, self-medication with drugs was 3.73 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-6.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.01). For the subpopulation that only used marijuana, self-medication with drugs was 21.22 percentage points higher (95% CI: 3.91-38.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.02). In contrast, self-medication with alcohol had nearly identical prevalence in MML and non-MML states, overall and for drinkers. Among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, living in a medical marijuana law state is associated with self-medication with marijuana. While additional research is needed to determine the reasons for this association, clinical screening for self-medication with marijuana may be particularly important in states with medical marijuana laws. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    in the period from 1992 to 2010 in the DPIA database were identified and patient records were reviewed manually. RESULTS: The compensation awarded for the 18-year period totalled 18,147,202 DKK with 41% of patient claims being recognised. Out of 180 surgically treated patients, 79 received a total compensation...... of 14,051,377 DKK, median 47,637 (range: 5,000-3,577,043). Of 114 non-surgically treated patients, 40 received 3,715,224 DKK in compensation, with a median amount of 35,788 DKK (range: 5,000-830,073). CONCLUSION: Compensation after surgical treatment was 3.8 times higher than compensation after non......-surgical treatment. It is noteworthy that 34.5% of patients had an overlooked diagnosis which underlines the importance of a correct primary diagnosis. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  10. Negatons, positons, rational-like solutions and conservation laws of the Korteweg-de Vries equation with loss and non-uniformity terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dajun; Chen Dengyuan

    2004-01-01

    Solitons, negatons, positons, rational-like solutions and mixed solutions of a non-isospectral equation, the Korteweg-de Vries equation with loss and non-uniformity terms, are obtained through the Wronskian technique. The non-isospectral characteristics of the motion behaviours of some solutions are described with some figures made by using Mathematica. We also derive an infinite number of conservation laws of the equation

  11. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  12. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Multi-dimensional, fully-implicit, spectral method for the Vlasov-Maxwell equations with exact conservation laws in discrete form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, G. L.

    2015-11-01

    A spectral method for the numerical solution of the multi-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations is presented. The plasma distribution function is expanded in Fourier (for the spatial part) and Hermite (for the velocity part) basis functions, leading to a truncated system of ordinary differential equations for the expansion coefficients (moments) that is discretized with an implicit, second order accurate Crank-Nicolson time discretization. The discrete non-linear system is solved with a preconditioned Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method. It is shown analytically that the Fourier-Hermite method features exact conservation laws for total mass, momentum and energy in discrete form. Standard tests involving plasma waves and the whistler instability confirm the validity of the conservation laws numerically. The whistler instability test also shows that we can step over the fastest time scale in the system without incurring in numerical instabilities. Some preconditioning strategies are presented, showing that the number of linear iterations of the Krylov solver can be drastically reduced and a significant gain in performance can be obtained.

  14. On the Definition of Energy for a Continuum, Its Conservation Laws, and the Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayeul Arminjon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the energy concept in the case of a continuum or a system of fields. First, we analyze the emergence of a true local conservation equation for the energy of a continuous medium, taking the example of an isentropic continuum in Newtonian gravity. Next, we consider a continuum or a system of fields in special relativity: we recall that the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor contains two local conservation equations of the same kind as before. We show that both of these equations depend on the reference frame and that, however, they can be given a rigorous meaning. Then, we review the definitions of the canonical and Hilbert energy-momentum tensors from a Lagrangian through the principle of stationary action in general space-time. Using relatively elementary mathematics, we prove precise results regarding the definition of the Hilbert tensor field, its uniqueness, and its tensoriality. We recall the meaning of its covariant conservation equation. We end with a proof of uniqueness of the energy density and flux, when both depend polynomially on the fields.

  15. Uniqueness of Mass-Conserving Self-similar Solutions to Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation with Inverse Power Law Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurençot, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Uniqueness of mass-conserving self-similar solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equation is shown when the coagulation kernel K is given by K(x,x_*)=2(x x_*)^{-α } , (x,x_*)\\in (0,∞)^2 , for some α >0.

  16. Notes on Conservation Laws, Equations of Motion of Matter, and Particle Fields in Lorentzian and Teleparallel de Sitter Space-Time Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldyr A. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the physics of interacting fields and particles living in a de Sitter Lorentzian manifold (dSLM, a submanifold of a 5-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean (5dPE equipped with a metric tensor inherited from the metric of the 5dPE space. The dSLM is naturally oriented and time oriented and is the arena used to study the energy-momentum conservation law and equations of motion for physical systems living there. Two distinct de Sitter space-time structures MdSL and MdSTP are introduced given dSLM, the first equipped with the Levi-Civita connection of its metric field and the second with a metric compatible parallel connection. Both connections are used only as mathematical devices. Thus, for example, MdSL is not supposed to be the model of any gravitational field in the General Relativity Theory (GRT. Misconceptions appearing in the literature concerning the motion of free particles in dSLM are clarified. Komar currents are introduced within Clifford bundle formalism permitting the presentation of Einstein equation as a Maxwell like equation and proving that in GRT there are infinitely many conserved currents. We prove that in GRT even when the appropriate Killing vector fields exist it is not possible to define a conserved energy-momentum covector as in special relativistic theories.

  17. Sex Discrimination Law in Higher Education: The Lessons of the Past Decade. ERIC Digest 85-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, J. Ralph; And Others

    The obligations of colleges and universities under existing laws prohibiting sex discrimination against employees and students are summarized. Principal federal sources of legal obligation regarding employees are the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and…

  18. Decision-Making and the Law in Higher Education--Emphasis on Student Rights: Essay and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.

    The essay and bibliography presented here are designed for general use among those concerned with questions of campus rights and responsibilities and with the application of legal principles in campus decision-making. The primary focus is on student rights issues. The discussion falls into three parts: (1) "Law and Morality in the Open Society" is…

  19. Polynomial conservation laws and exact solutions connected with isometrical and homothetic symmetries in the nonlinear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    In the non linear delta-model conserved tensor currents connected with the isometrical, homothetic and affine motions in the space Vsup(N) of the chiral field values are constructed. New classes of the exact solutions are obtained in the SO(3) and SO(5) invariant delta-models using the connection between the groups of isometrical and homothetic motions in the space-time and isometrical motions in Vsup(N). Some methods of obtaining exact solutions in 4-dimensional delta-model with non trivial topological charge are considered

  20. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  1. Conservation between higher plants and the moss Physcomitrella patens in response to the phytohormone abscisic acid: a proteomics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqin

    2010-08-01

    accumulation levels as a result of treatment with ABA. Detailed analysis these protein functions showed that physiological and molecular responses to the plant hormone ABA appear to be conserved among higher plant species and bryophytes.

  2. Energy conservation in industrial buildings. Higher energy efficiency with smart control systems; Energieeinsparung im Gewerbebau. Hoehere Energieeffizienz durch 'intelligente' Regeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Edgar [CentraLine c/o Honeywell GmbH, Schoenaich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With smart control systems, the energy conservation potential of industrial buildings could be fully utilized. This means, e.g., that classic control algorithms must be replaced by new solutions. New methods will ensure higher energy efficiency with maximum comfort; they will also prolong the service life and the inspection intervals of the technical facilities. (orig.)

  3. Energy Costs and Energy Conservation Programs in Colleges and Universities: 1972-73, 1974-75. Higher Education Panel Reports, Number 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    A survey was initiated at the request of the U.S. Office of Education and the Energy Task Force to: (1) measure the increase in energy expenditures since the OPEC oil embargo of 1973-74; (2) assess changes in energy consumption over a two-year period; and (3) examine some of the specific conservation practices of higher education institutions.…

  4. A non-local theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    1999-01-01

    We consider a hyperbolic system of conservation laws on the space of symmetric second-order matrices. The right-hand side of this system contains the functional calculus operator f-bar(U) generated in the general case only by a continuous scalar function f(u). For these systems we define and describe the set of singular entropies, introduce the concept of generalized entropy solutions of the corresponding Cauchy problem, and investigate the properties of generalized entropy solutions. We define the class of strong generalized entropy solutions, in which the Cauchy problem has precisely one solution. We suggest a condition on the initial data under which any generalized entropy solution is strong, which implies its uniqueness. Under this condition we establish that the 'vanishing viscosity' method converges. An example shows that in the general case there can be more than one generalized entropy solution

  5. On the theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    2000-01-01

    Many-dimensional non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with a radially degenerate flux function are considered. For such systems the set of entropies is defined and described, the concept of generalized entropy solution of the Cauchy problem is introduced, and the properties of generalized entropy solutions are studied. The class of strong generalized entropy solutions is distinguished, in which the Cauchy problem in question is uniquely soluble. A condition on the initial data is described that ensures that the generalized entropy solution is strong and therefore unique. Under this condition the convergence of the 'vanishing viscosity' method is established. An example presented in the paper shows that a generalized entropy solution is not necessarily unique in the general case

  6. On the conservation laws and solutions of a (2+1) dimensional KdV-mKdV equation of mathematical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsepa, Tanki; Masood Khalique, Chaudry

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study a (2+1) dimensional KdV-mKdV equation, which models many physical phenomena of mathematical physics. This equation has two integral terms in it. By an appropriate substitution, we convert this equation into two partial differential equations, which do not have integral terms and are equivalent to the original equation. We then work with the system of two equations and obtain its exact travelling wave solutions in form of Jacobi elliptic functions. Furthermore, we employ the multiplier method to construct conservation laws for the system. Finally, we revert the results obtained into the original variables of the (2+1) dimensional KdV-mKdV equation.

  7. Development of performance test instrument in the experiment of law of conservation mass using self and peer assessment’s technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Nahadi; Firmansyah, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop the instrument of performance assessment of law of mass conservation using self and peer assessment technique that meet valid and reliable criteria. The instrument components consist of task and rubric. The method used is development and validation.Value of the instrument reliability obtained from twice observations that are at four and six students every group with three same observers. Cronbach alpha value for four and six students every group consecutively are 0.94 and 0.76, indicating that value shows that the instrument is reliable. Optimum amount of the students that can be observed are four students. The implementation of the instrument to limited group of students showed that All of the students give positive responses to the instrument used with the interpretation of questionnaire scores >90% that categorized as good.

  8. Do More Hospital Beds Lead to Higher Hospitalization Rates? A Spatial Examination of Roemer’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L.; Messina, Joseph P.; Grady, Sue C.; WinklerPrins, Vince; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Roemer’s Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence supports its content. Furthermore, known geographic factors influencing health services use and the spatial structure of the relationship between hospital bed availability and hospitalization rates have not been sufficiently explored in past examinations of Roemer’s Law. We pose the question, “Accounting for space in health care access and use, is there an observable association between the availability of hospital beds and hospital utilization?” Methods We employ an ecological research design based upon the Anderson behavioral model of health care utilization. This conceptual model is implemented in an explicitly spatial context. The effect of hospital bed availability on the utilization of hospital services is evaluated, accounting for spatial structure and controlling for other known determinants of hospital utilization. The stability of this relationship is explored by testing across numerous geographic scales of analysis. The case study comprises an entire state system of hospitals and population, evaluating over one million inpatient admissions. Results We find compelling evidence that a positive, statistically significant relationship exists between hospital bed availability and inpatient hospitalization rates. Additionally, the observed relationship is invariant with changes in the geographic scale of analysis. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the effects of Roemer’s Law, thus suggesting that variations in hospitalization rates have origins in the availability of hospital beds. This relationship is found to be robust across geographic scales of analysis. These findings suggest

  9. Wildlife laws monitoring as an adaptive management tool in protected area management in Ghana: a case of Kakum Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiafe, Edward Debrah

    2016-01-01

    The wildlife laws of Ghana alienated the rural communities from forests and material well-being depended upon for their livelihood and this manifests itself in the progressive conflict between the park patrol staff and poachers from the fringes of the protected areas. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of quantification of patrol efforts on indicators of illegal hunting activities that occur in rainforest protected areas, as a result of monitoring patrol operations and modifying the original plan. The specific objectives were to determine the optimal patrol efforts necessary to reduce illegal wildlife use to minimal; and the influence of the rainfall and seasonal activities on illegal wildlife use. The results indicated that as the patrol efforts increased the encounter with illegal wildlife use also increased until a certain point that the encounter rates started decreasing. Neither rainfall nor seasonal activities influenced the illegal activities and the patrol efforts. The protection staff of rainforest protected areas would work effectively to bring down illegal wildlife off-take to the barest minimum if monitored, quantified and provide feed-back. Illegal wildlife off-take can also be reduced by the protection staff if the original plans are made flexible to be adjusted. Recommendations for further studies have been made.

  10. Assessment of some high-order finite difference schemes on the scalar conservation law with periodical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina BOGOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic/hypersonic flows with strong shocks need special treatment in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in order to accurately capture the discontinuity location and his magnitude. To avoid numerical instabilities in the presence of discontinuities, the numerical schemes must generate low dissipation and low dispersion error. Consequently, the algorithms used to calculate the time and space-derivatives, should exhibit a low amplitude and phase error. This paper focuses on the comparison of the numerical results obtained by simulations with some high resolution numerical schemes applied on linear and non-linear one-dimensional conservation low. The analytical solutions are provided for all benchmark tests considering smooth periodical conditions. All the schemes converge to the proper weak solution for linear flux and smooth initial conditions. However, when the flux is non-linear, the discontinuities may develop from smooth initial conditions and the shock must be correctly captured. All the schemes accurately identify the shock position, with the price of the numerical oscillation in the vicinity of the sudden variation. We believe that the identification of this pure numerical behavior, without physical relevance, in 1D case is extremely useful to avoid problems related to the stability and convergence of the solution in the general 3D case.

  11. Numerical solution of a non-linear conservation law applicable to the interior dynamics of partially molten planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Dan J.; Sanan, Patrick; Wolf, Aaron S.

    2018-01-01

    The energy balance of a partially molten rocky planet can be expressed as a non-linear diffusion equation using mixing length theory to quantify heat transport by both convection and mixing of the melt and solid phases. Crucially, in this formulation the effective or eddy diffusivity depends on the entropy gradient, ∂S / ∂r , as well as entropy itself. First we present a simplified model with semi-analytical solutions that highlights the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r -around 12 orders of magnitude-for physically-relevant parameters. It also elucidates the thermal structure of a magma ocean during the earliest stage of crystal formation. This motivates the development of a simple yet stable numerical scheme able to capture the large dynamic range of ∂S / ∂r and hence provide a flexible and robust method for time-integrating the energy equation. Using insight gained from the simplified model, we consider a full model, which includes energy fluxes associated with convection, mixing, gravitational separation, and conduction that all depend on the thermophysical properties of the melt and solid phases. This model is discretised and evolved by applying the finite volume method (FVM), allowing for extended precision calculations and using ∂S / ∂r as the solution variable. The FVM is well-suited to this problem since it is naturally energy conserving, flexible, and intuitive to incorporate arbitrary non-linear fluxes that rely on lookup data. Special attention is given to the numerically challenging scenario in which crystals first form in the centre of a magma ocean. The computational framework we devise is immediately applicable to modelling high melt fraction phenomena in Earth and planetary science research. Furthermore, it provides a template for solving similar non-linear diffusion equations that arise in other science and engineering disciplines, particularly for non-linear functional forms of the diffusion coefficient.

  12. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Almost all natural phenomena, and social and economic changes, .... reference moving with velocity c also by the same symbol x and ... abstract as can be seen from the publication of the book Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equation.

  13. Conservation laws and gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastall, P.

    1977-01-01

    A total stress-momentum is defined for gravitational fields and their sources. The Lagrangian density is slightly different from that in the previous version of the theory, and the field equations are considerably simplified. The post-Newtonian approximation of the theory is unchanged. The existence and nature of weak gravitational waves are discussed. (author)

  14. On conservation laws in geometrically nonlinear elasto-dynamic field of non-homogenous materials%论非均匀材料几何非线性弹性动力学场的守恒律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟辰; 高庆海; 李欢欢

    2006-01-01

    对基于Lagrange框架描述的非均匀弹性材料的Lagrange泛函应用Noether原理,开展材料的几何非线性弹性动力学场守恒律的研究,并给出其物质空间守恒律与物质平衡定律之间关系的清晰图景.研究发现,质量密度和弹性系数需满足一组一阶线性偏微分方程,该组方程不但包含来自Newton力学时-空观的全部时-空对称变换,而且控制着材料物质空间守恒律的存在性和存在的形式.特别需指出的是,惯性坐标系的平移和旋转是Lagrange泛函的对称变换,这些对称变换可导致均匀材料的物质空间守恒律和非均匀材料的物质平衡定律,但是时-空坐标的标度改变并不是对称变换.然而,若质量密度和弹性系数满足由上述方程简化而来的一组特殊的一阶线性偏微分方程,则时-空坐标的标度改变可成为Lagrange泛函的对称变换并导致相关守恒律的存在,但此时与该守恒律关联的物质平衡定律仍然不存在.为构造适合力学分析的功能梯度材料的物质空间守恒律,进行了质量密度和弹性系数需满足的方程的应用研究.对于粘合于基底的功能梯度材料层,给出全部非平凡的物质空间守恒律.%By applying Noether's theorem to the Lagrangian density of non-homogenous elastic materials in the so-called Lagrangian framework, conservation laws in geometrically nonlinear elasto-dynamic field have been studied, and a clear picture of relations between the conservation laws in material space and the material balance laws is given. It is found that the mass density and Lamé's moduli have to satisfy a set of first-order linear partial differential equations, which contain all the symmetry-transformations of space-time based on Newtonian viewpoint of mechanics. The existence and existent forms of conservation laws in material space are governed by these equations. Especially, translation and rotation of coordinates are symmetry

  15. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  16. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: 1, How a Bill Becomes a Law to Conserve Energy, Grades 9, 11, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Phyllis; And Others

    This instructional unit for secondary school students is designed to integrate facts and concepts of energy, environment, and economics into the study of the process of making and applying a law (the fifty-five mile-per-hour speed limit law). The unit contains activities on the legislative process designed to fit into traditional segments of…

  17. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  18. Environmental law. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (orig.) [de

  19. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  20. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath. II. Towards a first principles theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper continues earlier discussion [S. K. H. Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 21, 102515 (2014)] concerning the formulation of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in a local curvilinear coordinate system in the dense plasma focus. This formulation makes use of the revised Gratton-Vargas snowplow model [S. K. H. Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112501 (2013)], which provides an analytically defined imaginary surface in three dimensions which resembles the experimentally determined shape of the plasma. Unit vectors along the local tangent to this surface, along the azimuth, and along the local normal define a right-handed orthogonal local curvilinear coordinate system. The simplifying assumption that physical quantities have significant variation only along the normal enables writing laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the form of effectively one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations using expressions for various differential operators derived for this coordinate system. This formulation demonstrates the highly non-trivial result that the axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions, experimentally observed by multiple prestigious laboratories, are natural consequences of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the curved geometry of the dense plasma focus current sheath. The present paper continues the discussion in the context of a 3-region shock structure similar to the one experimentally observed: an unperturbed region followed by a hydrodynamic shock containing some current followed by a magnetic piston. Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are derived, and expressions are obtained for the specific volumes and pressures using the mass-flux between the hydrodynamic shock and the magnetic piston and current fraction in the hydrodynamic shock as unknown parameters. For the special case of a magnetic piston that remains continuously in contact with the fluid being pushed, the theory gives closed form algebraic results for the

  1. Yearbook of wind energy law 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    In the yearbook 2015, the technical papers are dealing with the distance recommendations of the State Working Group of Bird Conservation Observatories, with aesthetics as a public interest in the planning and authorization regime for wind turbines, the prospect of the citizen and community participation law in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the conflict between wind turbines and weather radars and with the higher court jurisdiction for feed management. [de

  2. Existence of dark matter with observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation substantiates three conservation laws of classical physics and all principles of quantum mechanics as creates the value of Planck’s constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Astronomical data indicate a presence of dark matter (DM) in the space, what is necessary for explanation of observed dynamics of the galaxies within Newtonian mechanics. DM, at its very low density (∼10-26kg/m3), constitutes main part of the matter in the Universe, 10 times the mass of all visible cosmic bodies. No doubt, namely properties of DM, which fills space, must determine its physical properties and fundamental physical laws. Taking into account observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), whose energy is ∼90% of all cosmic radiation, and understanding that this radiation is produced by DM motion, conservation laws of classical physics and principles of quantum mechanics receive their materialistic substantiation. Thus, CMBR high homogeneity and isotropy (∼10-4), and hence the same properties of DM (and space) justify momentum and angular momentum conservation laws, respectively, according to E. Noether's theorems. CMBR has black body spectrum at ∼2.7K with maximum wavelength ∼1.9·10-3m, what allows calculate the value of mechanical action produced by DM thermal motion (∼7·10-34 J·s). This value corresponds well to the Planck’s constant, which is the mechanical action too, what gives materialistic basis for all principles of quantum mechanics. Obtained results directly confirm the reality of DM existence, and show that CMBR is an observed display of DM thermal motion. Understanding that namely from DM occur known creation of electron-positron pairs as contrarily rotating material vortexes (according to their spins) let substantiate positron nature of ball lightning what first explains all its observed specific properties.

  3. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  4. Higher-order superclustering in the Ostriker explosion scenario I. Three-point correlation functions of clusters in the constant and power-law models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yipeng.

    1989-08-01

    We study the three-point correlation functions ρ(r, u, v) of clusters in the two types of explosion models by numerical simulations. The clusters are identified as the ''knots'' where three shells intersect. The shells are assumed to have the constant radii (the constant models) or have the power law radius distributions (the power law models). In both kinds of models, we find that ρ can be approximately expressed by the scaling form: ρ = Q(ξ 1 ξ 2 + ξ 2 ξ 3 + ξ 3 ξ 1 ), and Q is about 1, which are consistent with the observations. More detailed studies of r-, u- and v-dependences of Q show that Q remains constant in the constant models. In the power-law models, Q is independent of the shape parameters u and v, while it has some moderate r-dependences (variations with r about a factor of 1 or 2). (author). 27 refs, 9 figs

  5. Basal Subtype of Invasive Breast Cancer Is Associated With a Higher Risk of True Recurrence After Conventional Breast-Conserving Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sreedhara, Meera [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Freer, Phoebe E. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Georgian-Smith, Dianne [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R.; Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether breast cancer subtype is associated with patterns of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), either true recurrence (TR) or elsewhere local recurrence (ELR), among women with pT1-T2 invasive breast cancer (IBC) who receive breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From Jan 1998 to Dec 2003, 1,223 women with pT1-T2N0-3 IBC were treated with BCT (lumpectomy plus whole-breast radiation). Ninety percent of patients received adjuvant systemic therapy, but none received trastuzumab. Biologic cancer subtypes were approximated by determining estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (HER-2+) expression, classified as luminal A (ER+ or PR+ and HER-2 negative [HER-2-]), luminal B (ER+ or PR+ and HER-2+), HER-2 (ER- and PR- and HER-2+), and basal (ER- and PR- and HER-2- ) subtypes. Imaging, pathology, and operative reports were reviewed by two physicians independently, including an attending breast radiologist. Readers were blinded to subtype and outcome. TR was defined as IBTR within the same quadrant and within 3 cm of the primary tumor. All others were defined as ELR. Results: At a median follow-up of 70 months, 24 patients developed IBTR (5-year cumulative incidence of 1.6%), including 15 TR and 9 ELR patients. At 5 years, basal (4.4%) and HER-2 (9%) subtypes had a significantly higher incidence of TR than luminal B (1.2%) and luminal A (0.2%) subtypes (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, basal subtype (hazard ratio [HR], 4.8, p = 0.01), younger age at diagnosis (HR, 0.97; p = 0.05), and increasing tumor size (HR, 2.1; p = 0.04) were independent predictors of TR. Only younger age (HR, 0.95; p = 0.01) significantly predicted for ELR. Conclusions: Basal and HER-2 subtypes are significantly associated with higher rates of TR among women with pT1-T2 IBC after BCT. Younger age predicts for both TR and ELR. Strategies to reduce TR in basal

  6. A Locally Conservative Eulerian--Lagrangian Method for a Model Two-Phase Flow Problem in a One-Dimensional Porous Medium

    KAUST Repository

    Arbogast, Todd; Huang, Chieh-Sen; Russell, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by possible generalizations to more complex multiphase multicomponent systems in higher dimensions, we develop an Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical approximation for a system of two conservation laws in one space dimension modeling a

  7. Recent publications on environmental law. Bibliography covering the period July 1, 1991 till June 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.; Doerner, E.

    1992-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1685 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  8. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  9. Balance laws and centro velocity in dissipative systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Mainardi, F.

    1990-01-01

    Starting with a density that is conserved for a dynamical system when dissipation is ignored, a local conservation law is derived for which the total flux (integrated over the spatial domain) is unique. When dissipation is incorporated, the conservation law becomes a balance law. The contribution

  10. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  11. The Accidental Federal Agency: On the Dismantle of Constitutional Dispositions Concerning Brazilian Higher Educational System by Administrative Law and its Effects on the Federal Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Monteiro Diniz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The  Brazilian  Federal  Constitution  of  1988  establishes  the  autonomy  of  Brazilian universities. Moreover, it commands that the universities should not disassociate their activities in teaching, research and extension. This paper considers whether the current administrative law allows the Brazilian public federal universities to accomplish these goals. Departing from the legal approach of these federal universities as executive (administrative agencies, this paper analyzes the main effects of such legal status on the capacity of federal universities  to  fulfill  their  academic  mission,  revealing  a  persistent  gap  between  the constitutional  prescriptions  and  the  administrative  law  concerning  Brazilian  federal universities. It concludes that such legislative discrepancy is clearly detrimental to the constitutional order.

  12. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  13. The Role of Critical Inquiry in (Re)constructing the Public Agenda for Higher Education: Confronting the Conservative Modernization of the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Kuntz, Aaron M.; Pasque, Penny A.; Carducci, Rozana

    2010-01-01

    As higher education seeks to become more socially responsive, the public agenda is one form that has taken root in explicating the relation of higher education to society. In this paper, we critically analyze two different instantiations of the public agenda for higher education, placing them against the backdrop of what Michael Apple (2006a)…

  14. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  15. New Paradigm for Global Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Law is both a condition and a consequence of social development, an outcome of the broader social process, a form of social organization which channels social energies based on the relative strength of past practice and precedent, the present balance of power and emerging social values. Values are the bedrock of social process and the driving force for social activism. Historically, law evolves as a mechanism for conflict avoidance and resolution founded on the practical management of conflict and higher values, made possible by the implicit acceptance and internalization of the authority component of collective expectations. Established law acts as a conservative force of the status quo subject to continuous pressure to evolve from the changing public conscience and social values. Lasswell’s comprehensive model of social process highlights the contribution of multiple participants to the evolution of law at the macro and micro level, including the role of individual value demands and the potential assertive power of the human community as a whole. The article explores the potential role of non-states in changing international law regarding the legality of nuclear weapons. An appreciation of the integral relationship between law, politics and society is essential to a fuller understanding of social, power and legal processes and the goal of universalizing peace and human dignity.

  16. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  17. On the higher order derivatives in the laws of motion and their application to an active force generator and to condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdelma, S.

    1995-12-31

    The current paper commences with a review of the history of classical mechanics. The problems connected with condition monitoring and the construction of high-speed machines are so difficult that a knowledge of the fundamentals of mechanics is essential for solving them. It is thus natural that careful attention should be paid to the starting points and assumptions upon which earlier measurement and calculation methods have relied, for it is only after this than one can deduce whether certain simplifications are due to inadequate measurement technology, inflexibility of ideas, a level of precision that is restricted to simple applications or efforts towards simple models merely in order to avoid calculation work. The historical section contains citations from the original sources, which will be useful for those wishing to examine the topic in more detail. The actual textual part is written in such a way that the fundamental content of the works quoted becomes clear even though not all the individual points are translated word for word. The general practice of utilizing the original notations is observed in this section. The paper contains a new way of deriving the laws of motion in classical mechanics from the fundamental law presented in Section 3. Original sources are employed in interpretations regarding terminology, particularly in the case of Lagrange`s function and Hamilton`s principle. The experimental section involves an examination of a two-particle system composed of an active force generator controlled by the first and second time derivatives of the accelerations and by the fractional time derivatives of the particles. This also enables resonance vibrations to be reduced considerably and highly stable solutions to be found

  18. Environmental law. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulation on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environments law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment. Common administative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy are radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. The transitional provisons required for estaslishing the unified Germany are given in an annex. (orig.) [de

  19. Legal Training and the Reshaping of French Elite: Lessons from an Ethnography of Law Classes in Two French Elite Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël, Liora; Vanneuville, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the nature of contemporary legal training in two French elite higher education institutions--one dedicated to prepare for legal careers in the economic field, the other one to train top civil servants--in order to assess the role of legal knowledge in the shaping of French contemporary elites. Based on observations of law…

  20. Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act: Some Plain Talk Pursuant to the Role of Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Greg

    The presentation addresses the implications of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, for institutions of higher education that are concerned with special education personnel preparation. After a review of literature, the supply and demand situation as it pertains to teachers of exceptional children is discussed and quality…

  1. Radial evolution of the finite-width plasma sheet in a z-pinch: A parametric analysis based on conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherar, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A simple method that allows to estimate the macroscopic variables (width, temperature, density, radial velocity, etc.) of the plasma sheet in the first compression of a z-pinch, is presented. Following the snow-plow model, the radial compression is assumed as a process in which the mass is swept by a sheet of finite width. Very high pressures can be reached inside the sheet due to magnetic compression, higher than the filling gas pressure. A quasi-equilibrium hypothesis for the pressure of the layer is defined. From this assumption the thickness of the dense plasma sheet can be estimated. A set of MHD equations that include a term to compute total energy losses is used. The system of equations is written in the interface reference system in which the internal boundary of the sheet is at rest. In this early stage of the compression, the plasma temperature is mainly due to heavy particles. The results obtained using this model can explain ionic temperatures measured in cold plasmas which cannot be explained from electron-ion collisions. From an analytical study of the formation solution, a well-defined range of validity for each parameter of the model has been found. Based on physical conditions, these ranges of validity give a criterion to understanding the necessary conditions to build and maintain a moving plasma sheet. Using this model, other geometries besides the cylindrical one can be analyzed in the future

  2. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  3. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  4. Bug22p, a Conserved Centrosomal/Ciliary Protein Also Present in Higher Plants, Is Required for an Effective Ciliary Stroke in Paramecium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C.; Klotz, C.; Garreau de Loubresse, N.; Lemullois, M.; Hori, M.; Laurent, F. X.; Papon, J. F.; Louis, B.; Cohen, J.; Koll, F.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate. PMID:20118210

  5. Bug22p, a conserved centrosomal/ciliary protein also present in higher plants, is required for an effective ciliary stroke in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C; Klotz, C; de Loubresse, N Garreau; Lemullois, M; Hori, M; Laurent, F X; Papon, J F; Louis, B; Cohen, J; Koll, F

    2010-04-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate.

  6. A recombination point is conserved in the mitochondrial genome of higher plant species and located downstream from the cox2 pseudogene in Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susely F.S. Tada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. mitochondrial cox3/sdh4/pseudo-cox2 gene cluster has previously been identified by heterologous hybridization using a Marchantia polymorpha sdh4 probe. In our present study we used Southern blotting using sdh4 and cox2 probes to show that the sdh4 and cox2 genes are clustered in the mitochondria of potato, soybean and pea. Northern blotting revealed cotranscription of sdh4 and cox2 in potato but not in cauliflower, indicating that these genes are not clustered in cauliflower. A putative recombination point was detected downstream of the cox2 pseudogene (pseudo-cox2 in potato mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. This sequence corresponds to a 32 bp sequence which appears to be well-conserved and is adjacent to the terminals of some mitochondrial genes in Citrullus lanatus, Beta vulgaris and Arabidopsis thaliana and is probably involved in the genic rearrangements. It is possible the potato mtDNA pseudo-cox2 gene was generated by recombination during evolution in the same way as that of several other mitochondrial genes and remains as an inactive partial copy of the functional cox2 which was also detected in potato mtDNA.

  7. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  8. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  9. Environmental law. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbguth, W. [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Schlacke, S. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The text book under consideration is addressed to students of jurisprudence. It enables an entrance into the general environment law and into selected areas of the special environment law in a clear and systematic form. After an introduction of fundamental principles of the environment law, the book consists of the following topics: Basic principles of the environment law; environmental constitutional law; instruments of the environment law; legal protection in the environment law; environmental European right; environmental international law; pollution protection law; wilderness protection act and landscape conservation act, water protection right, act on recycling and waste management, soil conservation law and contaminated site law, genetic engineering law, sea environment law for the protection of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, energy right.

  10. Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile, ¿legalmente suficiente?: La necesidad de cartografiar la ley antes de decidir Biodiversity conservation in Chile, legally enough?: The need for mapping the law before deciding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO F. PELLET

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El 99,8 % del territorio donde se sustenta la biodiversidad es rural y ha estado tradicionalmente regulado por legislación dispersa, sectorial e inorgánica. La legislación moderna, más holística, como la Ley de Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente adolece de imperfecciones relacionadas con la vigencia, la interpretación y, sobre todo, el que la ley se haga cumplir. En este trabajo argumentamos que la aplicación de modelos tomados de la literatura ecológica buscando apoyar la biología de conservación puede ser complementada fuertemente si es acompañada de una medición de la superficie territorial (cantidad y distribución en el espacio efectivamente afectada por la legislación vigente de protección ambiental. Nuestro trabajo intenta dar respuesta a la pregunta ¿cuánto es lo que efectivamente, en superficie, queda protegido si se hace cumplir la ley? Para esto hemos expresado cartográficamente textos legales relacionados con el bosque nativo, analizamos la complejidad y los efectos de su aplicación y demostramos que basta hacer cumplir la ley para asegurar un mínimo en que, además de aumentar la superficie protegida, aumenta la conectividad y cambian los patrones de fragmentación. La metodología muestra claras ventajas relacionadas con su aplicación para el monitoreo, planificación y control de efectividad de programas socialesAbout 99.8 % of the land sustaining biodiversity in Chile is rural and regulated by legislation, which has been qualified as disperse, too specific or inorganic. Even though modern legislation like (Chilean Law of Environmental Basis tends to be more holistic in nature, serious imperfections connected with applicability, interpretation and, mainly enforcement still prevails. We argue here that any search for, or application of, ecological models as a support for conservation biology could be strongly complemented by a measurement of the land surface (amount and spatial distribution effectively affected

  11. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  12. Special Issue: Very large eddy simulation. Issue Edited by Dimitris Drikakis.Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert Previous Issue | Next Issue > Full Issue Listing-->Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 763-864(30 July 2002)Research ArticleEmbedded turbulence model in numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drikakis, D.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the use of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws as an embedded turbulence modelling approach. Different Godunov-type schemes are utilized in computations of Burgers' turbulence and a two-dimensional mixing layer. The schemes include a total variation diminishing, characteristic-based scheme which is developed in this paper using the flux limiter approach. The embedded turbulence modelling property of the above methods is demonstrated through coarsely resolved large eddy simulations with and without subgrid scale models. Copyright

  13. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  14. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  15. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  16. Phylogenetic inertia and Darwin's higher law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2011-03-01

    The concept of 'phylogenetic inertia' is routinely deployed in evolutionary biology as an alternative to natural selection for explaining the persistence of characteristics that appear sub-optimal from an adaptationist perspective. However, in many of these contexts the precise meaning of 'phylogenetic inertia' and its relationship to selection are far from clear. After tracing the history of the concept of 'inertia' in evolutionary biology, I argue that treating phylogenetic inertia and natural selection as alternative explanations is mistaken because phylogenetic inertia is, from a Darwinian point of view, simply an expected effect of selection. Although Darwin did not discuss 'phylogenetic inertia,' he did assert the explanatory priority of selection over descent. An analysis of 'phylogenetic inertia' provides a perspective from which to assess Darwin's view. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  18. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  19. Elementary derivation of Kepler's laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1995-02-01

    A simple derivation of all three so-called Kepler Laws is presented in which the orbits, bound and unbound, follow directly and immediately from conservation of energy and angular momentum. The intent is to make this crowning achievement of Newtonian Mechanics easily accessible to students in introductory physics courses. The method is also extended to simplify the derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Law. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  1. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  2. INTERFERENCES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW WITH THE URBAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the large, complex issue of influences that urbanization can have on the environment, requires first of all, some general considerations on the interferences between the urban law and the environmental law. The urban law investigates and regulates the affecting and planning of the urban space. Therefore, this type of regulations are at the interference with the environmental law , which, inter alia , deals with the protection and conservation of the environment in the urban settlements, in the built space and also the ecological deployment of the activities in this space. The interaction between the two is becoming increasingly important especially when the urban law is increasingly correlated with the environmental protection, the natural space and the ecological activities.

  3. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  4. The Earth, the Moon and Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    We consider the application of both conservation of momentum and Newton's laws to the Moon in an assumed circular orbit about the Earth. The inadequacy of some texts in applying Newton's laws is considered.

  5. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  6. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  7. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  8. Challenge: Code of environmental law; Herausforderung Umweltgesetzbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Within the meeting ''Challenge: Code of environmental law'' at 16th February, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) and organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) the new code of environmental law as a contribution to more modernness and efficiency in the environmental politics (Sigmar Gabriel); (b) The code of environmental law from the view of the economy (Martin Wansleben); (c) Significance of the code of environmental law from the view of jurisprudence (Michael Kloepfer); (d) Targets, content and utility of the code of environmental law: Summary of the panel discussion (Tanja Goenner, Klaus Mittelbach, Juergen Resch, Hans-Joachim Koch, Alfred Wirtz, Andreas Troge (moderator)); (e) Considerations to the coding of water law in the code of environmental law (Helge Wendenburg); (f) Considerations to the coding of water law: Summary of te discussion; (g) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law (Jochen Flasbarth); (h) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law: Summary of the discussion.

  9. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) is the primary law governing marine fisheries management in U.S. federal waters. It has since been...

  10. Power law scaling for rotational energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, D.E.; Smith, N.; Driver, R.D.; Brunner, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    We have applied a new scaling law to several sets of rotational energy transfer cross sections. The new law asserts that the square of the T-matrix depends on the amount of energy transferred as a power law. Two different kinds of angular momentum statistics are assumed, one corresponding to m/sub j/ being conserved and the other corresponding to m/sub j/ being completely randomized. Numerical fits are presented which demonstrate that the data follow the power law better than the widely used exponential gap law

  11. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  12. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. As of July 1, 1989. 5. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment.The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (orig.) [de

  13. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  14. OpenLaws.eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wass, C.; Dini, P.; Eiser, T.; Heistracher, T.J.; Lampoltshammer, T.J.; Marcon, G.; Sageder, C.; Tsiavos, P.; Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E.; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The OPENLAWS.eu project aims to linking existing laws, cases and legal literature throughout the EU and member states and potentially worldwide and at adding new user-friendly functionality for a higher productivity. Furthermore, the project should make it possible to easily publish new legal

  15. 高职《工程水文与水利计算》课程设计的理念与思路%Curruculum Design Concept and Idea Water Conservancy Computation in of Engineering Hydrology and Higher Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽钧

    2012-01-01

    课程改革是教育教学改革的核心,也是难点。本文就高等职业教育《工程水文与水利计算》课程设计,从课程教学目标、课程的设计理念、设计思路、设计的主要内容与原则几个方面进行了论述,提出课程设计要形成基于岗位工作要求的课程目标、基于职业能力培养的课程内容、基于教学规律的课程组织和适应学生自主学习的课程资源。%Curriculum reform is the core of reform in education and teaching and also the difficult point. The curriculum design of Engineering Hydrology and Water Conservancy Computation in higher vocational education is discussed from such aspects as the teaching objective, the design concept~ the design idea, the main content and pricinple. It is proposed that the objective should be set based on the requirements of the working position, the content should be designed for the cultivation of students" profesional ability, curriculum organization should be based on teaching rules and curriculum resources should be adaptable to students" autonomous learning.

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  17. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  18. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  19. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  1. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  2. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

  3. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  4. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  5. Environmental law. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H.J. (ed.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Forschungsstelle Umweltrecht

    2007-07-01

    The text book under consideration already is addressed to lawyers and students of jurisprudence. It enables an introduction into the general environmental law and consists of sixteen autonomous chapters: (a) International law in the field of ecology (Matthias Buck, Roda Verheyen); (b) European and national environmental constitutional law (Johannes Caspar); (c) General environmental administrative law (Ulrich Ramsauer); (d) Pollution abatement law (Hans-Joachim Koch); (e) Water protection law (Silke Laskowski, Cornelia Ziehm); (f) Recycling economy law and waste management law (Martin Dieckmann, Moritz Reese); (g) Nature conservation law (Christian Maass, Peter Schuette); (h) Soil conservation law and contaminated sites law (Nikolaus Herrmann); (i) Energy legal regulations as an instrument of environmental protection (Wolfgang Ewer); (j) Atomic energy law (Klaus Jankowski); (k) Genetic engineering law (Ursula Prall); (l) Law of hazardous materials (Eckhard Pache); (m) Environmental law in planning law (Nikolaus Hermann); (n) Environment and traffic (Philipp Hermann, Ekkehard Hofmann); (o) Agriculture and ecology (Ulf-Henning Moeker); (p) Liberal trade and environmental protection (Matthias Buck).

  6. Competence of the Higher Administrative Court over an administrative lawsuit concerning orders issued by the supervisory authority instituted under atomic energy law. Hess. VGH, decision of December 22, 1993 - 14 Q 2724/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, H.

    1994-01-01

    The competence of the state over the storage of nuclear fuel, exercised by the Federal Radiation Protection Office, is not limited to the storage alone but extends to the acceptance and delivery of the material including all transport operations involved. Interactions between the operation of a fuel element plant and external processes can lead to the issue of orders under Article 19 Section 3 of the Atomic Energy Law, provided such interactions fall within the jurisdiction in rem of the supervisory authority instituted under atomic energy law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Mathematical Model Based on Newton’s Laws and in First Thermodynamic Law of a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottmar Rafael Uriza Gosebruch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article explains the modeling of a Gas Turbine system; the mathematical modeling is based on fluid mechanics applying the principal energy laws such as Euler’s Law, Newton’s second Law and the first thermodynamic law to obtain the equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation; expressed as the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the energy conservation using Fourier’s Law. The purpose of this article is to establish a precise mathematical model to be applied in control applications, for future works, within industry applications.

  8. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  9. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  10. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  11. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  12. Conservation and non-conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The difficulties of conservation laws in general relativity are discussed, with special reference to the non-tangible nature of gravitational energy and its transformation into tangible forms of energy. Inductive transfer of energy is marked out as wholly distinct from wave transfer. Slow (adiabatic) changes are utilized to make clear, in the axi-symmetric case, that the mass of an isolated body is conserved irrespective of any local changes (e.g. of shape) and that in inductive transfer the movement of energy between two bodies can readily be traced by the changes in their masses. (author)

  13. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  14. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  15. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  17. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  18. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  19. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  20. Kepler's laws with introduction to differential calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Plakhotnyk, Makar

    2017-01-01

    We explain the solution of the following two problems: obtaining of Kepler's laws from Newton's laws (so called two bodies problem) and obtaining the fourth Newton's law (the formula for gravitation) as a corollary of Kepler's laws. This small book is devoted to the scholars, who are interested in physics and mathematics. We also make a series of digressions, where explain some technique of the higher mathematics, which are used in the proofs.

  1. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  2. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  3. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws (United States): 1 - Virginia Uranium, Inc. v. Warren, 848 F.3d 590 (4. Cir. 2017): In the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, the plaintiffs, a collection of uranium mining companies and owners of land containing uranium deposits, challenged a Commonwealth of Virginia moratorium on conventional uranium mining. The plaintiffs alleged that the state moratorium was preempted by federal law under the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution.; 2 - United States v. Energy Solutions, Inc.; Rockwell Holdco, Inc.; Andrews County; Holdings, Inc.; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. (D. Del. June 21, 2017): In 2016, the United States, acting through the US Department of Justice, commenced an action in United States District Court in Delaware seeking to enjoin the acquisition of Waste Control Specialists, LLC (WCS) and its parent company by Energy Solutions, Inc., and its parent. WCS and Energy Solutions are competitors in the market for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) produced by commercial generators of such material. The United States alleged that the proposed acquisition was unlawful. 3 - Cooper v. Tokyo Electric Power Company, No. 15-56426 (9. Cir. 2017): The plaintiffs are US Navy service members who were deployed off the Japanese coast as part of the US effort to provide earthquake relief after the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Plaintiffs sued alleging 'that TEPCO was negligent in operating the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and in reporting the extent of the radiation leak

  4. Lie symmetry analysis, optimal system, exact solutions and conservation laws of a class of high-order nonlinear wave equations%一类高阶非线性波方程的李群分析、最优系统、精确解和守恒律∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯辉; 刘汉泽; 辛祥鹏

    2016-01-01

    The symmetries, conservation laws and exact solutions to the nonlinear partial differential equations play a signif-icant role in nonlinear science and mathematical physics. Symmetry is derived from physics, and it is a mathematical description for invariance. Symmetry group theory plays an important role in constructing explicit solutions, whether the equations are integrable or not. By using the symmetry method, an original nonlinear system can be reduced to a system with fewer independent variables through any given subgroup. But, since there are almost always an infinite number of such subgroups, it is usually not feasible to list all possible group invariant solutions to the system. It is anticipated to find all those equivalent group invariant solutions, that is to say, to construct the one-dimensional optimal system for the Lie algebra. Construction of explicit forms of conservation laws is meaningful, as they are used for developing the appropriate numerical methods and for making mathematical analyses, in particular, of existence, uniqueness and stability. In addition, the existence of a large number of conservation laws of a partial differential equation (system) is a strong indication of its integrability. The similarity solutions are of importance for investigating the long-time behavior, blow-up profile and asymptotic phenomena of a non-linear system. For instance, in some circumstance, the asymptotic behaviors of finite-mass solutions of non-linear diffusion equation with non-linear source term are described by an explicit self-similar solution, etc. However, how to tackle these matters is a complicated problem that challenges researchers to be solved. In this paper, by using the symmetry method, we obtain the symmetry reduction, optimal systems, and many new exact group invariant solution of a fifth-order nonlinear wave equation. By Lie symmetry analysis method, the point symmetries and an optimal system of the equation are obtained. The exact power

  5. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  6. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The

  7. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  9. Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)

  10. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  11. Conservation of energy and momentum in nonrelativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation laws of energy and momentum for nonrelativistic plasmas are derived from applying Noether's theorem to the action integral for the Vlasov-Poisson-Ampère system [Sugama, Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. The symmetric pressure tensor is obtained from modifying the asymmetric canonical pressure tensor with using the rotational symmetry of the action integral. Differences between the resultant conservation laws and those for the Vlasov-Maxwell system including the Maxwell displacement current are clarified. These results provide a useful basis for gyrokinetic conservation laws because gyrokinetic equations are derived as an approximation of the Vlasov-Poisson-Ampère system.

  12. On Newton's third law and its symmetry-breaking effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    The law of action-reaction, considered by Ernst Mach as the cornerstone of physics, is thoroughly used to derive the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum. However, the conflict between momentum conservation law and Newton's third law, on experimental and theoretical grounds, calls for more attention. We give a background survey of several questions raised by the action-reaction law and, in particular, the role of the physical vacuum is shown to provide an appropriate framework for clarifying the occurrence of possible violations of the action-reaction law. Then, in the framework of statistical mechanics, using a maximizing entropy procedure, we obtain an expression for the general linear momentum of a body particle. The new approach presented here shows that Newton's third law is not verified in systems out of equilibrium due to an additional entropic gradient term present in the particle's momentum.

  13. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  14. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    , treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  15. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  16. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  17. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Canada: Brunswick News Inc. versus Her Majesty the Queen in the Right of the Province of New Brunswick denying release of nuclear power feasibility study: A superior court in Canada has made an important decision with regard to freedom of information legislation and protection of confidential commercial information. It denied a provincial newspaper company access to a feasibility study concerning the construction of a second nuclear power reactor in New Brunswick. U.S.A.: In the Court of federal Claims, plaintiffs Carolina Power and Light Company and Florida power corporation (collectively Progress Energy) claimed damages of U.S.D. 91 029 704 from defendant U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.), under the terms of D.O.E. standard contract for Disposal of spent nuclear fuel and/or high level waste. D.O.E. liability was previously established and the amount of damages was the sole issue in this case.Germany: in 2005, the federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (B.M.U.) instructed the regulatory and supervisory body of the federal state Baden-Wurtemberg to issue an order, which required the operator to shut its plant, without delay or further orders, in case of not obviously insignificant non-compliance with technical limits, measures or other specific safety-related requirements deemed to control incidents. The operator was further required to inform the regulatory and supervisory body immediately if it was no longer able to demonstrate the controllability of design basis accidents. In the judgement of the Federal Administrative court, the instruction to stop operation is too ambiguous since it does not specify with technical criteria should compel operators to shut their reactors.The court rules that, in compliance with the principle that administrative decisions must be precise, clear and unambiguous, an order to terminate operations must clearly state when and for what reasons an operator has this duty. a global obligation to

  19. Seeding Solutions Volume 2: Options for National Laws Governing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... ... 2: Options for National Laws Governing Access To and Control Over Genetic ... to the ownership, conservation, and exchange of genetic resources. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  20. Protecting Biodiversity: National Laws Regulating Access to Genetic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book is the first to compare such laws and policies across a range of countries in ... and developing worlds, including Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, ... conservation, the environment, intellectual property, and related issues; ...

  1. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  2. Developments in environmental and engineering law in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandner, T.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed and clear compilation for the period 1.1.1990-31.1.1991 covers the following topics: Environmental and engineering law in the German unification process; superordinate developments in the EG and in Germany, in particular: Draft Federal Environmental Code, Civil Environmental Liability Act, EIA, German Federal Environmental Foundation; technological safety; climate protection - international agreements, EC law, developments in Germany; air and noise pollution control law; atomic and radiation protection law - point of departure, legislation, individual questions: Federal supervision, nuclear disposal and recycling. Moreover: Environmental concerns in regional planning; the law of nature conservation, water protection, waste management, hazardous materials, genetic engineering and soil protection. (HSCH) [de

  3. Quantum Noether identities for non-local transformations in higher-order derivatives theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.P.; Long, Z.W.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional of the Green function for a system with a regular/singular higher-order Lagrangian, the quantum canonical Noether identities (NIs) under a local and non-local transformation in phase space have been deduced, respectively. For a singular higher-order Lagrangian, one must use an effective canonical action I eff P in quantum canonical NIs instead of the classical I P in classical canonical NIs. The quantum NIs under a local and non-local transformation in configuration space for a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian have also been derived. The above results hold true whether or not the Jacobian of the transformation is equal to unity or not. It has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantum NIs may be converted to conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantum conservation laws is significantly different from the quantum first Noether theorem. The applications of our formulation to the Yang-Mills fields and non-Abelian Chern-Simons (CS) theories with higher-order derivatives are given, and the conserved quantities at the quantum level for local and non-local transformations are found, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Searches for violation of muon number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwine, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The question of violation of muon number conservation is one which has occupied considerable attention and resources in recent years. The first generation of experiments at the medium energy accelerators has now been completed and the next generation of experiments is ready to begin. The history of muon number conservation is reviewed, including the reasons for the present belief that the conservation law may not be exact. The experiments that have been completed in the last few years are discussed. The new experiments that are being mounted and planned at several laboratories are discussed, and the relationship of these types of experiments to other studies, such as searches for neutrino oscillations, are considered

  5. Rare muon decays and lepton-family number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    A brief historical survey of the discovery of the muon, interest in neutrinoless processes, and lepton-number conservation laws is given. The present view of lepton-number conservation laws and the search for μ → eγ are described. Other experiments are discussed including μ + → e + e + e - decay, μ - Z → e - Z reactions, μ → e γγ decay, other rare muon processes, strangeness-changing muon-number-nonconserving decays, and tau decays. 52 references

  6. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  7. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  8. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  9. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  10. Traditional African Knowledge In Biodiversity Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical forest ecosystem is one of the most important ecosystems of the world, because it contains a large proportion of the world's biodiversity and provides many environmental functions. Local communities have successfully conserved these resources that are of interest to them through laws and taboos. These range ...

  11. Conservation properties and potential systems of vorticity-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2014-01-01

    Partial differential equations of the form divN=0, N t +curl M=0 involving two vector functions in R 3 depending on t, x, y, z appear in different physical contexts, including the vorticity formulation of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, and Maxwell's equations. It is shown that these equations possess an infinite family of local divergence-type conservation laws involving arbitrary functions of space and time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the equations of interest have a rather special structure of a lower-degree (degree two) conservation law in R 4 (t,x,y,z). The corresponding potential system has a clear physical meaning. For the Maxwell's equations, it gives rise to the scalar electric and the vector magnetic potentials; for the vorticity equations of fluid dynamics, the potentialization inverts the curl operator to yield the fluid dynamics equations in primitive variables; for MHD equations, the potential equations yield a generalization of the Galas-Bogoyavlenskij potential that describes magnetic surfaces of ideal MHD equilibria. The lower-degree conservation law is further shown to yield curl-type conservation laws and determined potential equations in certain lower-dimensional settings. Examples of new nonlocal conservation laws, including an infinite family of nonlocal material conservation laws of ideal time-dependent MHD equations in 2+1 dimensions, are presented

  12. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  13. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  14. Property law in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Rebecca Frances

    2012-01-01

    Jersey law, and within it Jersey property law, has received little academic attention. This thesis seeks to examine, and provide a systematic account of, the Jersey law of property. Specific aspects of substantive law are explored. From these, general observations about the nature and structure of property law are made. Unsurprisingly, given the small size of the island, Jersey has a relatively limited amount of indigenous legal material to offer, much of it in French. Inevitab...

  15. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  16. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  17. Quantifying the bat bushmeat trade in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, with suggestions for conservation action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheherazade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intense consumption of flying foxes in North Sulawesi, Indonesia has raised hunting pressure and extirpation is expected to spread into other regions. To assess local cultural attitudes towards bats for formulating a targeted conservation campaign, we conducted a survey of consumption practices of bats in 2013 at the eight major markets near Manado. Locals eat flying foxes at least once a month, but the frequency increases tenfold around Christian holidays. Approximately 500 metric tons of bats are imported from other provinces, with South Sulawesi as the main provider at 38%. No action has been taken to conserve the bats, as continued abundance in the market masks the effects of the bushmeat trade on wild populations. We suggest: (1 engaging churches as conduits for environmental education and quota enforcement; (2 legal regulation of interprovincial trade; (3 substituting bats with a sustainable option; (4 involving local students as campaigners to ensure higher receptiveness from local communities. Grassroots conservation initiatives combined with enforcement of existing laws aim to affect change on a local level, which has been successful in other conservation programs. These efforts would not only progress bat conservation, but conservation of other rare, endemic mammals common to the bushmeat trade.

  18. An Historical Note on the Conservation of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the fact that although most historians of science attribute the formulation of the law of conservation of matter in chemical reactions to Antoine Lavoisier at the end of the eighteenth century, several earlier researchers had already assumed this law in their work. These researchers include Joseph Black, Henry Cavendish, M. V. Lomonosov,…

  19. Cosmological constant is a conserved charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.

  20. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.